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Publishing in “Aircraft Design” with a Continuous Open Access Special Issue

Publishing in “Aircraft Design” with a Continuous Open Access Special Issue aerospace Editorial Publishing in “Aircraft Design” with a Continuous Open Access Special Issue Dieter Scholz Aircraft Design and Systems Group (AERO), Hamburg University of Applied Science (HAW Hamburg), Berliner Tor 9, 20099 Hamburg, Germany; info@ProfScholz.de Received: 29 December 2019; Accepted: 31 December 2019; Published: 14 January 2020 Abstract: The article looks at publishing options in the field of aircraft design to find that no dedicated journal on aircraft design exists. For this reason, a Continuous Special Issue Aircraft Design of the well established journal “Aerospace” at the Open Access publisher MDPI is started. Often special issues of a journal are introduced for “hot topics”. Here, the subset “special issue” is used for a scientific domain—in this case “aircraft design”. Recurring single special issues are numbered in sequence and are identified by the year of the deadline for manuscript submissions. This allows for the delivery of several single special issues over time in a row without the need to define a publishing schedule up front. Together these single issues form the Continuous Special Issue Aircraft Design and o er a new publishing home for the aircraft design community. Keywords: aerospace; aviation; aeronautics; airplanes; aircraft; design; publishing; open access; special issue; MDPI; permalink; archive 1. Introduction Aerospace consists of aeronautics (atmospheric flight) and astronautics (space flight) [1]. The scientific foundation of aeronautics is called aeronautical science, which includes aeronautical engineering. One of the many disciplines in aeronautical engineering is aircraft design. Aircraft design is the very first step in aeronautical engineering, where requirements are converted into a geometrical description of the aircraft. A list of scientific journals in the area of “aerospace” is available from Google Scholar [2], CWTS Journal Indicators [3], and the University of Illinois [4]. A ranking of the top 40 aerospace journals was done by the German Society for Aeronautics and Astronautics (DGLR) in 2015 [5]. Among all of these listed journals, only two carry “aircraft” in their name. These two are the Journal of Aircraft by AIAA (ISSN 0021-8669) and Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology by Emerald (ISSN 1748-8842). None of them specifically deals with aircraft design. In 1998 the situation was much the same as today. For this reason, Prof. Egbert Torenbeek [6] started the journal “Aircraft Design” (ISSN 1369-8869) together with Prof. Dr. Jan Roskam [7] at Elsevier [8]. Both of them served as Editor. Torenbeek took care of authors in Europe and Roskam likewise took care of authors in the USA [9]. The journal started successfully and published 58 articles in the four years until 2001 [10]. The subscription-based publishing model, however, proved inadequate to serve the rather small aircraft design community. As a consequence, Elsevier ’s title had to be discontinued in 2002, when it was decided that the number of subscriptions was too low. Today, this pitfall can be avoided with the Open Access (OA) publishing model [11,12] because the papers finance themselves with article processing charges (APC), which is referred to as “gold OA”. In turn, the papers can be read free of charge on the Internet (“gratis OA”) and are in addition free of most copyright and licensing restrictions (“libre OA”). Often, the Creative Commons Attribution Aerospace 2020, 7, 5; doi:10.3390/aerospace7010005 www.mdpi.com/journal/aerospace Aerospace 2020, 7, 5 2 of 8 Aerospace 2020, 7, 5 2 of 8 (CC BY) license is used, for example, this article makes use of CC BY. Please refer to the bottom of this article for the CC BY logo and the link leading to further details. Furthermore, the motivation back in 1998 for establishing a journal was much the same as Furthermore, the motivation back in 1998 for establishing a journal was much the same as today. today. The European Workshop on Aircraft Design Education (EWADE) had been started in 1994 The European Workshop on Aircraft Design Education (EWADE) had been started in 1994 and was und was held every two years [13]. No workshop passed without expressing regret about the held every two years [13]. No workshop passed without expressing regret about the absence of a absence of a dedicated aircraft design journal [13–15]. In the same way as in the past, today people dedicated aircraft design journal [13–15]. In the same way as in the past, today people working in the working in the domain of aircraft design also see each other as a close-knit and affectionate domain of aircraft design also see each other as a close-knit and a ectionate community. The European community. The European Workshop on Aircraft Design Education (EWADE) [16] was continued Workshop on Aircraft Design Education (EWADE) [16] was continued along with the Symposium on along with the Symposium on Collaboration in Aircraft Design (SCAD) [17], both became Collaboration in Aircraft Design (SCAD) [17], both became independent activities under the CEAS independent activities under the CEAS Technical Committee Aircraft Design (TCAD) [18]. CEAS is Technical Committee Aircraft Design (TCAD) [18]. CEAS is the Council of European Aerospace the Council of European Aerospace Societies [19]. Presently, CEAS has twelve European national Societies [19]. Presently, CEAS has twelve European national aerospace societies as members. In aerospace societies as members. In eastern or central Europe engineers come together in a workshop eastern or central Europe engineers come together in a workshop called Research and Education in called Research and Education in Aircraft Design (READ) [20]. Similarly, in the USA the AIAA Aircraft Design (READ) [20]. Similarly, in the USA the AIAA Aircraft Design Technical Committee is Aircraft Design Technical Committee is very active [21]. AIAA is the American Institute of very active [21]. AIAA is the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics. For these and other Aeronautics and Astronautics. For these and other aircraft design related communities a Special aircraft design related communities a Special Issue Aircraft Design can serve as a publishing home in Issue Aircraft Design can serve as a publishing home in the absence of a dedicated journal for the the absence of a dedicated journal for the discipline. discipline. 2. Set Up of the Special Issue “Aircraft Design” 2. Set Up of the Special Issue “Aircraft Design” MDPI (Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute) uses the Open Access publishing model MDPI (Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute) uses the Open Access publishing model for all of its journals including its special issues. “Aerospace” (ISSN 2226-4310) is one such journal at for all of its journals including its special issues. “Aerospace” (ISSN 2226-4310) is one such journal at MDPI, which was started in 2014, and its aims include the “design : : : of aircraft” [22]. The first Special MDPI, which was started in 2014, and its aims include the “design … of aircraft” [22]. The first Issue Aircraft Design (SI-1/2017) [23] at “Aerospace” was managed by Guest Editor Dr. Mohammad Special Issue Aircraft Design (SI-1/2017) [23] at “Aerospace” was managed by Guest Editor Dr. Sadraey and includes five papers. The second Special Issue Aircraft Design (SI-2/2020) [24] is managed Mohammad Sadraey and includes five papers. The second Special Issue Aircraft Design (SI-2/2020) by Prof. Dr. Dieter Scholz, MSME [25] as Guest Editor. In addition, Prof. em. Egbert Torenbeek [24] is managed by Prof. Dr. Dieter Scholz, MSME [25] as Guest Editor. In addition, Prof. em. Egbert contributes with his experience as Honorary Guest Editor. Torenbeek contributes with his experience as Honorary Guest Editor. As can be seen above, the special issues are consecutively numbered. The year given after the As can be seen above, the special issues are consecutively numbered. The year given after the issue number is the year in which the Special Issue closed or is scheduled to close. This allows for issue number is the year in which the Special Issue closed or is scheduled to close. This allows for the the delivery of a continuous sequence of special issues over time without the need to define a certain delivery of a continuous sequence of special issues over time without the need to define a certain publishing sequence from the start. It enables the Continuous Special Issue Aircraft Design, which publishing sequence from the start. It enables the Continuous Special Issue Aircraft Design, which stands for the sum of all individual Special Issues Aircraft Design and the mechanism to make this an stands for the sum of all individual Special Issues Aircraft Design and the mechanism to make this