Get 20M+ Full-Text Papers For Less Than $1.50/day. Start a 14-Day Trial for You or Your Team.

Learn More →

Diachronic Changes and Factors Influencing the Exterior Design of High-Rise Apartment Buildings

Diachronic Changes and Factors Influencing the Exterior Design of High-Rise Apartment Buildings buildings Article Diachronic Changes and Factors Influencing the Exterior Design of High-Rise Apartment Buildings 1 2 , Keumrok Gong and Jeehyun Nam * Department of Architecture, Induk University, Seoul 01878, Korea; gonglee@induk.ac.kr Department of Urban Planning & Housing, Gyeonggi Research Institute, Suwon 16207, Korea * Correspondence: skyish@gri.re.kr Abstract: High-rise apartment buildings, the preferred type of housing in South Korea, have very similar exteriors. Thus, apartment complexes tend to look similar with no unique identity of com- plex or city. This study aimed to identify the factors influencing the exterior design of high-rise apartment buildings in their 40-year history. I surveyed 50 apartment complexes from the 1970s to 2010, categorized important periods in Korean history, and analyzed corresponding changes in the exterior design of high-rise apartment buildings. I visited apartments in Seoul to take photos and conduct field surveys, and statistically analyzed the results by classifying the buildings’ external characteristics. I found correlations between the exterior design of the buildings and three major factors influencing their changes and development. The first is increasing institutional supply in the 1970s and developing landscapes in the 2000s. The second is an economic factor—economic growth. Third, as technology developed, apartment buildings transitioned from low-rise to high-rise, and their exterior design underwent many changes. This study reveals the relationship between changes in high-rise apartment buildings’ exteriors as they developed alongside South Korea’s growth and the influencing factors, and presents major factors that determine the direction of exterior design for high-rise apartment buildings in the future. Citation: Gong, K.; Nam, J. Keywords: high-rise apartment buildings; residential buildings; exterior design; influencing factors Diachronic Changes and Factors Influencing the Exterior Design of High-Rise Apartment Buildings. Buildings 2022, 12, 892. https:// 1. Introduction doi.org/10.3390/buildings12070892 Apartments comprise the majority of housing in South Korea and are the most common Academic Editors: Pierfrancesco De and preferred type of housing in the country. The period when apartments were introduced Paola and Baojie He and developed, the 1970s, roughly coincides with the period of industrialization in South Received: 27 April 2022 Korea. High-rise apartment buildings emerged in the form of large-scale complexes from Accepted: 22 June 2022 the early 1970s and have greatly developed in their type and structure throughout their Published: 24 June 2022 40-year history. Despite these changes and developments, however, apartment complexes look similar Publisher’s Note: MDPI stays neutral in appearance all over the country. The mainstream style is a design of matchboxes arranged with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affil- side by side. Consequently, apartment complexes inevitably look similar nationwide, and it iations. becomes difficult for a complex or city to capture its unique identity. In these circumstances, the only way to secure a complex’s identity is to partially modify the exterior elements that can differentiate the complex without greatly changing the interior. Possible elements include the residential building type, roof, rooftop, and lower floors. Copyright: © 2022 by the authors. Many studies on the exterior design of apartment buildings have been conducted Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. since 2000. In particular, studies have been conducted on the exterior, color, and material This article is an open access article characteristics of residential buildings, roof and rooftop changes, and exterior design in distributed under the terms and low-rise areas. Regarding the type of apartment building, various planning methods for the conditions of the Creative Commons type of building and the planned characteristics of the type of residential building have been Attribution (CC BY) license (https:// conducted. These studies have mainly focused on the arrangement of residential buildings creativecommons.org/licenses/by/ in terms of sunlight and direction. In addition, one study investigated the preference for 4.0/). Buildings 2022, 12, 892. https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12070892 https://www.mdpi.com/journal/buildings Buildings 2022, 12, 892 2 of 16 certain types of building in multi-family housing [1] (pp. 57–65). The characteristics of the changes in apartment building plans have also been investigated, but actual completed apartment buildings or architectural plans were not the focus [2]. Although the exterior design of the apartment building in the Seoul metropolitan area is being studied, there is a limitation that resulted in a failure to investigate due to the Seoul Metropolitan Government, which guides the exterior of the apartment [3]. However, no analysis has been undertaken on the changes in the type of buildings by era. This study focuses on the changes in the exterior design of various apartments and the changing factors of elements that constitute their exterior from the past to the present. I investigate how the physical form of apartments has been influenced by institutional, economic, and technological factors according to the time period and how these factors are interrelated. Although numerous studies have examined the exterior of apartments, they do not clearly explain why the exterior designs have changed so much in terms of influencing factors. Apartments have become an important form of housing and the most important element of the urban landscape. To promote more desirable exterior designs in the future, it is necessary to answer this question at both the academic and policy levels. 