Get 20M+ Full-Text Papers For Less Than $1.50/day. Start a 14-Day Trial for You or Your Team.

Learn More →

Invasion of the Giant Hogweed and the Sosnowsky’s Hogweed as a Multidisciplinary Problem with Unknown Future—A Review

Invasion of the Giant Hogweed and the Sosnowsky’s Hogweed as a Multidisciplinary Problem... Review Invasion of the Giant Hogweed and the Sosnowsky’s Hogweed as a Multidisciplinary Problem with Unknown Future—A Review Emilia Grzedzicka ˛ Institute of Systematics and Evolution of Animals, Polish Academy of Sciences, Sławkowska 17, 31-016 Krakow, Poland; grzedzicka@isez.pan.krakow.pl Abstract: Caucasian hogweeds are plants introduced to Europe from the Caucasus area. This review concerns the two most common ones—the giant hogweed Heracleum mantegazzianum and the Sosnowsky’s hogweed Heracleum sosnowskyi. The first of them was imported as garden decorations from the 19th century, mainly to Western Europe, while the second one was introduced from the mid– 20th century to agricultural areas in Eastern Europe. Nowadays, these two species create one of the most problematic invasions in the world. This review aimed to synthesize research on those invaders based on 277 articles selected from the “Scopus” database. Most of the articles concerned their extensive distribution, at least on a continental scale and the rapid dispersal. The reviewed research showed that the complex physicochemical properties of hogweeds tissues and secretions significantly affected insects, aphids, ants, nematodes, fungi, soil microorganisms, plant communities, birds, and many other components of the ecosystems. This knowledge turned out to be disproportionately small to the scale of the problem. The review also showed what ecological traits of hogweeds were responsible for their wide and various role in the environment. Thus far, no effective method to eradicate Caucasian hogweeds has been found. This could be a growing mistake, given that they are probably during the rapid evolutionary changes within the range of their invasion. Citation: Grzedzicka, ˛ E. Invasion of the Giant Hogweed and the Keywords: Heracleum mantegazzianum; Heracleum sosnowskyi; dispersal; invasion control; biochem- Sosnowsky’s Hogweed as a istry; plant ecology; biodiversity; agricultural sciences; genetics Multidisciplinary Problem with UnknownFuture—A Review. Earth 2022, 3, 287–312. https://doi.org/ 10.3390/earth3010018 1. Introduction Academic Editor: Daniela Baldantoni Biological invasions are one of the most serious environmental problems threatening biodiversity on a global scale. Scientists and environmental practitioners usually agree Received: 22 January 2022 that invading species should be removed by any method and at any time. Nevertheless, Accepted: 15 February 2022 complete removal of invaders is often not feasible or possible at all. Moreover, it was Published: 18 February 2022 usually not investigated whether the removal of invading species harmed some native Publisher’s Note: MDPI stays neutral organisms that have already adapted to them. Due to the present mass extinction of with regard to jurisdictional claims in species, urbanization and environmental degradation, as well as irreversible loss of habitats, published maps and institutional affil- the removal of biological invasions need to be discussed when it is carried out without iations. compromises with the fact that invaders can create some new niche opportunities for native organisms. This review showed the example of complex invasion, knowledge of which can fill these gaps and significantly affect invasion science. Starting from the nineteenth century, some species of the Heracleum genus (from the Copyright: © 2022 by the author. Umbelliferae family) from the south-western regions of Asia (mainly Caucasus) were Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. intentionally introduced to Europe. They were planted as a garden decoration [1], forage This article is an open access article for cattle, and as melliferous plants [2]. The most known became the giant hogweed distributed under the terms and Heracleum mantegazzianum Sommier and Levier and the Sosnowsky’s hogweed Heracleum conditions of the Creative Commons sosnowskyi Manden. Due to similarities in structure, the same invasive features, and Attribution (CC BY) license (https:// creativecommons.org/licenses/by/ almost identical toxicity [3], those plants were often treated together and commonly called 4.0/). “Caucasian hogweeds.” Both described species reach large sizes, including a height of up Earth 2022, 3, 287–312. https://doi.org/10.3390/earth3010018 https://www.mdpi.com/journal/earth Earth 2022, 3 288 to 4–5 m, a large area of leaf rosettes composed of 2–3 m leaves, stable flowering shoots resembling woody plants, as well as large inflorescences. Due to the significant influence of large hogweeds on many elements of ecosystems, their invasion created a system that integrates environment, agriculture, forestry, land use, hydrosphere, soil system, global change ecology, biodiversity, management, and conservation. It is difficult to find such a multidisciplinary research system. Those plants were the subject of research by specialists from various fields. However, the presenting review emphasized the paradoxically small number of articles on the impact of Caucasian hogweeds on biodiversity. Their distribution on a global scale, including North America [4,5], the significant role of human density in their spread [6], the unpredictability of the invasion dispersal since its beginning [7], and rich chemical composition indicated that this is a big mistake. As plants that cause burns of mammals, including humans, alien hogweeds are especially recommended for removal, and the consequences are unknown. Nobody has yet comprehensively described this invasion. This review aimed to synthesize knowledge about Caucasian hogweeds. 2. Materials and Methods For this review, the full Latin names of giant hogweed H. mantegazzianum and Sos- nowsky’s hogweed H. sosnowskyi, as well as both of them, were written in the scientific database, “Scopus.” The choice of Latin names was due to the fact that the English versions could be spelled differently depending on the source (Sosnowsky’s hogweed was also called Sosnowski’s hogweed or Sosnowskyi’s hogweed; giant hogweed was also called Man- tegazza or Mantegazzi hogweed). In a few cases, the name of the species could be wrong because sometimes Sosnowsky’s hogweed might have been called H. mantegazzianum due to diagnostic mistakes, or locally it was its Latin name because H. mantegazzianum was also the historical name of this species before its official announcement as a separate one. Nev- ertheless, the errors mentioned were exceptions to the rule. Their possibility contributed to preparing this review based on a scientific database without supplementing it with articles from more common databases such as Google Scholar. The results of the search in “Scopus” were 232 articles about H. mantegazzianum, 139 articles about H. sosnowskyi, and 21 articles with both names (on 14 January 2022). None of the articles containing 2 names of Caucasian hogweeds was missing from previous searches. For comparison, the number of articles about H. mantegazzianum in the second scientific database, “Web of Science” was 197, the number of articles about H. sosnowskyi was 117, while 19 articles contained both names (on 10 February 2022). More articles were available in “Scopus,” thus it was chosen to prepare this revision. Of all the articles containing one of the names in the Excel spread- sheet, 27 were duplicated, thus 344 non-duplicated articles were selected (Figure 1). Based on the titles and abstracts of the articles, 63 were rejected, which contained only general information about the species and were related to similar descriptions of human burns resulting from contact with Caucasian hogweeds. Then another 4 articles were removed from the database, which turned out to be non-English versions of the articles already included. Ultimately, this review summarized the knowledge on Caucasian hogweeds based on 277 published articles, of which 160 were about H. mantegazzianum, 107 were about H. sosnowskyi, and 10 were about both plants. All articles included in this review were matched to the main areas which they concerned (Table 1). Some articles (around 5%) could be matched to 2–3 areas. Articles were classified based on their conclusions, e.g., if it was about distribution and hogweed management and other articles already described distribution in a similar region, then the article was assigned to “invasion control”. Some articles concerned the potential effects of hogweeds on biodiversity, but the research was conducted under controlled conditions, thus they fell into “plant ecology.” Earth 2022, 3, FOR PEER REVIEW 3 Earth 2022, 3 289 Figure 1. PRISMA flow diagram with the search of articles for this study showing numbers excluded Figure 1. PRISMA flow diagram with the search of articles for this study showing numbers excluded at the particular stages of this review. Only articles retrieved from the “Scopus” (Elsevier) database at the particular stages of this review. Only articles retrieved from the “Scopus” (Elsevier) database were presented. were presented. Table 1. List of the research areas used for sorting the articles concerning the giant hogweed and Table 1. List of the research areas used for sorting the articles concerning the giant hogweed and the the Sosnowsky’s hogweed found in the “Scopus” database. Sosnowsky’s hogweed found in the “Scopus” database. Research Areas Classification Criteria Research Areas Classification Criteria Agrotechnical research on the importance of hogweeds as crops and their role Agricultural sciences Agrotechnical research on the importance of hogweeds as crops and their Agricultural sciences for biological methods of crops removal and protection. role for biological methods of crops removal and protection. Biochemical studies that explained the chemical composition of hogweeds and Biochemical studies that explained the chemical composition of hogweeds Biochemistry Biochemistry the possible uses of hogweeds chemicals. and the possible uses of hogweeds chemicals. Research on various community compositions near hogweeds, information on Research on various community compositions near hogweeds, information on new species appearing on hogweeds, research showing the potential for new species appearing on hogweeds, research showing the potential for deple- Biodiversity depletion, and other ecosystem modifications affecting biodiversity Biodiversity tion, and other ecosystem modifications affecting biodiversity associated with associated with Caucasian hogweeds. Caucasian hogweeds. Articles describing the distribution, spreading and working with tools Dispersal enabling detection and dispersal monitoring of invasive hogweeds. Articles describing the distribution, spreading and working with tools ena- Dispersal bling detection The and effects dispersal monitorin of temperature, snowgcover of invasive h , and other elements ogweeds. of the Environmental sciences environment on hogweeds. The effects of temperature, snow cover, and other elements of the environment Environmental sciences Research on hogweeds genetics–the appearance of hybrids with aliens and Genetics on hogweeds. natives, genetic differences between aliens from native and invasive ranges. Research on hogweeds genetics–the appearance of hybrids with aliens and na- Articles describing methods of Caucasian hogweeds removal and effects of Genetics Invasion control tives, genetic differences between aliens from native and invasive ranges. their eradication. Articles describing methods of Caucasian hogweeds removal and effects of Mathematics Analysis used in bioeconomy. Invasion control their eradication. Mechanisms of the influence of Caucasian hogweeds on other plants explaining details of their allelopathic and similar properties, e.g., Mathematics Analysis used in bioeconomy. Plant ecology conducted in common garden experiments, based on studying fruits and Mechanisms of the influence of Caucasian hogweeds on other plants explain- seed production, etc. Plant ecology ing details of their allelopathic and similar properties, e.g., conducted in com- mon garden experiments, based on studying fruits and seed production, etc. 3. Results Despite the larger number of articles concerning H. mantegazzianum, it appeared that both selected species of hogweeds were often studied. Research concerning Caucasian Earth 2022, 3, FOR PEER REVIEW 4 Earth 2022, 3 290 3. Results Despite the larger number of articles concerning H. mantegazzianum, it appeared that both selected species of hogweeds were often studied. Research concerning Caucasian hogweeds was multidisciplinary, one article used this invasion even in the bioeconomy [8]. hogweeds was multidisciplinary, one article used this invasion even in the bioeconomy Nevertheless, giant hogweed has been problematic in Western Europe (Czech Republic, [8]. Nevertheless, giant hogweed has been problematic in Western Europe (Czech Repub- Germany, Great Britain) with greater opportunities for scientific development, which likely lic, Germany, Great Britain) with greater opportunities for scientific development, which contributed to more articles on this species in terms of its dispersal (26.2% of articles on likely contributed to more articles on this species in terms of its dispersal (26.2% of articles H. mantegazzianum), controlling its invasion (13.8%), experimental research contributing on H. mantegazzianum), controlling its invasion (13.8%), experimental research contrib- to knowledge in plant ecology (17.5%), describing its chemical composition (15%), as uting to knowledge in plant ecology (17.5%), describing its chemical composition (15%), well as its impact on biodiversity (13.1%), Figure 2. In the case of H. sosnowskyi, the as well as its impact on biodiversity (13.1%), Figure 2. In the case of H. sosnowskyi, the proportion of articles regarding dispersal and plant ecology to the total research on this proportion of articles regarding dispersal and plant ecology to the total research on this species was similar to those on giant hogweed (despite a smaller number of articles) and species was similar to those on giant hogweed (despite a smaller number of articles) and amounted to 23.4% and 15% of research on Sosnowsky’s hogweed, respectively (Figure 2). amounted to 23.4% and 15% of research on Sosnowsky’s hogweed, respectively (Figure In comparison with giant hogweed, a significantly smaller proportion of articles concerning 2). In comparison with giant hogweed, a significantly smaller proportion of articles con- H. sosnowskyi were those on invasion control (7.5% of articles on this species), while there cerning H. sosnowskyi were those on invasion control (7.5% of articles on this species), were more articles on agricultural sciences (12.1% research on H. sosnowskyi and 6.3% of while there were more articles on agricultural sciences (12.1% research on H. sosnowskyi those concerning H. mantegazzianum), as well as articles about H. sosnowskyi in the field of and 6.3% of those concerning H. mantegazzianum), as well as articles about H. sosnowskyi biochemistry (25.2%), Figure 2. It was rather H. sosnowskyi, not H. mantegazzianum, that in the field of biochemistry (25.2%), Figure 2. It was rather H. sosnowskyi, not H. mantegaz- was the subject of practical agricultural and biochemical science, which was reflected in zianum, that was the subject of practical agricultural and biochemical science, which was the state of knowledge from those areas and the proportions of articles from these fields reflected in the state of knowledge from those areas and the proportions of articles from among all research concerning Sosnowsky’s hogweed. these fields among all research concerning Sosnowsky’s hogweed. Figure 2. The number of articles included in this review concerning the two described Caucasian Figure 2. The number of articles included in this review concerning the two described Caucasian hogweeds distinguished into particular research areas. hogweeds distinguished into particular research areas. 3.1. 3.Review 1. Review of of Articles ArticlSorted es Sorted into Rese into Research arc Ar h eas Areas 3.1.1. Dispersal of the Caucasian Hogweeds 3.1.1. Dispersal of the Caucasian Hogweeds Caucasian hogweeds spread very rapidly, starting from the end of the 1980s when Caucasian hogweeds spread very rapidly, starting from the end of the 1980s when agricultural production systems and markets changed because of the fall of communism. agricultural production systems and markets changed because of the fall of communism. With a dramatic decline in agriculture, hogweeds stopped being mowed [9]. The Sos- With a dramatic decline in agriculture, hogweeds stopped being mowed [9]. The Sos- nowsky’s hogweed invasion became problematic, especially in countries near the Baltic Sea: nowsky’s hogweed invasion became problematic, especially in countries near the Baltic Latvia, Lithuania [10,11], Poland [12–15], the European part of Russia [16–25], as well as in Sea: Latvia, Lithuania [10,11], Poland [12–15], the European part of Russia [16–25], as well Ukraine [26–28] and other parts of Eastern Europe, such as Turkey [29] and Bulgaria [30]. as in Ukraine [26–28] and other parts of Eastern Europe, such as Turkey [29] and Bulgaria In central and Eastern Europe, two Caucasian hogweeds species, H. mantegazzianum and [30]. In central and Eastern Europe, two Caucasian hogweeds species, H. mantegazzianum H. sosnowskyi, became problematic, e.g., in Poland [14], Ukraine [26,27], Russia [22]. Giant and H. sosnowskyi, became problematic, e.g., in Poland [14], Ukraine [26,27], Russia [22]. hogweed has been known from the Czech Republic [31–37], Germany [38–40], Austria [41], Great Britain [42], Slovakia [43], Croatia [44], Denmark [45], Norway [46]. The range of Caucasian hogweeds became so wide that they were the subject of many advanced spatial analyses, which were a great contribution of knowledge to the modern invasion ecol- Earth 2022, 3 291 ogy [47–53]. The analysis of the distribution of both species showed that the regions most affected by the compact invaded areas of Caucasian hogweeds have been located mainly in Eastern Europe, where poorer countries did not have funds to remove the invasion, especially around 30–40 years ago when together with the mentioned fall of communism and modification of the agricultural system, former crops were abandoned. Sometimes the invasion patches became so large that satellite imagery and other spatial analysis tools were used to select where the problem with invasion should be resolved as a priority [54–59]. In connection with the massive spread of H. sosnowskyi in Russia, even questions were raised about the need to create a special federal target program to control it. There have been images used from the Sentinel-2 satellite with a resolution of 10 m. Satellite images from space vehicles helped monitor the distribution of Sosnowsky’s hogweed [57]. Various spatial analysis tools were also considered useful for assessing the extent of Caucasian hogweeds invasion in central and Western Europe [60–63]. One of the most interesting methods of studying changes in the hogweed range was the comparative analysis of maps and scientific collections from different periods. In the area of the Czech Republic, it was studied how the H. mantegazzianum ability to persist affected its distribution. Of the total number of 521 historical sites known from literature and herbaria since the end of the 19th century, it persisted at only 124 (23.8%) ones. The persistence rate differed concerning habitat type and was highest in meadows and forest margins. Factors that best explained persistence were type of habitat, urbanity (higher persistence outside urban areas), proximity to the place of the species introduction, metapopulation connectivity, and distance to the nearest neighboring population [64]. Caucasian hogweeds have been analyzed on various scales (regional, landscape, national, continental) and have been considered a plant invasion of at least continental range [65–67]. It was predicted that the spread of invasive hogweeds might lead to the colonization of other continents [68]. Some studies concerned the rules of plant dispersal and the definition of vectors of this process, including anthropogenic impacts [69–72]. There were also articles about the distribution patterns of Caucasian hogweeds in areas of their native range [73] for comparison with the area of nowadays invasion. It is worth emphasizing that the current geographical distributions of the giant hog- weed and the Sosnowsky’s hogweed became different because of their different climatic requirements [2]. Although in some countries both of them co-exist, sometimes might have been mistakenly identified or named (see above), and thus knowledge of their locations (including the former ones) and ranges still needs to be completed. 3.1.2. How Did Caucasian Endemic Plants Become a Widespread Invasion? The widespread distribution of Caucasian hogweeds and very large problems with their invasion do not indicate that, at first, these endemic plants were respected botanical discoveries. The Sosnowsky’s hogweed H. sosnowskyi comes from the eastern and central Caucasus, central, eastern and south-western Transcaucasia and north-eastern Anatolia in Turkey [2]. The name “Sosnowsky’s hogweed” has its genesis in the name of a scientist and researcher of the Caucasus flora, Dymitr Sosnowsky, and was given in 1944 by the plant finder Ida P. Mandenova. It was introduced to northwest Russia at the end of the 1940s for evaluation in experimental farms as fodder crops. This plant was grown on a mass scale in kolkhozes (cooperatives gathering smaller farms) and sovkhozes (large state-owned farms) in the former Soviet Union as a gift of the All-Union Institute of Plant Cultivation in Leningrad since late 1950. Starting from the 1960s, H. sosnowskyi was cultivated over wide areas in Russia, Belarus, Ukraine, Hungary, Poland, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, and the former German Democratic Republic [2]. Because plants were not palatable to cattle and the first burns of animals and people were recorded, crops were abandoned in many places. For example, in Bryansk (near the Republic of Belarus), Sosnowsky’s hogweed was cultivated as an ensilage plant at some collective farms in the 1970s, but the cultivation was terminated in the 1980s [74]. The real problem with the invasion of this species probably Earth 2022, 3 292 appeared in the late 1980s and early 1990s, along with agricultural reform, the collapse of collective farms, and the inaccurate liquidation of crops. The giant hogweed H. mantegazzianum is native to the western Greater Caucasus (Russia, Georgia), where it grows in species-rich, tall-herb mountain meadows, clearings, and forest margins. It was introduced as a garden ornamental plant around 1817, and its first naturalized population was documented in Cambridgeshire in 1828 [2]. It was first recorded in the Czech Republic in 1862 in the Bohemia park, where it spread across the country and became invasive [31,32]. In the Czech Republic, for example, the front of the population was advancing at 10 m per year [75]. In Germany, H. mantegazzianum became an invader in about two-thirds of districts and occupied 68% of grid cells of the national floristic map, and about one-third of surveyed stands were dominant with its cover-abundances exceeding 50% [40]. Caucasian hogweeds became undesirable invaders due to their large sizes, prolific leading to gross changes in vegetation, obstruction of access to riverbanks, and soil ero- sion [74]. The plants have been spreading on derelict lands, garden plots, slopes of drainage canals, roadsides, forming arrays ranging from a few square meters to several hectares. The variety of methods for removing H. mantegazzianum and H. sosnowskyi invasion, as well as the effects of eradication below expectations, were among the aspects that indicated the need to treat these methods in an interdisciplinary manner. Applied ecology scientists have considered many of the properties of hogweeds by testing various techniques to remove invasion, including the fact that those species are neophytes [76] associated with freshwater habitats [77]. The spatial scale of the removed invasion was taken into account [78], as well as the remarkable ability to rapidly regenerate the population [79] and the need to evaluate the results after removal [80–82]. The published methods used to remove the Cau- casian hogweeds invasion were diverse and included sheep grazing [83,84], mowing [85], and herbicides [86,87], but also chemical substances, for example, pyrolysis liquids [88] and others [89]. The costs and difficulties of the labor and financial resources required to remove Caucasian hogweeds invasion quickly became so great that there were prepared cost-effectiveness studies [90–92], as well as studies verifying theoretical preparation to eradicate this invasion [93]. Scientists and practitioners agreed that removing invaders from a given area required the development of a special strategy adapted to it [94–96]. More- over, the pattern of distribution and control of invasion was assumed as being different in the cultural landscape [97] than in the protected area, where environmental degradation associated with the removal of invasions should be avoided [98]. The process of removing Caucasian hogweeds invasion was described as lengthy and requiring monitoring on a large spatial scale [99,100], taking into account aspects such as phenology of invaders [100] and age of invaders [101]. The following section of this review concerning Caucasian hogweeds showed that these plants have nevertheless also been the subject of scientific research worth systematiz- ing for two reasons: (1). Described wide distribution and high costs or difficulties in the eradication. Perhaps past research has shown some phenomena that could be helpful in finding a solution to the problem using more developed techniques. (2). The attractive- ness of plants for declining pollinators or other species and their complex ecology, which resulted in the past interest of scientists and may influence the modern invasion science. 3.1.3. Biochemistry of Invasive Caucasian Hogweeds It turned out that Caucasian hogweeds had a high concentration of biologically active compounds in tissues [102] that might have been among the reasons for their invasiveness. The total phenols content in H. sosnowskyi was mainly in leaves, and H. mantegazzianum also in seeds, stem, and roots [103]. The content of phenolic compounds was similar in these two invasive species. The determined allelochemical phytotoxicity of both aliens should be addressed to the partial explanation of the high aggressiveness of those species [103,104]. The essential oils were collected from the seeds of two hogweed species. The major groups of compounds in the seed extracts were coumarins, furanocoumarins, hydrocarbons, Earth 2022, 3 293 alcohols, esters, and aldehydes. The only difference observed on the chromatograms was signal intensity (higher for H. sosnowskyi) and few compounds individual for each species [3]–Table 2. A total of 62 compounds were identified and constituted 96% of the total oil. Aliphatic esters (82.9%) were the main constituents of the oil, followed by aliphatic alcohols (11%). Octyl acetate (39.5%), hexyl 2-metylobutanoate (14.4%), hexyl 2- methylpropanoate (6%), hexyl butanoate (5.4%), and octanol (8.6%) predominated in the oil, while other components were: octyl 2-methylobutanoate (4%), hexyl 3-methylobutanoate (2.6%), octyl 2-methylopropanoate (2.4%), hexanol (1.3%), hexyl acetate (1%) and octanal (0.7%) [103]. Other study concerning only oil of H. sosnowskyi [105] identified: octyl acetate (29.5%), hexyl 2-methylobutanoate (7.4%), and octanol (16.2%). Many other articles confirmed the rich content of various oils in Caucasian hogweeds [106–113]. Given the importance of the chemical composition, oils showed antimicrobial activity towards Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains. Oils were also more active against some fungi: Penicilium funiculosum, Fusarium oxysporium (especially n-octanol). While n-octanol shared responsibility for the antimicrobial activity, octyl acetate determined its antifungal action. Hogweed essential oils were more toxic to normal than cancer cell lines in mammals. n-octyl acetate also showed a significant inhibitory effect against some plant pathogenic fungi [111]. A 9.5% oil yield was found from H. mantegazzianum seeds and identified 21 constituents, with the main ones being octyl acetate (59.1%), octanol (8.8%), hexyl butanoate (7.9%), and anethole (6.6%) [112]. n-octyl butyrate (32%), n-octyl acetate (18%), and n-hexyl butyrate (9.2%) were dominant in plants from Russia [113]. According to other studies, the composition of the extracts of H. sosnowskyi and H. mantegazzianum seeds did not differ in their qualitative chemical compositions [3]. In all parts of the Caucasian hogweeds was juice containing coumarin derivatives, esters, alcohols, and long-chain hydrocarbons, and thus both were confirmed as toxic to vertebrates, invertebrates, fungi, bacteria, and viruses [114]. Many furanocoumarins have been produced by plants as a defensive mechanism against various types of preda- tors, ranging from bacteria to insects and mammals. Various lists of furanocoumarins in different places suggested that habitat conditions had a significant role in their compo- sition. In Poland, pimpinellin, isopimpinellin, psoralen were in both hogweed species and also bergapten and methoxalen in seeds [3]. In H. mantegazzianum fruits, there was revealed the presence of 8 coumarins, and 7 of them were identified: xanthotoxin, angelicin, isopimpinellin, bergapten, pimpinellin, imperatorin, and phellopterin [115], Table 2. The microbial activity of the mixture of bergapten and angelicin was evaluated. Bergapten alone showed moderate activity against Gram-positive bacteria and fungi, while the mixture had a much stronger ability to inhibit the growth of microorganisms and yeasts. Synergism of action was also suggested for some furanocoumarins [115]. In general, the composition of furanocoumarins of Caucasian hogweeds responsible for their hazardous toxic properties has been the subject of many detailed studies [116–124]. Other important chemical compounds were polysaccharides that were, for example, mixtures of arabinogalactan proteins and pectic polysaccharides that might be linked to pectin [125]. Other works concerned the structures of polysaccharides and pectins of Cau- casian hogweeds [126–134]. Studies on H. sosnowskyi allowed expanding the knowledge of the structural diversity of polysaccharides of plant origin. Pectic polysaccharides predomi- nated in the aboveground parts of plants [125]. The water-alcohol supernatants from the obtained fractions contained several classes of polysaccharides and consisted of branched arabinan-rich pectic polysaccharides, cross-glycans in the classes of glucomannans and arabinoxylans, as well as much of proteins. The aboveground parts of Heracleum consisted mainly of arabinogalactan proteins [133]. The hogweed organs, e.g., leaves, phloem, xylem, have been used to isolate specific chemical compounds in many biochemical studies that have provided an insight into the diverse properties of extracts obtained from invaders, including the potential of substances as inhibitors and toxins affecting various processes in studied invaders [135–147]. Some biochemical studies were closely related to histol- ogy and cell biology explaining the mechanisms of physiological processes in Caucasian Earth 2022, 3 294 hogweeds at the level of tissues and cell structures [148–154]. It has been elucidated what hogweeds chemicals might be responsible for the phenomenon of allelopathy and what was the composition of the soil at the site of invading hogweeds [155–157]. Careful re- search described the chemical emission potential of different morphological structures of hogweeds [158] also in the context of environmental factors such as temperature [159]. The chemical contents of invaders were tested as stimulants for plant growth [160]. In addition, the toxic effect of Caucasian hogweeds on mammals [161] has been extensively studied as a biochemical process [162,163]. Table 2. Examples of the research results from Poland that showed the most important differences in the crucial chemical compounds of the two described Caucasian hogweeds. In the case of essential oils, only compounds individual for each weed were shown. Chemical H. mantegazzianum H. sosnowskyi References Compounds Phenol contents Leaves, seeds, stem, roots. Mainly in leaves. Synowiec and Kalemba, 2015 [103] 4-Hexen-1-ol, acetate; Hexyl 3-methyl-2-butenoate; Acetic acid, octyl ester; Essential oils Octyl butyrate; Butanoic acid, 3-Methyl-, Jakubska-Busse, Sliwinski ´ and from seeds Octyl valerate; hexyl ester; Kobyłka, 2013 [3] Octadecanoic acid; 1,11-Dodecadiene. 