ongoing activity. an ongoing activity. Each special issue has its own home page at MDPI. These separate home pages allow for changes Each special issue has its own home page at MDPI. These separate home pages allow for to be expressed in the aims and scope or among the Guest Editors. In addition, the special issue home changes to be expressed in the aims and scope or among the Guest Editors. In addition, the special page can be seen as the front matter of a particular special issue. The banner of the special issue issue home page can be seen as the front matter of a particular special issue. The banner of the (Figures 1 and 2) can be shown on the home page as the graphical abstract of an Editorial located at the special issue (Figures 1 and 2) can be shown on the home page as the graphical abstract of an start of the list of papers. Editorial located at the start of the list of papers. Figure 1. Banner of the Special Issue Aircraft Design (SI–2/2020). Figure 1. Banner of the Special Issue Aircraft Design (SI–2/2020). Aerospace 2020, 7, 5 3 of 8 Aerospace 2020, 7, 5 3 of 8 Figure 2. Banner of the Special Issue Aircraft Design (SI–1/2017). Figure 2. Banner of the Special Issue Aircraft Design (SI–1/2017). The URL of the currently open Special Issue Aircraft Design is always: https://www.mdpi.com/ The URL of the currently open Special Issue Aircraft Design is always: journal/aerospace/special_issues/aircraft_design. Linking to this URL also means linking to the central https://www.mdpi.com/journal/aerospace/special_issues/aircraft_design. Linking to this URL also anchor point of the Continuous Special Issue Aircraft Design as a whole now and in the future. This means linking to the central anchor point of the Continuous Special Issue Aircraft Design as a whole page shows links to direct readers to all past special issues. Linking directly to a single past issue is now and in the future. This page shows links to direct readers to all past special issues. Linking also possible: a long user-friendly URL is available as well as a short URL based on MDPI’s internal directly to a single past issue is also possible: a long user-friendly URL is available as well as a short number of that special issue. Table 1 shows the systematic of these URLs. URL based on MDPI’s internal number of that special issue. Table 1 shows the systematic of these URLs. Table 1. Systematic of URLs of the Continuous Special Issues Aircraft Design. Presently, the special issue is also advertised on a CEAS web page. The URL of the page is Closed SIs: Special Issue Aircraft Design (SI-1/2017) particularly easy to remember: http://journal.AircraftDesign.org. The page provides further details long URL https://www.mdpi.com/journal/aerospace/special_issues/aircraft_design_1_2017 about the Continuous Special Issues Aircraft Design, e.g., related to possible reductions of the short URL https://www.mdpi.com/si/6497 standard article processing charges (APC) [26] and links to all relevant web pages. Open SI: Special Issue Aircraft Design (SI-2/2020) long URL https://www.mdpi.com/journal/aerospace/special_issues/aircraft_design Table 1. Systematic of URLs of the Continuous Special Issues Aircraft Design. short URL https://www.mdpi.com/si/25829 1 2 The currently open Special Issue Aircraft Design has always this URL. The internal special issue number can be Closed SIs: Special Issue Aircraft Design (SI-1/2017) obtained from the editorial oce. long URL https://www.mdpi.com/journal/aerospace/special_issues/aircraft_design_1_2017 short URL https://www.mdpi.com/si/6497 Presently, the special issue is also advertised on a CEAS web page. The URL of the page is Open SI: Special Issue Aircraft Design (SI-2/2020) particularly easy to remember: http://journal.AircraftDesign.org. The page provides further details 1 long URL https://www.mdpi.com/journal/aerospace/special_issues/aircraft_design about the Continuous Special Issues Aircraft Design, e.g., related to possible2reductions of the standard short URL https://www.mdpi.com/si/25829 article processing charges (APC) [26] and links to all relevant web pages. 1 2 The currently open Special Issue Aircraft Design has always this URL. The internal special issue The Digital Object Identifier (DOI) is always u sed when linking to an individual paper. The DOI for number can be obtained from the editorial office. a recent “Aerospace” paper at MDPI is structured as follows: https://doi.org/10.3390/aerospaceVMMxxxx. The Digital Object Identifier (DOI) is always used when linking to an individual paper. The Here, 10.3390 stands for MDPI, V is the Volume (related to the year, starting with 1 in 2014), MM is the DOI for a recent “Aerospace” paper at MDPI is structured as follows: month, and xxxx is the number of the paper. Allocation starts with 0001 in the beginning of each year, https://doi.org/10.3390/aerospaceVMMxxxx. Here, 10.3390 stands for MDPI, V is the Volume counting up. The setup is shown in Figure 3. (related to the year, starting with 1 in 2014), MM is the month, and xxxx is the number of the paper. When writing for the Special Issue Aircraft Design, authors should make sure to use persistent Allocation starts with 0001 in the beginning of each year, counting up. The setup is shown in Figure links to archived resources. Often we refer to journal articles that are usually long term archived by the publisher and have a persistent identifier (a DOI) to connect to the online resource. But in all other When writing for the Special Issue Aircraft Design, authors should make sure to use persistent cases, it is the author ’s responsibility to archive the web pages, PDFs, or other data files. Please refer to links to archived resources. Often we refer to journal articles that are usually long term archived by Appendix A to see how references can be archived with available tools on the Internet. the publisher and have a persistent identifier (a DOI) to connect to the online resource. But in all A Continuous Special Issue as described above is not much di erent from what is otherwise other cases, it is the author’s responsibility to archive the web pages, PDFs, or other data files. Please known at MDPI as a “Topical Collection”. A topical collection is a variant of a special issue. Topical refer to Appendix A to see how references can be archived with available tools on the Internet. collections run continuously (without any numbering) under the same home page. Topical Collections A Continuous Special Issue as described above is not much different from what is otherwise are just another form to structure journal content. known at MDPI as a “Topical Collection”. A topical collection is a variant of a special issue. Topical collections run continuously (without any numbering) under the same home page. Topical Collections are just another form to structure journal content. Aerospace 2020, 7, 5 4 of 8 Aerospace 2020, 7, 5 4 of 8 Aerospace (ISSN 2226-4310) https://www.mdpi.com/journal/aerospace DOI structure: https://doi.org/10.3390/aerospaceVMMxxxx Continuous Special Issue Aircraft Design SI-1/2017 https://doi.org/10.3390/aerospace3040035 https://doi.org/10.3390/aerospace3040038 https://doi.org/10.3390/aerospace4010006 https://doi.org/10.3390/aerospace4030035 https://doi.org/10.3390/aerospace4030037 SI-2/2020 https://doi.org/10.3390/aerospace6060067 https://doi.org/10.3390/aerospace6110122 ... SI-3/20xx https://doi.org/10.3390/aerospaceVMMxxxx https://doi.org/10.3390/aerospaceVMMxxxx ... Figure 3. Identification of articles in the Continuous Special Issue Aircraft Design.of the journal Figure 3. Identification of articles in the Continuous Special Issue Aircraft Design of the journal Aerospace by means of their DOI. Aerospace by means of their DOI. 3. Aims and Scope 3. Aims and Scope The Special Issue “Aircraft Design” is open to the full range of article types. In addition to The Special Issue “Aircraft Design” is open to the full range of article types. In addition to original original research articles, review papers, letters or communications, technical reports, and the research articles, review papers, letters or communications, technical reports, and the extended version extended version of conference papers are also accepted. Furthermore, an interest exists in aircraft of conference papers are also accepted. Furthermore, an interest exists in aircraft design education. design education. Certainly, the special issue is also the place to discuss topics like zero-emission Certainly, the special issue is also the place to discuss topics like zero-emission airplanes, electric flight, airplanes, electric flight, urban air mobility—you name what is currently debated. Nevertheless, the urban air mobility—you name what is currently debated. Nevertheless, the classic topics in aircraft classic topics in aircraft design remain: design remain: Innovative aircraft concepts (Figure 4); • Innovative aircraft concepts (Figure 4); Methodologies and tools for aircraft design and optimization; • Methodologies