2. Theoretical Review 2.1. Theories on Exterior In the field of architecture, definitions of “exterior” originate from the various views of buildings. It is simply described as “the outside of something, especially a building,” and there are no specific theories regarding its concept and definition. However, explanations lean toward the concept of “identity” or emphasize the “external appearance of the aesthetic range” visually perceived by humans [4]. In architecture, the exterior is the most outwardly expressed part of a building. Just as the building itself is influenced by changes in the surrounding environment, so is its exterior. Functioning to distinguish between places and other buildings, the exterior reflects the surrounding environment and thus can become the building’s identity. The building’s identity must be reflected in its external appearance to retain its essential character, which Roger Scruton described as its local attributes [5] (pp. 23–25). Thus, various works are restricted in buildings due to the sense of location, and the exterior of buildings is influenced by the area’s character. As local characteristics are reflected in buildings, they are also reflected in the exterior of buildings. The building’s identity is ultimately transferred to its exterior and exerts influence. Although people may have different feelings or a different understanding about the exterior of a building, since a building cannot have multiple appearances at once, it formally possesses the commonality of one unified exterior [6] (pp. 173–178). Furthermore, if a building’s exterior expresses its identity, then differences in the exterior come from the building’s character. The character of a building is an expression of its intended purpose and originates from the implicit emotional relationship between the building and people [7]. Hence, buildings are an important medium of commonality and emotional relation- ships and possess a unique identity signified by the exterior itself. It has its own significance independent of the process or content in which the exterior is formed, and this identity is also considered to provide distinctiveness to its external appearance. Kevin Lynch argued that identity is the characteristic that enhances the ability to recognize an environment, makes an object memorable and vivid, attracts attention and distinguishes it from other locations, and that identity is what gives buildings distinctiveness [8] (pp. 20–30). The aesthetic meaning, sense of place, and uniqueness of the exterior are attributes of all buildings, and the exterior contains not only a simple visual meaning but various internal aspects as well. The exterior also carries important architectural significance as it creates an image necessary to distinguish the entity from other objects. When the exterior is being developed, it is influenced by the surrounding environment, which leads to changes in exterior planning elements. Therefore, for planners or policymakers to become involved Buildings 2022, 12, 892 3 of 16 in the process of creating building exteriors, it is necessary to first investigate the changing process of exterior design. 2.2. Changes in the Form of Apartments and Influencing Factors An apartment is defined as “a set of rooms for living in, usually on one floor of a large building” or “a self-contained housing unit that occupies only part of a building,” and refers to a building composed of multiple units [9]. Accordingly, an apartment house refers to a building comprising one or more dwelling units designed for one family, called a “flat” in the UK. An apartment house also refers to a group of houses built together, particularly a multi-family house built in large numbers [10] (pp. 20–21). In South Korea, when there are multiple independent single-family dwelling units comprising one or more rooms and sharing an entry stairway or hallway in a building, each dwelling is called an apartment, and the building is called an apartment house. From a planning perspective, an apartment building refers to a middle-rise or taller multi-family housing; in terms of height, low-rise apartment buildings have four to five floors, while high-rise apartment buildings have at least six floors. The Enforcement Decree of the Building Act stipulates that multi-family housing with five or more stories is an apartment building, and it is differentiated from tenement houses that have four floors or fewer. The first apartment building in South Korea and the first multi-family housing was the Jongam Apartment built in 1958, which scholars regard as having served as a prototype for urban apartments that emerged later. To understand the essential concept of the exterior design of apartment buildings, this study first reviews theories on the exterior design of buildings. In particular, this study examines the meaning