1-Tetracosanol. Angelicin; pimpinellin; Isopimpinellin; isobergapten; Politowicz, Gebar ˛ owska, Prock ´ ów, Furanocoumarins imperatorin; phellopterin; pimpinellin; bergapten; angelicin; Pietr and Szumny, 2017 [109]; from fruits xanthotoxin; isopimpinellin; imperatorin; psoralen; Walasek, Grzegorczyk, Malm and bergapten [115]. methoxsalen [109]. Skalicka-Wozniak, ´ 2015 [115] 3.1.4. The Properties of Caucasian Hogweeds in the Life of Animals The rich chemical composition of the organs, tissues, and secretions of Caucasian hogweeds could not be neutral to the organisms that appeared on them or in their sur- roundings. Although toxic substances were identified in the oil of hogweeds, aphids, for example, were often observed on those plants [164]. Using fruits and roots of invasive Heracleum, albino mice were used as test animals, and the toxicity of oils was evaluated by oral treatment. The essential oils from Heracleum demonstrated antivirus activity; the more active essential oil came from the roots as opposed to the fruits [165]. Many chemicals isolated from Caucasian hogweeds were used in studies showing their antibacterial proper- ties [166,167]. Those plants rich in chemical substances affected the surrounding animals in various ways–positive, negative, or neutral–depending on their resistance and adaptation to life in their vicinity. Much of the research linking the Caucasian hogweeds influencing the environment to native fauna focused on insects. The flowers of invasive hogweeds were described as unspecialized, insect-pollinated, attractive to a variety of unspecialized pollinators, and visited by a wide range of insects, including many Hymenoptera, Diptera, Coleoptera, and Hemiptera [168–170]. In Moscow oblast, at least 49 insect species of five orders (Coleoptera, Diptera, Hemiptera, Lepidoptera, Hymenoptera) were detected on H. sosnowskyi specimens, and at least 29 insect species of the same order were found on the neighboring plants, moon carrot Seseli libanotis, which suggested that Caucasian hogweeds might have been an attractant for insects [171]. The activity of bees on H. sosnowskyi was also high, especially the European honeybee Apis mellifera and bumblebee Bombus luconem [171], although Caucasian hogweeds could also negatively affect pollinators, e.g., solitary bees [172]. In another study, the native fauna of invasive H. mantegazzianum and native H. sphondylium was compared. A total of 42 phytophagous arthropod species was found; 34 on H. sphondylium and 34 on the giant hogweed. The arthropod guilds of 26 phytophagous species being common to both plant species were very similar. Nine species were specific to Apiaceae (including all Heracleum species). The remaining species were polyphagous [173]. The presence of Earth 2022, 3 295 Caucasian hogweeds affected the local fauna in many ways, from creating a niche for specific species associated with them [174], being a food plant for larvae [175], to creating a parasitoid threat [176]. During other research, the authors gathered information on 358 insect species occur- ring on 16 different Heracleum species in Europe. About 162 species were herbivores on H. mantegazzianum, of which 123 were polyphagous. The number of insect specialists was lower in invaded areas. Authors found fewer herbivore species per biomass on the stem and roots and more on the leaves. Most herbivores were polyphagous generalists, and only a few had Heracleum species as host plants [164]. It was demonstrated that the defense systems (furanocoumarins and trichomes) of giant hogweeds were developed to different degrees in the native and invaded regions, which affected the composition of herbivore species or herbivore biomass on H. mantegazzianum in native and invaded areas [177]. As complex and difficult to control plants, Caucasian hogweeds have contributed to agrotechnology research on insects with new insights into their use in biological weed control. The weevil Nastus faustii (Coleoptera, Curculionidae) was evaluated for its potential in the biological control of invasive giant hogweeds because sampling suggested that its high population density could have some negative impact on the above-ground part of the plant. However, these insects foraged also on important crops: carrot, parsnip, celeriac, thus they could not be considered as a potential agent for biological control of invasive Heracleum species [178]. In the Moscow region, five insect species intensively foraged on the Sosnowsky’s hogweed: Lixus iridis, Epermenia chaerophyllella, Dasypalia templi, Depressaria radiella, Phytomyza pastinacae. Those insects, however, were oligophagous and also lived on other plants, thus it was not recommended to use them for biological control. Especially promising were, however, two lepidopteran species: Dasypolia templi and Depressaria radiella [179]. The weevil Liophoeus tessulatus caused root damage of invasive Heracleum and was assumed as a species deserving further investigations in the research on the potential biological control of invaders [173]. In other research conducted on giant hogweeds in the Russian Caucasus, authors estimated plant vigor before and after herbivore attacks under natural conditions. Endophagous herbivores on the giant hogweeds were dominated by the weevil species Lixus iridis, Nastus fausti, Otiorhynchus tatarchani (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), and the fly Melanagromyza heracleana (Diptera: Agromyzidae). None of the insects, however, caused serious damage to plants. The occurrence of root-feeding weevils was associated with weak plants [177]. Since scientists have long ago recognized the value of the chemicals released by Caucasian hogweeds and have linked them to the selective effects of those invading plants on local fauna, research using chemical compounds isolated from invaders as biological pest control agents [180–183] paradoxically advanced agrotechnical science. An interesting issue was the species composition and diversity of soil animals under the Caucasian hogweeds. For example, the composition of the soil nematode communities was studied in three different habitats invaded or uninvaded by H. sosnowskyi: abandoned land, grassland on a roadside slope, and the edge of afforested land. Nematode abundance and species diversity were lower in the invaded habitats [184]. Invasion of H. sosnowskyi caused significant shifts in plant species composition, which modified nematode assem- blages. Stress-sensitive omnivores, fungivores, and root-biomass-dependent obligate plant parasites best-reflected changes in soil nematode communities under the influence of H. sos- nowskyi invasion [185]. Near H. sosnowskyi in an abandoned land and road-side slope were more bacterivorous, fewer fungivores, and plant parasites belonging to nematodes [184]. This type of research has been continued for many years, bringing new information to applied science [186,187]. It is worth emphasizing that the state of knowledge regarding the influence of Cau- casian hogweeds on biodiversity was relatively small based on the reviewed articles (Table 3). For some animals, these plants were very attractive, such as ants [188]. In con- trast, recent studies indicated that in vertebrates, the impact of described invasion was negative even if some signs of adaptation were shown, as seen in birds [189,190]. How- ever, researchers were interested in tailoring removal strategies of invaders to complex Earth 2022, 3 296 relationships in particular ecosystems. Firstly, sometimes it was impossible to remove invading hogweeds, thus there was suggested a need to study the associated biodiversity. Secondly, removing the invaders by all methods might have contributed to the degradation of the environment, in which some animals, due to the lack of natural habitats, might not be able to recreate relationships already established with Caucasian hogweeds. It turned out that the decision to remove invaders should have been supported by the results of interdisciplinary research, not just the group-specific one. 3.1.5. The Meaning of Caucasian Hogweeds for Habitats and Soil Science In the native range, the Sosnowsky’s hogweed has been known as growing in moun- tain areas alongside streams, in forests and alpine meadows. The climate in its natural habitat is continental, with hot summers and cold winters. Outside its native range, this invasive plant has spread rapidly, infesting grasslands, forests, wetlands, riverbanks, canal sides, rails, roadsides, urban areas, as well as abandoned agricultural land [191,192], see Figure 3 with an example from Poland. In Russia, the light use efficiency of upper leaves was significantly higher than that of middle and lower layers, and the canopy of H. sos- nowskyi captured approximately 97% of the light, preventing the development of other plant species in the monostad [193]. Low habitat requirements of hogweeds within the range of invasion and homogenization of the habitat resulted in their negative impact on native plants communities [194–198], Table 3. Communities more vulnerable to H. man- tegazzianum invasion were composed of species with similar ecological requirements (at least for nitrogen) and different life forms and/or strategies compared to the invader [32]. In the Bryansk oblast (Russia, near the Republic of Belarus), the density of H. sosnowskyi in natural communities was related to anthropochorous dispersal and damage of the vegeta- tive cover. In the “alluvial abandoned meadow” the described alien formed a monoculture and was positively correlated with soil moisture and Urtica dioica plant species [185]. Much research to date in the field of plant ecology has focused on the plant communities with invading Caucasian hogweeds [199–206], pointing to the modification of both such habi- tats as steppes [203] and riverside vegetation [204], as well as the role of anthropogenic disturbances favoring invasion [206]. One of the most important ways the Caucasian hogweeds could have influenced their surrounding habitats was by releasing chemicals into the substrate. The phenomenon of allelopathy involving the interaction with other organisms through specific chemical compounds has been the subject of numerous studies on those invaders [207–210]. On the other hand, root exudates of H. mantegazzianum contained allelopathic compounds, which were not likely to be furanocoumarins, but other yet unidentified molecules. Thus, allelopathy by producing unique compounds by the invader was probably not a principal driver of the invasion success of at least the giant hogweed [209]. Other works also treated Caucasian hogweeds’ release of substances into the soil as more complicated than just chemical allelopathy [210,211]. It was not surprising that the example change in plant communities caused by hog- weeds was associated with a change in soil properties. The giant hogweed presence also reduced red/far-red light ratios but increased soil pH [212], which sometimes could be crucial for the soil organisms. Hogweed invasion significantly modified the composition of soil microbial communities, but the exception was the fungal/bacterial ratio [212]. In the soil under Sosnowsky’s hogweed, the share of the ascomycetes was much lower than in the control. However, in the vicinity of hogweeds were also more fungi with high hydrolytic activity [213]. Active colonization of meadows by H. sosnowskyi led to a decrease in the biodiversity of microorganisms through the disturbance of the developed biotic cycle [214]. Several other studies identified the impact of hogweed invasion on soil organisms and other soil components important for biodiversity [215–225], Table 3. While most of these studies indicated a negative impact of invaders on soil organisms, few studies showed a positive impact for some fungi [213,217,222]. An example of a possible explanation was Earth 2022, 3 297 that hogweed, unlike most meadow grasses, does not hibernate with green leaves that do Earth 2022, 3, FOR PEER REVIEW 11 not gradually die out with the formation of semi decomposed plant residues [213]. Figure 3. An example of a severely invaded area with Sosnowsky’s hogweeds growing in a mono- Figure 3. An example of a severely invaded area with Sosnowsky’s hogweeds growing in a monostad stad covering about 5 ha on the research site in south-eastern Poland (former crop near Koniecpol); covering about 5 ha on the research site in south-eastern Poland (former crop near Koniecpol); invaders invaders on the photograph were before flowering (date: 10 June 2020–author of photograph: E. on the photograph were before flowering (date: 10 June 2020–author of photograph: E. Grze ˛ dzicka). Grzędzicka). Table 3. List of studies that identified impact of Caucasian hogweeds on biodiversity (weeds: One of the most important ways the Caucasian hogweeds could have influenced their HS–Sosnowsky’s hogweeds Heracleum sosnowskyi, HM–giant hogweed Heracleum mantegazzianum). surrounding habitats was by releasing chemicals into the substrate. The phenomenon of Articles were sorted according to the genera and systems they have concerned, arranged from allelopathy involving the interaction with other organisms through specific chemical com- the ground, through the herbaceous part of hogweeds, to the invaders’ effects on the elements of pounds has been the subject of numerous studies on those invaders [207–210]. On the ecosystems at the highest trophic levels. other hand, root exudates of H. mantegazzianum contained allelopathic compounds, which were not likely to be furanocoumarins, but other yet unidentified molecules. Thus, alle- Study Group, Attribute Description Weed References lopathy by producing unique compounds by the invader was probably not a principal Dassonville, Vanderhoeven, Nutrient pools in the topsoil H. mantegazzianum contributed to soil homogenization driver of the invasion success of at least the giant hogweed [209]. Other works also treated HM Vanparys, Hayez, Gruber and and the standing biomass through enhanced nutrient uptake. Caucasian hogweeds’ release of substances into the soil as more Meerts, comp 2008 licat [216 ed] than just chemical allelopathy [210,211]. Koutika, Vanderhoeven, Soil properties H. mantegazzianum slowed down soil organic matter. HM Chapuis-Lardy, Dassonville and It was not surprising that the example change in plant communities caused by hog- Meerts, 2007 [219] weeds was associated with a change in soil properties. The giant hogweed presence also H. mantegazzianum affected the composition of soil Jandová, Klinerová, Müllerová, Soil chemical and biological reduced red/far-red light ratios but increased soil pH [212], which sometimes could be microbial communities, soil conductivity, and light HM Pyšek, Pergl, Cajthaml and Dostál, characteristics crucial for the soil organisms. Hogweed invasion significantly modified the composition availability of sites. 2014 [212] of soil microbial communities, but the exception was the fungal/bacterial ratio [212]. In Activity of soil microbial community decreased in soils Bobulská, Demková, Cerevková and Microbial community HM the soil underunder the invasive SosnH. owsk mantegazzianum. y’s hogweed, the share of the ascomycetes Ren was much co, ˇ 2019 [215 lo ] wer than in the control. However, in the vicinity of hogweeds were also more fungi with high hy- An increase in genus and species diversity of Tovstik, Shirokikh, Soloveva, Actinomycetes in the soil actinomycetes in soil under H. sosnowskyi was noted HS Shirokikh, Ashikhmina and drolytic activity [213]. Active colonization of meadows by H. sosnowskyi led to a decrease along with intensive organic matter mineralization. Savinykh, 2018 [225] in the biodiversity of microorganisms through the disturbance of the developed biotic cy- cle [214]. Several other studies identified the impact of hogweed invasion on soil organ- isms and other soil components important for biodiversity [215–225], Table 3. While most of these studies indicated a negative impact of invaders on soil organisms, few studies showed a positive impact for some fungi [213,217,222]. An example of a possible explana- tion was that hogweed, unlike most meadow grasses, does not hibernate with green leaves that do not gradually die out with the formation of semi decomposed plant residues [213]. The reproductive capacity and specific ecology of Caucasian hogweeds in their inva- sive range undoubtedly contributed to their significant impact on plant communities and soil components. Firstly, the large size of those plants should be emphasized once again, as well as the rapid growth of large green biomass [226,227], much larger than that of the Earth 2022, 3 298 Table 3. Cont. Study Group, Attribute Description Weed References Soil microbial properties, Soil microbial and nematode communities were altered Cerevková, Ivashchenko, Miklisová, HS nematode communities by the invasion of H. sosnowskyi. Ananyeva and Renco, ˇ 2020 [187] Nematode abundance and species diversity were Soil nematode communities HS Renco ˇ and Baležentiené, 2015 [184] lower in habitas with H. sosnowskyi. Invasion, although not a single H. sosnowskyi changed Renco, ˇ Kornobis, Domaradzki, Soil nematode communities plant species composition and negatively HS Jakubska-Busse, Jurová and affected ematodes. Homolová, 2018 [185] H. mantegazzianum increased soil pH, decreased carbon Renco, ˇ Jurová, Gömöryová and Plants and soil nematodes in and nitrogen content, reduced the coverage of the HM the riparian habitats Cerevková, 2021 [186] native plants, and negatively influenced nematodes. Under H. sosnowskyi were less ascomycetes Candida vartiovaarae, Wickerhamomyces anomalus, although more Glushakova, Kachalkin and Soil yeast communities HS yeast-like fungi with high hydrolytic activity: Chernov, 2015 [213] Trichosporon moniliforme, T. porosum. The share of yeast-like Trichosporon fungi with high Glushakova, Kachalkin and Soil yeast hydrolytic activity was higher in the soil under HS Chernov, 2015 [214] H. sosnowskyi. Mycobiota: e.g., Phloeospora H. mantegazzianum was related to specific heraclei, Septoria heracleicola, HM Seier and Evans, 2007 [224] fungal pathogens. Ramularia heraclei Remarkable mycodiversity of different genera and Mycobiota HM Feige and Ale-Agha, 2004 [217] species on dead stems of H. mantegazzianum. Mycobiota: ascomycetes, A new species Periconia pseudobyssoides was collected Markovskaja and Kacer ˇ gius, HS genus Periconia on dead H. sosnowskyi stalks. 2014 [222] H. sosnowskyi contributed to the preservation and Soil ecosystem, plant Lapteva, Zakhozhiy, Dalke, maintenance of soil fertility due to the annual return of HS community Smotrina and Genrikh, 2021 [221] fast mineralized plant material. Seed banks containing H. mantegazzianum were Soil seed bank communities HM Gioria and Osborne, 2010 [218] dominated by seeds of a few agricultural weed species. H. mantegazzianum decreased the diversity of seed Seed bank, vascular plants HM Gioria and Osborne, 2009 [196] bank communities. H. sosnowskyi used its allelochemicals to inhibit Plant community germination of perennial ryegrass (monocots) and HS Baležentiene, 2013 [194] winter rapeseed (dicots). H. sosnowskyi is an agriophyte species and a minor Plant community HS Tretyakova, 2011 [198] flora component under the conditions of Middle Urals. H. mantegazzianum became a dominant in Plant community HM Callaway and Hierro, 2006 [195] invaded ecosystems. H. mantegazzianum decreased species diversity of Plant community HM Pyšek and Prach, 1993 [197] plants in riparian habitats. Positive relationship between the relative H. mantegazzianum growth, ant activity, and the number of Hansen, Hattendorf, Nentwig and Insecta: Hemiptera, aphids HM myrmecophilic aphids, although negative impact of 2006, [164] hogweeds on non-myrmecophilic aphids. Insecta: Hymenoptera, Stukalyuk, Zhuravlev, Netsvetov H. mantegazzianum was found to be attractive to ants. HM Formicidae and Kozyr, 2019 [188] Insecta: Lepidoptera, It lives in Caucasus, the larvae feed on Karsholt, Lvovsky and Nielsen, Depressariidae, HM H. mantegazzianum. 2005 [175] Agonopterix caucasiella Insecta: Hemiptera, Specific herbivorous insects were related to Hansen, Hattendorf, Nielsen, Lepidoptera, Hymenoptera, HM H. mantegazzianum. Wittenberg and Nentwig, 2007 [169] Coleoptera, Diptera Insecta: Diptera, Psilidae, H. mantegazzianum was described as a new host of the HM Hardman and Ellis, 1982 [174] Chamaepsila rosae * carrot fly. Drosophila species, Scaptomyza pallida, used the Insecta, Diptera, van Alphen, Nordlander and Eijs, petioles of H. mantegazzianum with the parasitoid HM Drosophilidae 1991 [176] Leptopilina australis. H. mantegazzianum sites had a lower abundance of Davis, Kelly, Maggs and Stout, Insecta: pollinators HM solitary bees and hoverflies. 2018 [172] Earth 2022, 3 299 Table 3. Cont. Study Group, Attribute Description Weed References Very few insects carried both native and alien pollen Insecta: pollinators from H. sphondylium or H. mantegazzianum, suggesting HM Grace and Nelson, 1981 [168] species barrier to gene flow. Pollinators’ visitation of Mimulus guttatus was Nielsen, Heimes and Kollmann, Insecta: pollinators HM enhanced close to H. mantegazzianum. 2008 [170] Sixty-nine species of anthophilous insects visiting Ustinova, Savina and Lysenkov, Insecta: pollinators HS inflorescences of H. sosnowskyi were identified. 2017 [171] Ground dwellers and farmland birds responded negatively to H. sosnowskyi towards open habitats, Bird community HS Grzedzicka ˛ and Reif, 2020 [189] while a more negative response towards forest habitats was observed in birds associated with bushes. H. sosnowskyi decreased the abundance of Bird guilds HS Grzedzicka ˛ and Reif, 2021 [190] insectivorous, granivorous and omnivorous birds. H. mantegazzianum negatively impacted biodiversity Koutika, Rainey and Dassonville, Biodiversity, ecosystems HM and ecosystems. 2011 [220] * current name, not from the cited paper. The reproductive capacity and specific ecology of Caucasian hogweeds in their in- vasive range undoubtedly contributed to their significant impact on plant communities and soil components. Firstly, the large size of those plants should be emphasized once again, as well as the rapid growth of large green biomass [226,227], much larger than that of the relative native plants [228] and larger than the size of describing plants from the same species growing in the range of their native distribution [229]. Caucasian hogweeds showed the enormous ability of regeneration [230]. Their large biomass has resulted in several studies of its use as a biofuel [231–234]. Secondly, the success of invaders was determined by their enormous reproductive abilities, where propagation was exclusively by seeds. Seed germination under laboratory conditions was very high: 71–94% in different temperature regimes [235]. Having a huge reproductive capacity, one plant produced 5–20 thousand seeds per year and occasionally even 50,000 [236], which could germinate for 5–6 years, showing seasonal dynamics [237–240] and long survival in soil despite unfa- vorable factors [241–243]. Seeds were easily spread by wind, the surface of water, birds, and vehicles [244,245]. The distribution of fruits on inflorescences and the structure of the fruit itself was of considerable importance for reproductive ability [246–248]. Reproductive characteristics of H. mantegazzianum were studied at seven sites in the Czech Republic. Fruits from terminal inflorescences were heavier than those from satellites, while those produced in the center of an umbel were heavier than those from the margin. Neither umbel size nor time of flowering had a significant effect on germination characteristics [248]. Terminal umbels were the main seed suppliers for the population [236]. Moreover, the accompanying quick response of giant hogweed to tissue removal might have affected its reproduction and invasion success [249]. Both described features of invaders huge biomass and productivity made them resistant to harsh environmental conditions, as well as they have been considered as aggressive plants [250–253]. Caucasian hogweeds were classified as neophytes, introduced species that rapidly colonized new habitats in their new range [254,255]. Due to the specific biology and ecology of those invaders, despite over a dozen studies on the possibility of using biological methods of controlling their populations, including herbicides, insects, fungi, and parasites [256–262], none of them gave any chance of success in the fight against the invasion of Caucasian hogweeds. 4. Discussion 4.1. The Unknown Future of Caucasian Hogweeds Invasive hogweeds were not the same plants as the large endemic specimens growing in their native range. Samples of H. mantegazzianum and H. sosnowskyi were collected from the native ranges in Asia and invaded ranges of both described species in Europe and Earth 2022, 3 300 then analyzed using amplified fragment length polymorphism. Within each species, plants collected in the invaded range were genetically close to those from their native ranges. However, a high overall genetic variability detected in the invaded range suggested that the majority of invading populations were affected by rapid evolution, drift, or hybridization, which played a role in the genetic structuring of invading populations. More within-taxon variation was detected in the invaded range (Europe) than in the region of native distribu- tion [1]. At various sites within the invasion range, the Caucasian hogweeds were described as still evolving [263–267], and their genetic resources may develop [268]. Large genetic diversity resulted from numerous sites of former introductions [264]. Invasive hogweeds formed hybrids with native species of the same genus studied [269,270], including the example research on hybrids’ unknown epidermal features [271]. It seemed difficult to predict what genotoxins [272] and genotoxic carcinogens [273] the evolving hogweeds have produced and will produce in the future. These chemicals could already affect or- ganisms living in their vicinity. Caucasian invaders also showed other properties of which knowledge was little, such as bioelectric potential in soil-plant systems [274], photosensi- tivity [275], native species richness recovery after about 30 years of hogweed invasion after the occurrence of stabilizing processes [276] or the possibility of inactivating the ability of invaders’ seeds to germinate during the year under certain laboratory conditions [277]. The hogweeds invasion is, therefore, not only complicated, but it is difficult to predict in which direction it will develop. 4.2. The Need for Further Studies Among the future research needed to better understand and react to the invasion of Caucasian hogweeds are the following: 1. This review showed how little research has been available on the impact of Caucasian hogweeds on biodiversity. It is a serious oversight that the author would like to emphasize and suggest this research direction for scientists interested in conservation biology and invasion science. Possible adaptations of native organisms to invasive Caucasian hogweeds are worth studying. 2. Nowadays, pollinators decline is observed, which concerns the mass extinction of species, of particular importance for food security and the future of humanity. Cau- casian hogweeds stand out from other invasive plants as species especially attractive for pollinators. In the case of high costs and difficulties with the removal of those invaders, it seems that instead of incurring endless losses for this process, it is worth starting to research the importance of hogweeds for local pollinator communities, with particular emphasis on the European honeybees. Although Caucasian hogweeds were once used as valuable melliferous plants, there is no research on the properties of honey prepared from products collected by pollinators on these plants. 3. Eastern Europe is a mainstay of farmland birds that are legally protected in the European Union, and this group also includes many endangered and protected species. Research on the effects of invasive hogweeds on birds only began a few years ago, which may be a very serious oversight. There is an urgent need to start long-term research based on large-scale analyses at the level of at least the European continent, which would compare the spreading process of invaders with the trends of changes in the abundance and distribution of farmland birds over the same period. In recent years, ornithologists have become interested in the significance of environmental elements remaining after the communist era, such as military areas, abandoned farms, or the way land was partitioned at that time. No research has shown the role of Caucasian hogweeds occurring in these areas. 4. The history of the Caucasian hogweeds invasion has lasted for at least 80 years, assuming that the real problem of invasion, at least on a continental scale, began with the fall of communism and the abandonment of widely distributed former crops. Thus far, research has shown native organisms facing this invasion to react at the phenotypic level. In the coming decades, research should be planned to check whether Earth 2022, 3 301 the described invasion already causes variability in organisms at the genotypic level. For comparison, the phenomenon of urbanization, which has lasted for 200 years, has already caused many changes in organisms at the genotypic level. The very large ranges of invasive hogweeds have the potential for the research of geneticists dealing with large-scale genetic variation in organisms. 