and tools for aircraft design and optimization; Reference aircraft designs and case studies with datasets; and • Reference aircraft designs and case studies with datasets; and Aircraft design education. • Aircraft design education. The keywords are: aircraft, design, overall aircraft design (OAD), configuration, requirements, payload, range, certification, safety, constraints, objectives, synthesis, optimization, aerodynamics, drag, high-lift, structure, mass, performance, stability, control, aeroelasticity, engine, systems, operating costs, direct operating costs (DOC), passenger, cabin, ticket, price, environment, profit, asset, wing, fuselage, tail, undercarriage, landing gear, engine, systems. Aerospace 2020, 7, 5 5 of 8 Authors from all economic sectors (private, public, civic, and general public) can submit to this Aerospace 2020, 7, 5 5 of 8 Special Issue. Education and training in aircraft design is considered as important as research in the field. Figure 4. Examples of innovative aircraft concepts [27]. Figure 4. Examples of innovative aircraft concepts [27]. The keywords are: aircraft, design, overall aircraft design (OAD), configuration, requirements, 4. The Journal “Aerospace” at MDPI payload, range, certification, safety, constraints, objectives, synthesis, optimization, aerodynamics, “Aerospace” (ISSN 2226-4310) is a well reputed journal as can be seen from the authors drag, high-lift, structure, mass, performance, stability, control, aeroelasticity, engine, systems, operating publishing with “Aerospace”. Its latest journal metrics CiteScore (CS), SRJ and SNIP (from Scopus, costs, direct operating costs (DOC), passenger, cabin, ticket, price, environment, profit, asset, wing, Elsevier) is given on the journal’s home page. Articles have a high visibility; papers are visible Open fuselage, tail, undercarriage, landing gear, engine, systems. Access at the journal “Aerospace” and also alongside the Special Issue Aircraft Design as soon as Authors from all economic sectors (private, public, civic, and general public) can submit to this they are ready. The journal “Aerospace” is covered by many databases [28] including Web of Science Special Issue. Education and training in aircraft design is considered as important as research in (Clarivate Analytics) and Scopus (Elsevier). Papers from “Aerospace” are archived for centuries to the field. come at CLOCKSS and in the Swiss National Library Digital Archive [28]. “Aerospace” adheres to best practice in Open Access publishing (accessibility, openness, discoverability, reuse author rights, 4. The Journal “Aerospace” at MDPI and many other criteria). This is expressed at the Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ) with the “DO “Aer AJ ospace” Seal” gi (ISSN ven to 2226-4310) “Aerospace is a”well [29,30 reputed ]. MDPI journal is a as mem can ber be seen of man from y the relev authors ant publis publishing hing with orga “Aer nization ospace”. s (OA Its SPA, latest COPE, journal STM, metrics …) [3CiteScor 1]. Memb eership (CS), SRJ to mo and st SNIP organi(fr zations om Scopus, is only Elsevier) granted is after a thorough check of the publisher and its journals. given on the journal’s home page. Articles have a high visibility; papers are visible Open Access The journal “Aerospace” is known for rapid publication [32]. Manuscripts are peer-reviewed at the journal “Aerospace” and also alongside the Special Issue Aircraft Design as soon as they are and a first decision is provided to authors approximately three weeks after submission; the length of ready. The journal “Aerospace” is covered by many databases [28] including Web of Science (Clarivate the peer review itself can vary considerably, but reviewers are reminded by the editorial office to Analytics) and Scopus (Elsevier). Papers from “Aerospace” are archived for centuries to come at make the review a priority; acceptance to publication is undertaken in one week. Once accepted, the CLOCKSS and in the Swiss National Library Digital Archive [28]. “Aerospace” adheres to best practice manuscripts undergo professional copy-editing, proofreading by the authors, final corrections, and in Open Access publishing (accessibility, openness, discoverability, reuse author rights, and many publication on the journal website. This means that papers will be visible alongside with the “Special other criteria). This is expressed at the Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ) with the “DOAJ Issue Aircraft Design” and the journal “Aerospace” as soon as they are ready. Seal” given to “Aerospace” [29,30]. MDPI is a member of many relevant publishing organizations (OASPA, COPE, STM, : : : ) [31]. Membership to most organizations is only granted after a thorough 5. Aircraft Design check of the publisher and its journals. Aircraft design is the first fascinating step in the life of an aircraft, where visions are converted The journal “Aerospace” is known for rapid publication [32]. Manuscripts are peer-reviewed into reality. and a first decision is provided to authors approximately three weeks after submission; the length In a practical sense, aircraft design supplies the geometrical description of the aircraft. of the peer review itself can vary considerably, but reviewers are reminded by the editorial oce to Traditionally, the output is a three-view drawing and a list of aircraft parameters. Today, the output make the review a priority; acceptance to publication is undertaken in one week. Once accepted, may also be an electronic 3D model. In the case of civil aircraft, a fuselage cross-section and a cabin the manuscripts undergo professional copy-editing, proofreading by the authors, final corrections, and layout are provided in addition. publication on the journal website. This means that papers will be visible alongside with the “Special In an abstract sense, aircraft design determines the design parameters to ensure that the Issue Aircraft Design” and the journal “Aerospace” as soon as they are ready. requirements and constraints are met and design objectives are optimized. The fundamental requirements for civil aviation are payload and range. Many constraints come from certification 5. Aircraft Design rules demanding safety. The objectives are often of a financial nature, like the lowest operating costs. Air Air craf craft t desdesign ign always is the stri first ves for fascinating the best com step pro inmis thee a life mo of ng an conf airli craft, ctingwher issues. e visions are converted into reality The .design synthesis of an aircraft goes from conceptual design to detailed design. Frequently, expert knowledge is needed more than computing power. Typical work involves statistics, the In a practical sense, aircraft design supplies the geometrical description of the aircraft. Traditionally, the output is a three-view drawing and a list of aircraft parameters. Today, the output may also be an electronic 3D model. In the case of civil aircraft, a fuselage cross-section and a cabin layout are provided in addition. Aerospace 2020, 7, 5 6 of 8 In an abstract sense, aircraft design determines the design parameters to ensure that the requirements and constraints are met and design objectives are optimized. The fundamental requirements for civil aviation are payload and range. Many constraints come from certification rules demanding safety. The objectives are often of a financial nature, like the lowest operating costs. Aircraft design always strives for the best compromise among conflicting issues. The design synthesis of an aircraft goes from conceptual design to detailed design. Frequently, expert knowledge is needed more than computing power. Typical work involves statistics, the application of inverse methods, and use of optimization algorithms. Proposed designs are analyzed with respect to aerodynamics (drag), structure (mass), performance, stability and control, and aeroelasticity, to name just a few. A modern aircraft is a complex, computer-controlled combination of its structure, engines, and systems. Passengers demand high comfort at low fares, society demands environmentally friendly aircraft, and investors demand a profitable asset. Overall aircraft design (OAD) comprises all aircraft types in civil and military use, considers all major aircraft components (wing, fuselage, tail, undercarriage) as well as the integration of engines and systems. The aircraft is seen as part of the air transport system and beyond contributing to multimodal transport. Aircraft design applies the di erent aerospace sciences and considers the aircraft during its whole life cycle [33]. 