contained in the exterior of a building and discusses how the exterior forms the building’s identity. This investigation finds that the identity of a building’s exterior has an important influence on the exterior. The uniqueness, distinctiveness, and identity of a building’s exterior are directly applied to the exterior of residential buildings. Therefore, we can understand the fundamental meanings of a residential complex’s identity, the urban landscape formed by the complex, and the exterior of apartment buildings. The exterior of apartment buildings is an important factor that determines a city’s skyline. Apartment buildings’ exteriors form the city skyline according to changes in its shape, number of floors, and height, and also directly affects the urban landscape. As such, design plans for the exterior of apartment buildings must consider the urban landscape created by not only one building but also the entire complex. If that is the case, what factors influence an apartment building’s exterior design? Considering that the exterior of an apartment building is also a part of the housing style, the factors influencing the exterior design do not greatly vary from those influencing housing. Cultural, technological, and environmental factors are cited as those which influence housing, and they impact the exte- rior design as well [11]. The exterior designs of apartment buildings have morphed along with each time period, which is attributed to the diverse influences from cultural, social, and economic factors [12]. Historically significant background circumstances and events were the triggers inciting changes throughout the history of apartment buildings’ exterior designs. Regarding factors affecting the formation of the exterior of residential architecture, Korean scholars have cited environmental, traditional, functional, and formative factors, and some studies mainly address institutional aspects [13] (pp. 34–50). In summary, a commonality of previous studies is that they cite institutional, economic, and socio-cultural factors as influencing factors. 2.3. Components of the Exterior Design of Apartment Buildings It is necessary to examine the components forming apartment buildings’ exterior design and its principles of composition. First, this can be analyzed through the lens of visual perception theory. Through a review of prior literature and related theories from this perspective, this study found that the exterior design of apartment buildings has been classified according to researchers’ varied perspectives, and that specific parts Buildings 2022, 12, 892 4 of 16 of detailed items are also classified differently. Similar results were found in terms of other theories as well. For this reason, it seems impossible to address all the elements and influences of exterior design at once. Accordingly, this study first categorizes the exterior design of apartment buildings into complex layout, residential building, and unit dwelling according to scale, and then classifies all detailed elements from layout to exterior design [14]. According to an apartment building’s slope topography, its elements are classified into complex shape elements, slope characteristic elements, and building shape elements [15]. Another study classified them into structural elements, exterior elements, and decorative and finishing elements [16]. An apartment building’s exterior design has also been divided into primary, secondary, and tertiary perceptual elements and its components into detailed categories [17]. As such, researchers have different classifications for the detailed components of an apartment building’s exterior according to their specific criteria and analyze specific aspects of the components differently according to varying standards. This study aims to analyze the exterior design of high-rise apartment buildings with the scope limited to residential buildings, which have undergone the most changes in terms of the exterior design of apartment buildings. Even if the examination of exteriors is limited to residential buildings, it is necessary to first determine how to divide the exterior components of a residential building, and which elements play an important role in forming the exterior ’s identity and image. Regarding the exterior design of apartment buildings, this study determines the residential building type, roof, rooftop, side walls, and lower floors to be important factors constituting the exterior. Among these, this study analyzes the residential building type, which is an important element of the exterior type. 3. Analysis of the Changes in the Exterior Design of Apartment Buildings 3.1. Research Scope The scope of the study is 40 years from the mid-1970s—when the supply of multi- family housing in South Korea began to greatly expand—to 2010. Although the exterior designs of apartment buildings have undergone various changes since the 2000s, a trend of gradual changes can be observed from the 1970s, when the full-fledged development of apartment buildings began. This study analyzed apartment complexes in Seoul, as shown in Table 1, which were selected by considering their year of establishment, number of households, and construction company—based on data on housing supply conditions and actual housing statistics. Table 1. Scope of research. Scope Description Notes Analysis of changes in the exterior Time 40 years from 1970 to 2010 design of apartment buildings Area Apartment complexes in Seoul Analysis of apartment