5. There is a lack of research on the effects of global warming and extreme weather events on the dispersal of invaders and their reproductive success. It is not known what effect mild winters have on Caucasian hogweeds populations and seed survival in soil. Increasingly frequent floods potentially favor the dispersal of hogweeds, thus it seems that especially in river valleys, management of this invasion requires a specific strategy supported by scientific research, e.g., large-scale dispersal modeling in the context of the water flow rate in the particular river and the extent of the floods. The high temperatures during increasingly hotter summer periods on the European continent may favor the more intense release of hogweeds chemicals into the environment, thus far not explored. 6. There is a lack of experimental studies showing what the main drivers of the Caucasian hogweeds invasion are. It should be emphasized that sometimes birds are considered to be one of the drivers facilitating the invaders’ spread. This has not been tested experimentally, and it is not known if any bird species have invasive hogweeds seeds in their diets. It is not known whether and how the birds contribute to the dispersal of Caucasian hogweeds. 7. One of the unexplored invasion drivers may be habitat degradation that lowers the local biodiversity and potentially facilitates the spread and development of invasive plants. On the one hand, invaders may appear in disturbed habitats, and on the other hand, procedures related to their removal may have a negative impact on the surrounding environment, paradoxically facilitating invaders. It is not known what the balance between habitat disturbance and native biodiversity should be kept to prevent the development of invaders. 8. The complex attractiveness of Caucasian hogweeds to certain groups of organisms requires further research. An example is the interest of ants in those plants. Ants perform many useful functions in nature, e.g., sanitary. It is worth carefully examin- ing the relationship of ants with hogweeds and checking whether other organisms appearing in the invasive hogweeds indirectly benefit from it. 9. Research on the influence of Caucasian hogweeds on ecosystems has been related to soil science. The unique composition of communities of soil organisms in the substrate of growing invaders seems to be an interesting research topic for environmental biologists interested in soil ecology. The influence of hogweeds on soil organisms goes beyond the phenomenon of only chemical allelopathy, which requires further experimental studies. 10. The dispersal of Caucasian hogweeds related to linear features such as rivers and roads is worth exploring on a landscape scale. Today, roadless areas are becoming rarer. There are no spatial analyses showing what this means for the Caucasian invaders’ dispersal. 5. Conclusions To summarise, Caucasian hogweeds are one of the most problematic plant invasions in the world, extending across the European continent to North America and possibly even other continents in the future. While they have already had a significant impact on biodiversity, this issue was disproportionately poorly researched concerning the scale of the problem. The rich physicochemical properties of invaders’ tissues and secretions in the face of the rapid evolution of plants combined with the progressing global changes and degradation of the environment can form a system for testing hypotheses in the field of applied evolutionary ecology. Finally, it is worth adding that this review did not exhaust the topic. The most important issues may require significant updates even in a decade. Earth 2022, 3 302 Funding: During the study preparation E.G. was supported by National Science Centre in Kraków, Poland (grant Sonatina 2-NZ no. 2018/28/C/NZ8/00283). Institutional Review Board Statement: Not applicable. Informed Consent Statement: Not applicable. Data Availability Statement: No available data. Acknowledgments: The author kindly thanks the two anonymous referees and Earth Editors for useful comments that helped in improving the review. Conflicts of Interest: The author declares no conflict of interest. References 1. Jahodová, Š.; Trybush, S.; Pyšek, P.; Wade, M.; Karp, A. Invasive species of Heracleum in Europe: An insight into genetic relationships and invasion history. Divers. Distrib. 2007, 13, 99–114. [CrossRef] 2. Moravcová, L.; Gudžinskas, Z.; Pyšek, P.; Pergl, J.; Perglova, I. Seed ecology of Heracleum mantegazzianum and H. sosnowskyi, two invasive species with different distributions in Europe. In Ecology and Management of Giant Hogweed (Heracleum mantegazzianum); Pyšek, P., Cock, M.J.W., Nentwig, W., Ravn, H.P., Eds.; CAB International: Wallingford, UK, 2007; pp. 157–169. 3. Jakubska-Busse, A.; Sliwinski, ´ M.; Kobyłka, M. Identification of bioactive components of essential oils in Heracleum sosnowskyi and Heracleum mantegazzianum (Apiaceae). Arch. Biol. Sci. 2013, 65, 877–883. [CrossRef] 4. Cuddington, K.; Sobek-Swant, S.; Drake, J.; Lee, W.; Brook, M. Risks of giant hogweed (Heracleum mantegazzianum) range increase in North America. Biol. Invasions 2022, 24, 299–314. [CrossRef] 5. Trottier, N.; Groeneveld, E.; Lavoie, C. Giant hogweed at its northern distribution limit in North America: Experiments for a better understanding of its dispersal dynamics along rivers. River Res. Appl. 2017, 33, 1098–1106. [CrossRef] 6. Pyšek, P.; Kopecký, M.; Jarošik, V.; Kotková, P. The role of human density and climate in the spread of Heracleum mantegazzianum in the Central European landscape. Divers. Distrib. 1998, 4, 9–16. 7. Wadsworth, R.A.; Collingham, Y.C.; Willis, S.G.; Huntley, B.; Hulme, P.E. Simulating the spread and management of alien riparian weeds: Are they out of control? J. Appl. Ecol. 2000, 37, 28–38. [CrossRef] 8. Zihare, L.; Blumberga, D. Invasive Species Application in Bioeconomy. Case Study Heracleum sosnowskyi Manden in Latvia. Energy Procedia 2017, 113, 238–243. [CrossRef] 9. Bogdanov, V.; Osipov, A.; Garmanov, V.; Efimova, G.; Grik, A.; Zavarin, B.; Terleev, V.; Nikonorov, A. Problems and monitoring the spread of the ecologically dangerous plant Heracleum sosnowskyi in urbanized areas and methods to combat it. E3S Web Conf. 2021, 258, 08028. [CrossRef] 10. Adamonyté, G. Slime molds on Heracleum sosnowskyi in Lithuania. Mikol. I. Fitopatol. 2005, 39, 1–5. 11. Baležentiene, L.; Bartkevicius, ˇ E. Invasion of Heracleum sosnowskyi (Apiaceae) at habitat scale in Lithuania. J. Food Agric. Environ. 2013, 11, 1370–1375. 12. Bomanowska, A.; Adamowski, W.; Kirpluk, I.; Otreba, ˛ A.; Rewicz, A. Invasive alien plants in Polish national parks—Threats to species diversity. PeerJ 2019, 12, e8034. [CrossRef] [PubMed] 13. Bzdega, ˛ K.; Zarychta, A.; Urbisz, A.; Szporak-Wasilewska, S.; Ludynia, M.; Fojcik, B.; Tokarska-Guzik, B. Geostatistical models with the use of hyperspectral data and seasonal variation—A new approach for evaluating the risk posed by invasive plants. Ecol. Indic. 2021, 121, 107204. [CrossRef] 14. Medrzycki, ˛ P.; Jarzyna, I.; Obidzinski, ´ A.; Tokarska-Guzik, B.; Sotek, Z.; Pabjanek, P.; Pytlarczyk, A.; Sachajdakiewicz, I. Simple yet effective: Historical proximity variables improve the species distribution models for invasive giant hogweed (Heracleum mantegazzianum s.l.) in Poland. PLoS ONE 2017, 12, e0184677. [CrossRef] 15. Mirek, Z.; Pie ¸ kos-Mirkowa, ´ H. New and rare invasive vascular plant species in the National Park. Fragm. Florist. Geobot. Pol. 2012, 19, 567–570. 16. Abramova, L.M.; Golovanov, Y.M.; Rogozhnikova, D.R. Sosnowsky’s Hogweed (Heracleum sosnowskyi Manden., Apiaceae) in Bashkortostan. Russ. J. Biol. Invasions 2021, 12, 127–135. [CrossRef] 17. Afonin, A.N.; Luneva, N.N.; Li, Y.S.; Kotsareva, N.V. Ecological-geographical analysis of distribution pattern and occurrence of cow-parsnip (Heracleum sosnowskyi Manden) with respect to area aridity and its mapping in European Russia. Russ. J. Ecol. 2017, 48, 86–89. [CrossRef] 18. Arepieva, L.A.; Arepiev, E.I.; Kazakov, S.G. Distribution of Sosnowsky’s Hogweed (Heracleum sosnowskyi Manden.) at the Southern Border of Its Secondary Range in European Russia. Russ. J. Biol. Invasions 2021, 12, 233–243. [CrossRef] 19. Borisova, E.A. Patterns of invasive plant species distribution in the Upper Volga basin. Russ. J. Biol. Invasions 2011, 2, 1–5. [CrossRef] 20. Chadin, I.; Dalke, I.; Zakhozhiy, I.; Malyshev, R.; Madi, E.; Kuzivanova, O.; Kirillov, D.; Elsakov, V. Distribution of the invasive plant species Heracleum sosnowskyi Manden. in the Komi Republic (Russia). PhytoKeys 2017, 77, 71–80. [CrossRef] 21. Krivosheina, M.G.; Ozerova, N.A.; Petrosyan, V.G. Distribution of Seeds of the Giant Hogweed (Heracleum sosnowskyi Manden.) in the Winter Period. Russ. J. Biol. Invasions 2020, 11, 318–325. [CrossRef] Earth 2022, 3 303 22. Ozerova, N.A.; Krivosheina, M.G. Patterns of secondary range formation for Heracleum sosnowskyi and H. mantegazzianum on the territory of Russia. Russ. J. Biol. Invasions 2018, 9, 155–162. [CrossRef] 23. Ozerova, N.A.; Shirokova, V.A.; Krivosheina, M.G.; Petrosyan, V.G. The spatial distribution of Sosnowsky’s hogweed (Heracleum sosnowskyi) in the valleys of big and medium rivers of the East European Plain (on materials of field studies 2008–2016). Russ. J. Biol. Invasions 2017, 8, 327–346. [CrossRef] 24. Tkachenko, K.G.; Zhiglova, O.V. The Finding of Heracleum ponticum (Lipsky) Schischk. Plants in Leningrad Oblast. Russ. J. Biol. Invasions 2019, 10, 266–268. [CrossRef] 25. Verkhozina, A.V.; Chernysheva, O.A.; Ebel, A.L.; Erst, A.S.; Dorofeev, N.V.; Dorofeyev, V.I.; Grebenjuk, A.V.; Grigorjevskaja, A.Y.; Guseinova, Z.A.; Ivanova, A.V.; et al. Findings to the flora of Russia and adjacent countries: New national and regional vascular plant records, 2. Bot. Pac. 2020, 9, 139–154. [CrossRef] 26. Grygus, I.; Lyko, S.; Stasiuk, M.; Zubkovych, I.; Zukow, W. Risks posed by Heracleum sosnowskyi Manden in the Rivne region. Ecol. Quest. 2018, 29, 35–42. 27. Gubar, L.; Koniakin, S. Populations of Heracleum sosnowskyi and H. mantegazzianum (Apiaceae) in Kyiv (Ukraine). Folia Oecol. 2021, 48, 215–228. [CrossRef] 28. Oitsius, L.V.; Volovyk, H.P.; Doletskyi, S.P.; Lysytsya, A.V. Distribution of adventive species Solidago canadensis, Phalacroloma annuum, Ambrosia artemisiifolia, Heracleum sosnowskyi in phytocenoses of Volyn’ Polissya (Ukraine). Biosyst. Divers. 2021, 28, 343–349. [CrossRef] 29. Arslan, Z.F.; Uludag, A.; Uremis, I. Status of invasive alien plants included in EPPO Lists in Turkey. EPPO Bull. 2015, 45, 66–72. [CrossRef] 30. Vladimirov, V.; Assyov, B.; Petrova, A. First record of an invasive alien plant species of EU concern in Bulgaria: Heracleum sosnowskyi Manden. (Apiaceae). Acta Zool. Bulg. Suppl. 2017, 9, 47–51. 31. Pyšek, P. Heracleum mantegazzianum in the Czech Republic: Dynamics of spreading from the historical perspective. Folia Geobot. Phytotax Praha 1991, 26, 439–454. [CrossRef] 32. Pyšek, P.; Pyšek, A. Invasion by Heracleum mantegazzianum in different habitats in the Czech Republic. J. Veg. Sci. 1995, 6, 711–718. [CrossRef] 33. Nehrbass, N.; Winkler, E.; Pergl, J.; Perglová, I.; Pyšek, P. Empirical and virtual investigation of the population dynamics of an alien plant under the constraints of local carrying capacity: Heracleum mantegazzianum in the Czech Republic. Perspect. Plant Ecol. Evol. Syst. 2006, 7, 253–262. [CrossRef] 34. Pauková, Ž.; Kaprálová, R.; Hauptvogl, M. Mapping of occurrence and population dynamics of invasive plant species Heracleum mantegazzianum in the agricultural landscape. J. Cent. Eur. Agric. 2019, 20, 671–677. [CrossRef] 35. Peknicov ˇ á, J.; Berchová-Bímová, K. Application of species distribution models for protected areas threatened by invasive plants. J. Nat. Conserv. 2016, 34, 1–7. [CrossRef] 36. Pergl, J.; Hüls, J.; Perglová, I.; Eckstein, R.L.; Pyšek, P.; Otte, A. Population Dynamics of Heracleum Mantegazzianum. Ecology and Management of Giant Hogweed: (Heracleum mantegazzianum); CAB International: Wallingford, UK, 2007; pp. 92–111. 37. Pergl, J.; Müllerová, J.; Perglová, I.; Herben, T.; Pyšek, P. The role of long-distance seed dispersal in the local population dynamics of an invasive plant species. Divers. Distrib. 2011, 17, 725–738. [CrossRef] 38. Thiele, J.; Markussen, B. Review: Modelling invasion probability of giant hogweed (Heracleum mantegazzianum) with logistic GLMM. CAB Rev. Perspect. Agric. Vet. Sci. Nutr. Nat. Resour. 2012, 7, 1–12. 39. Thiele, J.; Otte, A. Hercules with achilles’ heel? The distribution of Heracleum mantegazzianum—Nature conservation aspects on local, landscape and regional level. Nat. Und Landsch. 2008, 40, 273–279. 40. Thiele, J.; Otte, A. Invasion patterns of Heracleum mantegazzianum in Germany on the regional and landscape scales. J. Nat. Conserv. 2008, 16, 61–71. [CrossRef] 41. Braun, M.; Schindler, S.; Essl, F. Distribution and management of invasive alien plant species in protected areas in Central Europe. J. Nat. Conserv. 2016, 33, 48–57. [CrossRef] 42. Dawson, F.H.; Holland, D. The distribution in bankside habitats of three alien invasive plants in the U.K. in relation to the development of control strategies. Hydrobiologia 1999, 415, 193–201. [CrossRef] 43. Fehér, A.; Halmová, D.; Fehér-Pindešová, I.; Zajác, P.; Capla, J. Distribution of invasive plants in the Nitra River Basin: Threats and benefits for food production. Potravinarstvo 2016, 10, 605–611. [CrossRef] 44. Boršic, ´ I.; Borovecki-V ˇ oska, L.; Kutleša, P.; Šemnicki, ˇ P. New localities of Heracleum mantegazzianum Sommier et Levier (Apiaceae) in Croatia and control measures taken. Period. Biol. 2015, 117, 449–452. [CrossRef] 45. Nielsen, C.; Hartvig, P.; Kollmann, J. Predicting the distribution of the invasive alien Heracleum mantegazzianum at two different spatial scales. Divers. Distrib. 2008, 14, 307–317. [CrossRef] 46. Alm, T. Plant species introduced by foreigners according to folk tradition in Norway and some other European countries: Xenophobic tales or not? J. Ethnobiol. Ethnomed. 2015, 11, 72. [CrossRef] [PubMed] 47. Catterall, S.; Cook, A.R.; Marion, G.; Butler, A.; Hulme, P.E. Accounting for uncertainty in colonisation times: A novel approach to modelling the spatio-temporal dynamics of alien invasions using distribution data. Ecography 2012, 35, 901–911. [CrossRef] 48. Collingham, Y.C.; Wadsworth, R.A.; Huntley, B.; Hulme, P.E. Predicting the spatial distribution of non-indigenous riparian weeds: Issues of spatial scale and extent. J. Appl. Ecol. 2000, 37, 13–27. [CrossRef] Earth 2022, 3 304 49. Cook, A.; Marion, G.; Butler, A.; Gibson, G. Bayesian inference for the spatio-temporal invasion of alien species. Bull. Math. Biol. 2007, 69, 2005–2025. [CrossRef] 50. Lau, M.S.Y.; Marion, G.; Streftaris, G.; Gibson, G.J. New model diagnostics for spatio-temporal systems in epidemiology and ecology. J. R. Soc. Interface 2014, 11, 20131093. [CrossRef] 51. Moenickes, S.; Thiele, J. What shapes giant hogweed invasion? Answers from a spatio-temporal model integrating multiscale monitoring data. Biol. Invasions 2013, 15, 61–73. [CrossRef] 52. Nehrbass, N.; Winkler, E. Is the Giant Hogweed still a threat? An individual-based modelling approach for local invasion dynamics of Heracleum mantegazzianum. Ecol. Model. 2007, 201, 377–384. [CrossRef] 53. Wallentin, G. Modelling the spatial invasive range of Heracleum mantegazzianum in Europe. IJG 2013, 9, 15–19. 54. Menshchikov, A.; Shadrin, D.; Prutyanov, V.; Lopatkin, D.; Sosnin, S.; Tsykunov, E.; Iakovlev, E.; Somov, A. Real-Time Detection of Hogweed: UAV Platform Empowered by Deep Learning. IEEE Trans. Comput. 2021, 70, 1175–1188. [CrossRef] 55. Michez, A.; Piégay, H.; Jonathan, L.; Claessens, H.; Lejeune, P. Mapping of riparian invasive species with supervised classification of Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) imagery. Appl. Earth Obs. Geoinf. 2016, 44, 88–94. [CrossRef] 56. Tovstik, E.V.; Adamovich, T.A.; Ashikhmina, T.Y. Identification of sites of mass growth of Heracleum sosnowskyi Manden. Using spectral indices according to Sentinel-2 images. Theor. Appl. Ecol. 2019, 3, 34–40. 57. Tovstik, E.V.; Adamovich, T.A.; Rutman, V.V.; Kantor, G.Y.; Ashikhmina, T.Y. Identification of the tickets of Heracleum sosnowskyi using Earth remote sensing data. Theor. Appl. Ecol. 2018, 2, 35–37. 58. Turénko, D.; Khan, A.; Hussain, R.; Imran Ali, S. Oversampling Versus Variational Autoencoders: Employing Synthetic Data for Detection of Heracleum Sosnowskyi in Satellite Images. Lect. Notes Electr. Eng. 2020, 621, 399–409. 59. Visockiene, J.S.; Tumeliene, E.; Maliene, V. Identification of Heracleum sosnowskyi-invaded land using earth remote sensing data. Sustainability 2020, 12, 759. [CrossRef] 60. Gallardo, B.; Zieritz, A.; Adriaens, T.; Bellard, C.; Boets, P.; Britton, J.R.; Newman, J.R.; van Valkenburg, J.L.C.H.; Aldridge, D.C. Trans-national horizon scanning for invasive non-native species: A case study in western Europe. Biol. Invasions 2016, 18, 17–30. [CrossRef] 61. Müllerová, J.; Bruna, ˚ J.; Bartaloš, T.; Dvor ˇák, P.; Vítková, M.; Pyšek, P. Timing is important: Unmanned aircraft vs. satellite imagery in plant invasion monitoring. Front. Plant Sci. 2017, 8, 887. [CrossRef] 62. Müllerová, J.; Pergl, J.; Pyšek, P. Remote sensing as a tool for monitoring plant invasions: Testing the effects of data resolution and image classification approach on the detection of a model plant species Heracleum mantegazzianum (giant hogweed). Appl. Earth Obs. Geoinf. 2013, 25, 55–65. [CrossRef] 63. Müllerová, J.; Pyšek, P.; Jarošik, V.; Pergl, J. Aerial photographs as a tool for assessing the regional dynamics of the invasive plant species Heracleum mantegazzianum. J. Appl. Ecol. 2005, 42, 1042–1053. [CrossRef] 64. Pergl, J.; Pyšek, P.; Perglová, I.; Jarošik, V. Low persistence of a monocarpic invasive plant in historical sites biases our perception of its actual distribution. J. Biogeogr. 2012, 39, 1293–1302. [CrossRef] [PubMed] 65. Pyšek, P.; Genovesi, P.; Pergl, J.; Monaco, A.; Wild, J. Plant invasions of protected areas in Europe: An old continent facing new problems. In Plant Invasions in Protected Areas: Patterns, Problems and Challenges; Springer: Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 2013; pp. 209–240. 66. Pyšek, P.; Jarošik, V.; Müllerová, J.; Pergl, J.; Wild, J. Comparing the rate of invasion by Heracleum mantegazzianum at continental, regional, and local scales. Divers. Distrib. 2008, 14, 355–363. [CrossRef] 67. Pyšek, P.; Müllerová, J.; Jarošík, V. Historical Dynamics of Heracleum mantegazzianum Invasion at Regional and Local Scales. Ecology and Management of Giant Hogweed: (Heracleum mantegazzianum); CAB International: Wallingford, UK, 2007; pp. 42–54. 68. Richardson, D.M.; Thuiller, W. Home away from home—Objective mapping of high-risk source areas for plant introductions. Divers. Distrib. 2007, 13, 299–312. [CrossRef] 69. Follak, S.; Eberius, M.; Essl, F.; Fürdös, A.; Sedlacek, N.; Trognitz, F. Invasive alien plants along roadsides in Europe. Bull. OEPP/EPPO Bull. 2018, 48, 256–265. [CrossRef] 70. Nehrbass, N.; Winkler, E.; Müllerová, J.; Pergl, J.; Pyšek, P.; Perglová, I. A simulation model of plant invasion: Long-distance dispersal determines the pattern of spread. Biol. Invasions 2007, 9, 383–395. [CrossRef] 71. Olszewski, P.; Grabowski, J.; Stalmachová, B.; Švehláková, H.; Nováková, J. Risks concerning invasive plant species in an industrial-agricultural community. In Proceedings of the International Multidisciplinary Scientific GeoConference Surveying Geology and Mining Ecology Management, Albena, Bulgaria, 2–8 July 2018; Volume 18, pp. 753–760. 72. Ozerova, N.A. Vectors of Heracleum sosnowskyi Manden. Invasion on the territory of Moscow region: History and modernity (as exemplified by the Shakhovskaya Urban District). IOP Conf. Ser. Earth Environ. Sci. 2021, 867, 012074. [CrossRef] 73. Otte, A.; Eckstein, R.L.; Thiele, J. Heracleum Mantegazzianum in its Primary Distribution Range of the Western Greater Caucasus. Ecology and Management of Giant Hogweed: (Heracleum Mantegazzianum); CAB International: Wallingford, UK, 2007; pp. 20–41. 74. Panasenko, N.N. On certain issues of biology and ecology of Sosnowsky’s hogweed (Heracleum sosnowskyi Manden). Russ. J. Biol. Invasions 2017, 8, 272–281. [CrossRef] 75. Perglová, I.; Pergl, J.; Pyšek, P. Reproductive Ecology of Heracleum mantegazzianum. Ecology and Management of Giant Hogweed: (Heracleum mantegazzianum); CAB International: Wallingford, UK, 2007; pp. 55–73. 76. Holzmann, C.; Thiele, J.; Buttschardt, T.K. Management of neophytes—The example of giant hogweed; preconditions for successful control of Heracleum mantegazzianum. Nat. Und Landsch. 2014, 46, 79–85. Earth 2022, 3 305 77. Hootsmans, M.J.M.; Drovandi, A.A.; Soto Perez, N.; Wiegman, F. Management and ecology of freshwater plants.Proceedings of the 9th International Symposium on Aquatic Weeds, Dublin, 1994. Hydrobiologia 1996, 340, 354p. 78. Meier, E.S.; Dullinger, S.; Zimmermann, N.E.; Baumgartner, D.; Gattringer, A.; Hülber, K. Space matters when defining effective management for invasive plants. Divers. Distrib. 2014, 20, 1029–1043. [CrossRef] 79. Pyšek, P.; Perglová, I.; Krinke, L.; Jarošík, V.; Pergl, J.; Moravcová, L. Regeneration Ability of Heracleum Mantegazzianum and Implications for Control. Ecology and Management of Giant Hogweed: (Heracleum Mantegazzianum); CAB International: Wallingford, UK, 2007; pp. 112–125. 80. Nehrbass, N.; Winkler, E. Model-Assisted Evaluation of Control Strategies for Heracleum Mantegazzianum. Ecology and Management of Giant Hogweed: (Heracleum Mantegazzianum); CAB International: Wallingford, UK, 2007; pp. 284–296. 81. Pyšek, P.; Cock, M.J.W.; Nentwig, W.; Ravn, H.P. Ecology and Management of Giant Hogweed: (Heracleum Mantegazzianum). Ecology and Management of Giant Hogweed: (Heracleum Mantegazzianum); CAB International: Wallingford, UK, 2007; pp. 1–324. 82. Shackleton, R.T.; Petitpierre, B.; Pajkovic, M.; Dessimoz, F.; Brönnimann, O.; Cattin, L.; Cejková, Š.; Kull, C.A.; Pergl, J.; Pyšek, P.; et al. Integrated Methods for Monitoring the Invasive Potential and Management of Heracleum mantegazzianum (giant hogweed) in Switzerland. Environ. Manag. 2020, 65, 829–842. [CrossRef] [PubMed] 83. Andersen, U.V.; Calov, B. Long-term effects of sheep grazing on giant hogweed (Heracleum mantegazzianum). Hydrobiologia 1996, 340, 277–284. [CrossRef] 84. Buttenschøn, R.M.; Nielsen, C. Control of Heracleum mantegazzianum by Grazing. Ecology and Management of Giant Hogweed: (Heracleum mantegazzianum); CAB International: Wallingford, UK, 2007; pp. 240–254. 85. Dobrinov, A.V.; Trifanov, A.V.; Chugunov, S.V. Analysis and estimate of efficiency technological methods the destruction of Sosnowsky hogweed in the north-west region of Russia. IOP Conf. Series. Earth Environ. Sci. 2021, 723, 032087. [CrossRef] 86. Egorov, A.; Pavlyuchenkova, L.; Bubnov, A.; Partolina, A.; Postnikov, A. Control of Sosnovsky’s hogweed (Heracleum sosnowskyi Manden.) in forests using herbicides. IOP Conf. Ser. Earth Environ. Sci. 2020, 574, 012024. [CrossRef] 87. Egorov, A.B.; Postnikov, A.M.; Pavlyuchenkova, L.N.; Partolina, A.N.; Bubnov, A.A. Application of Herbicides in the Control of the Invasive Species Heracleum sosnowskyi Manden. (Sosnowsky’s Hogweed) in Forestry. Russ. J. Biol. Invasions 2021, 12, 387–399. [CrossRef] 88. Hagner, M.; Lindqvist, B.; Vepsäläinen, J.; Samorì, C.; Keskinen, R.; Rasa, K.; Hyvönen, T. Potential of pyrolysis liquids to control the environmental weed Heracleum mantegazzianum. Environ. Technol. Innov. 2020, 20, 101154. [CrossRef] 89. Nielsen, C.; Vanaga, I.; Treikale, O.; Priekule, I. Mechanical and chemical control of Heracleum mantegazzianum and H. sosnowskyi. Ecology and Management of Giant Hogweed (Heracleum mantegazzianum); CAB International: Wallingford, UK, 2007; pp. 226–239. 90. Kirichenko, N.; Haubrock, P.J.; Cuthbert, R.N.; Akulov, E.; Karimova, E.; Shneyder, Y.; Liu, C.; Angulo, E.; Diagne, C.; Courchamp, F. Economic costs of biological invasions in terrestrial ecosystems in Russia. NeoBiota 2021, 67, 103–122. [CrossRef] 91. Rajmis, S.; Thiele, J.; Marggraf, R. A cost-benefit analysis of controlling giant hogweed (Heracleum mantegazzianum) in Germany using a choice experiment approach. NeoBiota 2016, 31, 19–41. [CrossRef] 92. Zihare, L.; Gusca, J.; Spalvins, K.; Blumberga, D. Priorities Determination of Using Bioresources. Case Study of Heracleum sosnowskyi. Environ. Clim. Technol. 2019, 23, 242–256. [CrossRef] 93. Thiele, J.; Kollmann, J.; Markussen, B.; Otte, A. Impact assessment revisited: Improving the theoretical basis for management of invasive alien species. Biol. Invasions 2010, 12, 2025–2035. [CrossRef] 94. Caffrey, J.M. The Management of Giant Hogweed in an Irish River Catchment. J. Aquat. Plant Manag. 2001, 39, 28–33. 95. Martin, P.A.; Shackelford, G.E.; Bullock, J.M.; Gallardo, B.; Aldridge, D.C.; Sutherland, W.J. Management of UK priority invasive alien plants: A systematic review protocol. Environ. Evid. 2020, 9, 1–11. [CrossRef] 96. Stevenson, M.D.; Rossmo, D.K.; Knell, R.J.; Le Comber, S.C. Geographic profiling as a novel spatial tool for targeting the control of invasive species. Ecography 2012, 35, 704–715. [CrossRef] 97. Thiele, J.; Schuckert, U.; Otte, A. Cultural landscapes of Germany are patch-corridor-matrix mosaics for an invasive megaforb. Lanscape Ecol. 2008, 23, 453–465. [CrossRef] 98. Vardarman, J.; Berchová-Bímová, K.; Peknicov ˇ á, J. The role of protected area zoning in invasive plant management. Biodivers. Con- serv. 2018, 27, 1811–1829. [CrossRef] 99. Grigoriev, A.N.; Ryzhikov, D.M. General methodology and results of spectroradiometric research of reflective properties of the Heracleum Sosnowskyi in the range 320–1100 nm for Earth remote sensing. Sovrem. Probl. Distantsionnogo Zondirovaniya Zemli Iz ˙ Kosm. 2018, 15, 183–192. [CrossRef] 100. Caffrey, J.M. Phenology and long-term control of Heracleum mantegazzianum. Hydrobiologia 1999, 415, 223–228. [CrossRef] 101. Klima, K.; Synowiec, A. Field emergence and the long-term efficacy of control of Heracleum sosnowskyi plants of different ages in southern Poland. Weed Res. 2016, 56, 377–385. [CrossRef] 102. Fan, P.; Marston, A. How can phytochemists benefit from invasive plants? Nat. Prod. Commun. 2009, 4, 1407–1416. [CrossRef] 103. Synowiec, A.; Kalemba, D. Composition and herbicidal effect of Heracleum sosnowskyi essential oil. Open Life Sci. 2015, 10, 425–432. [CrossRef] 104. Baležentienẻ, L. Immediate allelopathic effect of two invasive Heracleum species on acceptor-germination. Acta Biol. Univ. Daugavp. 2015, 15, 17–26. 105. Kwasny ´ , J.; Vogt, O.; Lason, ´ E. Effect of method for recovering the essential oils from selected Umbelliferae (Apiaceae) on their chemical composition. Przemysł Chem. 2012, 91, 2136–2141. Earth 2022, 3 306 106. Hpoo, M.K.; Mishyna, M.; Prokhorov, V.; Arie, T.; Takano, A.; Oikawa, Y.; Fujii, Y. Potential of octanol and octanal from Heracleum sosnowskyi fruits for the control of fusarium Oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. Sustainability 2020, 12, 9334. [CrossRef] 107. Matoušková, M.; Jurová, J.; Grul’ová, D.; Wajs-Bonikowska, A.; Renco, ˇ M.; Sedlák, V.; Porácov ˇ á, J.; Gogal’ová, Z.; Kalemba, D. Phytotoxic effect of invasive Heracleum mantegazzianum essential oil on dicot and monocot species. Molecules 2019, 24, 425. [CrossRef] [PubMed] 108. Mishyna, M.; Laman, N.; Prokhorov, V.; Maninang, J.S.; Fujii, Y. Identification of octanal as plant growth inhibitory volatile compound released from Heracleum sosnowskyi fruit. Nat. Prod. Commun. 2015, 10, 771–774. [CrossRef] [PubMed] 109. Politowicz, J.; Gebar ˛ owska, E.; Prock ´ ów, J.; Pietr, S.J.; Szumny, A. Antimicrobial activity of essential oil and furanocoumarin fraction of three Heracleum species. Acta Pol. Pharm. Drug Res. 2017, 74, 723–728. 110. Sedzik, D.; Chabudzinski, ´ Z.; Kostecka-Madalska, O. Essential oil from Heracleum sosnowski Manden as a source of n-octanol. Acta Pol. Pharm. Drug Res. 1966, 23, 149–152. 111. Skalicka-Wozniak, ´ K.; Grzegorczyk, A.; Swiatek, ˛ Ł.; Walasek, M.; Widelski, J.; Rajtar, B.; Polz-Dacewicz, M.; Malm, A.; Elansary, H.O. Biological activity and safety profile of the essential oil from fruits of Heracleum mantegazzianum Somier & Levier (Apiaceae). Food Chem. Toxicol. 2017, 109, 820–826. 112. Szumny, A.; Adamski, M.; Winska, K.; Maczka, W.; Nowakowski, P. Chemical composition of volatile oils of giant-hogweed. Przem. Chem. 2012, 91, 1024–1027. 113. Tkachenko, K.G. Constituents of essential oils from fruit of some Heracleum L. species. J. Essent. Oil Res. 1993, 5, 687–689. [CrossRef] 114. Hattendorf, J.; Hansen, S.O.; Nentwig, W. Defence Systems of Heracleum mantegazzianum. Ecology and Management of Giant Hogweed: (Heracleum mantegazzianum); CAB International: Wallingford, UK, 2007; pp. 209–225. 115. Walasek, M.; Grzegorczyk, A.; Malm, A.; Skalicka-Wozniak, ´ K. Bioactivity-guided isolation of antimicrobial coumarins from Heracleum mantegazzianum Sommier & Levier (Apiaceae) fruits by high-performance counter-current chromatography. Food Chem. 2015, 186, 133–138. 116. Abyshev, A.Z.; Denisenko, P.P. The coumarin composition of Heracleum sosnowskyi. Chem. Nat. Compd. 1973, 9, 515–516. [CrossRef] 117. Glowniak, K.; Mroczek, T.; Zabza, A.; Cierpicki, T. Isolation and structure elucidation of 5,7-disubstituted simple coumarins in the fruits of Heracleum mantegazzianum. Pharm. Biol. 2000, 38, 308–312. [CrossRef] 118. Larbat, R.; Kellner, S.; Specker, S.; Hehn, A.; Gontier, E.; Hans, J.; Bourgaud, F.; Matern, U. Molecular cloning and functional characterization of psoralen synthase, the first committed monooxygenase of furanocoumarin biosynthesis. J. Biol. Chem. 2007, 282, 542–554. [CrossRef] 119. Mishyna, M.; Laman, N.; Prokhorov, V.; Fujii, Y. Angelicin as the principal allelochemical in Heracleum sosnowskyi fruit. Nat. Prod. Commun. 2015, 10, 767–770. [CrossRef] [PubMed] 120. Pira, E.; Romano, C.; Sulotto, F.; Pavan, I.; Monaco, E. Heracleum mantegazzianum growth phases and furocoumarin content. Contact Dermat. 1989, 21, 300–303. [CrossRef] [PubMed] 121. Vanhaelen, M.; Vanhaelen-Fastré, R. Furanocoumarins from the root of Heracleum mantegazzianum. Phytochemistry 1974, 13, 306. [CrossRef] 122. Weryszko-Chmielewska, E.; Chwil, M. Localisation of furanocoumarins in the tissues and on the surface of shoots of Heracleum sosnowskyi. Botany 2017, 95, 1057–1070. [CrossRef] 123. Zogg, G.C.; Nyiredy, S.; Sticher, O. Overpressured layer chromatographic (OPLC) separation of closely related furocoumarins. J. Liq. Chromatogr. 1987, 10, 3605–3621. [CrossRef] 124. Zogg, G.C.; Nyiredy, S.; Sticher, O. Apiaceae roots. Qualitative and quantitative furanocoumarin estimation in Apiaceae roots. Dtsch. Apoth. Ztg. 1989, 129, 717–722. 125. Shakhmatov, E.G.; Toukach, P.V.; Kuznetsov, S.P.; Makarova, E.N. Structural characteristics of water-soluble polysaccharides from Heracleum sosnowskyi Manden. Carbohydr. Polym. 2014, 102, 521–528. [CrossRef] 126. Gordina, E.N.; Kuznetsov, S.P.; Golovchenko, V.V.; Zlobin, A.A. Preliminary Structural Characteristic of Polysaccharides Extracted from the Callus Tissue of Sosnowskyi’s Hogweed (Heracleum Sosnowskyi Manden) Stem by Aqueous Ammonium Oxalate. Russ. J. Bioorganic Chem. 2019, 45, 522–527. [CrossRef] 127. Gordina, E.N.; Zlobin, A.A.; Martinson, E.A.; Litvinets, S.G. Pectic polysaccharides of callus tissue of the stem of Heracleum sosnowskyi Manden. Theor. Appl. Ecol. 2019, 1, 41–46. 