6. Summary A journal titled “Aircraft Design” was published successfully from 1998 to 2001 by Elsevier, but had to be discontinued due to the low number of subscriptions. The demise was caused by a publishing model not adequate for the small aircraft design community. No other attempt to start an Aircraft Design journal has been made since then. The Open Access publishing model is a viable and better alternative for small communities. In a new endeavor toward creating something like an Aircraft Design journal, the subset of an Open Access journal within the wider topic “Aerospace” was used. The form of a Continuous Special Issue was chosen as the journal subset. The established journal “Aerospace” helps to overcome the problem of achieving “critical mass” for the new venture. Furthermore, MDPI provides a proven publishing infrastructure and support. Funding: This article received no external funding. Conflicts of Interest: The author declares no conflicts of interest. Abbreviations AIAA American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (www.aiaa.org) CC Creative Commons (www.creativecommons.org) CEAS Council of European Aerospace Societies (www.ceas.org) CLOCKSS Controlled LOCKSS (www.clockss.org) COPE Committee on Publication Ethics (www.publicationethics.org) CS CiteScore [34] CWTS Centre for Science and Technology Studies (www.cwts.nl) Deutsche Gesellschaft für Luft- und Raumfahrt Lilienthal-Oberth e.V. DGLR (www.dglr.de) DOC Direct Operating Costs DOI Digital Object Identifier (www.doi.org) European Workshop on Aircraft Design Education EWADE (www.ewade.aircraftdesign.org) ISSN International Standard Serial Number (www.issn.org) LOCKSS Lots of Copies Keep Stu Safe (www.lockss.org) MDPI Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute (www.mdpi.com) OAD Overall Aircraft Design OASPA Open Access Scholarly Publishers Association (www.oaspa.org) READ Research and Education in Aircraft Design (www.read.aircraftdesign.org) Aerospace 2020, 7, 5 7 of 8 SCAD Symposium on Collaboration in Aircraft Design (www.scad.aircraftdesign.org) SI Special Issue SNIP Source Normalized Impact per Paper [34] SRJ SCImago Journal Rank [34] STM Here: The worldwide association of STM publishers (www.stm-assoc.org); STM Science, Technology and Medicine TCAD CEAS Technical Committee Aircraft Design (www.aircraftdesign.org) URL Uniform Resource Locator Appendix A The Appendix explains the use of persistent links to archived resources as applied in this Editorial. Authors writing for the Special Issue Aircraft Design are encouraged to follow this practice! Journal articles (like those from MDPI) are usually archived and have a persistent identifier in the form of a DOI to connect to the online resource. But often, we make use of web pages, PDFs, or other data files taken from places on the Internet, where the resource is not archived and provided with a persistent identifier. We know from experience, “websites change, go away, and get taken down. When linked citations lead to broken, blank, altered, or even malicious pages, that’s called link rot.” [35]. Today, with tools at hand, it is the author’s responsibility to create a permanent, reliable, unbreakable link to an unalterable, archived record of the web page or the web resource cited in the work if this is otherwise not available. A comfortable way to do this is with Perma.cc (www.perma.cc). Perma.cc requires an account, which can be obtained free of charge e.g., from a participating university library. Alternatively, the Internet Archive with its Wayback Machine (www.web.archive.org) and the function “Save Page Now” can capture a web page or another online resource as it appears now for use as a trusted citation in the future. Links to the Internet Archive tend to be very long and would need to be shortened. This can be done e.g., with Bitly (www.bit.ly). The resulting short links fit well into the List of References. Following best practice, the List of References should have two links for each entry to a self-archived web resource; the original link and the link to its archived version. At MDPI typesetting rules only allow specifying one link. It is helpful that Perma.cc as well as the Internet Archive show also the link to the original resource in their archived documents. Therefore, specifying only the permanent link is not the best solution, but sucient. If required, the reader would need to go via the archived version to find the original link. Please consult the References below to see how it works. References 1. Wikipedia: Aerospace. 2019. Available online: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aerospace (accessed on 28 December 2019). 2. Google Scholar: Top-Publications, Aviation & Aerospace Engineering. 2019. Available online: https: //perma.cc/ZX9X-5FUZ (accessed on 28 December 2019). 3. CWTS Journal Indicators—Aerospace Engineering. 2018. Available online: https://perma.cc/GT6Q-KHDQ (accessed on 28 December 2019). 4. University of Illinois: Top Aerospace Engineering Journals. 2019. Available online: https://perma.cc/R53E- 7Z3X (accessed on 28 December 2019). 5. Scholz, D. DGLR-Top 40—Aerospace Journal Ranking. 2015. Available online: https://perma.cc/953C-PQJE (accessed on 28 December 2019). 6. Wikipedia: Egbert Torenbeek. 2019. Available online: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Egbert_Torenbeek (accessed on 28 December 2019). 7. Wikipedia: Jan Roskam. 2019. Available online: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jan_Roskam (accessed on 28 December 2019). 8. ScienceDirect: Aircraft Design—All Journal Issues. 2019. Available online: https://perma.cc/BM3C-UVKR (accessed on 28 December 2019). 9. DARcorporation: About Us—Dr. Jan Roskam. 2019. Available online: https://perma.cc/4CA3-57N5 (accessed on 28 December 2019). 10. Scopus: Source Details—Aircraft Design, ISSN_1369-8869, All Documents. 2019. Available online: https: //perma.cc/N9FU-3WE6 (accessed on 28 December 2019). 11. Informationsplattform Open Access: What is Open Access? 2019. Available online: https://perma.cc/292A- MY3F (accessed on 28 December 2019). 12. Informationsplattform Open Access: Open Access Journals. 2019. Available online: https://perma.cc/NGV7- AXKF (accessed on 28 December 2019). Aerospace 2020, 7, 5 8 of 8 13. Torenbeek, E. Aircraft design education in Europe. Aircr. Des. 2000, 3, 205–206. 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MDPI: Special Issue Aircraft Design (SI-2/2020). 2019. Available online: https://www.mdpi.com/journal/ aerospace/special_issues/Aircraft_Design (accessed on 28 December 2019). 25. Scholz, D. Prof. Dr.-Ing. Dieter Scholz, MSME. 2019. Available online: http://english.ProfScholz.de (accessed on 28 December 2019). 26. MDPI: Open Access and Article Processing Charge (APC). 2019. Available online: https://www.mdpi.com/ journal/aerospace/apc (accessed on 28 December 2019). 27. Scholz, D. Evolutionary Aircraft Configurations—Possible A320 Successor. 2019. Available online: http: //airport2030.ProfScholz.de (accessed on 28 December 2019). 28. MDPI: Aerospace—Indexing & Archiving. 2019. Available online: https://www.mdpi.com/journal/aerospace/ indexing (accessed on 28 December 2019). 29. Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ): Aerospace. 2019. Available online: https://perma.cc/F6VX-89JB (accessed on 28 December 2019). 30. Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ): Journal Application Form—The qualifiers for the DOAJ Seal. 2019. Available online: https://perma.cc/2RQV-Q3ZY (accessed on 28 December 2019). 31. MDPI: About—Memberships. 2019. Available online: https://www.mdpi.com/about#Memberships (accessed on 28 December 2019). 32. MDPI: Aerospace—Open Access Journal. 2019. Available online: https://www.mdpi.com/journal/aerospace (accessed on 28 December 2019). 33. Scholz, D. Aircraft Design; Hamburg University of Applied Sciences: Hamburg, Germany, 2015. Available online: http://HOOU.ProfScholz.de (accessed on 28 December 2019). 34. Elsevier: Measuring a Journal’s Impact. 2019. Available online: https://perma.cc/Q2YP-DL2X (accessed on 28 December 2019). 35. Perma.cc: Websites change. Perma Links don’t. 2019. Available online: https://perma.cc (accessed on 28 December 2019). © 2020 by the author. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/). http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Aerospace Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute

Publishing in “Aircraft Design” with a Continuous Open Access Special Issue

Aerospace , Volume 7 (1) – Jan 14, 2020

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aerospace Editorial Publishing in “Aircraft Design” with a Continuous Open Access Special Issue Dieter Scholz Aircraft Design and Systems Group (AERO), Hamburg University of Applied Science (HAW Hamburg), Berliner Tor 9, 20099 Hamburg, Germany; info@ProfScholz.de Received: 29 December 2019; Accepted: 31 December 2019; Published: 14 January 2020 Abstract: The article looks at publishing options in the field of aircraft design to find that no dedicated journal on aircraft design exists. For this reason, a Continuous Special Issue Aircraft Design of the well established journal “Aerospace” at the Open Access publisher MDPI is started. Often special issues of a journal are introduced for “hot topics”. Here, the subset “special issue” is used for a scientific domain—in this case “aircraft design”. Recurring single special issues are numbered in sequence and are identified by the year of the deadline for manuscript submissions. This allows for the delivery of several single special issues over time in a row without the need to define a publishing schedule up front. Together these single issues form the Continuous Special Issue Aircraft Design and o er a new publishing home for the aircraft design community. Keywords: aerospace; aviation; aeronautics; airplanes; aircraft; design; publishing; open access; special issue; MDPI; permalink; archive 1. Introduction Aerospace consists of aeronautics (atmospheric flight) and astronautics (space flight) [1]. The scientific foundation of aeronautics is called aeronautical science, which includes aeronautical engineering. One of the many disciplines in aeronautical engineering is aircraft design. Aircraft design is the very first step in aeronautical engineering, where requirements are converted into a geometrical description of the aircraft. A list of scientific journals in the area of “aerospace” is available from Google Scholar [2], CWTS Journal Indicators [3], and the University of Illinois [4]. A ranking of the top 40 aerospace journals was done by the German Society for Aeronautics and Astronautics (DGLR) in 2015 [5]. Among all of these listed journals, only two carry “aircraft” in their name. These two are the Journal of Aircraft by AIAA (ISSN 0021-8669) and Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology by Emerald (ISSN 1748-8842). None of them specifically deals with aircraft design. In 1998 the situation was much the same as today. For this reason, Prof. Egbert Torenbeek [6] started the journal “Aircraft Design” (ISSN 1369-8869) together with Prof. Dr. Jan Roskam [7] at Elsevier [8]. Both of them served as Editor. Torenbeek took care of authors in Europe and Roskam likewise took care of authors in the USA [9]. The journal started successfully and published 58 articles in the four years until 2001 [10]. The subscription-based publishing model, however, proved inadequate to serve the rather small aircraft design community. As a consequence, Elsevier ’s title had to be discontinued in 2002, when it was decided that the number of subscriptions was too low. Today, this pitfall can be avoided with the Open Access (OA) publishing model [11,12] because the papers finance themselves with article processing charges (APC), which is referred to as “gold OA”. In turn, the papers can be read free of charge on the Internet (“gratis OA”) and are in addition free of most copyright and licensing restrictions (“libre OA”). Often, the Creative Commons Attribution Aerospace 2020, 7, 5; doi:10.3390/aerospace7010005 www.mdpi.com/journal/aerospace Aerospace 2020, 7, 5 2 of 8 Aerospace 2020, 7, 5 2 of 8 (CC BY) license is used, for example, this article makes use of CC BY. Please refer to the bottom of this article for the CC BY logo and the link leading to further details. Furthermore, the motivation back in 1998 for establishing a journal was much the same as Furthermore, the motivation back in 1998 for establishing a journal was much the same as today. today. The European Workshop on Aircraft Design Education (EWADE) had been started in 1994 The European Workshop on Aircraft Design Education (EWADE) had been started in 1994 and was und was held every two years [13]. No workshop passed without expressing regret about the held every two years [13]. No workshop passed without expressing regret about the absence of a absence of a dedicated aircraft design journal [13–15]. In the same way as in the past, today people dedicated aircraft design journal [13–15]. In the same way as in the past, today people working in the working in the domain of aircraft design also see each other as a close-knit and affectionate domain of aircraft design also see each other as a close-knit and a ectionate community. The European community. The European Workshop on Aircraft Design Education (EWADE) [16] was continued Workshop on Aircraft Design Education (EWADE) [16] was continued along with the Symposium on along with the Symposium on Collaboration in Aircraft Design (SCAD) [17], both became Collaboration in Aircraft Design (SCAD) [17], both became independent activities under the CEAS independent activities under the CEAS Technical Committee Aircraft Design (TCAD) [18]. CEAS is Technical Committee Aircraft Design (TCAD) [18]. CEAS is the Council of European Aerospace the Council of European Aerospace Societies [19]. Presently, CEAS has twelve European national Societies [19]. Presently, CEAS has twelve European national aerospace societies as members. In aerospace societies as members. In eastern or central Europe engineers come together in a workshop eastern or central Europe engineers come together in a workshop called Research and Education in called Research and Education in Aircraft Design (READ) [20]. Similarly, in the USA the AIAA Aircraft Design (READ) [20]. Similarly, in the USA the AIAA Aircraft Design Technical Committee is Aircraft Design Technical Committee is very active [21]. AIAA is the American Institute of very active [21]. AIAA is the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics. For these and other Aeronautics and Astronautics. For these and other aircraft design related communities a Special aircraft design related communities a Special Issue Aircraft Design can serve as a publishing home in Issue Aircraft Design can serve as a publishing home in the absence of a dedicated journal for the the absence of a dedicated journal for the discipline. discipline. 2. Set Up of the Special Issue “Aircraft Design” 2. Set Up of the Special Issue “Aircraft Design” MDPI (Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute) uses the Open Access publishing model MDPI (Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute) uses the Open Access publishing model for all of its journals including its special issues. “Aerospace” (ISSN 2226-4310) is one such journal at for all of its journals including its special issues. “Aerospace” (ISSN 2226-4310) is one such journal at MDPI, which was started in 2014, and its aims include the “design : : : of aircraft” [22]. The first Special MDPI, which was started in 2014, and its aims include the “design … of aircraft” [22]. The first Issue Aircraft Design (SI-1/2017) [23] at “Aerospace” was managed by Guest Editor Dr. Mohammad Special Issue Aircraft Design (SI-1/2017) [23] at “Aerospace” was managed by Guest Editor Dr. Sadraey and includes five papers. The second Special Issue Aircraft Design (SI-2/2020) [24] is managed Mohammad Sadraey and includes five papers. The second Special Issue Aircraft Design (SI-2/2020) by Prof. Dr. Dieter Scholz, MSME [25] as Guest Editor. In addition, Prof. em. Egbert Torenbeek [24] is managed by Prof. Dr. Dieter Scholz, MSME [25] as Guest Editor. In addition, Prof. em. Egbert contributes with his experience as Honorary Guest Editor. Torenbeek contributes with his experience as Honorary Guest Editor. As can be seen above, the special issues are consecutively numbered. The year given after the As can be seen above, the special issues are consecutively numbered. The year given after the issue number is the year in which the Special Issue closed or is scheduled to close. This allows for issue number is the year in which the Special Issue closed or is scheduled to close. This allows for the the delivery of a continuous sequence of special issues over time without the need to define a certain delivery of a continuous sequence of special issues over time without the need to define a certain publishing sequence from the start. It enables the Continuous Special Issue Aircraft Design, which publishing sequence from the start. It enables the Continuous Special Issue Aircraft Design, which stands for the sum of all individual Special Issues Aircraft Design and the mechanism to make this an stands for the sum of all individual Special Issues Aircraft Design and the mechanism to make this ongoing activity. an ongoing activity. Each special issue has its own home page at MDPI. These separate home pages allow for changes Each special issue has its own home page at MDPI. These separate home pages allow for to be expressed in the aims and scope or among the Guest Editors. In addition, the special issue home changes to be expressed in the aims and scope or among the Guest Editors. In addition, the special page can be seen as the front matter of a particular special issue. The banner of the special issue issue home page can be seen as the front matter of a particular special issue. The banner of the (Figures 1 and 2) can be shown on the home page as the graphical abstract of an Editorial located at the special issue (Figures 1 and 2) can be shown on the home page as the graphical abstract of an start of the list of papers. Editorial located at the start of the list of papers. Figure 1. Banner of the Special Issue Aircraft Design (SI–2/2020). Figure 1. Banner of the Special Issue Aircraft