128. Khudyakov, A.N.; Kuleshova, L.G.; Zaitseva, O.O.; Sergushkina, M.I.; Vetoshkin, K.A.; Polezhaeva, T.V. Effect of Pectins on Water Crystallization Pattern and Integrity of Cells during Freezing. Biopreservation Biobanking 2019, 17, 52–57. [CrossRef] 129. Makarova, E.N.; Shakhmatov, E.G.; Belyy, V.A. Structural characteristics of oxalate-soluble polysaccharides of Sosnowsky’s hogweed (Heracleum sosnowskyi Manden). Carbohydr. Polym. 2016, 153, 66–77. [CrossRef] 130. Mikhailova, E.A.; Shubakov, A.A. Production, properties and swelling of composite agar-pectic gel particles in an artificial gastroenteric environment. Int. J. Biomed. 2021, 11, 456–459. [CrossRef] 131. Patova, O.A.; Golovchenko, V.V.; Vityazev, F.V.; Burkov, A.A.; Belyi, V.A.; Kuznetsov, S.N.; Litvinets, S.G.; Martinson, E.A. Physicochemical and rheological properties of gelling pectin from Sosnowskyi’s hogweed (Heracleum sosnowskyi) obtained using different pretreatment conditions. Food Hydrocoll. 2017, 65, 77–86. [CrossRef] 132. Sabnis, D.D.; Hart, J.W. P-Protein in sieve elements—I. Ultrastructure after treatment with vinblastine and colchicine. Planta 1973, 109, 127–133. [CrossRef] Earth 2022, 3 307 133. Shakhmatov, E.G.; Atukmaev, K.V.; Makarova, E.N. Structural characteristics of pectic polysaccharides and arabinogalactan proteins from Heracleum sosnowskyi Manden. Carbohydr. Polym. 2016, 136, 1358–1369. [CrossRef] 134. Shubakov, A.A.; Mikhailova, E.A. Production, properties and swelling of composite pectic-gel particles in an artificial gastric environment. Int. J. Biomed. 2021, 11, 173–176. [CrossRef] 135. Dudkin, M.S.; Parfent’eva, M.A.; Cherno, N.K. Structure of the xyloglucan of the leaves of Heracleum sosnowskyi. Chem. Nat. Compd. 1984, 20, 261–263. [CrossRef] 136. Ezeala, D.O.; Hart, J.W.; Sabnis, D.D. Fractionation of monovalent ion-stimulated nucleoside triphosphatase activity in extracts of petiolar tissues. J. Exp. Bot. 1974, 25, 1037–1044. [CrossRef] 137. Ezeala, D.O.; Hart, J.W.; Sabnis, D.D. Stimulation by monovalent cations of adenosine triphosphatase activity in extracts of petiole tissues. J. Exp. Bot. 1974, 25, 1045–1052. [CrossRef] 138. Fan, P.; Hay, A.-E.; Marston, A.; Hostettmann, K. Acetylcholinesterase-inhibitory activity of linarin from Buddleja davidii, structure-activity relationships of related flavonoids, and chemical investigation of Buddleja nitida. Pharm. Biol. 2008, 46, 596–601. [CrossRef] 139. Hart, J.W.; Sabnis, D.D. Colchicine-binding protein from phloem and xylem of a higher plant. Planta 1973, 109, 147–152. [CrossRef] 140. Hart, J.W.; Sabnis, D.D. Binding of colchicine and lumicolchicine to components in plant extracts. Phytochemistry 1976, 15, 1897–1901. [CrossRef] 141. Hasanova, D.A. Determination of the toxicity of the plants, which form part of hepatoprotecting and immunomodulating phytocompositions. Azerbaijan Pharm. Pharmacother. J. 2013, 13, 36–39. 142. Ivanova, T.A.; Matveeva, T.N.; Chanturia, V.A.; Ivanova, E.N. Composition of multicomponent Heracleum extracts and its effect on flotation of gold-bearing sulfides. J. Min. Sci. 2015, 51, 819–824. [CrossRef] 143. Kordan, B.; Kosewska, A.; Szumny, A.; Wawrzenczyk, ´ C.; Gabrys, ´ B. Effects of aromatic plant extracts and major terpenoid constituents on feeding activity of the horse-chestnut leaf miner Cameraria Ohridella Deschka & Dimic. ´ Pol. J. Nat. Sci. 2013, 28, 53–62. 144. Punegov, V.V.; Gruzdev, I.V.; Triandafilov, A.F. Analysis of the composition of lipophilic substances in Heracleum sosnowskyi juice before and after electric discharge cavitation treatment. Khimiya Rastit. Syrya 2019, 3, 61–68. [CrossRef] 145. Sabnis, D.D.; Hart, J.W. Studies on the possible occurrence of actomyosin-like proteins in phloem. Planta 1974, 118, 271–281. [CrossRef] 146. Semchuk, N.N.; Balun, O.V.; Gladkikh, S.N. Influence of Deformation of Circadian Rhythms on Changes in Ontogenesis of Heracleum sosnowskyi Manden Plants. IOP Conf. Ser. Earth Environ. Sci. 2021, 852, 012090. [CrossRef] 147. Valiunas, D.; Samuitiene, M.; Rasomavicius, V.; Navalinskiene, M.; Staniulis, J.; Davis, R.E. Subgroup 16SrIII-F phytoplasma strains in an invasive plant, Heracleum sosnowskyi, and an ornamental, Dictamnus albus. J. Plant Pathol. 2007, 89, 137–140. 148. Barclay, G.F.; Johnson, R.P.C. Analysis of particle motion in sieve tubes of Heracleum. Plant Cell Environ. 1982, 5, 173–178. [CrossRef] 149. Barclay, G.F.; Oparka, K.J.; Johnson, R.P.C. Induced disruption of sieve element plastids in Heracleum mantegazzianum L. J. Exp. Bot. 1977, 28, 709–717. [CrossRef] 150. Dalke, I.V.; Malyshev, R.V.; Maslova, S.P. Ecophysiology of Heracleum sosnowskyi plant respiration in the north. Theor. Appl. Ecol. 2020, 2, 77–82. 151. Karmanov, A.P.; Kocheva, L.S.; Belyy, V.A. Topological structure and antioxidant properties of macromolecules of lignin of hogweed Heracleum sosnowskyi Manden. Polymer 2020, 202, 122756. [CrossRef] 152. O’Brien, T.P.; Kuo, J.; Mc Cully, M.E.; Zee, S.-Y. Coagulant and non-coagulant fixation of plant cells. Aust. J. Biol. Sci. 1973, 26, 1231–1250. [CrossRef] 153. O’Brien, T.P.; McCully, M.E. Cytoplasmic fibres associated with streaming and saltatory-particle movement in Heracleum mantegazzianum. Planta 1970, 94, 91–94. [CrossRef] 154. Stepina, I.; Sodomon, M.; Semenov, V.; Dorzhieva, E.; Titova, I. Modifying Heracleum sosnowskyi Stems with Monoethanolamine (N!B)-trihydroxyborate for Manufacturing Biopositive Building Materials. Lect. Notes Civ. Eng. 2022, 170, 45–52. 155. Mishyna, M.; Pham, V.T.T.; Fujii, Y. Evaluation of allelopathic activity of Heracleum sosnowskyi Manden fruits. Allelopath. J. 2017, 42, 169–178. [CrossRef] 156. Tovstik, E.V.; Sazanov, A.V.; Bakulina, A.V.; Shirokikh, I.G.; Ashikhmina, T.Y. Identification and study of the properties of Streptomyces geldanamycininus 3K9, isolated from the soil under the bush of Heracleum sosnowskyi. Theor. Appl. Ecol. 2019, 2, 53–60. 157. Vanderhoeven, S.; Dassonville, N.; Meerts, P. Increased topsoil mineral nutrient concentrations under exotic invasive plants in Belgium. Plant Soil 2005, 275, 169–179. [CrossRef] 158. Imanly, H.A.; Serkerov, S.V. Investigation of component composition of roots and fruits Heracleum sosnowskyi Manden. Azerbaijan Pharm. Pharmacother. J. 2016, 16, 24–26. 159. Rysiak, A.; Dresler, S.; Hanaka, A.; Hawrylak-Nowak, B.; Strzemski, M.; Kovácik, ˇ J.; Sowa, I.; Latalski, M.; Wójciak, M. High temperature alters secondary metabolites and photosynthetic efficiency in Heracleum sosnowskyi. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 4756. [CrossRef] 160. Tulinov, A.G.; Mikhailova, E.A.; Shubakov, A.A. Application of pectic polysaccharides as stimulants for growth and development of Solanum Tuberosum L. Khimiya Rastit. Syrya 2018, 21, 289–298. Earth 2022, 3 308 161. Andrews, A.H.; Giles, C.J.; Thomsett, L.R. Suspected poisoning of a goat by giant hogweed. Vet. Rec. 1985, 116, 205–207. [CrossRef] 162. Kristiansen, B.; Penninga, L.; Diernaes, J.E.F. Challenging cause of bullous eruption of the hands in the Arctic. BMJ Case Rep. S 2018, 2018, bcr-2018-225981. [CrossRef] 163. Lee, E.C.; Catalfomo, P.; Sciuchetti, L.A. Preliminary investigations of Heracleum mantegazzianum. J. Pharm. Sci. 1966, 55, 521–522. [CrossRef] 164. Hansen, S.O.; Hattendorf, J.; Nentwig, W. Mutualistic relationship beneficial for aphids and ants on giant hogweed (Heracleum mantegazzianum). Com. Ecol. 2006, 7, 43–52. [CrossRef] 165. Tkachenko, K.G. Antiviral activity of the essential oils of some Heracleum L. species. J. Herbs Spices Med. Plants 2006, 12, 1–12. [CrossRef] 166. Kousha, A.; Ringø, E. Antibacterial effect of aquatic extract of Heracleum spp. hogweed plants from Europe on thirteen different bacteria. Pharm. Chem. J. 2015, 48, 677–680. [CrossRef] 167. Malfanova, N.; Kamilova, F.; Validov, S.; Shcherbakov, A.; Chebotar, V.; Tikhonovich, I.; Lugtenberg, B. Characterization of Bacillus subtilis HC8, a novel plant-beneficial endophytic strain from giant hogweed. Microb. Biotechnol. 2011, 4, 523–532. [CrossRef] [PubMed] 168. Grace, J.; Nelson, M. Insects and their pollen loads at a hybrid Heracleum site. New Phytol. 1981, 87, 413–423. [CrossRef] 169. Hansen, S.O.; Hattendorf, J.; Nielsen, C.; Wittenberg, R.; Nentwig, W. Herbivorous Arthropods on Heracleum Mantegazzianum in its Native and Invaded Distribution Range. Ecology and Management of Giant Hogweed: (Heracleum mantegazzianum); CAB International: Wallingford, UK, 2007; pp. 170–188. 170. Nielsen, C.; Heimes, C.; Kollmann, J. Little evidence for negative effects of an invasive alien plant on pollinator services. Biol. Invasions 2008, 10, 1353–1363. [CrossRef] 171. Ustinova, E.N.; Savina, K.A.; Lysenkov, S.N. New data on consortive associations of Sosnowsky’s hogweed with anthophilous insects. Russ. J. Biol. Invasions 2017, 8, 375–385. [CrossRef] 172. Davis, E.S.; Kelly, R.; Maggs, C.A.; Stout, J.C. Contrasting impacts of highly invasive plant species on flower-visiting insect communities. Biodivers. Conserv. 2018, 27, 2069–2085. [CrossRef] 173. Bürki, C.; Nentwig, W. Comparison of herbivore insect communities of Heracleum sphondylium and H. mantegazzianum in Switzerland (Spermatophyta: Apiaceae). Entomol. Gener. 1997, 22, 147–155. [CrossRef] 174. Hardman, J.A.; Ellis, P.R. An investigation of the host range of the carrot fly. Ann. Appl. Biol. 1982, 100, 1–9. [CrossRef] 175. Karsholt, O.; Lvovsky, A.L.; Nielsen, C. A new species of Agonopterix feeding on giant hogweed (Heracleum mantegazzianum) in the Caucasus, with a discussion of the nomenclature of A. heracliana (Linnaeus) (Depressariidae). Nota Lepidopterol. 2005, 28, 177–192. 176. Van Alphen, J.J.M.; Nordlander, G.; Eijs, I. Host habitat finding and host selection of the Drosophila parasitoid Leptopilina australis (Hymenoptera, Eucoilidae), with a comparison of the niches of European Leptopilina species. Oecologia 1991, 87, 324–329. [CrossRef] [PubMed] 177. Hattendorf, J.; Hansen, S.O.; Reznik, S.Y.; Nentwig, W. Herbivore impact versus host size preference: Endophagous insects on Heracleum mantegazzianum in its native range. Environ. Entomol. 2006, 35, 1013–1020. [CrossRef] 178. Reznik, S.Y.; Dolgovskaya, M.Y.; Zaitzev, V.F.; Davidyan, G.E.; Nentwig, W. Evaluation of Nastus faustii Reitter (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Entiminae: Nastini) for biological control of invasive giant hogweeds (Heracleum spp.). Entomol. Rev. 2008, 88, 640–650. [CrossRef] 179. Krivosheina, M.; Ozerova, N. To the biology of celery fly Euleia heraclei (Linnaeus, 1758) (Diptera: Tephritidae)—Pest of alien Apiaceae species in Moscow Region. Russ. Entomol. J. 2016, 25, 209–213. [CrossRef] 180. Gültekin, L. Host plant range and biology of Lixus nordmanni Hochhuth (Coleoptera, Curculionidae) on hogweed Heracleum L. in eastern Turkey. J. Pest. Sci. 2006, 79, 23–25. [CrossRef] 181. Jobin, A.; Schaffner, U.; Nentwig, W. The structure of the phytophagous insect fauna on the introduced weed Solidago altissima in Switzerland. Entomol. Exp. Et Appl. 1996, 79, 33–42. [CrossRef] 182. Krivosheina, M.G. Insect pests of Sosnowsky hogweed (Heracleum sosnowskyi) in Moscow region and the prospects of their usage in biological control. Russ. J. Biol. Invasions 2011, 2, 99–102. [CrossRef] 183. Mägi, E.; Järvis, T.; Miller, I. Effects of different plant products against pig mange mites. Acta Vet. Brno 2006, 75, 283–287. [CrossRef] 184. Renco, ˇ M.; Baležentiené, L. An analysis of soil-free-living and plant-parasitic nematode communities in three habitats invaded by Heracleum sosnowskyi in central Lithuania. Biol. Invasions 2015, 17, 1025–1039. [CrossRef] 185. Renco, ˇ M.; Kornobis, F.W.; Domaradzki, K.; Jakubska-Busse, A.; Jurová, J.; Homolová, Z. How does an invasive Heracleum sosnowskyi affect soil nematode communities in natural conditions? Nematology 2019, 21, 71–89. [CrossRef] 186. Renco, ˇ M.; Jurová, J.; Gömöryová, E.; Cerevková, A. Long-term giant hogweed invasion contributes to the structural changes of soil nematofauna. Plants 2021, 10, 2103. [CrossRef] [PubMed] 187. Cerevková, A.; Ivashchenko, K.; Miklisová, D.; Ananyeva, N.; Renco, ˇ M. Influence of invasion by Sosnowsky’s hogweed on nematode communities and microbial activity in forest and grassland ecosystems. GECCO 2020, 21, e00851. [CrossRef] Earth 2022, 3 309 188. Stukalyuk, S.V.; Zhuravlev, V.V.; Netsvetov, M.V.; Kozyr, M.S. Effect of Invasive Species of Herbaceous Plants and Associated Aphids (Hemiptera, Sternorrhyncha: Aphididae) on the Structure of Ant Assemblages (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Entomol. Rev. 2019, 99, 711–732. [CrossRef] 189. Grzedzicka, ˛ E.; Reif, J. Impacts of an invasive plant on bird communities differ along a habitat gradient. GECCO 2020, 23, e01150. [CrossRef] 190. Grzedzicka, ˛ E.; Reif, J. The impact of Sosnowsky’s Hogweed on feeding guilds of birds. J. Ornithol. 2021, 162, 1115–1128. [CrossRef] 191. Thiele, J.; Otte, A.; Eckstein, R.L. Ecological Needs, Habitat Preferences and Plant Communities Invaded by Heracleum mantegazzianum. Ecology and Management of Giant Hogweed: (Heracleum Mantegazzianum); CAB International: Wallingford, UK, 2007; pp. 126–143. 192. Thiele, J.; Otte, A. Analysis of habitats and communities invaded by Heracleum mantegazzianum Somm. et Lev. (Giant Hogweed) in Germany. Phytocoenologia 2006, 36, 281–320. [CrossRef] 193. Dalke, I.V.; Chadin, I.F.; Zakhozhiy, I.G.; Malyshev, R.V.; Maslova, S.P.; Tabalenkova, G.N.; Golovko, T.K. Traits of Heracleum sosnowskyi plants in monostand on invaded area. PLoS ONE 2015, 10, e0142833. [CrossRef] 194. Baležentiene, L. Inhibitory effects of invasive Heracleum sosnowskyi on rapeseed and ryegrass germination. Allelopath. J. 2013, 30, 197–208. 195. Callaway, R.M.; Hierro, J.L. Resistance and susceptibility of plant communities to invasion: Revisiting Rabotnov’s ideas about community homeostasis. In Allelopathy: A Physiological Process with Ecological Implications; Springer Science & Business Media: Berlin/Heidelberg, Germany, 2006; pp. 395–414. 196. Gioria, M.; Osborne, B. Assessing the impact of plant invasions on soil seed bank communities: Use of univariate and multivariate statistical approaches. J. Veg. Sci. 2009, 20, 547–556. [CrossRef] 197. Pyšek, P.; Prach, K. Plant invasions and the role of riparian habitats: A comparison of four species alien to central Europe. J. Biogeogr. 1993, 20, 413–420. [CrossRef] 198. Tretyakova, A.S. Invasive potential of adventive plant species of the Middle Urals. Russ. J. Biol. Invasions 2011, 2, 281–285. [CrossRef] 199. Bulokhov, A.D.; Semenishchenkov, Y.A.; Panasenko, N.N. Nitrophyte grass communities of the class Epilobietea angustifolii Tx. et preising ex von Rochow 1951 in the Sozh-Desna interfluve. Rastit. Ross. 2018, 33, 19–40. 200. Dudova, K.V.; Dzhatdoeva, T.M.; Dudov, S.V.; Akhmetzhanova, A.A.; Tekeev, D.K.; Onipchenko, V.G. Competitive Strategy of Subalpine Tall-Grass Species of the Northwestern Caucasus. Mosc. Univ. Biol. Sci. Bull. 2019, 74, 140–146. [CrossRef] 201. Hüls, J.; Otte, A.; Eckstein, R.L. Population life-cycle and stand structure in dense and open stands of the introduced tall herb Heracleum mantegazzianum. Biol. Invasions 2007, 9, 799–811. [CrossRef] 202. Otte, A.; Franke, R. The ecology of the Caucasian herbaceous perennial Heracleum mantegazzianum Somm. et Lev. (Giant Hogweed) in cultural ecosystems of Central Europe. Phytocoenologia 1998, 28, 205–232. [CrossRef] 203. Ozerova, N.A.; Kuklina, A.G. Floristic transformation of the steppe area in the lower reaches of the Osyotr River due to anthropogenic impact. IOP Conf. Ser. Earth Environ. Sci. 2021, 817, 012079. [CrossRef] 204. Pattison, Z.; Minderman, J.; Boon, P.J.; Willby, N. Twenty years of change in riverside vegetation: What role have invasive alien plants played? Appl. Veg. Sci. 2017, 20, 422–434. [CrossRef] 205. Thiele, J.; Isermann, M.; Otte, A.; Kollmann, J. Competitive displacement or biotic resistance? Disentangling relationships between community diversity and invasion success of tall herbs and shrubs. J. Veg. Sci. 2010, 21, 213–220. [CrossRef] 206. Thiele, J.; Otte, A. Impact of Heracleum mantegazzianum on Invaded Vegetation and Human Activities. Ecology and Management of Giant Hogweed: (Heracleum mantegazzianum); CAB International: Wallingford, UK, 2007; pp. 144–156. 207. Csiszár, Á.; Korda, M.; Schmidt, D.; Sporci ˇ c, ´ D.; Süle, P.; Teleki, B.; Tiborcz, V.; Zagyvai, G.; Bartha, D. Allelopathic potential of some invasive plant species occurring in Hungary. Allelopath. J. 2013, 31, 309–318. 208. Jandová, K.; Dostál, P.; Cajthaml, T. Searching for Heracleum mantegazzianum allelopathy in vitro and in a garden experiment. Biol. Invasions 2015, 17, 987–1003. [CrossRef] 209. Jandová, K.; Dostál, P.; Cajthaml, T.; Kameník, Z. Intra-specific variability in allelopathy of Heracleum mantegazzianum is linked to the metabolic profile of root exudates. Ann. Bot. 2015, 115, 821–831. [CrossRef] [PubMed] 210. Loydi, A.; Donath, T.W.; Eckstein, R.L.; Otte, A. Non-native species litter reduces germination and growth of resident forbs and grasses: Allelopathic, osmotic or mechanical effects? Biol. Invasions 2015, 17, 581–595. [CrossRef] 211. Wille, W.; Thiele, J.; Walker, E.A.; Kollmann, J. Limited evidence for allelopathic effects of giant hogweed on germination of native herbs. Seed Sci. Res. 2013, 23, 157–162. [CrossRef] 212. Jandová, K.; Klinerová, T.; Müllerová, J.; Pyšek, P.; Pergl, J.; Cajthaml, T.; Dostál, P. Long-term impact of Heracleum mantegazzianum invasion on soil chemical and biological characteristics. Soil Biol. Biochem. 2014, 68, 270–278. [CrossRef] 213. Glushakova, A.M.; Kachalkin, A.V.; Chernov, I.Y. Soil yeast communities under the aggressive invasion of Sosnowsky’s hogweed (Heracleum sosnowskyi). Eurasian Soil Sci. 2015, 48, 201–207. [CrossRef] 214. Glushakova, A.M.; Kachalkin, A.V.; Chernov, I.Y. Effect of invasive herb species on the structure of soil yeast complexes in mixed forests exemplified by Impatiens parviflora DC. Microbiology 2015, 84, 717–721. [CrossRef] 215. Bobulská, L.; Demková, L.; Cerevková, A.; Renco, M. Plant invasion alter activity of soil microbial community in forest and grassland ecosystems of Eastern Slovakia. In Proceedings of the International Multidisciplinary Scientific GeoConference Surveying Geology and Mining Ecology Management, Albena, Bulgaria, 30 June–6 July 2019; Volume 19, pp. 595–602. Earth 2022, 3 310 216. Dassonville, N.; Vanderhoeven, S.; Vanparys, V.; Hayez, M.; Gruber, W.; Meerts, P. Impacts of alien invasive plants on soil nutrients are correlated with initial site conditions in NW Europe. Oecologia 2008, 157, 131–140. [CrossRef] 217. Feige, G.B.; Ale-Agha, N. Mycodiversity on a dead stem of the giant hogweed Heracleum mantegazzianum Sommer et Levier. Commun. Agric. Appl. Biol. Sci. 2004, 69, 479–487. 218. Gioria, M.; Osborne, B. Similarities in the impact of three large invasive plant species on soil seed bank communities. Biol. Invasions 2010, 12, 1671–1683. [CrossRef] 219. Koutika, L.-S.; Vanderhoeven, S.; Chapuis-Lardy, L.; Dassonville, N.; Meerts, P. Assessment of changes in soil organic matter after invasion by exotic plant species. Biol. Fertil. Soils 2007, 44, 331–341. [CrossRef] 220. Koutika, L.-S.; Rainey, H.J.; Dassonville, N. Impacts of Solidago gigantea, Prunus serotina, Heracleum mantegazzianum and Fallopia japonica invasions on ecosystems. Appl. Ecol. Environ. Res. 2011, 9, 73–83. [CrossRef] 221. Lapteva, E.M.; Zakhozhiy, I.G.; Dalke, I.V.; Smotrina, Y.A.; Genrikh, E.A. Influence of Heracleum sosnowskyi Manden. invasion on postagrogenic soil fertility in European North-East. Theor. Appl. Ecol. 2021, 3, 66–73. 222. Markovskaja, S.; Kacer ˇ gius, A. Morphological and molecular characterisation of Periconia pseudobyssoides sp. nov. and closely related P. byssoides. Mycol. Prog. 2014, 13, 291–302. [CrossRef] 223. Rafikova, O.; Kiseleva, O.; Veselkin, D. Seed germination of native plants in soil transformed by invasive plants Acer negundo and Heracleum sosnowskyi. E3S Web Conf. 2020, 176, 03002. [CrossRef] 224. Seier, M.K.; Evans, H.C. Fungal Pathogens Associated with Heracleum Mantegazzianum in its Native and Invaded Distribution Range. Ecology and Management of Giant Hogweed: (Heracleum Mantegazzianum); CAB International: Wallingford, UK, 2007; pp. 189–208. 225. Tovstik, E.V.; Soloveva, E.S.; Shirokikh, A.A.; Ashikhmina, T.; Savinykh, V. The change in soil actinobiote under the influence of Heracleum sosnowskyi invasion. Theor. Appl. Ecol. 2018, 4, 114–118. 226. Baležentiene, L.; Stankeviciene, A.; Snieškiene, V. Heracleum sosnowskyi (Apiaceae) seed productivity and establishment in different habitats of central Lithuania. Ekologija 2013, 59, 123–133. [CrossRef] 227. Van Meerbeek, K.; Appels, L.; Dewil, R.; Calmeyn, A.; Lemmens, P.; Muys, B.; Hermy, M. Biomass of invasive plant species as a potential feedstock for bioenergy production. Biofuels Bioprod. Bioref. 2015, 9, 273–282. [CrossRef] 228. Betekhtina, A.A.; Ronzhina, D.A.; Ivanova, L.A.; Malygin, M.V.; Ivanov, L.A. Relative Growth Rate and Its Components in Invasive Species Heracleum sosnowskyi and Congeneric Native Species H. sibiricum. Russ. J. Biol. Invasions 2019, 10, 5–11. [CrossRef] 229. Pergl, J.; Perglová, I.; Pyšek, P.; Dietz, H. Population age structure and reproductive behaviour of the monocarpic perennial, Heracleum mantegazzianum (Apiaceae) in its native and invaded distribution ranges. Am. J. Bot. 2006, 93, 1018–1028. [CrossRef] 230. Pyšek, P.; Kucer ˇ a, T.; Puntieri, J.; Mandák, B. Regeneration in Heracleum mantegazzianum—Response to removal of vegetative and generative parts. Preslia 1995, 67, 161–171. 231. Dubrovskis, V.; Adamovics, A.; Plume, I.; Kotelenecs, V.; Zabarovskis, E. Biogas production from greater burdock, largeleaf lupin and sosnovsky cow parsnip. Eng. Rural Dev. 2011, 17, 388–392. 232. Polina, I.N.; Mironov, M.V.; Belyy, V.A. Thermogravimetric and Kinetic Study of Fuel Pellets from Biomass of Heracleum Sosnowskyi Manden. ChemChemTech 2021, 64, 15–20. [CrossRef] 233. Voznyakovskii, A.P.; Karmanov, A.P.; Neverovskaya, A.Y.; Vozniakovskii, A.A.; Kocheva, L.S.; Kidalov, S.V. Biomass of Sos- nowsky’s Hogweed as Raw Material for Obtaining 2D Carbonic Nanostructures. Russ. J. Bioorganic Chem. 2021, 47, 1381–1388. [CrossRef] 234. Zihare, L.; Soloha, R.; Blumberga, D. The potential use of invasive plant species as solid biofuel by using binders. Argonomy Res. 2018, 16, 923–935. 235. Moravcová, L.; Pyšek, P.; Krinke, L.; Pergl, J.; Perglová, I.; Thompson, K. Seed Germination, Dispersaland Seed Bank in Heracleum Mantegazzianum. Ecology and Management of Giant Hogweed: (Heracleum Mantegazzianum); CAB International: Wallingford, UK, 2007; pp. 74–91. 236. Perglová, J.; Pergl, J.; Pyšek, P. Flowering phenology and reproductive effort of the invasive alien plant Heracleum mantegazzianum. Preslia 2006, 78, 265–285. 237. Gudžinskas, Z.; Žalneravicius, ˇ E. Seedling Dynamics and Population Structure of Invasive Heracleum sosnowskyi (Apiaceae) in Lithuania. Ann. Bot. Fenn. 2018, 55, 309–320. [CrossRef] 238. Krinke, L.; Moravcová, L.; Pyšek, P.; Jarošik, V.; Pergl, J.; Perglová, I. Seed bank of an invasive alien, Heracleum mantegazzianum, and its seasonal dynamics. Seed Sci. Res. 2005, 15, 239–248. [CrossRef] 239. Moravcová, L.; Pyšek, P.; Pergl, J.; Perglová, I.; Jarošík, V. Seasonal pattern of germination and seed longevity in the invasive species Heracleum mantegazzianum. Preslia 2006, 78, 287–301. 240. Tanke, A.; Müller, J.; De Mol, F. Seed viability of Heracleum mantegazzianum (Apiaceae) is quickly reduced at temperatures prevailing in biogas plants. Agronomy 2019, 9, 332. [CrossRef] 241. Koryzniene, D.; Jurkoniene, S.; Žalnierius, T.; Gaveliene, V.; Jankovska-Bortkevic, ˇ E.; Bareikiene, N.; Buda, ¯ V. Heracleum sosnowskyi seed development under the effect of exogenous application of GA3. PeerJ 2019, 7, e6906. [CrossRef] [PubMed] 242. Moravcová, L.; Pyšek, P.; Krinke, L.; Müllerová, J.; Perglová, I.; Pergl, J. Long-term survival in soil of seed of the invasive herbaceous plant Heracleum mantegazzianum. Preslia 2018, 90, 225–234. [CrossRef] 243. Willis, S.G.; Hulme, P.E. Does temperature limit the invasion of Impatiens glandulifera and Heracleum mantegazzianum in the UK? Funct. Ecol. 2002, 16, 530–539. [CrossRef] Earth 2022, 3 311 244. Chadin, I.; Dalke, I.; Tishin, D.; Zakhozhiy, I.; Malyshev, R. A simple mechanistic model of the invasive species Heracleum sosnowskyi propagule dispersal by wind. PeerJ 2021, 9, e11821. [CrossRef] 245. Page, N.A.; Wall, R.E.; Darbyshire, S.J.; Mulligan, G.A. The biology of invasive alien plants in Canada. Heracleum mantegazzianum Sommier & Levier. Can. J. Plant Sci. 2006, 86, 569–589. 246. Jurkoniene, S.; Žalnierius, T.; Gaveliene, V.; Švegždiené, D.; Šiliauskas, L.; Skridlaite, G. Morphological and anatomical comparison of mericarps from different types of umbels of Heracleum sosnowskyi. Bot. Lith. 2016, 22, 161–168. 247. Kowal, T. Fruit morphology of some Heracleum L., species. Monogr. Bot. 1975, 49, 79–109. [CrossRef] 248. Moravcová, L.; Perglova, I.; Pyšek, P.; Jarošik, V.; Pergl, J. Effects of fruit position on fruit mass and seed germination in the alien species Heracleum mantegazzianum (Apiaceae) and the implications for its invasion. Acta Oecol. 2005, 28, 1–10. [CrossRef] 249. Pyšek, P.; Krinke, L.; Jarošik, V.; Perglová, I.; Pergl, J.; Moravcová, L. Timing and extent of tissue removal affect reproduction characteristics of an invasive species Heracleum mantegazzianum. Biol. Invasions 2007, 9, 335–351. [CrossRef] 250. Chadin, I.F.; Dalke, I.V.; Malyshev, R.V. Evaluation of Heracleum sosnowskyi Frost Resistance after Snow Cover Removal in Early Spring. Russ. J. Biol. Invasions 2019, 10, 83–91. [CrossRef] 251. Baležentiene, ˙ L.; Marozas, V.; Mikša, O. Comparison of the carbon and water fluxes of some aggressive invasive species in Baltic grassland and shrub habitats. Atmosphere 2021, 12, 969. [CrossRef] 252. Brisson, J.; Teasdale, V.; Boivin, P.; Lavoie, C. Plant Cover Restoration to Inhibit Seedling Emergence, Growth or Survival of an Exotic Invasive Plant Species. Ecoscience 2020, 27, 185–194. [CrossRef] 253. Dalke, I.V.; Chadin, I.F.; Malyshev, R.V.; Zakhozhiy, I.G.; Tishin, D.V.; Kharevsky, A.A.; Solod, E.G.; Shaikina, M.N.; Popova, M.Y.; Polyudchenkov, I.P.; et al. Laboratory and Field Assessment of the Frost Resistance of Sosnowsky’s Hogweed. Russ. J. Biol. Invasions 2020, 11, 9–20. [CrossRef] 254. Kasperek, G. Neophytism from aspects of chorological and ecological plant geography, shown in a case study from the Eifel-Rur river system, Western Germany. Erdkunde 1999, 53, 330–348. 255. Veselkin, D.V.; Ivanova, L.A.; Ivanov, L.A.; Mikryukova, M.A.; Bolshakov, V.N.; Betekhtina, A.A. Rapid use of resources as a basis of the Heracleum sosnowskyi invasive syndrome. Dokl. Biol. Sci. 2017, 473, 53–56. [CrossRef] 256. Cock, M.J.W.; Seier, M.K. The Scope for Biological Control of Giant Hogweed, Heracleum Mantegazzianum. Ecology and Management of Giant Hogweed: (Heracleum Mantegazzianum); CAB International: Wallingford, UK, 2007; pp. 255–271. 257. Gasich, E.L.; Berestetskiy, A.O.; Khlopunova, L.B. Mycobiota of Heracleum species in North-West region of Russia and perspective micromycetes for Heracleum sosnowskyi control. Mikol. I Fitopatol. 2013, 47, 333–342. 258. Gasich, E.L.; Khlopunova, L.B.; Berestetskiy, A.O. Effect of ecological factors on Calophoma complanata pathogenicity for Heracleum sosnowskyi. Mikol. I Fitopatol. 2018, 52, 207–216. 259. Harvey, J.A.; Ode, P.J.; Gols, R.; Ali, J. Population- And Species-Based Variation of Webworm-Parasitoid Interactions in Hogweeds (Heracelum spp.) in the Netherlands. Environ. Entomol. 2020, 49, 924–930. [CrossRef] 260. Ode, P.J.; Berenbaum, M.R.; Zangerl, A.R.; Hardy, I.C.W. Host plant, host plant chemistry and the polyembryonic parasitoid Copidosoma sosares: Indirect effects in a tritrophic interaction. Oikos 2005, 104, 388–400. [CrossRef] 261. Postnikov, A.; Partolina, A.; Egorov, A.; Pavlyuchenkova, L.; Bubnov, A. Selective herbicides to control Sosnowsky’s hogweed (Heracleum sosnowskyi Manden.) in pine and spruce plantations. IOP Conf. Ser. Earth Environ. Sci. 2021, 876, 012062. [CrossRef] 262. Semchuk, N.N.; Balun, O.V. Development of a biological method to control the poisonous weed plant Heracleum sosnowskyi Manden. IOP Conf. Ser. Earth Environ. Sci. 2020, 613, 012132. [CrossRef] 263. Henry, P.; Le Lay, G.; Goudet, J.; Guisan, A.; Jahodová, S.; Besnard, G. Reduced genetic diversity, increased isolation and multiple introductions of invasive giant hogweed in the western Swiss Alps. Mol. Ecol. 2009, 18, 2819–2831. [CrossRef] 264. Niinikoski, P.; Korpelainen, H. Population genetics of the invasive giant hogweed (Heracleum sp.) in a northern European region. Plant Ecol. 2015, 216, 1155–1162. [CrossRef] 265. Osipova, E.S.; Stepanova, A.Y.; Tereshonok, D.V.; Gladkov, E.A.; Vysotskaya, O.N. Genetic diversity in invasive populations of Lupinus polyphyllus Lindl. and Heracleum sosnowskyi Manden. Biology 2021, 10, 1094. [CrossRef] [PubMed] 266. Walker, N.F.; Hulme, P.E.; Hoelzel, A.R. Population genetics of an invasive species, Heracleum mantegazzianum: Implications for the role of life history, demographics and independent introductions. Mol. Ecol. 2003, 12, 243–252. [CrossRef] 267. Walker, N.F.; Hulme, P.E.; Hoelzel, A.R. Population genetics of an invasive riparian species, Impatiens glandulifera. Plant Ecol. 2009, 203, 243–252. [CrossRef] 268. Rijal, D.P.; Falahati-Anbaran, M.; Alm, T.; Alsos, I.G. Microsatellite markers for Heracleum persicum (Apiaceae) and allied taxa: Application of next-generation sequencing to develop genetic resources for invasive species management. Plant Mol. Biol. Rep. 2015, 33, 1381–1390. [CrossRef] 269. Henry, P.; Provan, J.; Goudet, J.; Guisan, A.; Jahodová, Š.; Besnard, G. A set of primers for plastid indels and nuclear microsatellites in the invasive plant Heracleum mantegazzianum (Apiaceae) and their transferability to Heracleum sphondylium. Mol. Ecol. Resour. 2008, 8, 161–163. [CrossRef] 270. Weimarck, G.; Stewart, F.; Grace, J. Morphometric and chromatographic variation and male meiosis in the hybrid Heracleum mantegazzianum x H. sphondylium (Apiaceae) and its parents. Hereditas 1979, 91, 117–127. [CrossRef] 271. Arora, K.; Grace, J.; Stewart, F. Epidermal features of Heracleum mantegazzianum Somm. & Lev., H. sphondylium L. and their hybrid. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 1982, 85, 169–177. Earth 2022, 3 312 272. Pesnya, D.S.; Romanovsky, A.V.; Serov, D.A.; Poddubnaya, N.Y. Genotoxic effects of Heracleum sosnowskyi in the Allium cepa test. Caryologia 2017, 70, 55–61. [CrossRef] 273. Prinsloo, G.; Nogemane, N.; Street, R. The use of plants containing genotoxic carcinogens as foods and medicine. Food Chem. Toxicol. 2018, 116, 27–39. [CrossRef] [PubMed] 274. Pozdnyakov, A.I. Bioelectric potentials in the soil-plant system. Eur. Soil Sci. 2013, 46, 742–750. [CrossRef] 275. Yarnell, E.; Abascal, K. Potential of herbs as clinical photosensitizers. Altern. Complementary Ther. 2012, 18, 192–198. [CrossRef] 276. Dostál, P.; Müllerová, J.; Pyšek, P.; Pergl, J.; Klinerová, T. The impact of an invasive plant changes over time. Ecol. Lett. 2013, 16, 1277–1284. [CrossRef] [PubMed] 277. Tkachenko, K.G. Heteromericarpy of Heracleum sosnowskyi manden. (Umbelliferae = Apiaceae). Proc. Appl. Bot. Gen. Breed. 2020, 181, 156–163. [CrossRef] http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Earth Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute

Invasion of the Giant Hogweed and the Sosnowsky’s Hogweed as a Multidisciplinary Problem with Unknown Future—A Review

Earth , Volume 3 (1) – Feb 18, 2022

Loading next page...