Design (SI–2/2020). Aerospace 2020, 7, 5 3 of 8 Aerospace 2020, 7, 5 3 of 8 Figure 2. Banner of the Special Issue Aircraft Design (SI–1/2017). Figure 2. Banner of the Special Issue Aircraft Design (SI–1/2017). The URL of the currently open Special Issue Aircraft Design is always: https://www.mdpi.com/ The URL of the currently open Special Issue Aircraft Design is always: journal/aerospace/special_issues/aircraft_design. Linking to this URL also means linking to the central https://www.mdpi.com/journal/aerospace/special_issues/aircraft_design. Linking to this URL also anchor point of the Continuous Special Issue Aircraft Design as a whole now and in the future. This means linking to the central anchor point of the Continuous Special Issue Aircraft Design as a whole page shows links to direct readers to all past special issues. Linking directly to a single past issue is now and in the future. This page shows links to direct readers to all past special issues. Linking also possible: a long user-friendly URL is available as well as a short URL based on MDPI’s internal directly to a single past issue is also possible: a long user-friendly URL is available as well as a short number of that special issue. Table 1 shows the systematic of these URLs. URL based on MDPI’s internal number of that special issue. Table 1 shows the systematic of these URLs. Table 1. Systematic of URLs of the Continuous Special Issues Aircraft Design. Presently, the special issue is also advertised on a CEAS web page. The URL of the page is Closed SIs: Special Issue Aircraft Design (SI-1/2017) particularly easy to remember: http://journal.AircraftDesign.org. The page provides further details long URL https://www.mdpi.com/journal/aerospace/special_issues/aircraft_design_1_2017 about the Continuous Special Issues Aircraft Design, e.g., related to possible reductions of the short URL https://www.mdpi.com/si/6497 standard article processing charges (APC) [26] and links to all relevant web pages. Open SI: Special Issue Aircraft Design (SI-2/2020) long URL https://www.mdpi.com/journal/aerospace/special_issues/aircraft_design Table 1. Systematic of URLs of the Continuous Special Issues Aircraft Design. short URL https://www.mdpi.com/si/25829 1 2 The currently open Special Issue Aircraft Design has always this URL. The internal special issue number can be Closed SIs: Special Issue Aircraft Design (SI-1/2017) obtained from the editorial oce. long URL https://www.mdpi.com/journal/aerospace/special_issues/aircraft_design_1_2017 short URL https://www.mdpi.com/si/6497 Presently, the special issue is also advertised on a CEAS web page. The URL of the page is Open SI: Special Issue Aircraft Design (SI-2/2020) particularly easy to remember: http://journal.AircraftDesign.org. The page provides further details 1 long URL https://www.mdpi.com/journal/aerospace/special_issues/aircraft_design about the Continuous Special Issues Aircraft Design, e.g., related to possible2reductions of the standard short URL https://www.mdpi.com/si/25829 article processing charges (APC) [26] and links to all relevant web pages. 1 2 The currently open Special Issue Aircraft Design has always this URL. The internal special issue The Digital Object Identifier (DOI) is always u sed when linking to an individual paper. The DOI for number can be obtained from the editorial office. a recent “Aerospace” paper at MDPI is structured as follows: https://doi.org/10.3390/aerospaceVMMxxxx. The Digital Object Identifier (DOI) is always used when linking to an individual paper. The Here, 10.3390 stands for MDPI, V is the Volume (related to the year, starting with 1 in 2014), MM is the DOI for a recent “Aerospace” paper at MDPI is structured as follows: month, and xxxx is the number of the paper. Allocation starts with 0001 in the beginning of each year, https://doi.org/10.3390/aerospaceVMMxxxx. Here, 10.3390 stands for MDPI, V is the Volume counting up. The setup is shown in Figure 3. (related to the year, starting with 1 in 2014), MM is the month, and xxxx is the number of the paper. When writing for the Special Issue Aircraft Design, authors should make sure to use persistent Allocation starts with 0001 in the beginning of each year, counting up. The setup is shown in Figure links to archived resources. Often we refer to journal articles that are usually long term archived by the publisher and have a persistent identifier (a DOI) to connect to the online resource. But in all other When writing for the Special Issue Aircraft Design, authors should make sure to use persistent cases, it is the author ’s responsibility to archive the web pages, PDFs, or other data files. Please refer to links to archived resources. Often we refer to journal articles that are usually long term archived by Appendix A to see how references can be archived with available tools on the Internet. the publisher and have a persistent identifier (a DOI) to connect to the online resource. But in all A Continuous Special Issue as described above is not much di erent from what is otherwise other cases, it is the author’s responsibility to archive the web pages, PDFs, or other data files. Please known at MDPI as a “Topical Collection”. A topical collection is a variant of a special issue. Topical refer to Appendix A to see how references can be archived with available tools on the Internet. collections run continuously (without any numbering) under the same home page. Topical Collections A Continuous Special Issue as described above is not much different from what is otherwise are just another form to structure journal content. known at MDPI as a “Topical Collection”. A topical collection is a variant of a special issue. Topical collections run continuously (without any numbering) under the same home page. Topical Collections are just another form to structure journal content. Aerospace 2020, 7, 5 4 of 8 Aerospace 2020, 7, 5 4 of 8 Aerospace (ISSN 2226-4310) https://www.mdpi.com/journal/aerospace DOI structure: https://doi.org/10.3390/aerospaceVMMxxxx Continuous Special Issue Aircraft Design SI-1/2017 https://doi.org/10.3390/aerospace3040035 https://doi.org/10.3390/aerospace3040038 https://doi.org/10.3390/aerospace4010006 https://doi.org/10.3390/aerospace4030035 https://doi.org/10.3390/aerospace4030037 SI-2/2020 https://doi.org/10.3390/aerospace6060067 https://doi.org/10.3390/aerospace6110122 ... SI-3/20xx https://doi.org/10.3390/aerospaceVMMxxxx https://doi.org/10.3390/aerospaceVMMxxxx ... Figure 3. Identification of articles in the Continuous Special Issue Aircraft Design.of the journal Figure 3. Identification of articles in the Continuous Special Issue Aircraft Design of the journal Aerospace by means of their DOI. Aerospace by means of their DOI. 3. Aims and Scope 3. Aims and Scope The Special Issue “Aircraft Design” is open to the full range of article types. In addition to The Special Issue “Aircraft Design” is open to the full range of article types. In addition to original original research articles, review papers, letters or communications, technical reports, and the research articles, review papers, letters or communications, technical reports, and the extended version extended version of conference papers are also accepted. Furthermore, an interest exists in aircraft of conference papers are also accepted. Furthermore, an interest exists in aircraft design education. design education. Certainly, the special issue is also the place to discuss topics like zero-emission Certainly, the special issue is also the place to discuss topics like zero-emission airplanes, electric flight, airplanes, electric flight, urban air mobility—you name what is currently debated. Nevertheless, the urban air mobility—you name what is currently debated. Nevertheless, the classic topics in aircraft classic topics in aircraft design remain: design remain: Innovative aircraft concepts (Figure 4); • Innovative aircraft concepts (Figure 4); Methodologies and tools for aircraft design and optimization; • Methodologies and tools for aircraft design and optimization; Reference aircraft designs and case studies with datasets; and • Reference aircraft designs and case studies with datasets; and Aircraft design education. • Aircraft design education. The keywords are: aircraft, design, overall aircraft design (OAD), configuration, requirements, payload, range, certification, safety, constraints, objectives, synthesis, optimization, aerodynamics, drag, high-lift, structure, mass, performance, stability, control, aeroelasticity, engine, systems, operating costs, direct operating costs (DOC), passenger, cabin, ticket, price, environment, profit, asset, wing, fuselage, tail, undercarriage, landing gear, engine, systems. Aerospace 2020, 7, 5 5 of 8 Authors from all economic sectors (private, public, civic, and general public) can submit to this Aerospace 2020, 7, 5 5 of 8 Special Issue. Education and training in aircraft design is considered as important as research in the field. Figure 4. Examples of innovative aircraft