 
/lp/multidisciplinary-digital-publishing-institute/invasion-of-the-giant-hogweed-and-the-sosnowsky-rsquo-s-hogweed-as-a-8qf0n03nhH
Publisher
Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Copyright
© 1996-2022 MDPI (Basel, Switzerland) unless otherwise stated Disclaimer The statements, opinions and data contained in the journals are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publisher and the editor(s). MDPI stays neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. Terms and Conditions Privacy Policy
ISSN
2673-4834
DOI
10.3390/earth3010018
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Review Invasion of the Giant Hogweed and the Sosnowsky’s Hogweed as a Multidisciplinary Problem with Unknown Future—A Review Emilia Grzedzicka ˛ Institute of Systematics and Evolution of Animals, Polish Academy of Sciences, Sławkowska 17, 31-016 Krakow, Poland; grzedzicka@isez.pan.krakow.pl Abstract: Caucasian hogweeds are plants introduced to Europe from the Caucasus area. This review concerns the two most common ones—the giant hogweed Heracleum mantegazzianum and the Sosnowsky’s hogweed Heracleum sosnowskyi. The first of them was imported as garden decorations from the 19th century, mainly to Western Europe, while the second one was introduced from the mid– 20th century to agricultural areas in Eastern Europe. Nowadays, these two species create one of the most problematic invasions in the world. This review aimed to synthesize research on those invaders based on 277 articles selected from the “Scopus” database. Most of the articles concerned their extensive distribution, at least on a continental scale and the rapid dispersal. The reviewed research showed that the complex physicochemical properties of hogweeds tissues and secretions significantly affected insects, aphids, ants, nematodes, fungi, soil microorganisms, plant communities, birds, and many other components of the ecosystems. This knowledge turned out to be disproportionately small to the scale of the problem. The review also showed what ecological traits of hogweeds were responsible for their wide and various role in the environment. Thus far, no effective method to eradicate Caucasian hogweeds has been found. This could be a growing mistake, given that they are probably during the rapid evolutionary changes within the range of their invasion. Citation: Grzedzicka, ˛ E. Invasion of the Giant Hogweed and the Keywords: Heracleum mantegazzianum; Heracleum sosnowskyi; dispersal; invasion control; biochem- Sosnowsky’s Hogweed as a istry; plant ecology; biodiversity; agricultural sciences; genetics Multidisciplinary Problem with UnknownFuture—A Review. Earth 2022, 3, 287–312. https://doi.org/ 10.3390/earth3010018 1. Introduction Academic Editor: Daniela Baldantoni Biological invasions are one of the most serious environmental problems threatening biodiversity on a global scale. Scientists and environmental practitioners usually agree Received: 22 January 2022 that invading species should be removed by any method and at any time. Nevertheless, Accepted: 15 February 2022 complete removal of invaders is often not feasible or possible at all. Moreover, it was Published: 18 February 2022 usually not investigated whether the removal of invading species harmed some native Publisher’s Note: MDPI stays neutral organisms that have already adapted to them. Due to the present mass extinction of with regard to jurisdictional claims in species, urbanization and environmental degradation, as well as irreversible loss of habitats, published maps and institutional affil- the removal of biological invasions need to be discussed when it is carried out without iations. compromises with the fact that invaders can create some new niche opportunities for native organisms. This review showed the example of complex invasion, knowledge of which can fill these gaps and significantly affect invasion science. Starting from the nineteenth century, some species of the Heracleum genus (from the Copyright: © 2022 by the author. Umbelliferae family) from the south-western regions of Asia (mainly Caucasus) were Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. intentionally introduced to Europe. They were planted as a garden decoration [1], forage This article is an open access article for cattle, and as melliferous plants [2]. The most known became the giant hogweed distributed under the terms and Heracleum mantegazzianum Sommier and Levier and the Sosnowsky’s hogweed Heracleum conditions of the Creative Commons sosnowskyi Manden. Due to similarities in structure, the same invasive features, and Attribution (CC BY) license (https:// creativecommons.org/licenses/by/ almost identical toxicity [3], those plants were often treated together and commonly called 4.0/). “Caucasian hogweeds.” Both described species reach large sizes, including a height of up Earth 2022, 3, 287–312. https://doi.org/10.3390/earth3010018 https://www.mdpi.com/journal/earth Earth 2022, 3 288 to 4–5 m, a large area of leaf rosettes composed of 2–3 m leaves, stable flowering shoots resembling woody plants, as well as large inflorescences. Due to the significant influence of large hogweeds on many elements of ecosystems, their invasion created a system that integrates environment, agriculture, forestry, land use, hydrosphere, soil system, global change ecology, biodiversity, management, and conservation. It is difficult to find such a multidisciplinary research system. Those plants were the subject of research by specialists from various fields. However, the presenting review emphasized the paradoxically small number of articles on the impact of Caucasian hogweeds on biodiversity. Their distribution on a global scale, including North America [4,5], the significant role of human density in their spread [6], the unpredictability of the invasion dispersal since its beginning [7], and rich chemical composition indicated that this is a big mistake. As plants that cause burns of mammals, including humans, alien hogweeds are especially recommended for removal, and the consequences are unknown. Nobody has yet comprehensively described this invasion. This review aimed to synthesize knowledge about Caucasian hogweeds. 2. Materials and Methods For this review, the full Latin names of giant hogweed H. mantegazzianum and Sos- nowsky’s hogweed H. sosnowskyi, as well as both of them, were written in the scientific database, “Scopus.” The choice of Latin names was due to the fact that the English versions could be spelled differently depending on the source (Sosnowsky’s hogweed was also called Sosnowski’s hogweed or Sosnowskyi’s hogweed; giant hogweed was also called Man- tegazza or Mantegazzi hogweed). In a few cases, the name of the species could be wrong because sometimes Sosnowsky’s hogweed might have been called H. mantegazzianum due to diagnostic mistakes, or locally it was its Latin name because H. mantegazzianum was also the historical name of this species before its official announcement as a separate one. Nev- ertheless, the errors mentioned were exceptions to the rule. Their possibility contributed to preparing this review based on a scientific database without supplementing it with articles from more common databases such as Google Scholar. The results of the search in “Scopus” were 232 articles about H. mantegazzianum, 139 articles about H. sosnowskyi, and 21 articles with both names (on 14 January 2022). None of the articles containing 2 names of Caucasian hogweeds was missing from previous searches. For comparison, the number of articles about H. mantegazzianum in the second scientific database, “Web of Science” was 197, the number of articles about H. sosnowskyi was 117, while 19 articles contained both names (on 10 February 2022). More articles were available in “Scopus,” thus it was chosen to prepare this revision. Of all the articles containing one of the names in the Excel spread- sheet, 27 were duplicated, thus 344 non-duplicated articles were selected (Figure 1). Based on the titles and abstracts of the articles, 63 were rejected, which contained only general information about the species and were related to similar descriptions of human burns resulting from contact with Caucasian hogweeds. Then another 4 articles were removed from the database, which turned out to be non-English versions of the articles already included. Ultimately, this review summarized the knowledge on Caucasian hogweeds based on 277 published articles, of which 160 were about H. mantegazzianum, 107 were about H. sosnowskyi, and 10 were about both plants. All articles included in this review were matched to the main areas which they concerned (Table 1). Some articles (around 5%) could be matched to 2–3 areas. Articles were classified based on their conclusions, e.g., if it was about distribution and hogweed management and other articles already described distribution in a similar region, then the article was assigned to “invasion control”. Some articles concerned the potential effects of hogweeds on biodiversity, but the research was conducted under controlled conditions, thus they fell into “plant ecology.” Earth 2022, 3, FOR PEER REVIEW 3 Earth 2022, 3 289 Figure 1. PRISMA flow diagram with the search of articles for this study showing numbers excluded Figure 1. PRISMA flow diagram with the search of articles for this study showing numbers excluded at the particular stages of this review. Only articles retrieved from the “Scopus” (Elsevier) database at the particular stages of this review. Only articles retrieved from the “Scopus” (Elsevier) database were presented. were presented. Table 1. List of the research areas used for sorting the articles concerning the giant hogweed and Table 1. List of the research areas used for sorting the articles concerning the giant hogweed and the the Sosnowsky’s hogweed found in the “Scopus” database. Sosnowsky’s hogweed found in the “Scopus” database. Research Areas Classification Criteria Research Areas Classification Criteria Agrotechnical research on the importance of hogweeds as crops and their role Agricultural sciences Agrotechnical research on the importance of hogweeds as crops and their Agricultural sciences for biological methods of crops removal and protection. role for biological methods of crops removal and protection. Biochemical studies that explained the chemical composition of hogweeds and Biochemical studies that explained the chemical composition of hogweeds Biochemistry Biochemistry the possible uses of hogweeds chemicals. and the possible uses of hogweeds chemicals. Research on various community compositions near hogweeds, information on Research on various community compositions near hogweeds, information on new species appearing on hogweeds, research showing the potential for new species appearing on hogweeds, research showing the potential for deple- Biodiversity depletion, and other ecosystem modifications affecting biodiversity Biodiversity tion, and other ecosystem modifications affecting biodiversity associated with associated with Caucasian hogweeds. Caucasian hogweeds. Articles describing the distribution, spreading and working with tools Dispersal enabling detection and dispersal monitoring of invasive hogweeds. Articles describing the distribution, spreading and working with tools ena- Dispersal bling detection The and effects dispersal monitorin of temperature, snowgcover of invasive h , and other elements ogweeds. of the Environmental sciences environment on hogweeds. The effects of temperature, snow cover, and other elements of the environment Environmental sciences Research on hogweeds genetics–the appearance of hybrids with aliens and Genetics on hogweeds. natives, genetic differences between aliens from native and invasive ranges. Research on hogweeds genetics–the appearance of hybrids with aliens and na- Articles describing methods of Caucasian hogweeds removal and effects of Genetics Invasion control tives, genetic differences between aliens from native and invasive ranges. their eradication. Articles describing methods of Caucasian hogweeds removal and effects of Mathematics Analysis used in bioeconomy. Invasion control their eradication. Mechanisms of the influence of Caucasian hogweeds on other plants explaining details of their allelopathic and similar properties, e.g., Mathematics Analysis used in bioeconomy. Plant ecology conducted in common garden experiments, based on studying fruits and Mechanisms of the influence of Caucasian hogweeds on other plants explain- seed production, etc. Plant ecology ing details of their allelopathic and similar properties, e.g., conducted in com- mon garden experiments, based on studying fruits and seed production, etc. 3. Results Despite the larger number of articles concerning H. mantegazzianum, it appeared that both selected species of hogweeds were often studied. Research concerning Caucasian Earth 2022, 3, FOR PEER REVIEW 4 Earth 2022, 3 290 3. Results Despite the larger number of articles concerning H. mantegazzianum, it appeared that both selected species of hogweeds were often studied. Research concerning Caucasian hogweeds was multidisciplinary, one article used this invasion even in the bioeconomy [8]. hogweeds was multidisciplinary, one article used this invasion even in the bioeconomy Nevertheless, giant hogweed has been problematic in Western Europe (Czech Republic, [8]. Nevertheless, giant hogweed has been problematic in Western Europe (Czech Repub- Germany, Great Britain) with greater opportunities for scientific development, which likely lic, Germany, Great Britain) with greater opportunities for scientific development, which contributed to more articles on this species in terms of its dispersal (26.2% of articles on likely contributed to more articles on this species in terms of its dispersal (26.2% of articles H. mantegazzianum), controlling its invasion (13.8%), experimental research contributing on H. mantegazzianum), controlling its invasion (13.8%), experimental research contrib- to knowledge in plant ecology (17.5%), describing its chemical composition (15%), as uting to knowledge in plant ecology (17.5%), describing its chemical composition (15%), well as its impact on biodiversity (13.1%), Figure 2. In the case of H. sosnowskyi, the as well as its impact on biodiversity (13.1%), Figure 2. In the case of H. sosnowskyi, the proportion of articles regarding dispersal and plant ecology to the total research on this proportion of articles regarding dispersal and plant ecology to the total research on this species was similar to those on giant hogweed (despite a smaller number of articles) and species was similar to those on giant hogweed (despite a smaller number of articles) and amounted to 23.4% and 15% of research on Sosnowsky’s hogweed, respectively (Figure 2). amounted to 23.4% and 15% of research on Sosnowsky’s hogweed, respectively (Figure In comparison with giant hogweed, a significantly smaller proportion of articles concerning 2). In comparison with giant hogweed, a significantly smaller proportion of articles con- H. sosnowskyi were those on invasion control (7.5% of articles on this species), while there cerning H. sosnowskyi were those on invasion control (7.5% of articles on this species), were more articles on agricultural sciences (12.1% research on H. sosnowskyi and 6.3% of while there were more articles on agricultural sciences (12.1% research on H. sosnowskyi those concerning H. mantegazzianum), as well as articles about H. sosnowskyi in the field of and 6.3% of those concerning H. mantegazzianum), as well as articles about H. sosnowskyi biochemistry (25.2%), Figure 2. It was rather H. sosnowskyi, not H. mantegazzianum, that in the field of biochemistry (25.2%), Figure 2. It was rather H. sosnowskyi, not H. mantegaz- was the subject of practical agricultural and biochemical science, which was reflected in zianum, that was the subject of practical agricultural and biochemical science, which was the state of knowledge from those areas and the proportions of articles from these fields reflected in the state of knowledge from those areas and the proportions of articles from among all research concerning Sosnowsky’s hogweed. these fields among all research concerning Sosnowsky’s hogweed. Figure 2. The number of articles included in this review concerning the two described Caucasian Figure 2. The number of articles included in this review concerning the two described Caucasian hogweeds distinguished into particular research areas. hogweeds distinguished into particular research areas. 3.1. 3.Review 1. Review of of Articles ArticlSorted es Sorted into Rese into Research arc Ar h eas Areas 3.1.1. Dispersal of the Caucasian Hogweeds 3.1.1. Dispersal of the Caucasian Hogweeds Caucasian hogweeds spread very rapidly, starting from the end of the 1980s when Caucasian hogweeds spread very rapidly, starting from the end of the 1980s when agricultural production systems and markets changed because of the fall of communism. agricultural production systems and markets changed because of the fall of communism. With a dramatic decline in agriculture, hogweeds stopped being mowed [9]. The Sos- With a dramatic decline in agriculture, hogweeds stopped being mowed [9]. The Sos- nowsky’s hogweed invasion became problematic, especially in countries near the Baltic Sea: nowsky’s hogweed invasion became problematic, especially in countries near the Baltic Latvia, Lithuania [10,11], Poland [12–15], the European part of Russia [16–25], as well as in Sea: Latvia, Lithuania [10,11], Poland [12–15], the European part of Russia [16–25], as well Ukraine [26–28] and other parts of Eastern Europe, such as Turkey [29] and Bulgaria [30]. as in Ukraine [26–28] and other parts of Eastern Europe, such as Turkey [29] and Bulgaria In central and Eastern Europe, two Caucasian hogweeds species, H. mantegazzianum and [30]. In central and Eastern Europe, two Caucasian hogweeds species, H. mantegazzianum H. sosnowskyi, became problematic, e.g., in Poland [14], Ukraine [26,27], Russia [22]. Giant and H. sosnowskyi, became problematic, e.g., in Poland [14], Ukraine [26,27], Russia [22]. hogweed has been known from the Czech Republic [31–37], Germany [38–40], Austria [41], Great Britain [42], Slovakia [43], Croatia [44], Denmark [45], Norway [46]. The range of Caucasian hogweeds became so wide that they were the subject of many advanced spatial analyses, which were a great contribution of knowledge to the modern invasion ecol- Earth 2022, 3 291 ogy [47–53]. The analysis of the distribution of both species showed that the regions most affected by the compact invaded areas of Caucasian hogweeds have been located mainly in Eastern Europe, where poorer countries did not have funds to remove the invasion, especially around 30–40 years ago when together with the mentioned fall of communism and modification of the agricultural system, former crops were abandoned. Sometimes the invasion patches became so large that satellite imagery and other spatial analysis tools were used to select where the problem with invasion should be resolved as a priority [54–59]. In connection with the massive spread of H. sosnowskyi in Russia, even questions were raised about the need to create a special federal target program to control it. There have been images used from the Sentinel-2 satellite with a resolution of 10 m. Satellite images from space vehicles helped monitor the distribution of Sosnowsky’s hogweed [57]. Various spatial analysis tools were also considered useful for assessing the extent of Caucasian hogweeds invasion in central and Western Europe [60–63]. One of the most interesting methods of studying changes in the hogweed range was the comparative analysis of maps and scientific collections from different periods. In the area of the Czech Republic, it was studied how the H. mantegazzianum ability to persist affected its distribution. Of the total number of 521 historical sites known from literature and herbaria since the end of the 19th century, it persisted at only 124 (23.8%) ones. The persistence rate differed concerning habitat type and was highest in meadows and forest margins. Factors that best explained persistence were type of habitat, urbanity (higher persistence outside urban areas), proximity to the place of the species introduction, metapopulation connectivity, and distance to the nearest neighboring population [64]. Caucasian hogweeds have been analyzed on various scales (regional, landscape, national, continental) and have been considered a plant invasion of at least continental range [65–67]. It was predicted that the spread of invasive hogweeds might lead to the colonization of other continents [68]. Some studies concerned the rules of plant dispersal and the definition of vectors of this process, including anthropogenic impacts [69–72]. There were also articles about the distribution patterns of Caucasian hogweeds in areas of their native range [73] for comparison with the area of nowadays invasion. It is worth emphasizing that the current geographical distributions of the giant hog- weed and the Sosnowsky’s hogweed became different because of their different climatic requirements [2]. Although in some countries both of them co-exist, sometimes might have been mistakenly identified or named (see above), and thus knowledge of their locations (including the former ones) and ranges still needs to be completed. 3.1.2. How Did Caucasian Endemic Plants Become a Widespread Invasion? The widespread distribution of Caucasian hogweeds and very large problems with their invasion do not indicate that, at first, these endemic plants were respected botanical discoveries. The Sosnowsky’s hogweed H. sosnowskyi comes from the eastern and central Caucasus, central, eastern and south-western Transcaucasia and north-eastern Anatolia in Turkey [2]. The name “Sosnowsky’s hogweed” has its genesis in the name of a scientist and researcher of the Caucasus flora, Dymitr Sosnowsky, and was given in 1944 by the plant finder Ida P. Mandenova. It was introduced to northwest Russia at the end of the 1940s for evaluation in experimental farms as fodder crops. This plant was grown on a mass scale in kolkhozes (cooperatives gathering smaller farms) and sovkhozes (large state-owned farms) in the former Soviet Union as a gift of the All-Union Institute of Plant Cultivation in Leningrad since late 1950. Starting from the 1960s, H. sosnowskyi was cultivated over wide areas in Russia, Belarus, Ukraine, Hungary, Poland, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, and the former German Democratic Republic [2]. Because plants were not palatable to cattle and the first burns of animals and people were recorded, crops were abandoned in many places. For example, in Bryansk (near the Republic of Belarus), Sosnowsky’s hogweed was cultivated as an ensilage plant at some collective farms in the 1970s, but the cultivation was terminated in the 1980s [74]. The real problem with the invasion of this species probably Earth 2022, 3 292 appeared in the late 1980s and early 1990s, along with agricultural reform, the collapse of collective farms, and the inaccurate liquidation of crops. The giant hogweed H. mantegazzianum is native to the western Greater Caucasus (Russia, Georgia), where it grows in species-rich, tall-herb mountain meadows, clearings, and forest margins. It was introduced as a garden ornamental plant around 1817, and its first naturalized population was documented in Cambridgeshire in 1828 [2]. It was first recorded in the Czech Republic in 1862 in the Bohemia park, where it spread across the country and became invasive [31,32]. In the Czech Republic, for example, the front of the population was advancing at 10 m per year [75]. In Germany, H. mantegazzianum became an invader in about two-thirds of districts and occupied 68% of grid cells of the national floristic map, and about one-third of surveyed stands were dominant with its cover-abundances exceeding 50% [40]. Caucasian hogweeds became undesirable invaders due to their large sizes, prolific leading to gross changes in vegetation, obstruction of access to riverbanks, and soil ero- sion [74]. The plants have been spreading on derelict lands, garden plots, slopes of drainage canals, roadsides, forming arrays ranging from a few square meters to several hectares. The variety of methods for removing H. mantegazzianum and H. sosnowskyi invasion, as well as the effects of eradication below expectations, were among the aspects that indicated the need to treat these methods in an interdisciplinary manner. Applied ecology scientists have considered many of the properties of hogweeds by testing various techniques to remove invasion, including the fact that those species are neophytes [76] associated with freshwater habitats [77]. The spatial scale of the removed invasion was taken into account [78], as well as the remarkable ability to rapidly regenerate the population [79] and the need to evaluate the results after removal [80–82]. The published methods used to remove the Cau- casian hogweeds invasion were diverse and included sheep grazing [83,84], mowing [85], and herbicides [86,87], but also chemical substances, for example, pyrolysis liquids [88] and others [89]. The costs and difficulties of the labor and financial resources required to remove Caucasian hogweeds invasion quickly became so great that there were prepared cost-effectiveness studies [90–92], as well as studies verifying theoretical preparation to eradicate this invasion [93]. Scientists and practitioners agreed that removing invaders from a given area required the development of a special strategy adapted to it [94–96]. More- over, the pattern of distribution and control of invasion was assumed as being different in the cultural landscape [97] than in the protected area, where environmental degradation associated with the removal of invasions should be avoided [98]. The process of removing Caucasian hogweeds invasion was described as lengthy and requiring monitoring on a large spatial scale [99,100], taking into account aspects such as phenology of invaders [100] and age of invaders [101]. The following section of this review concerning Caucasian hogweeds showed that these plants have nevertheless also been the subject of scientific research worth systematiz- ing for two reasons: (1). Described wide distribution and high costs or difficulties in the eradication. Perhaps past research has shown some phenomena that could be helpful in finding a solution to the problem using more developed techniques. (2). The attractive- ness of plants for declining pollinators or other species and their complex ecology, which resulted in the past interest of scientists and may influence the modern invasion science. 3.1.3. Biochemistry of Invasive Caucasian Hogweeds It turned out that Caucasian hogweeds had a high concentration of biologically active compounds in tissues [102] that might have been among the reasons for their invasiveness. The total phenols content in H. sosnowskyi was mainly in leaves, and H. mantegazzianum also in seeds, stem, and roots [103]. The content of phenolic compounds was similar in these two invasive species. The determined allelochemical phytotoxicity of both aliens should be addressed to the partial explanation of the high aggressiveness of those species [103,104]. The essential oils were collected from the seeds of two hogweed species. The major groups of compounds in the seed extracts were coumarins, furanocoumarins, hydrocarbons, Earth 2022, 3 293 alcohols, esters, and aldehydes. The only difference observed on the chromatograms was signal intensity (higher for H. sosnowskyi) and few compounds individual for each species [3]–Table 2. A total of 62 compounds were identified and constituted 96% of the total oil. Aliphatic esters (82.9%) were the main constituents of the oil, followed by aliphatic alcohols (11%). Octyl acetate (39.5%), hexyl 2-metylobutanoate (14.4%), hexyl 2- methylpropanoate (6%), hexyl butanoate (5.4%), and octanol (8.6%) predominated in the oil, while other components were: octyl 2-methylobutanoate (4%), hexyl 3-methylobutanoate (2.6%), octyl 2-methylopropanoate (2.4%), hexanol (1.3%), hexyl acetate (1%) and octanal (0.7%) [103]. Other study concerning only oil of H. sosnowskyi [105] identified: octyl acetate (29.5%), hexyl 2-methylobutanoate (7.4%), and octanol (16.2%). Many other articles confirmed the rich content of various oils in Caucasian hogweeds [106–113]. Given the importance of the chemical composition, oils showed antimicrobial activity towards Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains. Oils were also more active against some fungi: Penicilium funiculosum, Fusarium oxysporium (especially n-octanol). While n-octanol shared responsibility for the antimicrobial activity, octyl acetate determined its antifungal action. Hogweed essential oils were more toxic to normal than cancer cell lines in mammals. n-octyl acetate also showed a significant inhibitory effect against some plant pathogenic fungi [111]. A 9.5% oil yield was found from H. mantegazzianum seeds and identified 21 constituents, with the main ones being octyl acetate (59.1%), octanol (8.8%), hexyl butanoate (7.9%), and anethole (6.6%) [112]. n-octyl butyrate (32%), n-octyl acetate (18%), and n-hexyl butyrate (9.2%) were dominant in plants from Russia [113]. According to other studies, the composition of the extracts of H. sosnowskyi and H. mantegazzianum seeds did not differ in their qualitative chemical compositions [3]. In all parts of the Caucasian hogweeds was juice containing coumarin derivatives, esters, alcohols, and long-chain hydrocarbons, and thus both were confirmed as toxic to vertebrates, invertebrates, fungi, bacteria, and viruses [114]. Many furanocoumarins have been produced by plants as a defensive mechanism against various types of preda- tors, ranging from bacteria to insects and mammals. Various lists of furanocoumarins in different places suggested that habitat conditions had a significant role in their compo- sition. In Poland, pimpinellin, isopimpinellin, psoralen were in both hogweed species and also bergapten and methoxalen in seeds [3]. In H. mantegazzianum fruits, there was revealed the presence of 8 coumarins, and 7 of them were identified: xanthotoxin, angelicin, isopimpinellin, bergapten, pimpinellin, imperatorin, and phellopterin [115], Table 2. The microbial activity of the mixture of bergapten and angelicin was evaluated. Bergapten alone showed moderate activity against Gram-positive bacteria and fungi, while the mixture had a much stronger ability to inhibit the growth of microorganisms and yeasts. Synergism of action was also suggested for some furanocoumarins [115]. In general, the composition of furanocoumarins of Caucasian hogweeds responsible for their hazardous toxic properties has been the subject of many detailed studies [116–124]. Other important chemical compounds were polysaccharides that were, for example, mixtures of arabinogalactan proteins and pectic polysaccharides that might be linked to pectin [125]. Other works concerned the structures of polysaccharides and pectins of Cau- casian hogweeds [126–134]. Studies on H. sosnowskyi allowed expanding the knowledge of the structural diversity of polysaccharides of plant origin. Pectic polysaccharides predomi- nated in the aboveground parts of plants [125]. The water-alcohol supernatants from the obtained fractions contained several classes of polysaccharides and consisted of branched arabinan-rich pectic polysaccharides, cross-glycans in the classes of glucomannans and arabinoxylans, as well as much of proteins. The aboveground parts of Heracleum consisted mainly of arabinogalactan proteins [133]. The hogweed organs, e.g., leaves, phloem, xylem, have been used to isolate specific chemical compounds in many biochemical studies that have provided an insight into the diverse properties of extracts obtained from invaders, including the potential of substances as inhibitors and toxins affecting various processes in studied invaders [135–147]. Some biochemical studies were closely related to histol- ogy and cell biology explaining the mechanisms of physiological processes in Caucasian Earth 2022, 3 294 hogweeds at the level of tissues and cell structures [148–154]. It has been elucidated what hogweeds chemicals might be responsible for the phenomenon of allelopathy and what was the composition of the soil at the site of invading hogweeds [155–157]. Careful re- search described the chemical emission potential of different morphological structures of hogweeds [158] also in the context of environmental factors such as temperature [159]. The chemical contents of invaders were tested as stimulants for plant growth [160]. In addition, the toxic effect of Caucasian hogweeds on mammals [161] has been extensively studied as a biochemical process [162,163]. Table 2. Examples of the research results from Poland that showed the most important differences in the crucial chemical compounds of the two described Caucasian hogweeds. In the case of essential oils, only compounds individual for each weed were shown. Chemical H. mantegazzianum H. sosnowskyi References Compounds Phenol contents Leaves, seeds, stem, roots. Mainly in leaves. Synowiec and Kalemba, 2015 [103] 4-Hexen-1-ol, acetate; Hexyl 3-methyl-2-butenoate; Acetic acid, octyl ester; Essential oils Octyl butyrate; Butanoic acid, 3-Methyl-, Jakubska-Busse, Sliwinski ´ and from seeds Octyl valerate; hexyl ester; Kobyłka, 2013 [3] Octadecanoic acid; 1,11-Dodecadiene. 1-Tetracosanol. Angelicin; pimpinellin; Isopimpinellin; isobergapten; Politowicz, Gebar ˛ owska, Prock ´ ów, Furanocoumarins imperatorin; phellopterin; pimpinellin; bergapten; angelicin; Pietr and Szumny, 2017 [109]; from fruits xanthotoxin; isopimpinellin; imperatorin; psoralen; Walasek, Grzegorczyk, Malm and bergapten [115]. methoxsalen [109]. Skalicka-Wozniak, ´ 2015 [115] 3.1.4. The Properties of Caucasian Hogweeds in the Life of Animals The rich chemical composition of the organs, tissues, and secretions of Caucasian hogweeds could not be neutral to the organisms that appeared on them or in their sur- roundings. Although toxic substances were identified in the oil of hogweeds, aphids, for example, were often observed on those plants [164]. Using fruits and roots of invasive Heracleum, albino mice were used as test animals, and the toxicity of oils was evaluated by oral treatment. The essential oils from Heracleum demonstrated antivirus activity; the more active essential oil came from the roots as opposed to the fruits [165]. Many chemicals isolated from Caucasian hogweeds were used in studies showing their antibacterial proper- ties [166,167]. Those plants rich in chemical substances affected the surrounding animals in various ways–positive, negative, or neutral–depending on their resistance and adaptation to life in their vicinity. Much of the research linking the Caucasian hogweeds influencing the environment to native fauna focused on insects. The flowers of invasive hogweeds were described as unspecialized, insect-pollinated, attractive to a variety of unspecialized pollinators, and visited by a wide range of insects, including many Hymenoptera, Diptera, Coleoptera, and Hemiptera [168–170]. In Moscow oblast, at least 49 insect species of five orders (Coleoptera, Diptera, Hemiptera, Lepidoptera, Hymenoptera) were detected on H. sosnowskyi specimens, and at least 29 insect species of the same order were found on the neighboring plants, moon carrot Seseli libanotis, which suggested that Caucasian hogweeds might have been an attractant for insects [171]. The activity of bees on H. sosnowskyi was also high, especially the European honeybee Apis mellifera and bumblebee Bombus luconem [171], although Caucasian hogweeds could also negatively affect pollinators, e.g., solitary bees [172]. In another study, the native fauna of invasive H. mantegazzianum and native H. sphondylium was compared. A total of 42 phytophagous arthropod species was found; 34 on H. sphondylium and 34 on the giant hogweed. The arthropod guilds of 26 phytophagous species being common to both plant species were very similar. Nine species were specific to Apiaceae (including all Heracleum species). The remaining species were polyphagous [173]. The presence of Earth 2022, 3 295 Caucasian hogweeds affected the local fauna in many ways, from creating a niche for specific species associated with them [174], being a food plant for larvae [175], to creating a parasitoid threat [176]. During other research, the authors gathered information on 358 insect species occur- ring on 16 different Heracleum species in Europe. About 162 species were herbivores on H. mantegazzianum, of which 123 were polyphagous. The number of insect specialists was lower in invaded areas. Authors found fewer herbivore species per biomass on the stem and roots and more on the leaves. Most herbivores were polyphagous generalists, and only a few had Heracleum species as host plants [164]. It was demonstrated that the defense systems (furanocoumarins and trichomes) of giant hogweeds were developed to different degrees in the native and invaded regions, which affected the composition of herbivore species or herbivore biomass on H. mantegazzianum in native and invaded areas [177]. As complex and difficult to control plants, Caucasian hogweeds have contributed to agrotechnology research on insects with new insights into their use in biological weed control. The weevil Nastus faustii (Coleoptera, Curculionidae) was evaluated for its potential in the biological control of invasive giant hogweeds because sampling suggested that its high population density could have some negative impact on the above-ground part of the plant. However, these insects foraged also on important crops: carrot, parsnip, celeriac, thus they could not be considered as a potential agent for biological control of invasive Heracleum species [178]. In the Moscow region, five insect species intensively foraged on the Sosnowsky’s hogweed: Lixus iridis, Epermenia chaerophyllella, Dasypalia templi, Depressaria radiella, Phytomyza pastinacae. Those insects, however, were oligophagous and also lived on other plants, thus it was not recommended to use them for biological control. Especially promising were, however, two lepidopteran species: Dasypolia templi and Depressaria radiella [179]. The weevil Liophoeus tessulatus caused root damage of invasive Heracleum and was assumed as a species deserving further investigations in the research on the potential biological control of invaders [173]. In other research conducted on giant hogweeds in the Russian Caucasus, authors estimated plant vigor before and after herbivore attacks under natural conditions. Endophagous herbivores on the giant hogweeds were dominated by the weevil species Lixus iridis, Nastus fausti, Otiorhynchus tatarchani (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), and the fly Melanagromyza heracleana (Diptera: Agromyzidae). None of the insects, however, caused serious damage to plants. The occurrence of root-feeding weevils was associated with weak plants [177]. Since scientists have long ago recognized the value of the chemicals released by Caucasian hogweeds and have linked them to the selective effects of those invading plants on local fauna, research using chemical compounds isolated from invaders as biological pest control agents [180–183] paradoxically advanced agrotechnical science. An interesting issue was the species composition and diversity of soil animals under the Caucasian hogweeds. For example, the composition of the soil nematode communities was studied in three different habitats invaded or uninvaded by H. sosnowskyi: abandoned land, grassland on a roadside slope, and the edge of afforested land. Nematode abundance and species diversity were lower in the invaded habitats [184]. Invasion of H. sosnowskyi caused significant shifts in plant species composition, which modified nematode assem- blages. Stress-sensitive omnivores, fungivores, and root-biomass-dependent obligate plant parasites best-reflected changes in soil nematode communities under the influence of H. sos- nowskyi invasion [185]. Near H. sosnowskyi in an abandoned land and road-side slope were more bacterivorous, fewer fungivores, and plant parasites belonging to nematodes [184]. This type of research has been continued for many years, bringing new information to applied science [186,187]. It is worth emphasizing that the state of knowledge regarding the influence of Cau- casian hogweeds on biodiversity was relatively small based on the reviewed articles (Table 3). For some animals, these plants were very attractive, such as ants [188]. In con- trast, recent studies indicated that in vertebrates, the impact of described invasion was negative even if some signs of adaptation were shown, as seen in birds [189,190]. How- ever, researchers were interested in tailoring removal strategies of invaders to complex Earth 2022, 3 296 relationships in particular ecosystems. Firstly, sometimes it was impossible to remove invading hogweeds, thus there was suggested a need to study the associated biodiversity. Secondly, removing the invaders by all methods might have contributed to the degradation of the environment, in which some animals, due to the lack of natural habitats, might not be able to recreate relationships already established with Caucasian hogweeds. It turned out that the decision to remove invaders should have been supported by the results of interdisciplinary research, not just the group-specific one. 3.1.5. The Meaning of Caucasian Hogweeds for Habitats and Soil Science In the native range, the Sosnowsky’s hogweed has been known as growing in moun- tain areas alongside streams, in forests and alpine meadows. The climate in its natural habitat is continental, with hot summers and cold winters. Outside its native range, this invasive plant has spread rapidly, infesting grasslands, forests, wetlands, riverbanks, canal sides, rails, roadsides, urban areas, as well as abandoned agricultural land [191,192], see Figure 3 with an example from Poland. In Russia, the light use efficiency of upper leaves was significantly higher than that of middle and lower layers, and the canopy of H. sos- nowskyi captured approximately 97% of the light, preventing the development of other plant species in the monostad [193]. Low habitat requirements of hogweeds within the range of invasion and homogenization of the habitat resulted in their negative impact on native plants communities [194–198], Table 3. Communities more vulnerable to H. man- tegazzianum invasion were composed of species with similar ecological requirements (at least for nitrogen) and different life forms and/or strategies compared to the invader [32]. In the Bryansk oblast (Russia, near the Republic of Belarus), the density of H. sosnowskyi in natural communities was related to anthropochorous dispersal and damage of the vegeta- tive cover. In the “alluvial abandoned meadow” the described alien formed a monoculture and was positively correlated with soil moisture and Urtica dioica plant species [185]. Much research to date in the field of plant ecology has focused on the plant communities with invading Caucasian hogweeds [199–206], pointing to the modification of both such habi- tats as steppes [203] and riverside vegetation [204], as well as the role of anthropogenic disturbances favoring invasion [206]. One of the most important ways the Caucasian hogweeds could have influenced their surrounding habitats was by releasing chemicals into the substrate. The phenomenon of allelopathy involving the interaction with other organisms through specific chemical compounds has been the subject of numerous studies on those invaders [207–210]. On the other hand, root exudates of H. mantegazzianum contained allelopathic compounds, which were not likely to be furanocoumarins, but other yet unidentified molecules. Thus, allelopathy by producing unique compounds by the invader was probably not a principal driver of the invasion success of at least the giant hogweed [209]. Other works also treated Caucasian hogweeds’ release of substances into the soil as more complicated than just chemical allelopathy [210,211]. It was not surprising that the example change in plant communities caused by hog- weeds was associated with a change in soil properties. The giant hogweed presence also reduced red/far-red light ratios but increased soil pH [212], which sometimes could be crucial for the soil organisms. Hogweed invasion significantly modified the composition of soil microbial communities, but the exception was the fungal/bacterial ratio [212]. In the soil under Sosnowsky’s hogweed, the share of the ascomycetes was much lower than in the control. However, in the vicinity of hogweeds were also more fungi with high hydrolytic activity [213]. Active colonization of meadows by H. sosnowskyi led to a decrease in the biodiversity of microorganisms through the disturbance of the developed biotic cycle [214]. Several other studies identified the impact of hogweed invasion on soil organisms and other soil components important for biodiversity [215–225], Table 3. While most of these studies indicated a negative impact of invaders on soil organisms, few studies showed a positive impact for some fungi [213,217,222]. An example of a possible explanation was Earth 2022, 3 297 that hogweed, unlike most meadow grasses, does not hibernate with green leaves that do Earth 2022, 3, FOR PEER REVIEW 11 not gradually die out with the formation of semi decomposed plant residues [213]. Figure 3. An example of a severely invaded area with Sosnowsky’s hogweeds growing in a mono- Figure 3. An example of a severely invaded area with Sosnowsky’s hogweeds growing in a monostad stad covering about 5 ha on the research site in south-eastern Poland (former crop near Koniecpol); covering about 5 ha on the research site in south-eastern Poland (former crop near Koniecpol); invaders invaders on the photograph were before flowering (date: 10 June 2020–author of photograph: E. on the photograph were before flowering (date: 10 June 2020–author of photograph: E. Grze ˛ dzicka). Grzędzicka). Table 3. List of studies that identified impact of Caucasian hogweeds on biodiversity (weeds: One of the most important ways the Caucasian hogweeds could have influenced their HS–Sosnowsky’s hogweeds Heracleum sosnowskyi, HM–giant hogweed Heracleum mantegazzianum). surrounding habitats was by releasing chemicals into the substrate. The phenomenon of Articles were sorted according to the genera and systems they have concerned, arranged from allelopathy involving the interaction with other organisms through specific chemical com- the ground, through the herbaceous part of hogweeds, to the invaders’ effects on the elements of pounds has been the subject of numerous studies on those invaders [207–210]. On the ecosystems at the highest trophic levels. other hand, root exudates of H. mantegazzianum contained allelopathic compounds, which were not likely to be furanocoumarins, but other yet unidentified molecules. Thus, alle- Study Group, Attribute Description Weed References lopathy by producing unique compounds by the invader was probably not a principal Dassonville, Vanderhoeven, Nutrient pools in the topsoil H. mantegazzianum contributed to soil homogenization driver of the invasion success of at least the giant hogweed [209]. Other works also treated HM Vanparys, Hayez, Gruber and and the standing biomass through enhanced nutrient uptake. Caucasian hogweeds’ release of substances into the soil as more Meerts, comp 2008 licat [216 ed] than just chemical allelopathy [210,211]. Koutika, Vanderhoeven, Soil properties H. mantegazzianum slowed down soil organic matter. HM Chapuis-Lardy, Dassonville and It was not surprising that the example change in plant communities caused by hog- Meerts, 2007 [219] weeds was associated with a change in soil properties. The giant hogweed presence also H. mantegazzianum affected the composition of soil Jandová, Klinerová, Müllerová, Soil chemical and biological reduced red/far-red light ratios but increased soil pH [212], which sometimes could be microbial communities, soil conductivity, and light HM Pyšek, Pergl, Cajthaml and Dostál, characteristics crucial for the soil organisms. Hogweed invasion significantly modified the composition availability of sites. 2014 [212] of soil microbial communities, but the exception was the fungal/bacterial ratio [212]. In Activity of soil microbial community decreased in soils Bobulská, Demková, Cerevková and Microbial community HM the soil underunder the invasive SosnH. owsk mantegazzianum. y’s hogweed, the share of the ascomycetes Ren was much co, ˇ 2019 [215 lo ] wer than in the control. However, in the vicinity of hogweeds were also more fungi with high hy- An increase in genus and species diversity of Tovstik, Shirokikh, Soloveva, Actinomycetes in the soil actinomycetes in soil under H. sosnowskyi was noted HS Shirokikh, Ashikhmina and drolytic activity [213]. Active colonization of meadows by H. sosnowskyi led to a decrease along with intensive organic matter mineralization. Savinykh, 2018 [225] in the biodiversity of microorganisms through the disturbance of the developed biotic cy- cle [214]. Several other studies identified the impact of hogweed invasion on soil organ- isms and other soil components important for biodiversity [215–225], Table 3. While most of these studies indicated a negative impact of invaders on soil organisms, few studies showed a positive impact for some fungi [213,217,222]. An example of a possible explana- tion was that hogweed, unlike most meadow grasses, does not hibernate with green leaves that do not gradually die out with the formation of semi decomposed plant residues [213]. The reproductive capacity and specific ecology of Caucasian hogweeds in their inva- sive range undoubtedly contributed to their significant impact on plant communities and soil components. Firstly, the large size of those plants should be emphasized once again, as well as the rapid growth of large green biomass [226,227], much larger than that of the Earth 2022, 3 298 Table 3. Cont. Study Group, Attribute Description Weed References Soil microbial properties, Soil microbial and nematode communities were altered Cerevková, Ivashchenko, Miklisová, HS nematode communities by the invasion of H. sosnowskyi. Ananyeva and Renco, ˇ 2020 [187] Nematode abundance and species diversity were Soil nematode communities HS Renco ˇ and Baležentiené, 2015 [184] lower in habitas with H. sosnowskyi. Invasion, although not a single H. sosnowskyi changed Renco, ˇ Kornobis, Domaradzki, Soil nematode communities plant species composition and negatively HS Jakubska-Busse, Jurová and affected ematodes. Homolová, 2018 [185] H. mantegazzianum increased soil pH, decreased carbon Renco, ˇ Jurová, Gömöryová and Plants and soil nematodes in and nitrogen content, reduced the coverage of the HM the riparian habitats Cerevková, 2021 [186] native plants, and negatively influenced nematodes. Under H. sosnowskyi were less ascomycetes Candida vartiovaarae, Wickerhamomyces anomalus, although more Glushakova, Kachalkin and Soil yeast communities HS yeast-like fungi with high hydrolytic activity: Chernov, 2015 [213] Trichosporon moniliforme, T. porosum. The share of yeast-like Trichosporon fungi with high Glushakova, Kachalkin and Soil yeast hydrolytic activity was higher in the soil under HS Chernov, 2015 [214] H. sosnowskyi. Mycobiota: e.g., Phloeospora H. mantegazzianum was related to specific heraclei, Septoria heracleicola, HM Seier and Evans, 2007 [224] fungal pathogens. Ramularia heraclei Remarkable mycodiversity of different genera and Mycobiota HM Feige and Ale-Agha, 2004 [217] species on dead stems of H. mantegazzianum. Mycobiota: ascomycetes, A new species Periconia pseudobyssoides was collected Markovskaja and Kacer ˇ gius, HS genus Periconia on dead H. sosnowskyi stalks. 2014 [222] H. sosnowskyi contributed to the preservation and Soil ecosystem, plant Lapteva, Zakhozhiy, Dalke, maintenance of soil fertility due to the annual return of HS community Smotrina and Genrikh, 2021 [221] fast mineralized plant material. Seed banks containing H. mantegazzianum were Soil seed bank communities HM Gioria and Osborne, 2010 [218] dominated by seeds of a few agricultural weed species. H. mantegazzianum decreased the diversity of seed Seed bank, vascular plants HM Gioria and Osborne, 2009 [196] bank communities. H. sosnowskyi used its allelochemicals to inhibit Plant community germination of perennial ryegrass (monocots) and HS Baležentiene, 2013 [194] winter rapeseed (dicots). H. sosnowskyi is an agriophyte species and a minor Plant community HS Tretyakova, 2011 [198] flora component under the conditions of Middle Urals. H. mantegazzianum became a dominant in Plant community HM Callaway and Hierro, 2006 [195] invaded ecosystems. H. mantegazzianum decreased species diversity of Plant community HM Pyšek and Prach, 1993 [197] plants in riparian habitats. Positive relationship between the relative H. mantegazzianum growth, ant activity, and the number of Hansen, Hattendorf, Nentwig and Insecta: Hemiptera, aphids HM myrmecophilic aphids, although negative impact of 2006, [164] hogweeds on non-myrmecophilic aphids. Insecta: Hymenoptera, Stukalyuk, Zhuravlev, Netsvetov H. mantegazzianum was found to be attractive to ants. HM Formicidae and Kozyr, 2019 [188] Insecta: Lepidoptera, It lives in Caucasus, the larvae feed on Karsholt, Lvovsky and Nielsen, Depressariidae, HM H. mantegazzianum. 2005 [175] Agonopterix caucasiella Insecta: Hemiptera, Specific herbivorous insects were related to Hansen, Hattendorf, Nielsen, Lepidoptera, Hymenoptera, HM H. mantegazzianum. Wittenberg and Nentwig, 2007 [169] Coleoptera, Diptera Insecta: Diptera, Psilidae, H. mantegazzianum was described as a new host of the HM Hardman and Ellis, 1982 [174] Chamaepsila rosae * carrot fly. Drosophila species, Scaptomyza pallida, used the Insecta, Diptera, van Alphen, Nordlander and Eijs, petioles of H. mantegazzianum with the parasitoid HM Drosophilidae 1991 [176] Leptopilina australis. H. mantegazzianum sites had a lower abundance of Davis, Kelly, Maggs and Stout, Insecta: pollinators HM solitary bees and hoverflies. 2018 [172] Earth 2022, 3 299 Table 3. Cont. Study Group, Attribute Description Weed References Very few insects carried both native and alien pollen Insecta: pollinators from H. sphondylium or H. mantegazzianum, suggesting HM Grace and Nelson, 1981 [168] species barrier to gene flow. Pollinators’ visitation of Mimulus guttatus was Nielsen, Heimes and Kollmann, Insecta: pollinators HM enhanced close to H. mantegazzianum. 2008 [170] Sixty-nine species of anthophilous insects visiting Ustinova, Savina and Lysenkov, Insecta: pollinators HS inflorescences of H. sosnowskyi were identified. 2017 [171] Ground dwellers and farmland birds responded negatively to H. sosnowskyi towards open habitats, Bird community HS Grzedzicka ˛ and Reif, 2020 [189] while a more negative response towards forest habitats was observed in birds associated with bushes. H. sosnowskyi decreased the abundance of Bird guilds HS Grzedzicka ˛ and Reif, 2021 [190] insectivorous, granivorous and omnivorous birds. H. mantegazzianum negatively impacted biodiversity Koutika, Rainey and Dassonville, Biodiversity, ecosystems HM and ecosystems. 2011 [220] * current name, not from the cited paper. The reproductive capacity and specific ecology of Caucasian hogweeds in their in- vasive range undoubtedly contributed to their significant impact on plant communities and soil components. Firstly, the large size of those plants should be emphasized once again, as well as the rapid growth of large green biomass [226,227], much larger than that of the relative native plants [228] and larger than the size of describing plants from the same species growing in the range of their native distribution [229]. Caucasian hogweeds showed the enormous ability of regeneration [230]. Their large biomass has resulted in several studies of its use as a biofuel [231–234]. Secondly, the success of invaders was determined by their enormous reproductive abilities, where propagation was exclusively by seeds. Seed germination under laboratory conditions was very high: 71–94% in different temperature regimes [235]. Having a huge reproductive capacity, one plant produced 5–20 thousand seeds per year and occasionally even 50,000 [236], which could germinate for 5–6 years, showing seasonal dynamics [237–240] and long survival in soil despite unfa- vorable factors [241–243]. Seeds were easily spread by wind, the surface of water, birds, and vehicles [244,245]. The distribution of fruits on inflorescences and the structure of the fruit itself was of considerable importance for reproductive ability [246–248]. Reproductive characteristics of H. mantegazzianum were studied at seven sites in the Czech Republic. Fruits from terminal inflorescences were heavier than those from satellites, while those produced in the center of an umbel were heavier than those from the margin. Neither umbel size nor time of flowering had a significant effect on germination characteristics [248]. Terminal umbels were the main seed suppliers for the population [236]. Moreover, the accompanying quick response of giant hogweed to tissue removal might have affected its reproduction and invasion success [249]. Both described features of invaders huge biomass and productivity made them resistant to harsh environmental conditions, as well as they have been considered as aggressive plants [250–253]. Caucasian hogweeds were classified as neophytes, introduced species that rapidly colonized new habitats in their new range [254,255]. Due to the specific biology and ecology of those invaders, despite over a dozen studies on the possibility of using biological methods of controlling their populations, including herbicides, insects, fungi, and parasites [256–262], none of them gave any chance of success in the fight against the invasion of Caucasian hogweeds. 4. Discussion 4.1. The Unknown Future of Caucasian Hogweeds Invasive hogweeds were not the same plants as the large endemic specimens growing in their native range. Samples of H. mantegazzianum and H. sosnowskyi were collected from the native ranges in Asia and invaded ranges of both described species in Europe and Earth 2022, 3 300 then analyzed using amplified fragment length polymorphism. Within each species, plants collected in the invaded range were genetically close to those from their native ranges. However, a high overall genetic variability detected in the invaded range suggested that the majority of invading populations were affected by rapid evolution, drift, or hybridization, which played a role in the genetic structuring of invading populations. More within-taxon variation was detected in the invaded range (Europe) than in the region of native distribu- tion [1]. At various sites within the invasion range, the Caucasian hogweeds were described as still evolving [263–267], and their genetic resources may develop [268]. Large genetic diversity resulted from numerous sites of former introductions [264]. Invasive hogweeds formed hybrids with native species of the same genus studied [269,270], including the example research on hybrids’ unknown epidermal features [271]. It seemed difficult to predict what genotoxins [272] and genotoxic carcinogens [273] the evolving hogweeds have produced and will produce in the future. These chemicals could already affect or- ganisms living in their vicinity. Caucasian invaders also showed other properties of which knowledge was little, such as bioelectric potential in soil-plant systems [274], photosensi- tivity [275], native species richness recovery after about 30 years of hogweed invasion after the occurrence of stabilizing processes [276] or the possibility of inactivating the ability of invaders’ seeds to germinate during the year under certain laboratory conditions [277]. The hogweeds invasion is, therefore, not only complicated, but it is difficult to predict in which direction it will develop. 4.2. The Need for Further Studies Among the future research needed to better understand and react to the invasion of Caucasian hogweeds are the following: 1. This review showed how little research has been available on the impact of Caucasian hogweeds on biodiversity. It is a serious oversight that the author would like to emphasize and suggest this research direction for scientists interested in conservation biology and invasion science. Possible adaptations of native organisms to invasive Caucasian hogweeds are worth studying. 2. Nowadays, pollinators decline is observed, which concerns the mass extinction of species, of particular importance for food security and the future of humanity. Cau- casian hogweeds stand out from other invasive plants as species especially attractive for pollinators. In the case of high costs and difficulties with the removal of those invaders, it seems that instead of incurring endless losses for this process, it is worth starting to research the importance of hogweeds for local pollinator communities, with particular emphasis on the European honeybees. Although Caucasian hogweeds were once used as valuable melliferous plants, there is no research on the properties of honey prepared from products collected by pollinators on these plants. 3. Eastern Europe is a mainstay of farmland birds that are legally protected in the European Union, and this group also includes many endangered and protected species. Research on the effects of invasive hogweeds on birds only began a few years ago, which may be a very serious oversight. There is an urgent need to start long-term research based on large-scale analyses at the level of at least the European continent, which would compare the spreading process of invaders with the trends of changes in the abundance and distribution of farmland birds over the same period. In recent years, ornithologists have become interested in the significance of environmental elements remaining after the communist era, such as military areas, abandoned farms, or the way land was partitioned at that time. No research has shown the role of Caucasian hogweeds occurring in these areas. 4. The history of the Caucasian hogweeds invasion has lasted for at least 80 years, assuming that the real problem of invasion, at least on a continental scale, began with the fall of communism and the abandonment of widely distributed former crops. Thus far, research has shown native organisms facing this invasion to react at the phenotypic level. In the coming decades, research should be planned to check whether Earth 2022, 3 301 the described invasion already causes variability in organisms at the genotypic level. For comparison, the phenomenon of urbanization, which has lasted for 200 years, has already caused many changes in organisms at the genotypic level. The very large ranges of invasive hogweeds have the potential for the research of geneticists dealing with large-scale genetic variation in organisms. 