concepts [27]. Figure 4. Examples of innovative aircraft concepts [27]. The keywords are: aircraft, design, overall aircraft design (OAD), configuration, requirements, 4. The Journal “Aerospace” at MDPI payload, range, certification, safety, constraints, objectives, synthesis, optimization, aerodynamics, “Aerospace” (ISSN 2226-4310) is a well reputed journal as can be seen from the authors drag, high-lift, structure, mass, performance, stability, control, aeroelasticity, engine, systems, operating publishing with “Aerospace”. Its latest journal metrics CiteScore (CS), SRJ and SNIP (from Scopus, costs, direct operating costs (DOC), passenger, cabin, ticket, price, environment, profit, asset, wing, Elsevier) is given on the journal’s home page. Articles have a high visibility; papers are visible Open fuselage, tail, undercarriage, landing gear, engine, systems. Access at the journal “Aerospace” and also alongside the Special Issue Aircraft Design as soon as Authors from all economic sectors (private, public, civic, and general public) can submit to this they are ready. The journal “Aerospace” is covered by many databases [28] including Web of Science Special Issue. Education and training in aircraft design is considered as important as research in (Clarivate Analytics) and Scopus (Elsevier). Papers from “Aerospace” are archived for centuries to the field. come at CLOCKSS and in the Swiss National Library Digital Archive [28]. “Aerospace” adheres to best practice in Open Access publishing (accessibility, openness, discoverability, reuse author rights, 4. The Journal “Aerospace” at MDPI and many other criteria). This is expressed at the Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ) with the “DO “Aer AJ ospace” Seal” gi (ISSN ven to 2226-4310) “Aerospace is a”well [29,30 reputed ]. MDPI journal is a as mem can ber be seen of man from y the relev authors ant publis publishing hing with orga “Aer nization ospace”. s (OA Its SPA, latest COPE, journal STM, metrics …) [3CiteScor 1]. Memb eership (CS), SRJ to mo and st SNIP organi(fr zations om Scopus, is only Elsevier) granted is after a thorough check of the publisher and its journals. given on the journal’s home page. Articles have a high visibility; papers are visible Open Access The journal “Aerospace” is known for rapid publication [32]. Manuscripts are peer-reviewed at the journal “Aerospace” and also alongside the Special Issue Aircraft Design as soon as they are and a first decision is provided to authors approximately three weeks after submission; the length of ready. The journal “Aerospace” is covered by many databases [28] including Web of Science (Clarivate the peer review itself can vary considerably, but reviewers are reminded by the editorial office to Analytics) and Scopus (Elsevier). Papers from “Aerospace” are archived for centuries to come at make the review a priority; acceptance to publication is undertaken in one week. Once accepted, the CLOCKSS and in the Swiss National Library Digital Archive [28]. “Aerospace” adheres to best practice manuscripts undergo professional copy-editing, proofreading by the authors, final corrections, and in Open Access publishing (accessibility, openness, discoverability, reuse author rights, and many publication on the journal website. This means that papers will be visible alongside with the “Special other criteria). This is expressed at the Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ) with the “DOAJ Issue Aircraft Design” and the journal “Aerospace” as soon as they are ready. Seal” given to “Aerospace” [29,30]. MDPI is a member of many relevant publishing organizations (OASPA, COPE, STM, : : : ) [31]. Membership to most organizations is only granted after a thorough 5. Aircraft Design check of the publisher and its journals. Aircraft design is the first fascinating step in the life of an aircraft, where visions are converted The journal “Aerospace” is known for rapid publication [32]. Manuscripts are peer-reviewed into reality. and a first decision is provided to authors approximately three weeks after submission; the length In a practical sense, aircraft design supplies the geometrical description of the aircraft. of the peer review itself can vary considerably, but reviewers are reminded by the editorial oce to Traditionally, the output is a three-view drawing and a list of aircraft parameters. Today, the output make the review a priority; acceptance to publication is undertaken in one week. Once accepted, may also be an electronic 3D model. In the case of civil aircraft, a fuselage cross-section and a cabin the manuscripts undergo professional copy-editing, proofreading by the authors, final corrections, and layout are provided in addition. publication on the journal website. This means that papers will be visible alongside with the “Special In an abstract sense, aircraft design determines the design parameters to ensure that the Issue Aircraft Design” and the journal “Aerospace” as soon as they are ready. requirements and constraints are met and design objectives are optimized. The fundamental requirements for civil aviation are payload and range. Many constraints come from certification 5. Aircraft Design rules demanding safety. The objectives are often of a financial nature, like the lowest operating costs. Air Air craf craft t desdesign ign always is the stri first ves for fascinating the best com step pro inmis thee a life mo of ng an conf airli craft, ctingwher issues. e visions are converted into reality The .design synthesis of an aircraft goes from conceptual design to detailed design. Frequently, expert knowledge is needed more than computing power. Typical work involves statistics, the In a practical sense, aircraft design supplies the geometrical description of the aircraft. Traditionally, the output is a three-view drawing and a list of aircraft parameters. Today, the output may also be an electronic 3D model. In the case of civil aircraft, a fuselage cross-section and a cabin layout are provided in addition. Aerospace 2020, 7, 5 6 of 8 In an abstract sense, aircraft design determines the design parameters to ensure that the requirements and constraints are met and design objectives are optimized. The fundamental requirements for civil aviation are payload and range. Many constraints come from certification rules demanding safety. The objectives are often of a financial nature, like the lowest operating costs. Aircraft design always strives for the best compromise among conflicting issues. The design synthesis of an aircraft goes from conceptual design to detailed design. Frequently, expert knowledge is needed more than computing power. Typical work involves statistics, the application of inverse methods, and use of optimization algorithms. Proposed designs are analyzed with respect to aerodynamics (drag), structure (mass), performance, stability and control, and aeroelasticity, to name just a few. A modern aircraft is a complex, computer-controlled combination of its structure, engines, and systems. Passengers demand high comfort at low fares, society demands environmentally friendly aircraft, and investors demand a profitable asset. Overall aircraft design (OAD) comprises all aircraft types in civil and military use, considers all major aircraft components (wing, fuselage, tail, undercarriage) as well as the integration of engines and systems. The aircraft is seen as part of the air transport system and beyond contributing to multimodal transport. Aircraft design applies the di erent aerospace sciences and considers the aircraft during its whole life cycle [33]. 6. Summary A journal titled “Aircraft Design” was published successfully from 1998 to 2001 by Elsevier, but had to be discontinued due to the low number of subscriptions. The demise was caused by a publishing model not adequate for the small aircraft design community. No other attempt to start an Aircraft Design journal has been made since then. The Open Access publishing model is a viable and better alternative for small communities. In a new endeavor toward creating something like an Aircraft Design journal, the subset of an Open Access journal within the wider topic “Aerospace” was used. The form of a Continuous Special Issue was chosen as the journal subset. The established journal “Aerospace” helps to overcome the problem of achieving “critical mass” for the new venture. Furthermore, MDPI provides a proven publishing infrastructure and support. Funding: This article received no external funding. Conflicts of Interest: The author declares no conflicts of interest. Abbreviations AIAA American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (www.aiaa.org) CC Creative Commons (www.creativecommons.org) CEAS Council of European Aerospace Societies (www.ceas.org) CLOCKSS Controlled LOCKSS (www.clockss.org) COPE Committee on Publication Ethics (www.publicationethics.org) CS CiteScore [34] CWTS Centre for Science and Technology Studies (www.cwts.nl) Deutsche Gesellschaft für Luft- und