5. There is a lack of research on the effects of global warming and extreme weather events on the dispersal of invaders and their reproductive success. It is not known what effect mild winters have on Caucasian hogweeds populations and seed survival in soil. Increasingly frequent floods potentially favor the dispersal of hogweeds, thus it seems that especially in river valleys, management of this invasion requires a specific strategy supported by scientific research, e.g., large-scale dispersal modeling in the context of the water flow rate in the particular river and the extent of the floods. The high temperatures during increasingly hotter summer periods on the European continent may favor the more intense release of hogweeds chemicals into the environment, thus far not explored. 6. There is a lack of experimental studies showing what the main drivers of the Caucasian hogweeds invasion are. It should be emphasized that sometimes birds are considered to be one of the drivers facilitating the invaders’ spread. This has not been tested experimentally, and it is not known if any bird species have invasive hogweeds seeds in their diets. It is not known whether and how the birds contribute to the dispersal of Caucasian hogweeds. 7. One of the unexplored invasion drivers may be habitat degradation that lowers the local biodiversity and potentially facilitates the spread and development of invasive plants. On the one hand, invaders may appear in disturbed habitats, and on the other hand, procedures related to their removal may have a negative impact on the surrounding environment, paradoxically facilitating invaders. It is not known what the balance between habitat disturbance and native biodiversity should be kept to prevent the development of invaders. 8. The complex attractiveness of Caucasian hogweeds to certain groups of organisms requires further research. An example is the interest of ants in those plants. Ants perform many useful functions in nature, e.g., sanitary. It is worth carefully examin- ing the relationship of ants with hogweeds and checking whether other organisms appearing in the invasive hogweeds indirectly benefit from it. 9. Research on the influence of Caucasian hogweeds on ecosystems has been related to soil science. The unique composition of communities of soil organisms in the substrate of growing invaders seems to be an interesting research topic for environmental biologists interested in soil ecology. The influence of hogweeds on soil organisms goes beyond the phenomenon of only chemical allelopathy, which requires further experimental studies. 10. The dispersal of Caucasian hogweeds related to linear features such as rivers and roads is worth exploring on a landscape scale. Today, roadless areas are becoming rarer. There are no spatial analyses showing what this means for the Caucasian invaders’ dispersal. 5. Conclusions To summarise, Caucasian hogweeds are one of the most problematic plant invasions in the world, extending across the European continent to North America and possibly even other continents in the future. While they have already had a significant impact on biodiversity, this issue was disproportionately poorly researched concerning the scale of the problem. The rich physicochemical properties of invaders’ tissues and secretions in the face of the rapid evolution of plants combined with the progressing global changes and degradation of the environment can form a system for testing hypotheses in the field of applied evolutionary ecology. Finally, it is worth adding that this review did not exhaust the topic. The most important issues may require significant updates even in a decade. Earth 2022, 3 302 Funding: During the study preparation E.G. was supported by National Science Centre in Kraków, Poland (grant Sonatina 2-NZ no. 2018/28/C/NZ8/00283). Institutional Review Board Statement: Not applicable. Informed Consent Statement: Not applicable. Data Availability Statement: No available data. Acknowledgments: The author kindly thanks the two anonymous referees and Earth Editors for useful comments that helped in improving the review. Conflicts of Interest: The author declares no conflict of interest. References 1. Jahodová, Š.; Trybush, S.; Pyšek, P.; Wade, M.; Karp, A. Invasive species of Heracleum in Europe: An insight into genetic relationships and invasion history. Divers. Distrib. 2007, 13, 99–114. [CrossRef] 2. Moravcová, L.; Gudžinskas, Z.; Pyšek, P.; Pergl, J.; Perglova, I. Seed ecology of Heracleum mantegazzianum and H. sosnowskyi, two invasive species with different distributions in Europe. In Ecology and Management of Giant Hogweed (Heracleum mantegazzianum); Pyšek, P., Cock, M.J.W., Nentwig, W., Ravn, H.P., Eds.; CAB International: Wallingford, UK, 2007; pp. 157–169. 3. Jakubska-Busse, A.; Sliwinski, ´ M.; Kobyłka, M. Identification of bioactive components of essential oils in Heracleum sosnowskyi and Heracleum mantegazzianum (Apiaceae). Arch. Biol. Sci. 2013, 65, 877–883. [CrossRef] 4. Cuddington, K.; Sobek-Swant, S.; Drake, J.; Lee, W.; Brook, M. Risks of giant hogweed (Heracleum mantegazzianum) range increase in North America. Biol. Invasions 2022, 24, 299–314. [CrossRef] 5. Trottier, N.; Groeneveld, E.; Lavoie, C. Giant hogweed at its northern distribution limit in North America: Experiments for a better understanding of its dispersal dynamics along rivers. River Res. Appl. 2017, 33, 1098–1106. [CrossRef] 6. Pyšek, P.; Kopecký, M.; Jarošik, V.; Kotková, P. The role of human density and climate in the spread of Heracleum mantegazzianum in the Central European landscape. Divers. Distrib. 1998, 4, 9–16. 7. Wadsworth, R.A.; Collingham, Y.C.; Willis, S.G.; Huntley, B.; Hulme, P.E. Simulating the spread and management of alien riparian weeds: Are they out of control? J. Appl. Ecol. 2000, 37, 28–38. [CrossRef] 8. Zihare, L.; Blumberga, D. Invasive Species Application in Bioeconomy. Case Study Heracleum sosnowskyi Manden in Latvia. Energy Procedia 2017, 113, 238–243. [CrossRef] 9. Bogdanov, V.; Osipov, A.; Garmanov, V.; Efimova, G.; Grik, A.; Zavarin, B.; Terleev, V.; Nikonorov, A. Problems and monitoring the spread of the ecologically dangerous plant Heracleum sosnowskyi in urbanized areas and methods to combat it. E3S Web Conf. 2021, 258, 08028. [CrossRef] 10. Adamonyté, G. Slime molds on Heracleum sosnowskyi in Lithuania. Mikol. I. Fitopatol. 2005, 39, 1–5. 11. Baležentiene, L.; Bartkevicius, ˇ E. Invasion of Heracleum sosnowskyi (Apiaceae) at habitat scale in Lithuania. J. Food Agric. Environ. 2013, 11, 1370–1375. 12. Bomanowska, A.; Adamowski, W.; Kirpluk, I.; Otreba, ˛ A.; Rewicz, A. Invasive alien plants in Polish national parks—Threats to species diversity. PeerJ 2019, 12, e8034. [CrossRef] [PubMed] 13. Bzdega, ˛ K.; Zarychta, A.; Urbisz, A.; Szporak-Wasilewska, S.; Ludynia, M.; Fojcik, B.; Tokarska-Guzik, B. Geostatistical models with the use of hyperspectral data and seasonal variation—A new approach for evaluating the risk posed by invasive plants. Ecol. Indic. 2021, 121, 107204. [CrossRef] 14. Medrzycki, ˛ P.; Jarzyna, I.; Obidzinski, ´ A.; Tokarska-Guzik, B.; Sotek, Z.; Pabjanek, P.; Pytlarczyk, A.; Sachajdakiewicz, I. Simple yet effective: Historical proximity variables improve the species distribution models for invasive giant hogweed (Heracleum mantegazzianum s.l.) in Poland. PLoS ONE 2017, 12, e0184677. [CrossRef] 15. Mirek, Z.; Pie ¸ kos-Mirkowa, ´ H. New and rare invasive vascular plant species in the National Park. Fragm. Florist. Geobot. Pol. 2012, 19, 567–570. 16. Abramova, L.M.; Golovanov, Y.M.; Rogozhnikova, D.R. Sosnowsky’s Hogweed (Heracleum sosnowskyi Manden., Apiaceae) in Bashkortostan. Russ. J. Biol. Invasions 2021, 12, 127–135. [CrossRef] 17. Afonin, A.N.; Luneva, N.N.; Li, Y.S.; Kotsareva, N.V. Ecological-geographical analysis of distribution pattern and occurrence of cow-parsnip (Heracleum sosnowskyi Manden) with respect to area aridity and its mapping in European Russia. Russ. J. Ecol. 2017, 48, 86–89. [CrossRef] 18. Arepieva, L.A.; Arepiev, E.I.; Kazakov, S.G. Distribution of Sosnowsky’s Hogweed (Heracleum sosnowskyi Manden.) at the Southern Border of Its Secondary Range in European Russia. Russ. J. Biol. Invasions 2021, 12, 233–243. [CrossRef] 19. Borisova, E.A. Patterns of invasive plant species distribution in the Upper Volga basin. Russ. J. Biol. Invasions 2011, 2, 1–5. [CrossRef] 20. Chadin, I.; Dalke, I.; Zakhozhiy, I.; Malyshev, R.; Madi, E.; Kuzivanova, O.; Kirillov, D.; Elsakov, V. Distribution of the invasive plant species Heracleum sosnowskyi Manden. in the Komi Republic (Russia). PhytoKeys 2017, 77, 71–80. [CrossRef] 21. Krivosheina, M.G.; Ozerova, N.A.; Petrosyan, V.G. Distribution of Seeds of the Giant Hogweed (Heracleum sosnowskyi Manden.) in the Winter Period. Russ. J. Biol. Invasions 2020, 11, 318–325. [CrossRef] Earth 2022, 3 303 22. Ozerova, N.A.; Krivosheina, M.G. Patterns of secondary range formation for Heracleum sosnowskyi and H. mantegazzianum on the territory of Russia. Russ. J. Biol. Invasions 2018, 9, 155–162. [CrossRef] 23. Ozerova, N.A.; Shirokova, V.A.; Krivosheina, M.G.; Petrosyan, V.G. The spatial distribution of Sosnowsky’s hogweed (Heracleum sosnowskyi) in the valleys of big and medium rivers of the East European Plain (on materials of field studies 2008–2016). Russ. J. Biol. Invasions 2017, 8, 327–346. [CrossRef] 24. Tkachenko, K.G.; Zhiglova, O.V. The Finding of Heracleum ponticum (Lipsky) Schischk. Plants in Leningrad Oblast. Russ. J. Biol. Invasions 2019, 10, 266–268. [CrossRef] 25. Verkhozina, A.V.; Chernysheva, O.A.; Ebel, A.L.; Erst, A.S.; Dorofeev, N.V.; Dorofeyev, V.I.; Grebenjuk, A.V.; Grigorjevskaja, A.Y.; Guseinova, Z.A.; Ivanova, A.V.; et al. Findings to the flora of Russia and adjacent countries: New national and regional vascular plant records, 2. Bot. Pac. 2020, 9, 139–154. [CrossRef] 26. Grygus, I.; Lyko, S.; Stasiuk, M.; Zubkovych, I.; Zukow, W. Risks posed by Heracleum sosnowskyi Manden in the Rivne region. Ecol. Quest. 2018, 29, 35–42. 27. Gubar, L.; Koniakin, S. Populations of Heracleum sosnowskyi and H. mantegazzianum (Apiaceae) in Kyiv (Ukraine). Folia Oecol. 2021, 48, 215–228. [CrossRef] 28. Oitsius, L.V.; Volovyk, H.P.; Doletskyi, S.P.; Lysytsya, A.V. Distribution of adventive species Solidago canadensis, Phalacroloma annuum, Ambrosia artemisiifolia, Heracleum sosnowskyi in phytocenoses of Volyn’ Polissya (Ukraine). Biosyst. Divers. 2021, 28, 343–349. [CrossRef] 29. Arslan, Z.F.; Uludag, A.; Uremis, I. Status of invasive alien plants included in EPPO Lists in Turkey. EPPO Bull. 2015, 45, 66–72. [CrossRef] 30. Vladimirov, V.; Assyov, B.; Petrova, A. First record of an invasive alien plant species of EU concern in Bulgaria: Heracleum sosnowskyi Manden. (Apiaceae). Acta Zool. Bulg. Suppl. 2017, 9, 47–51. 31. Pyšek, P. Heracleum mantegazzianum in the Czech Republic: Dynamics of spreading from the historical perspective. Folia Geobot. Phytotax Praha 1991, 26, 439–454. [CrossRef] 32. Pyšek, P.; Pyšek, A. Invasion by Heracleum mantegazzianum in different habitats in the Czech Republic. J. Veg. Sci. 1995, 6, 711–718. [CrossRef] 33. Nehrbass, N.; Winkler, E.; Pergl, J.; Perglová, I.; Pyšek, P. Empirical and virtual investigation of the population dynamics of an alien plant under the constraints of local carrying capacity: Heracleum mantegazzianum in the Czech Republic. Perspect. Plant Ecol. Evol. Syst. 2006, 7, 253–262. [CrossRef] 34. Pauková, Ž.; Kaprálová, R.; Hauptvogl, M. Mapping of occurrence and population dynamics of invasive plant species Heracleum mantegazzianum in the agricultural landscape. J. Cent. Eur. Agric. 2019, 20, 671–677. [CrossRef] 35. Peknicov ˇ á, J.; Berchová-Bímová, K. Application of species distribution models for protected areas threatened by invasive plants. J. Nat. Conserv. 2016, 34, 1–7. [CrossRef] 36. Pergl, J.; Hüls, J.; Perglová, I.; Eckstein, R.L.; Pyšek, P.; Otte, A. Population Dynamics of Heracleum Mantegazzianum. Ecology and Management of Giant Hogweed: (Heracleum mantegazzianum); CAB International: Wallingford, UK, 2007; pp. 92–111. 37. Pergl, J.; Müllerová, J.; Perglová, I.; Herben, T.; Pyšek, P. The role of long-distance seed dispersal in the local population dynamics of an invasive plant species. Divers. Distrib. 2011, 17, 725–738. [CrossRef] 38. Thiele, J.; Markussen, B. Review: Modelling invasion probability of giant hogweed (Heracleum mantegazzianum) with logistic GLMM. CAB Rev. Perspect. Agric. Vet. Sci. Nutr. Nat. Resour. 2012, 7, 1–12. 39. Thiele, J.; Otte, A. Hercules with achilles’ heel? The distribution of Heracleum mantegazzianum—Nature conservation aspects on local, landscape and regional level. Nat. Und Landsch. 2008, 40, 273–279. 40. Thiele, J.; Otte, A. Invasion patterns of Heracleum mantegazzianum in Germany on the regional and landscape scales. J. Nat. Conserv. 2008, 16, 61–71. [CrossRef] 41. Braun, M.; Schindler, S.; Essl, F. Distribution and management of invasive alien plant species in protected areas in Central Europe. J. Nat. Conserv. 2016, 33, 48–57. [CrossRef] 42. Dawson, F.H.; Holland, D. The distribution in bankside habitats of three alien invasive plants in the U.K. in relation to the development of control strategies. Hydrobiologia 1999, 415, 193–201. [CrossRef] 43. Fehér, A.; Halmová, D.; Fehér-Pindešová, I.; Zajác, P.; Capla, J. Distribution of invasive plants in the Nitra River Basin: Threats and benefits for food production. Potravinarstvo 2016, 10, 605–611. [CrossRef] 44. Boršic, ´ I.; Borovecki-V ˇ oska, L.; Kutleša, P.; Šemnicki, ˇ P. New localities of Heracleum mantegazzianum Sommier et Levier (Apiaceae) in Croatia and control measures taken. Period. Biol. 2015, 117, 449–452. [CrossRef] 45. Nielsen, C.; Hartvig, P.; Kollmann, J. Predicting the distribution of the invasive alien Heracleum mantegazzianum at two different spatial scales. Divers. Distrib. 2008, 14, 307–317. [CrossRef] 46. Alm, T. Plant species introduced by foreigners according to folk tradition in Norway and some other European countries: Xenophobic tales or not? J. Ethnobiol. Ethnomed. 2015, 11, 72. [CrossRef] [PubMed] 47. Catterall, S.; Cook, A.R.; Marion, G.; Butler, A.; Hulme, P.E. Accounting for uncertainty in colonisation times: A novel approach to modelling the spatio-temporal dynamics of alien invasions using distribution data. Ecography 2012, 35, 901–911. [CrossRef] 48. Collingham, Y.C.; Wadsworth, R.A.; Huntley, B.; Hulme, P.E. Predicting the spatial distribution of non-indigenous riparian weeds: Issues of spatial scale and extent. J. Appl. Ecol. 2000, 37, 13–27. [CrossRef] Earth 2022, 3 304 49. Cook, A.; Marion, G.; Butler, A.; Gibson, G. Bayesian inference for the spatio-temporal invasion of alien species. Bull. Math. Biol. 2007, 69, 2005–2025. [CrossRef] 50. Lau, M.S.Y.; Marion, G.; Streftaris, G.; Gibson, G.J. New model diagnostics for spatio-temporal systems in epidemiology and ecology. J. R. Soc. Interface 2014, 11, 20131093. [CrossRef] 51. Moenickes, S.; Thiele, J. What shapes giant hogweed invasion? Answers from a spatio-temporal model integrating multiscale monitoring data. Biol. Invasions 2013, 15, 61–73. [CrossRef] 52. Nehrbass, N.; Winkler, E. Is the Giant Hogweed still a threat? An individual-based modelling approach for local invasion dynamics of Heracleum mantegazzianum. Ecol. Model. 2007, 201, 377–384. [CrossRef] 53. Wallentin, G. Modelling the spatial invasive range of Heracleum mantegazzianum in Europe. IJG 2013, 9, 15–19. 54. Menshchikov, A.; Shadrin, D.; Prutyanov, V.; Lopatkin, D.; Sosnin, S.; Tsykunov, E.; Iakovlev, E.; Somov, A. Real-Time Detection of Hogweed: UAV Platform Empowered by Deep Learning. IEEE Trans. Comput. 2021, 70, 1175–1188. [CrossRef] 55. Michez, A.; Piégay, H.; Jonathan, L.; Claessens, H.; Lejeune, P. Mapping of riparian invasive species with supervised classification of Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) imagery. Appl. Earth Obs. Geoinf. 2016, 44, 88–94. [CrossRef] 56. Tovstik, E.V.; Adamovich, T.A.; Ashikhmina, T.Y. Identification of sites of mass growth of Heracleum sosnowskyi Manden. Using spectral indices according to Sentinel-2 images. Theor. Appl. Ecol. 2019, 3, 34–40. 57. Tovstik, E.V.; Adamovich, T.A.; Rutman, V.V.; Kantor, G.Y.; Ashikhmina, T.Y. Identification of the tickets of Heracleum sosnowskyi using Earth remote sensing data. Theor. Appl. Ecol. 2018, 2, 35–37. 58. Turénko, D.; Khan, A.; Hussain, R.; Imran Ali, S. Oversampling Versus Variational Autoencoders: Employing Synthetic Data for Detection of Heracleum Sosnowskyi in Satellite Images. Lect. Notes Electr. Eng. 2020, 621, 399–409. 59. Visockiene, J.S.; Tumeliene, E.; Maliene, V. Identification of Heracleum sosnowskyi-invaded land using earth remote sensing data. Sustainability 2020, 12, 759. [CrossRef] 60. Gallardo, B.; Zieritz, A.; Adriaens, T.; Bellard, C.; Boets, P.; Britton, J.R.; Newman, J.R.; van Valkenburg, J.L.C.H.; Aldridge, D.C. Trans-national horizon scanning for invasive non-native species: A case study in western Europe. Biol. Invasions 2016, 18, 17–30. [CrossRef] 61. Müllerová, J.; Bruna, ˚ J.; Bartaloš, T.; Dvor ˇák, P.; Vítková, M.; Pyšek, P. Timing is important: Unmanned aircraft vs. satellite imagery in plant invasion monitoring. Front. Plant Sci. 2017, 8, 887. [CrossRef] 62. Müllerová, J.; Pergl, J.; Pyšek, P. Remote sensing as a tool for monitoring plant invasions: Testing the effects of data resolution and image classification approach on the detection of a model plant species Heracleum mantegazzianum (giant hogweed). Appl. Earth Obs. Geoinf. 2013, 25, 55–65. [CrossRef] 63. Müllerová, J.; Pyšek, P.; Jarošik, V.; Pergl, J. Aerial photographs as a tool for assessing the regional dynamics of the invasive plant species Heracleum mantegazzianum. J. Appl. Ecol. 2005, 42, 1042–1053. [CrossRef] 64. Pergl, J.; Pyšek, P.; Perglová, I.; Jarošik, V. Low persistence of a monocarpic invasive plant in historical sites biases our perception of its actual distribution. J. Biogeogr. 2012, 39, 1293–1302. [CrossRef] [PubMed] 65. Pyšek, P.; Genovesi, P.; Pergl, J.; Monaco, A.; Wild, J. Plant invasions of protected areas in Europe: An old continent facing new problems. In Plant Invasions in Protected Areas: Patterns, Problems and Challenges; Springer: Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 2013; pp. 209–240. 66. Pyšek, P.; Jarošik, V.; Müllerová, J.; Pergl, J.; Wild, J. Comparing the rate of invasion by Heracleum mantegazzianum at continental, regional, and local scales. Divers. Distrib. 2008, 14, 355–363. [CrossRef] 67. Pyšek, P.; Müllerová, J.; Jarošík, V. Historical Dynamics of Heracleum mantegazzianum Invasion at Regional and Local Scales. Ecology and Management of Giant Hogweed: (Heracleum mantegazzianum); CAB International: Wallingford, UK, 2007; pp. 42–54. 68. Richardson, D.M.; Thuiller, W. Home away from home—Objective mapping of high-risk source areas for plant introductions. Divers. Distrib. 2007, 13, 299–312. [CrossRef] 69. Follak, S.; Eberius, M.; Essl, F.; Fürdös, A.; Sedlacek, N.; Trognitz, F. Invasive alien plants along roadsides in Europe. Bull. OEPP/EPPO Bull. 2018, 48, 256–265. [CrossRef] 70. Nehrbass, N.; Winkler, E.; Müllerová, J.; Pergl, J.; Pyšek, P.; Perglová, I. A simulation model of plant invasion: Long-distance dispersal determines the pattern of spread. Biol. Invasions 2007, 9, 383–395. [CrossRef] 71. Olszewski, P.; Grabowski, J.; Stalmachová, B.; Švehláková, H.; Nováková, J. Risks concerning invasive plant species in an industrial-agricultural community. In Proceedings of the International Multidisciplinary Scientific GeoConference Surveying Geology and Mining Ecology Management, Albena, Bulgaria, 2–8 July 2018; Volume 18, pp. 753–760. 72. Ozerova, N.A. Vectors of Heracleum sosnowskyi Manden. Invasion on the territory of Moscow region: History and modernity (as exemplified by the Shakhovskaya Urban District). IOP Conf. Ser. Earth Environ. Sci. 2021, 867, 012074. [CrossRef] 73. Otte, A.; Eckstein, R.L.; Thiele, J. Heracleum Mantegazzianum in its Primary Distribution Range of the Western Greater Caucasus. Ecology and Management of Giant Hogweed: (Heracleum Mantegazzianum); CAB International: Wallingford, UK, 2007; pp. 20–41. 74. Panasenko, N.N. On certain issues of biology and ecology of Sosnowsky’s hogweed (Heracleum sosnowskyi Manden). Russ. J. Biol. Invasions 2017, 8, 272–281. [CrossRef] 75. Perglová, I.; Pergl, J.; Pyšek, P. Reproductive Ecology of Heracleum mantegazzianum. Ecology and Management of Giant Hogweed: (Heracleum mantegazzianum); CAB International: Wallingford, UK, 2007; pp. 55–73. 76. Holzmann, C.; Thiele, J.; Buttschardt, T.K. Management of neophytes—The example of giant hogweed; preconditions for successful control of Heracleum mantegazzianum. Nat. Und Landsch. 2014, 46, 79–85. Earth 2022, 3 305 77. Hootsmans, M.J.M.; Drovandi, A.A.; Soto Perez, N.; Wiegman, F. Management and ecology of freshwater plants.Proceedings of the 9th International Symposium on Aquatic Weeds, Dublin, 1994. Hydrobiologia 1996, 340, 354p. 78. Meier, E.S.; Dullinger, S.; Zimmermann, N.E.; Baumgartner, D.; Gattringer, A.; Hülber, K. Space matters when defining effective management for invasive plants. Divers. Distrib. 2014, 20, 1029–1043. [CrossRef] 79. Pyšek, P.; Perglová, I.; Krinke, L.; Jarošík, V.; Pergl, J.; Moravcová, L. Regeneration Ability of Heracleum Mantegazzianum and Implications for Control. Ecology and Management of Giant Hogweed: (Heracleum Mantegazzianum); CAB International: Wallingford, UK, 2007; pp. 112–125. 80. Nehrbass, N.; Winkler, E. Model-Assisted Evaluation of Control Strategies for Heracleum Mantegazzianum. Ecology and Management of Giant Hogweed: (Heracleum Mantegazzianum); CAB International: Wallingford, UK, 2007; pp. 284–296. 81. Pyšek, P.; Cock, M.J.W.; Nentwig, W.; Ravn, H.P. Ecology and Management of Giant Hogweed: (Heracleum Mantegazzianum). Ecology and Management of Giant Hogweed: (Heracleum Mantegazzianum); CAB International: Wallingford, UK, 2007; pp. 1–324. 82. Shackleton, R.T.; Petitpierre, B.; Pajkovic, M.; Dessimoz, F.; Brönnimann, O.; Cattin, L.; Cejková, Š.; Kull, C.A.; Pergl, J.; Pyšek, P.; et al. Integrated Methods for Monitoring the Invasive Potential and Management of Heracleum mantegazzianum (giant hogweed) in Switzerland. Environ. Manag. 2020, 65, 829–842. [CrossRef] [PubMed] 83. Andersen, U.V.; Calov, B. Long-term effects of sheep grazing on giant hogweed (Heracleum mantegazzianum). Hydrobiologia 1996, 340, 277–284. [CrossRef] 84. Buttenschøn, R.M.; Nielsen, C. Control of Heracleum mantegazzianum by Grazing. Ecology and Management of Giant Hogweed: (Heracleum mantegazzianum); CAB International: Wallingford, UK, 2007; pp. 240–254. 85. Dobrinov, A.V.; Trifanov, A.V.; Chugunov, S.V. Analysis and estimate of efficiency technological methods the destruction of Sosnowsky hogweed in the north-west region of Russia. IOP Conf. Series. Earth Environ. Sci. 2021, 723, 032087. [CrossRef] 86. Egorov, A.; Pavlyuchenkova, L.; Bubnov, A.; Partolina, A.; Postnikov, A. Control of Sosnovsky’s hogweed (Heracleum sosnowskyi Manden.) in forests using herbicides. IOP Conf. Ser. Earth Environ. Sci. 2020, 574, 012024. [CrossRef] 87. Egorov, A.B.; Postnikov, A.M.; Pavlyuchenkova, L.N.; Partolina, A.N.; Bubnov, A.A. Application of Herbicides in the Control of the Invasive Species Heracleum sosnowskyi Manden. (Sosnowsky’s Hogweed) in Forestry. Russ. J. Biol. Invasions 2021, 12, 387–399. [CrossRef] 88. Hagner, M.; Lindqvist, B.; Vepsäläinen, J.; Samorì, C.; Keskinen, R.; Rasa, K.; Hyvönen, T. Potential of pyrolysis liquids to control the environmental weed Heracleum mantegazzianum. Environ. Technol. Innov. 2020, 20, 101154. [CrossRef] 89. Nielsen, C.; Vanaga, I.; Treikale, O.; Priekule, I. Mechanical and chemical control of Heracleum mantegazzianum and H. sosnowskyi. Ecology and Management of Giant Hogweed (Heracleum mantegazzianum); CAB International: Wallingford, UK, 2007; pp. 226–239. 90. Kirichenko, N.; Haubrock, P.J.; Cuthbert, R.N.; Akulov, E.; Karimova, E.; Shneyder, Y.; Liu, C.; Angulo, E.; Diagne, C.; Courchamp, F. Economic costs of biological invasions in terrestrial ecosystems in Russia. NeoBiota 2021, 67, 103–122. [CrossRef] 91. Rajmis, S.; Thiele, J.; Marggraf, R. A cost-benefit analysis of controlling giant hogweed (Heracleum mantegazzianum) in Germany using a choice experiment approach. NeoBiota 2016, 31, 19–41. [CrossRef] 92. Zihare, L.; Gusca, J.; Spalvins, K.; Blumberga, D. Priorities Determination of Using Bioresources. Case Study of Heracleum sosnowskyi. Environ. Clim. Technol. 2019, 23, 242–256. [CrossRef] 93. Thiele, J.; Kollmann, J.; Markussen, B.; Otte, A. Impact assessment revisited: Improving the theoretical basis for management of invasive alien species. Biol. Invasions 2010, 12, 2025–2035. [CrossRef] 94. Caffrey, J.M. The Management of Giant Hogweed in an Irish River Catchment. J. Aquat. Plant Manag. 2001, 39, 28–33. 95. Martin, P.A.; Shackelford, G.E.; Bullock, J.M.; Gallardo, B.; Aldridge, D.C.; Sutherland, W.J. Management of UK priority invasive alien plants: A systematic review protocol. Environ. Evid. 2020, 9, 1–11. [CrossRef] 96. Stevenson, M.D.; Rossmo, D.K.; Knell, R.J.; Le Comber, S.C. Geographic profiling as a novel spatial tool for targeting the control of invasive species. Ecography 2012, 35, 704–715. [CrossRef] 97. Thiele, J.; Schuckert, U.; Otte, A. Cultural landscapes of Germany are patch-corridor-matrix mosaics for an invasive megaforb. Lanscape Ecol. 2008, 23, 453–465. [CrossRef] 98. Vardarman, J.; Berchová-Bímová, K.; Peknicov ˇ á, J. The role of protected area zoning in invasive plant management. Biodivers. Con- serv. 2018, 27, 1811–1829. [CrossRef] 99. Grigoriev, A.N.; Ryzhikov, D.M. General methodology and results of spectroradiometric research of reflective properties of the Heracleum Sosnowskyi in the range 320–1100 nm for Earth remote sensing. Sovrem. Probl. Distantsionnogo Zondirovaniya Zemli Iz ˙ Kosm. 2018, 15, 183–192. [CrossRef] 100. Caffrey, J.M. Phenology and long-term control of Heracleum mantegazzianum. Hydrobiologia 1999, 415, 223–228. [CrossRef] 101. Klima, K.; Synowiec, A. Field emergence and the long-term efficacy of control of Heracleum sosnowskyi plants of different ages in southern Poland. Weed Res. 2016, 56, 377–385. [CrossRef] 102. Fan, P.; Marston, A. How can phytochemists benefit from invasive plants? Nat. Prod. Commun. 2009, 4, 1407–1416. [CrossRef] 103. Synowiec, A.; Kalemba, D. Composition and herbicidal effect of Heracleum sosnowskyi essential oil. Open Life Sci. 2015, 10, 425–432. [CrossRef] 104. Baležentienẻ, L. Immediate allelopathic effect of two invasive Heracleum species on acceptor-germination. Acta Biol. Univ. Daugavp. 2015, 15, 17–26. 105. Kwasny ´ , J.; Vogt, O.; Lason, ´ E. Effect of method for recovering the essential oils from selected Umbelliferae (Apiaceae) on their chemical composition. Przemysł Chem. 2012, 91, 2136–2141. Earth 2022, 3 306 106. Hpoo, M.K.; Mishyna, M.; Prokhorov, V.; Arie, T.; Takano, A.; Oikawa, Y.; Fujii, Y. Potential of octanol and octanal from Heracleum sosnowskyi fruits for the control of fusarium Oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. Sustainability 2020, 12, 9334. [CrossRef] 107. Matoušková, M.; Jurová, J.; Grul’ová, D.; Wajs-Bonikowska, A.; Renco, ˇ M.; Sedlák, V.; Porácov ˇ á, J.; Gogal’ová, Z.; Kalemba, D. Phytotoxic effect of invasive Heracleum mantegazzianum essential oil on dicot and monocot species. Molecules 2019, 24, 425. [CrossRef] [PubMed] 108. Mishyna, M.; Laman, N.; Prokhorov, V.; Maninang, J.S.; Fujii, Y. Identification of octanal as plant growth inhibitory volatile compound released from Heracleum sosnowskyi fruit. Nat. Prod. Commun. 2015, 10, 771–774. [CrossRef] [PubMed] 109. Politowicz, J.; Gebar ˛ owska, E.; Prock ´ ów, J.; Pietr, S.J.; Szumny, A. Antimicrobial activity of essential oil and furanocoumarin fraction of three Heracleum species. Acta Pol. Pharm. Drug Res. 2017, 74, 723–728. 110. Sedzik, D.; Chabudzinski, ´ Z.; Kostecka-Madalska, O. Essential oil from Heracleum sosnowski Manden as a source of n-octanol. Acta Pol. Pharm. Drug Res. 1966, 23, 149–152. 111. Skalicka-Wozniak, ´ K.; Grzegorczyk, A.; Swiatek, ˛ Ł.; Walasek, M.; Widelski, J.; Rajtar, B.; Polz-Dacewicz, M.; Malm, A.; Elansary, H.O. Biological activity and safety profile of the essential oil from fruits of Heracleum mantegazzianum Somier & Levier (Apiaceae). Food Chem. Toxicol. 2017, 109, 820–826. 112. Szumny, A.; Adamski, M.; Winska, K.; Maczka, W.; Nowakowski, P. Chemical composition of volatile oils of giant-hogweed. Przem. Chem. 2012, 91, 1024–1027. 113. Tkachenko, K.G. Constituents of essential oils from fruit of some Heracleum L. species. J. Essent. Oil Res. 1993, 5, 687–689. [CrossRef] 114. Hattendorf, J.; Hansen, S.O.; Nentwig, W. Defence Systems of Heracleum mantegazzianum. Ecology and Management of Giant Hogweed: (Heracleum mantegazzianum); CAB International: Wallingford, UK, 2007; pp. 209–225. 115. Walasek, M.; Grzegorczyk, A.; Malm, A.; Skalicka-Wozniak, ´ K. Bioactivity-guided isolation of antimicrobial coumarins from Heracleum mantegazzianum Sommier & Levier (Apiaceae) fruits by high-performance counter-current chromatography. Food Chem. 2015, 186, 133–138. 116. Abyshev, A.Z.; Denisenko, P.P. The coumarin composition of Heracleum sosnowskyi. Chem. Nat. Compd. 1973, 9, 515–516. [CrossRef] 117. Glowniak, K.; Mroczek, T.; Zabza, A.; Cierpicki, T. Isolation and structure elucidation of 5,7-disubstituted simple coumarins in the fruits of Heracleum mantegazzianum. Pharm. Biol. 2000, 38, 308–312. [CrossRef] 118. Larbat, R.; Kellner, S.; Specker, S.; Hehn, A.; Gontier, E.; Hans, J.; Bourgaud, F.; Matern, U. Molecular cloning and functional characterization of psoralen synthase, the first committed monooxygenase of furanocoumarin biosynthesis. J. Biol. Chem. 2007, 282, 542–554. [CrossRef] 119. Mishyna, M.; Laman, N.; Prokhorov, V.; Fujii, Y. Angelicin as the principal allelochemical in Heracleum sosnowskyi fruit. Nat. Prod. Commun. 2015, 10, 767–770. [CrossRef] [PubMed] 120. Pira, E.; Romano, C.; Sulotto, F.; Pavan, I.; Monaco, E. Heracleum mantegazzianum growth phases and furocoumarin content. Contact Dermat. 1989, 21, 300–303. [CrossRef] [PubMed] 121. Vanhaelen, M.; Vanhaelen-Fastré, R. Furanocoumarins from the root of Heracleum mantegazzianum. Phytochemistry 1974, 13, 306. [CrossRef] 122. Weryszko-Chmielewska, E.; Chwil, M. Localisation of furanocoumarins in the tissues and on the surface of shoots of Heracleum sosnowskyi. Botany 2017, 95, 1057–1070. [CrossRef] 123. Zogg, G.C.; Nyiredy, S.; Sticher, O. Overpressured layer chromatographic (OPLC) separation of closely related furocoumarins. J. Liq. Chromatogr. 1987, 10, 3605–3621. [CrossRef] 124. Zogg, G.C.; Nyiredy, S.; Sticher, O. Apiaceae roots. Qualitative and quantitative furanocoumarin estimation in Apiaceae roots. Dtsch. Apoth. Ztg. 1989, 129, 717–722. 125. Shakhmatov, E.G.; Toukach, P.V.; Kuznetsov, S.P.; Makarova, E.N. Structural characteristics of water-soluble polysaccharides from Heracleum sosnowskyi Manden. Carbohydr. Polym. 2014, 102, 521–528. [CrossRef] 126. Gordina, E.N.; Kuznetsov, S.P.; Golovchenko, V.V.; Zlobin, A.A. Preliminary Structural Characteristic of Polysaccharides Extracted from the Callus Tissue of Sosnowskyi’s Hogweed (Heracleum Sosnowskyi Manden) Stem by Aqueous Ammonium Oxalate. Russ. J. Bioorganic Chem. 2019, 45, 522–527. [CrossRef] 127. Gordina, E.N.; Zlobin, A.A.; Martinson, E.A.; Litvinets, S.G. Pectic polysaccharides of callus tissue of the stem of Heracleum sosnowskyi Manden. Theor. Appl. Ecol. 2019, 1, 41–46. 