Raumfahrt Lilienthal-Oberth e.V. DGLR (www.dglr.de) DOC Direct Operating Costs DOI Digital Object Identifier (www.doi.org) European Workshop on Aircraft Design Education EWADE (www.ewade.aircraftdesign.org) ISSN International Standard Serial Number (www.issn.org) LOCKSS Lots of Copies Keep Stu Safe (www.lockss.org) MDPI Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute (www.mdpi.com) OAD Overall Aircraft Design OASPA Open Access Scholarly Publishers Association (www.oaspa.org) READ Research and Education in Aircraft Design (www.read.aircraftdesign.org) Aerospace 2020, 7, 5 7 of 8 SCAD Symposium on Collaboration in Aircraft Design (www.scad.aircraftdesign.org) SI Special Issue SNIP Source Normalized Impact per Paper [34] SRJ SCImago Journal Rank [34] STM Here: The worldwide association of STM publishers (www.stm-assoc.org); STM Science, Technology and Medicine TCAD CEAS Technical Committee Aircraft Design (www.aircraftdesign.org) URL Uniform Resource Locator Appendix A The Appendix explains the use of persistent links to archived resources as applied in this Editorial. Authors writing for the Special Issue Aircraft Design are encouraged to follow this practice! Journal articles (like those from MDPI) are usually archived and have a persistent identifier in the form of a DOI to connect to the online resource. But often, we make use of web pages, PDFs, or other data files taken from places on the Internet, where the resource is not archived and provided with a persistent identifier. We know from experience, “websites change, go away, and get taken down. When linked citations lead to broken, blank, altered, or even malicious pages, that’s called link rot.” [35]. Today, with tools at hand, it is the author’s responsibility to create a permanent, reliable, unbreakable link to an unalterable, archived record of the web page or the web resource cited in the work if this is otherwise not available. A comfortable way to do this is with Perma.cc (www.perma.cc). Perma.cc requires an account, which can be obtained free of charge e.g., from a participating university library. Alternatively, the Internet Archive with its Wayback Machine (www.web.archive.org) and the function “Save Page Now” can capture a web page or another online resource as it appears now for use as a trusted citation in the future. Links to the Internet Archive tend to be very long and would need to be shortened. This can be done e.g., with Bitly (www.bit.ly). The resulting short links fit well into the List of References. Following best practice, the List of References should have two links for each entry to a self-archived web resource; the original link and the link to its archived version. At MDPI typesetting rules only allow specifying one link. It is helpful that Perma.cc as well as the Internet Archive show also the link to the original resource in their archived documents. Therefore, specifying only the permanent link is not the best solution, but sucient. If required, the reader would need to go via the archived version to find the original link. Please consult the References below to see how it works. References 1. Wikipedia: Aerospace. 2019. Available online: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aerospace (accessed on 28 December 2019). 2. Google Scholar: Top-Publications, Aviation & Aerospace Engineering. 2019. Available online: https: //perma.cc/ZX9X-5FUZ (accessed on 28 December 2019). 3. CWTS Journal Indicators—Aerospace Engineering. 2018. Available online: https://perma.cc/GT6Q-KHDQ (accessed on 28 December 2019). 4. University of Illinois: Top Aerospace Engineering Journals. 2019. Available online: https://perma.cc/R53E- 7Z3X (accessed on 28 December 2019). 5. Scholz, D. DGLR-Top 40—Aerospace Journal Ranking. 2015. Available online: https://perma.cc/953C-PQJE (accessed on 28 December 2019). 6. Wikipedia: Egbert Torenbeek. 2019. Available online: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Egbert_Torenbeek (accessed on 28 December 2019). 7. Wikipedia: Jan Roskam. 2019. Available online: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jan_Roskam (accessed on 28 December 2019). 8. ScienceDirect: Aircraft Design—All Journal Issues. 2019. Available online: https://perma.cc/BM3C-UVKR (accessed on 28 December 2019). 9. DARcorporation: About Us—Dr. Jan Roskam. 2019. Available online: https://perma.cc/4CA3-57N5 (accessed on 28 December 2019). 10. Scopus: Source Details—Aircraft Design, ISSN_1369-8869, All Documents. 2019. Available online: https: //perma.cc/N9FU-3WE6 (accessed on 28 December 2019). 11. Informationsplattform Open Access: What is Open Access? 2019. Available online: https://perma.cc/292A- MY3F (accessed on 28 December 2019). 12. Informationsplattform Open Access: Open Access Journals. 2019. Available online: https://perma.cc/NGV7- AXKF (accessed on 28 December 2019). Aerospace 2020, 7, 5 8 of 8 13. Torenbeek, E. Aircraft design education in Europe. Aircr. Des. 2000, 3, 205–206. Available online: https://perma.cc/J2UK-RWVV (accessed on 28 December 2019). [CrossRef] 14. Scholz, D. Open Access Publishing in Aerospace—Opportunities and Pitfalls. In Proceedings of the 4th CEAS Conference in Linköping, Linköping, Sweden, 19 September 2013; pp. 503–515. Available online: http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.546649 (accessed on 28 December 2019). 15. Scholz, D. Publication Options Suitable for Aircraft Design—Open Access Journals Edited by Members of European Aerospace Organizations. In Proceedings of the 4th Symposium on Collaboration in Aircraft Design, Toulouse, France, 25–27 November 2014. Available online: http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3594626 (accessed on 28 December 2019). 16. Scholz, D. European Workshop on Aircraft Design Education (EWADE). 2019. Available online: http: //EWADE.AircraftDesign.org (accessed on 28 December 2019). 17. Scholz, D. CEAS Technical Committee Aircraft Design (TCAD)—Research Activity (SCAD). 2019. Available online: http://SCAD.AircraftDesign.org (accessed on 28 December 2019). 18. Scholz, D. CEAS Technical Committee Aircraft Design (TCAD). 2019. Available online: http://www. AircraftDesign.org (accessed on 28 December 2019). 19. Council of European Aerospace Societies (CEAS): About CEAS. 2019. Available online: https://ceas.org/ about-ceas (accessed on 28 December 2019). 20. Scholz, D. The History of READ/RRDPAE. 2019. Available online: http://READ.AircraftDesign.org (accessed on 28 December 2019). 21. American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA): Technical Committees. 2019. Available online: https://perma.cc/QN9L-QH4V (accessed on 28 December 2019). 22. MDPI: About Aerospace. 2019. Available online: https://www.mdpi.com/journal/aerospace/about (accessed on 28 December 2019). 23. MDPI: Special Issue Aircraft Design (SI-1/2017). 2019. Available online: https://www.mdpi.com/si/6497 (accessed on 28 December 2019). 24. MDPI: Special Issue Aircraft Design (SI-2/2020). 2019. Available online: https://www.mdpi.com/journal/ aerospace/special_issues/Aircraft_Design (accessed on 28 December 2019). 25. Scholz, D. Prof. Dr.-Ing. Dieter Scholz, MSME. 2019. Available online: http://english.ProfScholz.de (accessed on 28 December 2019). 26. MDPI: Open Access and Article Processing Charge (APC). 2019. Available online: https://www.mdpi.com/ journal/aerospace/apc (accessed on 28 December 2019). 27. Scholz, D. Evolutionary Aircraft Configurations—Possible A320 Successor. 2019. Available online: http: //airport2030.ProfScholz.de (accessed on 28 December 2019). 28. MDPI: Aerospace—Indexing & Archiving. 2019. Available online: https://www.mdpi.com/journal/aerospace/ indexing (accessed on 28 December 2019). 29. Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ): Aerospace. 2019. Available online: https://perma.cc/F6VX-89JB (accessed on 28 December 2019). 30. Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ): Journal Application Form—The qualifiers for the DOAJ Seal. 2019. Available online: https://perma.cc/2RQV-Q3ZY (accessed on 28 December 2019). 31. MDPI: About—Memberships. 2019. Available online: https://www.mdpi.com/about#Memberships (accessed on 28 December 2019). 32. MDPI: Aerospace—Open Access Journal. 2019. Available online: https://www.mdpi.com/journal/aerospace (accessed on 28 December 2019). 33. Scholz, D. Aircraft Design; Hamburg University of Applied Sciences: Hamburg, Germany, 2015. Available online: http://HOOU.ProfScholz.de (accessed on 28 December 2019). 34. Elsevier: Measuring a Journal’s Impact. 2019. Available online: https://perma.cc/Q2YP-DL2X (accessed on 28 December 2019). 35. Perma.cc: Websites change. Perma Links don’t. 2019. Available online: https://perma.cc (accessed on 28 December 2019). © 2020 by the author. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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AerospaceMultidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute

Published: Jan 14, 2020

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