128. Khudyakov, A.N.; Kuleshova, L.G.; Zaitseva, O.O.; Sergushkina, M.I.; Vetoshkin, K.A.; Polezhaeva, T.V. Effect of Pectins on Water Crystallization Pattern and Integrity of Cells during Freezing. Biopreservation Biobanking 2019, 17, 52–57. [CrossRef] 129. Makarova, E.N.; Shakhmatov, E.G.; Belyy, V.A. Structural characteristics of oxalate-soluble polysaccharides of Sosnowsky’s hogweed (Heracleum sosnowskyi Manden). Carbohydr. Polym. 2016, 153, 66–77. [CrossRef] 130. Mikhailova, E.A.; Shubakov, A.A. Production, properties and swelling of composite agar-pectic gel particles in an artificial gastroenteric environment. Int. J. Biomed. 2021, 11, 456–459. [CrossRef] 131. Patova, O.A.; Golovchenko, V.V.; Vityazev, F.V.; Burkov, A.A.; Belyi, V.A.; Kuznetsov, S.N.; Litvinets, S.G.; Martinson, E.A. Physicochemical and rheological properties of gelling pectin from Sosnowskyi’s hogweed (Heracleum sosnowskyi) obtained using different pretreatment conditions. Food Hydrocoll. 2017, 65, 77–86. [CrossRef] 132. Sabnis, D.D.; Hart, J.W. P-Protein in sieve elements—I. Ultrastructure after treatment with vinblastine and colchicine. Planta 1973, 109, 127–133. [CrossRef] Earth 2022, 3 307 133. Shakhmatov, E.G.; Atukmaev, K.V.; Makarova, E.N. Structural characteristics of pectic polysaccharides and arabinogalactan proteins from Heracleum sosnowskyi Manden. Carbohydr. Polym. 2016, 136, 1358–1369. [CrossRef] 134. Shubakov, A.A.; Mikhailova, E.A. Production, properties and swelling of composite pectic-gel particles in an artificial gastric environment. Int. J. Biomed. 2021, 11, 173–176. [CrossRef] 135. Dudkin, M.S.; Parfent’eva, M.A.; Cherno, N.K. Structure of the xyloglucan of the leaves of Heracleum sosnowskyi. Chem. Nat. Compd. 1984, 20, 261–263. [CrossRef] 136. Ezeala, D.O.; Hart, J.W.; Sabnis, D.D. Fractionation of monovalent ion-stimulated nucleoside triphosphatase activity in extracts of petiolar tissues. J. Exp. Bot. 1974, 25, 1037–1044. [CrossRef] 137. Ezeala, D.O.; Hart, J.W.; Sabnis, D.D. Stimulation by monovalent cations of adenosine triphosphatase activity in extracts of petiole tissues. J. Exp. Bot. 1974, 25, 1045–1052. [CrossRef] 138. Fan, P.; Hay, A.-E.; Marston, A.; Hostettmann, K. Acetylcholinesterase-inhibitory activity of linarin from Buddleja davidii, structure-activity relationships of related flavonoids, and chemical investigation of Buddleja nitida. Pharm. Biol. 2008, 46, 596–601. [CrossRef] 139. Hart, J.W.; Sabnis, D.D. Colchicine-binding protein from phloem and xylem of a higher plant. Planta 1973, 109, 147–152. [CrossRef] 140. Hart, J.W.; Sabnis, D.D. Binding of colchicine and lumicolchicine to components in plant extracts. Phytochemistry 1976, 15, 1897–1901. [CrossRef] 141. Hasanova, D.A. Determination of the toxicity of the plants, which form part of hepatoprotecting and immunomodulating phytocompositions. Azerbaijan Pharm. Pharmacother. J. 2013, 13, 36–39. 142. Ivanova, T.A.; Matveeva, T.N.; Chanturia, V.A.; Ivanova, E.N. Composition of multicomponent Heracleum extracts and its effect on flotation of gold-bearing sulfides. J. Min. Sci. 2015, 51, 819–824. [CrossRef] 143. Kordan, B.; Kosewska, A.; Szumny, A.; Wawrzenczyk, ´ C.; Gabrys, ´ B. Effects of aromatic plant extracts and major terpenoid constituents on feeding activity of the horse-chestnut leaf miner Cameraria Ohridella Deschka & Dimic. ´ Pol. J. Nat. Sci. 2013, 28, 53–62. 144. Punegov, V.V.; Gruzdev, I.V.; Triandafilov, A.F. Analysis of the composition of lipophilic substances in Heracleum sosnowskyi juice before and after electric discharge cavitation treatment. Khimiya Rastit. Syrya 2019, 3, 61–68. [CrossRef] 145. Sabnis, D.D.; Hart, J.W. Studies on the possible occurrence of actomyosin-like proteins in phloem. Planta 1974, 118, 271–281. [CrossRef] 146. Semchuk, N.N.; Balun, O.V.; Gladkikh, S.N. Influence of Deformation of Circadian Rhythms on Changes in Ontogenesis of Heracleum sosnowskyi Manden Plants. IOP Conf. Ser. Earth Environ. Sci. 2021, 852, 012090. [CrossRef] 147. Valiunas, D.; Samuitiene, M.; Rasomavicius, V.; Navalinskiene, M.; Staniulis, J.; Davis, R.E. Subgroup 16SrIII-F phytoplasma strains in an invasive plant, Heracleum sosnowskyi, and an ornamental, Dictamnus albus. J. Plant Pathol. 2007, 89, 137–140. 148. Barclay, G.F.; Johnson, R.P.C. Analysis of particle motion in sieve tubes of Heracleum. Plant Cell Environ. 1982, 5, 173–178. [CrossRef] 149. Barclay, G.F.; Oparka, K.J.; Johnson, R.P.C. Induced disruption of sieve element plastids in Heracleum mantegazzianum L. J. Exp. Bot. 1977, 28, 709–717. [CrossRef] 150. Dalke, I.V.; Malyshev, R.V.; Maslova, S.P. Ecophysiology of Heracleum sosnowskyi plant respiration in the north. Theor. Appl. Ecol. 2020, 2, 77–82. 151. Karmanov, A.P.; Kocheva, L.S.; Belyy, V.A. Topological structure and antioxidant properties of macromolecules of lignin of hogweed Heracleum sosnowskyi Manden. Polymer 2020, 202, 122756. [CrossRef] 152. O’Brien, T.P.; Kuo, J.; Mc Cully, M.E.; Zee, S.-Y. Coagulant and non-coagulant fixation of plant cells. Aust. J. Biol. Sci. 1973, 26, 1231–1250. [CrossRef] 153. O’Brien, T.P.; McCully, M.E. Cytoplasmic fibres associated with streaming and saltatory-particle movement in Heracleum mantegazzianum. Planta 1970, 94, 91–94. [CrossRef] 154. Stepina, I.; Sodomon, M.; Semenov, V.; Dorzhieva, E.; Titova, I. Modifying Heracleum sosnowskyi Stems with Monoethanolamine (N!B)-trihydroxyborate for Manufacturing Biopositive Building Materials. Lect. Notes Civ. Eng. 2022, 170, 45–52. 155. Mishyna, M.; Pham, V.T.T.; Fujii, Y. Evaluation of allelopathic activity of Heracleum sosnowskyi Manden fruits. Allelopath. J. 2017, 42, 169–178. [CrossRef] 156. Tovstik, E.V.; Sazanov, A.V.; Bakulina, A.V.; Shirokikh, I.G.; Ashikhmina, T.Y. Identification and study of the properties of Streptomyces geldanamycininus 3K9, isolated from the soil under the bush of Heracleum sosnowskyi. Theor. Appl. Ecol. 2019, 2, 53–60. 157. Vanderhoeven, S.; Dassonville, N.; Meerts, P. Increased topsoil mineral nutrient concentrations under exotic invasive plants in Belgium. Plant Soil 2005, 275, 169–179. [CrossRef] 158. Imanly, H.A.; Serkerov, S.V. Investigation of component composition of roots and fruits Heracleum sosnowskyi Manden. Azerbaijan Pharm. Pharmacother. J. 2016, 16, 24–26. 159. Rysiak, A.; Dresler, S.; Hanaka, A.; Hawrylak-Nowak, B.; Strzemski, M.; Kovácik, ˇ J.; Sowa, I.; Latalski, M.; Wójciak, M. High temperature alters secondary metabolites and photosynthetic efficiency in Heracleum sosnowskyi. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 4756. [CrossRef] 160. Tulinov, A.G.; Mikhailova, E.A.; Shubakov, A.A. Application of pectic polysaccharides as stimulants for growth and development of Solanum Tuberosum L. Khimiya Rastit. Syrya 2018, 21, 289–298. Earth 2022, 3 308 161. Andrews, A.H.; Giles, C.J.; Thomsett, L.R. Suspected poisoning of a goat by giant hogweed. Vet. Rec. 1985, 116, 205–207. [CrossRef] 162. Kristiansen, B.; Penninga, L.; Diernaes, J.E.F. Challenging cause of bullous eruption of the hands in the Arctic. BMJ Case Rep. S 2018, 2018, bcr-2018-225981. [CrossRef] 163. Lee, E.C.; Catalfomo, P.; Sciuchetti, L.A. Preliminary investigations of Heracleum mantegazzianum. J. Pharm. Sci. 1966, 55, 521–522. [CrossRef] 164. Hansen, S.O.; Hattendorf, J.; Nentwig, W. Mutualistic relationship beneficial for aphids and ants on giant hogweed (Heracleum mantegazzianum). Com. Ecol. 2006, 7, 43–52. [CrossRef] 165. Tkachenko, K.G. Antiviral activity of the essential oils of some Heracleum L. species. J. Herbs Spices Med. Plants 2006, 12, 1–12. [CrossRef] 166. Kousha, A.; Ringø, E. Antibacterial effect of aquatic extract of Heracleum spp. hogweed plants from Europe on thirteen different bacteria. Pharm. Chem. J. 2015, 48, 677–680. [CrossRef] 167. Malfanova, N.; Kamilova, F.; Validov, S.; Shcherbakov, A.; Chebotar, V.; Tikhonovich, I.; Lugtenberg, B. Characterization of Bacillus subtilis HC8, a novel plant-beneficial endophytic strain from giant hogweed. Microb. Biotechnol. 2011, 4, 523–532. [CrossRef] [PubMed] 168. Grace, J.; Nelson, M. Insects and their pollen loads at a hybrid Heracleum site. New Phytol. 1981, 87, 413–423. [CrossRef] 169. Hansen, S.O.; Hattendorf, J.; Nielsen, C.; Wittenberg, R.; Nentwig, W. Herbivorous Arthropods on Heracleum Mantegazzianum in its Native and Invaded Distribution Range. Ecology and Management of Giant Hogweed: (Heracleum mantegazzianum); CAB International: Wallingford, UK, 2007; pp. 170–188. 170. Nielsen, C.; Heimes, C.; Kollmann, J. Little evidence for negative effects of an invasive alien plant on pollinator services. Biol. Invasions 2008, 10, 1353–1363. [CrossRef] 171. Ustinova, E.N.; Savina, K.A.; Lysenkov, S.N. New data on consortive associations of Sosnowsky’s hogweed with anthophilous insects. Russ. J. Biol. Invasions 2017, 8, 375–385. [CrossRef] 172. Davis, E.S.; Kelly, R.; Maggs, C.A.; Stout, J.C. Contrasting impacts of highly invasive plant species on flower-visiting insect communities. Biodivers. Conserv. 2018, 27, 2069–2085. [CrossRef] 173. Bürki, C.; Nentwig, W. Comparison of herbivore insect communities of Heracleum sphondylium and H. mantegazzianum in Switzerland (Spermatophyta: Apiaceae). Entomol. Gener. 1997, 22, 147–155. [CrossRef] 174. Hardman, J.A.; Ellis, P.R. An investigation of the host range of the carrot fly. Ann. Appl. Biol. 1982, 100, 1–9. [CrossRef] 175. Karsholt, O.; Lvovsky, A.L.; Nielsen, C. A new species of Agonopterix feeding on giant hogweed (Heracleum mantegazzianum) in the Caucasus, with a discussion of the nomenclature of A. heracliana (Linnaeus) (Depressariidae). Nota Lepidopterol. 2005, 28, 177–192. 176. Van Alphen, J.J.M.; Nordlander, G.; Eijs, I. Host habitat finding and host selection of the Drosophila parasitoid Leptopilina australis (Hymenoptera, Eucoilidae), with a comparison of the niches of European Leptopilina species. Oecologia 1991, 87, 324–329. [CrossRef] [PubMed] 177. Hattendorf, J.; Hansen, S.O.; Reznik, S.Y.; Nentwig, W. Herbivore impact versus host size preference: Endophagous insects on Heracleum mantegazzianum in its native range. Environ. Entomol. 2006, 35, 1013–1020. [CrossRef] 178. Reznik, S.Y.; Dolgovskaya, M.Y.; Zaitzev, V.F.; Davidyan, G.E.; Nentwig, W. Evaluation of Nastus faustii Reitter (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Entiminae: Nastini) for biological control of invasive giant hogweeds (Heracleum spp.). Entomol. Rev. 2008, 88, 640–650. [CrossRef] 179. Krivosheina, M.; Ozerova, N. To the biology of celery fly Euleia heraclei (Linnaeus, 1758) (Diptera: Tephritidae)—Pest of alien Apiaceae species in Moscow Region. Russ. Entomol. J. 2016, 25, 209–213. [CrossRef] 180. Gültekin, L. Host plant range and biology of Lixus nordmanni Hochhuth (Coleoptera, Curculionidae) on hogweed Heracleum L. in eastern Turkey. J. Pest. Sci. 2006, 79, 23–25. [CrossRef] 181. Jobin, A.; Schaffner, U.; Nentwig, W. The structure of the phytophagous insect fauna on the introduced weed Solidago altissima in Switzerland. Entomol. Exp. Et Appl. 1996, 79, 33–42. [CrossRef] 182. Krivosheina, M.G. Insect pests of Sosnowsky hogweed (Heracleum sosnowskyi) in Moscow region and the prospects of their usage in biological control. Russ. J. Biol. Invasions 2011, 2, 99–102. [CrossRef] 183. Mägi, E.; Järvis, T.; Miller, I. Effects of different plant products against pig mange mites. Acta Vet. Brno 2006, 75, 283–287. [CrossRef] 184. Renco, ˇ M.; Baležentiené, L. An analysis of soil-free-living and plant-parasitic nematode communities in three habitats invaded by Heracleum sosnowskyi in central Lithuania. Biol. Invasions 2015, 17, 1025–1039. [CrossRef] 185. Renco, ˇ M.; Kornobis, F.W.; Domaradzki, K.; Jakubska-Busse, A.; Jurová, J.; Homolová, Z. How does an invasive Heracleum sosnowskyi affect soil nematode communities in natural conditions? Nematology 2019, 21, 71–89. [CrossRef] 186. Renco, ˇ M.; Jurová, J.; Gömöryová, E.; Cerevková, A. Long-term giant hogweed invasion contributes to the structural changes of soil nematofauna. Plants 2021, 10, 2103. [CrossRef] [PubMed] 187. Cerevková, A.; Ivashchenko, K.; Miklisová, D.; Ananyeva, N.; Renco, ˇ M. Influence of invasion by Sosnowsky’s hogweed on nematode communities and microbial activity in forest and grassland ecosystems. GECCO 2020, 21, e00851. [CrossRef] Earth 2022, 3 309 188. Stukalyuk, S.V.; Zhuravlev, V.V.; Netsvetov, M.V.; Kozyr, M.S. Effect of Invasive Species of Herbaceous Plants and Associated Aphids (Hemiptera, Sternorrhyncha: Aphididae) on the Structure of Ant Assemblages (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Entomol. Rev. 2019, 99, 711–732. [CrossRef] 189. Grzedzicka, ˛ E.; Reif, J. Impacts of an invasive plant on bird communities differ along a habitat gradient. GECCO 2020, 23, e01150. [CrossRef] 190. Grzedzicka, ˛ E.; Reif, J. The impact of Sosnowsky’s Hogweed on feeding guilds of birds. J. Ornithol. 2021, 162, 1115–1128. [CrossRef] 191. Thiele, J.; Otte, A.; Eckstein, R.L. Ecological Needs, Habitat Preferences and Plant Communities Invaded by Heracleum mantegazzianum. Ecology and Management of Giant Hogweed: (Heracleum Mantegazzianum); CAB International: Wallingford, UK, 2007; pp. 126–143. 192. Thiele, J.; Otte, A. Analysis of habitats and communities invaded by Heracleum mantegazzianum Somm. et Lev. (Giant Hogweed) in Germany. Phytocoenologia 2006, 36, 281–320. [CrossRef] 193. Dalke, I.V.; Chadin, I.F.; Zakhozhiy, I.G.; Malyshev, R.V.; Maslova, S.P.; Tabalenkova, G.N.; Golovko, T.K. Traits of Heracleum sosnowskyi plants in monostand on invaded area. PLoS ONE 2015, 10, e0142833. [CrossRef] 194. Baležentiene, L. Inhibitory effects of invasive Heracleum sosnowskyi on rapeseed and ryegrass germination. Allelopath. J. 2013, 30, 197–208. 195. Callaway, R.M.; Hierro, J.L. Resistance and susceptibility of plant communities to invasion: Revisiting Rabotnov’s ideas about community homeostasis. In Allelopathy: A Physiological Process with Ecological Implications; Springer Science & Business Media: Berlin/Heidelberg, Germany, 2006; pp. 395–414. 196. Gioria, M.; Osborne, B. Assessing the impact of plant invasions on soil seed bank communities: Use of univariate and multivariate statistical approaches. J. Veg. Sci. 2009, 20, 547–556. [CrossRef] 197. Pyšek, P.; Prach, K. Plant invasions and the role of riparian habitats: A comparison of four species alien to central Europe. J. Biogeogr. 1993, 20, 413–420. [CrossRef] 198. Tretyakova, A.S. Invasive potential of adventive plant species of the Middle Urals. Russ. J. Biol. Invasions 2011, 2, 281–285. [CrossRef] 199. Bulokhov, A.D.; Semenishchenkov, Y.A.; Panasenko, N.N. Nitrophyte grass communities of the class Epilobietea angustifolii Tx. et preising ex von Rochow 1951 in the Sozh-Desna interfluve. Rastit. Ross. 2018, 33, 19–40. 200. Dudova, K.V.; Dzhatdoeva, T.M.; Dudov, S.V.; Akhmetzhanova, A.A.; Tekeev, D.K.; Onipchenko, V.G. Competitive Strategy of Subalpine Tall-Grass Species of the Northwestern Caucasus. Mosc. Univ. Biol. Sci. Bull. 2019, 74, 140–146. [CrossRef] 201. Hüls, J.; Otte, A.; Eckstein, R.L. Population life-cycle and stand structure in dense and open stands of the introduced tall herb Heracleum mantegazzianum. Biol. Invasions 2007, 9, 799–811. [CrossRef] 202. Otte, A.; Franke, R. The ecology of the Caucasian herbaceous perennial Heracleum mantegazzianum Somm. et Lev. (Giant Hogweed) in cultural ecosystems of Central Europe. Phytocoenologia 1998, 28, 205–232. [CrossRef] 203. Ozerova, N.A.; Kuklina, A.G. Floristic transformation of the steppe area in the lower reaches of the Osyotr River due to anthropogenic impact. IOP Conf. Ser. Earth Environ. Sci. 2021, 817, 012079. [CrossRef] 204. Pattison, Z.; Minderman, J.; Boon, P.J.; Willby, N. Twenty years of change in riverside vegetation: What role have invasive alien plants played? Appl. Veg. Sci. 2017, 20, 422–434. [CrossRef] 205. Thiele, J.; Isermann, M.; Otte, A.; Kollmann, J. Competitive displacement or biotic resistance? Disentangling relationships between community diversity and invasion success of tall herbs and shrubs. J. Veg. Sci. 2010, 21, 213–220. [CrossRef] 206. Thiele, J.; Otte, A. Impact of Heracleum mantegazzianum on Invaded Vegetation and Human Activities. Ecology and Management of Giant Hogweed: (Heracleum mantegazzianum); CAB International: Wallingford, UK, 2007; pp. 144–156. 207. Csiszár, Á.; Korda, M.; Schmidt, D.; Sporci ˇ c, ´ D.; Süle, P.; Teleki, B.; Tiborcz, V.; Zagyvai, G.; Bartha, D. Allelopathic potential of some invasive plant species occurring in Hungary. Allelopath. J. 2013, 31, 309–318. 208. Jandová, K.; Dostál, P.; Cajthaml, T. Searching for Heracleum mantegazzianum allelopathy in vitro and in a garden experiment. Biol. Invasions 2015, 17, 987–1003. [CrossRef] 209. Jandová, K.; Dostál, P.; Cajthaml, T.; Kameník, Z. Intra-specific variability in allelopathy of Heracleum mantegazzianum is linked to the metabolic profile of root exudates. Ann. Bot. 2015, 115, 821–831. [CrossRef] [PubMed] 210. Loydi, A.; Donath, T.W.; Eckstein, R.L.; Otte, A. Non-native species litter reduces germination and growth of resident forbs and grasses: Allelopathic, osmotic or mechanical effects? Biol. Invasions 2015, 17, 581–595. [CrossRef] 211. Wille, W.; Thiele, J.; Walker, E.A.; Kollmann, J. Limited evidence for allelopathic effects of giant hogweed on germination of native herbs. Seed Sci. Res. 2013, 23, 157–162. [CrossRef] 212. Jandová, K.; Klinerová, T.; Müllerová, J.; Pyšek, P.; Pergl, J.; Cajthaml, T.; Dostál, P. Long-term impact of Heracleum mantegazzianum invasion on soil chemical and biological characteristics. Soil Biol. Biochem. 2014, 68, 270–278. [CrossRef] 213. Glushakova, A.M.; Kachalkin, A.V.; Chernov, I.Y. Soil yeast communities under the aggressive invasion of Sosnowsky’s hogweed (Heracleum sosnowskyi). Eurasian Soil Sci. 2015, 48, 201–207. [CrossRef] 214. Glushakova, A.M.; Kachalkin, A.V.; Chernov, I.Y. Effect of invasive herb species on the structure of soil yeast complexes in mixed forests exemplified by Impatiens parviflora DC. Microbiology 2015, 84, 717–721. [CrossRef] 215. Bobulská, L.; Demková, L.; Cerevková, A.; Renco, M. Plant invasion alter activity of soil microbial community in forest and grassland ecosystems of Eastern Slovakia. In Proceedings of the International Multidisciplinary Scientific GeoConference Surveying Geology and Mining Ecology Management, Albena, Bulgaria, 30 June–6 July 2019; Volume 19, pp. 595–602. Earth 2022, 3 310 216. Dassonville, N.; Vanderhoeven, S.; Vanparys, V.; Hayez, M.; Gruber, W.; Meerts, P. Impacts of alien invasive plants on soil nutrients are correlated with initial site conditions in NW Europe. Oecologia 2008, 157, 131–140. [CrossRef] 217. Feige, G.B.; Ale-Agha, N. Mycodiversity on a dead stem of the giant hogweed Heracleum mantegazzianum Sommer et Levier. Commun. Agric. Appl. Biol. Sci. 2004, 69, 479–487. 218. Gioria, M.; Osborne, B. Similarities in the impact of three large invasive plant species on soil seed bank communities. Biol. Invasions 2010, 12, 1671–1683. [CrossRef] 219. Koutika, L.-S.; Vanderhoeven, S.; Chapuis-Lardy, L.; Dassonville, N.; Meerts, P. Assessment of changes in soil organic matter after invasion by exotic plant species. Biol. Fertil. Soils 2007, 44, 331–341. [CrossRef] 220. Koutika, L.-S.; Rainey, H.J.; Dassonville, N. Impacts of Solidago gigantea, Prunus serotina, Heracleum mantegazzianum and Fallopia japonica invasions on ecosystems. Appl. Ecol. Environ. Res. 2011, 9, 73–83. [CrossRef] 221. Lapteva, E.M.; Zakhozhiy, I.G.; Dalke, I.V.; Smotrina, Y.A.; Genrikh, E.A. Influence of Heracleum sosnowskyi Manden. invasion on postagrogenic soil fertility in European North-East. Theor. Appl. Ecol. 2021, 3, 66–73. 222. Markovskaja, S.; Kacer ˇ gius, A. Morphological and molecular characterisation of Periconia pseudobyssoides sp. nov. and closely related P. byssoides. Mycol. Prog. 2014, 13, 291–302. [CrossRef] 223. Rafikova, O.; Kiseleva, O.; Veselkin, D. Seed germination of native plants in soil transformed by invasive plants Acer negundo and Heracleum sosnowskyi. E3S Web Conf. 2020, 176, 03002. [CrossRef] 224. Seier, M.K.; Evans, H.C. Fungal Pathogens Associated with Heracleum Mantegazzianum in its Native and Invaded Distribution Range. Ecology and Management of Giant Hogweed: (Heracleum Mantegazzianum); CAB International: Wallingford, UK, 2007; pp. 189–208. 225. Tovstik, E.V.; Soloveva, E.S.; Shirokikh, A.A.; Ashikhmina, T.; Savinykh, V. The change in soil actinobiote under the influence of Heracleum sosnowskyi invasion. Theor. Appl. Ecol. 2018, 4, 114–118. 226. Baležentiene, L.; Stankeviciene, A.; Snieškiene, V. Heracleum sosnowskyi (Apiaceae) seed productivity and establishment in different habitats of central Lithuania. Ekologija 2013, 59, 123–133. [CrossRef] 227. Van Meerbeek, K.; Appels, L.; Dewil, R.; Calmeyn, A.; Lemmens, P.; Muys, B.; Hermy, M. Biomass of invasive plant species as a potential feedstock for bioenergy production. Biofuels Bioprod. Bioref. 2015, 9, 273–282. [CrossRef] 228. Betekhtina, A.A.; Ronzhina, D.A.; Ivanova, L.A.; Malygin, M.V.; Ivanov, L.A. Relative Growth Rate and Its Components in Invasive Species Heracleum sosnowskyi and Congeneric Native Species H. sibiricum. Russ. J. Biol. Invasions 2019, 10, 5–11. [CrossRef] 229. Pergl, J.; Perglová, I.; Pyšek, P.; Dietz, H. Population age structure and reproductive behaviour of the monocarpic perennial, Heracleum mantegazzianum (Apiaceae) in its native and invaded distribution ranges. Am. J. Bot. 2006, 93, 1018–1028. [CrossRef] 230. Pyšek, P.; Kucer ˇ a, T.; Puntieri, J.; Mandák, B. Regeneration in Heracleum mantegazzianum—Response to removal of vegetative and generative parts. Preslia 1995, 67, 161–171. 231. Dubrovskis, V.; Adamovics, A.; Plume, I.; Kotelenecs, V.; Zabarovskis, E. Biogas production from greater burdock, largeleaf lupin and sosnovsky cow parsnip. Eng. Rural Dev. 2011, 17, 388–392. 232. Polina, I.N.; Mironov, M.V.; Belyy, V.A. Thermogravimetric and Kinetic Study of Fuel Pellets from Biomass of Heracleum Sosnowskyi Manden. ChemChemTech 2021, 64, 15–20. [CrossRef] 233. Voznyakovskii, A.P.; Karmanov, A.P.; Neverovskaya, A.Y.; Vozniakovskii, A.A.; Kocheva, L.S.; Kidalov, S.V. Biomass of Sos- nowsky’s Hogweed as Raw Material for Obtaining 2D Carbonic Nanostructures. Russ. J. Bioorganic Chem. 2021, 47, 1381–1388. [CrossRef] 234. Zihare, L.; Soloha, R.; Blumberga, D. The potential use of invasive plant species as solid biofuel by using binders. Argonomy Res. 2018, 16, 923–935. 235. Moravcová, L.; Pyšek, P.; Krinke, L.; Pergl, J.; Perglová, I.; Thompson, K. Seed Germination, Dispersaland Seed Bank in Heracleum Mantegazzianum. Ecology and Management of Giant Hogweed: (Heracleum Mantegazzianum); CAB International: Wallingford, UK, 2007; pp. 74–91. 236. Perglová, J.; Pergl, J.; Pyšek, P. Flowering phenology and reproductive effort of the invasive alien plant Heracleum mantegazzianum. Preslia 2006, 78, 265–285. 237. Gudžinskas, Z.; Žalneravicius, ˇ E. Seedling Dynamics and Population Structure of Invasive Heracleum sosnowskyi (Apiaceae) in Lithuania. Ann. Bot. Fenn. 2018, 55, 309–320. [CrossRef] 238. Krinke, L.; Moravcová, L.; Pyšek, P.; Jarošik, V.; Pergl, J.; Perglová, I. Seed bank of an invasive alien, Heracleum mantegazzianum, and its seasonal dynamics. Seed Sci. Res. 2005, 15, 239–248. [CrossRef] 239. Moravcová, L.; Pyšek, P.; Pergl, J.; Perglová, I.; Jarošík, V. Seasonal pattern of germination and seed longevity in the invasive species Heracleum mantegazzianum. Preslia 2006, 78, 287–301. 240. Tanke, A.; Müller, J.; De Mol, F. Seed viability of Heracleum mantegazzianum (Apiaceae) is quickly reduced at temperatures prevailing in biogas plants. Agronomy 2019, 9, 332. [CrossRef] 241. Koryzniene, D.; Jurkoniene, S.; Žalnierius, T.; Gaveliene, V.; Jankovska-Bortkevic, ˇ E.; Bareikiene, N.; Buda, ¯ V. Heracleum sosnowskyi seed development under the effect of exogenous application of GA3. PeerJ 2019, 7, e6906. [CrossRef] [PubMed] 242. Moravcová, L.; Pyšek, P.; Krinke, L.; Müllerová, J.; Perglová, I.; Pergl, J. Long-term survival in soil of seed of the invasive herbaceous plant Heracleum mantegazzianum. Preslia 2018, 90, 225–234. [CrossRef] 243. Willis, S.G.; Hulme, P.E. Does temperature limit the invasion of Impatiens glandulifera and Heracleum mantegazzianum in the UK? Funct. Ecol. 2002, 16, 530–539. [CrossRef] Earth 2022, 3 311 244. Chadin, I.; Dalke, I.; Tishin, D.; Zakhozhiy, I.; Malyshev, R. A simple mechanistic model of the invasive species Heracleum sosnowskyi propagule dispersal by wind. PeerJ 2021, 9, e11821. [CrossRef] 245. Page, N.A.; Wall, R.E.; Darbyshire, S.J.; Mulligan, G.A. The biology of invasive alien plants in Canada. Heracleum mantegazzianum Sommier & Levier. Can. J. Plant Sci. 2006, 86, 569–589. 246. Jurkoniene, S.; Žalnierius, T.; Gaveliene, V.; Švegždiené, D.; Šiliauskas, L.; Skridlaite, G. Morphological and anatomical comparison of mericarps from different types of umbels of Heracleum sosnowskyi. Bot. Lith. 2016, 22, 161–168. 247. Kowal, T. Fruit morphology of some Heracleum L., species. Monogr. Bot. 1975, 49, 79–109. [CrossRef] 248. Moravcová, L.; Perglova, I.; Pyšek, P.; Jarošik, V.; Pergl, J. Effects of fruit position on fruit mass and seed germination in the alien species Heracleum mantegazzianum (Apiaceae) and the implications for its invasion. Acta Oecol. 2005, 28, 1–10. [CrossRef] 249. Pyšek, P.; Krinke, L.; Jarošik, V.; Perglová, I.; Pergl, J.; Moravcová, L. Timing and extent of tissue removal affect reproduction characteristics of an invasive species Heracleum mantegazzianum. Biol. Invasions 2007, 9, 335–351. [CrossRef] 250. Chadin, I.F.; Dalke, I.V.; Malyshev, R.V. Evaluation of Heracleum sosnowskyi Frost Resistance after Snow Cover Removal in Early Spring. Russ. J. Biol. Invasions 2019, 10, 83–91. [CrossRef] 251. Baležentiene, ˙ L.; Marozas, V.; Mikša, O. Comparison of the carbon and water fluxes of some aggressive invasive species in Baltic grassland and shrub habitats. Atmosphere 2021, 12, 969. [CrossRef] 252. Brisson, J.; Teasdale, V.; Boivin, P.; Lavoie, C. Plant Cover Restoration to Inhibit Seedling Emergence, Growth or Survival of an Exotic Invasive Plant Species. Ecoscience 2020, 27, 185–194. [CrossRef] 253. Dalke, I.V.; Chadin, I.F.; Malyshev, R.V.; Zakhozhiy, I.G.; Tishin, D.V.; Kharevsky, A.A.; Solod, E.G.; Shaikina, M.N.; Popova, M.Y.; Polyudchenkov, I.P.; et al. Laboratory and Field Assessment of the Frost Resistance of Sosnowsky’s Hogweed. Russ. J. Biol. Invasions 2020, 11, 9–20. [CrossRef] 254. Kasperek, G. Neophytism from aspects of chorological and ecological plant geography, shown in a case study from the Eifel-Rur river system, Western Germany. Erdkunde 1999, 53, 330–348. 255. Veselkin, D.V.; Ivanova, L.A.; Ivanov, L.A.; Mikryukova, M.A.; Bolshakov, V.N.; Betekhtina, A.A. Rapid use of resources as a basis of the Heracleum sosnowskyi invasive syndrome. Dokl. Biol. Sci. 2017, 473, 53–56. [CrossRef] 256. Cock, M.J.W.; Seier, M.K. The Scope for Biological Control of Giant Hogweed, Heracleum Mantegazzianum. Ecology and Management of Giant Hogweed: (Heracleum Mantegazzianum); CAB International: Wallingford, UK, 2007; pp. 255–271. 257. Gasich, E.L.; Berestetskiy, A.O.; Khlopunova, L.B. Mycobiota of Heracleum species in North-West region of Russia and perspective micromycetes for Heracleum sosnowskyi control. Mikol. I Fitopatol. 2013, 47, 333–342. 258. Gasich, E.L.; Khlopunova, L.B.; Berestetskiy, A.O. Effect of ecological factors on Calophoma complanata pathogenicity for Heracleum sosnowskyi. Mikol. I Fitopatol. 2018, 52, 207–216. 259. Harvey, J.A.; Ode, P.J.; Gols, R.; Ali, J. Population- And Species-Based Variation of Webworm-Parasitoid Interactions in Hogweeds (Heracelum spp.) in the Netherlands. Environ. Entomol. 2020, 49, 924–930. [CrossRef] 260. Ode, P.J.; Berenbaum, M.R.; Zangerl, A.R.; Hardy, I.C.W. Host plant, host plant chemistry and the polyembryonic parasitoid Copidosoma sosares: Indirect effects in a tritrophic interaction. Oikos 2005, 104, 388–400. [CrossRef] 261. Postnikov, A.; Partolina, A.; Egorov, A.; Pavlyuchenkova, L.; Bubnov, A. Selective herbicides to control Sosnowsky’s hogweed (Heracleum sosnowskyi Manden.) in pine and spruce plantations. IOP Conf. Ser. Earth Environ. Sci. 2021, 876, 012062. [CrossRef] 262. Semchuk, N.N.; Balun, O.V. Development of a biological method to control the poisonous weed plant Heracleum sosnowskyi Manden. IOP Conf. Ser. Earth Environ. Sci. 2020, 613, 012132. [CrossRef] 263. Henry, P.; Le Lay, G.; Goudet, J.; Guisan, A.; Jahodová, S.; Besnard, G. Reduced genetic diversity, increased isolation and multiple introductions of invasive giant hogweed in the western Swiss Alps. Mol. Ecol. 2009, 18, 2819–2831. [CrossRef] 264. Niinikoski, P.; Korpelainen, H. Population genetics of the invasive giant hogweed (Heracleum sp.) in a northern European region. Plant Ecol. 2015, 216, 1155–1162. [CrossRef] 265. Osipova, E.S.; Stepanova, A.Y.; Tereshonok, D.V.; Gladkov, E.A.; Vysotskaya, O.N. Genetic diversity in invasive populations of Lupinus polyphyllus Lindl. and Heracleum sosnowskyi Manden. Biology 2021, 10, 1094. [CrossRef] [PubMed] 266. Walker, N.F.; Hulme, P.E.; Hoelzel, A.R. Population genetics of an invasive species, Heracleum mantegazzianum: Implications for the role of life history, demographics and independent introductions. Mol. Ecol. 2003, 12, 243–252. [CrossRef] 267. Walker, N.F.; Hulme, P.E.; Hoelzel, A.R. Population genetics of an invasive riparian species, Impatiens glandulifera. Plant Ecol. 2009, 203, 243–252. [CrossRef] 268. Rijal, D.P.; Falahati-Anbaran, M.; Alm, T.; Alsos, I.G. Microsatellite markers for Heracleum persicum (Apiaceae) and allied taxa: Application of next-generation sequencing to develop genetic resources for invasive species management. Plant Mol. Biol. Rep. 2015, 33, 1381–1390. [CrossRef] 269. Henry, P.; Provan, J.; Goudet, J.; Guisan, A.; Jahodová, Š.; Besnard, G. A set of primers for plastid indels and nuclear microsatellites in the invasive plant Heracleum mantegazzianum (Apiaceae) and their transferability to Heracleum sphondylium. Mol. Ecol. Resour. 2008, 8, 161–163. [CrossRef] 270. Weimarck, G.; Stewart, F.; Grace, J. Morphometric and chromatographic variation and male meiosis in the hybrid Heracleum mantegazzianum x H. sphondylium (Apiaceae) and its parents. Hereditas 1979, 91, 117–127. [CrossRef] 271. Arora, K.; Grace, J.; Stewart, F. Epidermal features of Heracleum mantegazzianum Somm. & Lev., H. sphondylium L. and their hybrid. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 1982, 85, 169–177. Earth 2022, 3 312 272. Pesnya, D.S.; Romanovsky, A.V.; Serov, D.A.; Poddubnaya, N.Y. Genotoxic effects of Heracleum sosnowskyi in the Allium cepa test. Caryologia 2017, 70, 55–61. [CrossRef] 273. Prinsloo, G.; Nogemane, N.; Street, R. The use of plants containing genotoxic carcinogens as foods and medicine. Food Chem. Toxicol. 2018, 116, 27–39. [CrossRef] [PubMed] 274. Pozdnyakov, A.I. Bioelectric potentials in the soil-plant system. Eur. Soil Sci. 2013, 46, 742–750. [CrossRef] 275. Yarnell, E.; Abascal, K. Potential of herbs as clinical photosensitizers. Altern. Complementary Ther. 2012, 18, 192–198. [CrossRef] 276. Dostál, P.; Müllerová, J.; Pyšek, P.; Pergl, J.; Klinerová, T. The impact of an invasive plant changes over time. Ecol. Lett. 2013, 16, 1277–1284. [CrossRef] [PubMed] 277. Tkachenko, K.G. Heteromericarpy of Heracleum sosnowskyi manden. (Umbelliferae = Apiaceae). Proc. Appl. Bot. Gen. Breed. 2020, 181, 156–163. [CrossRef]

Journal

EarthMultidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute

Published: Feb 18, 2022

Keywords: Heracleum mantegazzianum; Heracleum sosnowskyi; dispersal; invasion control; biochemistry; plant ecology; biodiversity; agricultural sciences; genetics

There are no references for this article.