complexes 1. Factors influencing changes in the exterior design of residential Correlations between influencing buildings: institutional, economic, Content factors and components of the exterior and technological review design of residential buildings 2. Correlations between exterior design and influencing factors The process of changes is divided into five periods based on major historical events and era-specific circumstances, which form the background of changes in apartment buildings’ exterior design over 40 years from the 1970s to 2010, as shown in Table 2. Buildings 2022, 12, x FOR PEER REVIEW 5 of 16 The process of changes is divided into five periods based on major historical events and era-specific circumstances, which form the background of changes in apartment Buildings 2022, 12, 892 5 of 16 buildings’ exterior design over 40 years from the 1970s to 2010, as shown in Table 2. Table 2. Designation of time periods. Table 2. Designation of time periods. Division Criterion Period Notes Introduction of apartment Development of large-scale private Division Criterion Period Notes Period 1 1976–1985 buildings apartment buildings Introduction of apartment Development of large-scale private Period 1 1976–1985 New town development, design com- buildings apartment buildings Period 2 Expansion of mass supply 1986–1989 petitions New town development, design Period 2 Expansion of mass supply 1986–1989 Planned community development, sup- competitions Period 3 Expansion of high-rises 1990–1997 ply of 2 million housing units Planned community development, Period 3 Expansion of high-rises 1990–1997 IMF f supply oreign excha of 2 million nge housing crisis, deregu units la- Period 4 Differentiation of exterior 1998–2002 tion of new house sale prices IMF foreign exchange crisis, Period 4 Differentiation of exterior 1998–2002 deregulation of new house sale prices Participatory government, unsold Period 5 Diversification of exteriors 2003–2010 houses, global economic recession Participatory government, unsold Period 5 Diversification of exteriors 2003–2010 houses, global economic recession 3.2. Targets of Study 3.2. Targets of Study Judging 500 households to be the minimum size wherein new attempts to construct new building types are possible, this study analyzed apartment complexes with at least Judging 500 households to be the minimum size wherein new attempts to construct 500 households. In particular, 10 apartment complexes for 5 different areas located in new building types are possible, this study analyzed apartment complexes with at least Seoul were selected, giving a total of 50 complexes for the study. Apartment complexes 500 households. In particular, 10 apartment complexes for 5 different areas located in Seoul located in Seoul might not best represent the nationwide trend, but this was not consid- were selected, giving a total of 50 complexes for the study. Apartment complexes located in ered an Seoulissue since ap might not best artm repr ent esent complexe the nationwide s in Seoul ten trend, d to but set trend this was s across not the consider countr ed y. In an issue additi since on, laapartment rge complexes complexes built m in ain Seoul ly bytend large con to set st tr ru ends ction comp across the anies we country re .inves In addition, tigated lar becau ge comp se atte lexes mpts to ch built mainly ange and by lar im ge prconstr ove exter uction ior companies design can b wer e found m e investigated ainly in com because- attempts plexes of larg to change e constr and uctio impr n companie ove exterior s with design financial can power. be found It is mainly desira in ble t complexes o use com- of large construction companies with financial power. It is desirable to use complexes of a plexes of a medium or large size because new attempts for small complexes are almost medium or large size because new attempts for small complexes are almost impossible, impossible, which is owed to cost problems. This subsection analyzes apartment com- which is owed to cost problems. This subsection analyzes apartment complexes with more plexes with more than 500 households, as shown in Figure 1. I physically visited the apart- than 500 households, as shown in Figure 1. I physically visited the apartments in Seoul to ments in Seoul to take photos and conduct field surveys for the study, as shown in Table take photos and conduct field surveys for the study, as shown in Table 3, and statistically 3, and statistically analyzed the results by classifying the external characteristics of the analyzed the results by classifying the external characteristics of the apartment buildings. apartment buildings. Figure 1. Location of apartment buildings used in this study in Seoul. Figure 1. Location of apartment buildings used in this study in Seoul. Buildings 2022, 12, x FOR PEER REVIEW 6 of 18 Buildings 2022,Buildings 12, x FOR P 2022 EER ,Buildings 12 R , x FO EVIEW R P 2022 EER , 12 R , x FO EVIEW R P EER REVIEW 6 of 18 6 of 18 6 of 18 Buildings 2022, 12, x FOR PEER REVIEW 6 of 18 Buildings 2022, 12, x FOR PEER REVIEW 6 of 18 Buildings 2022, 12, 892 6 of 16 Buildings 2022, 12, x FOR PEER REVIEW 6 of 18 Buildings 2022 Buildings , 12, x FO 2022 R PEER , 12, x FO REVIEW R PEER REVIEW 6 of 18 6 of 18 Buildings 2022, 12, x FOR P Buildings EER REVIEW 2022 Buildings , 12 , x FO 2022 R PEER , 12, x FO REVIEW R PEER REVIEW 6 of 18 6 of 18 6 of 18 Buildings 2022, 12, x FOR PEER REVIEW 6 of 18 Buildings 2022, 12, x FOR PEER REVIEW 6 of 18 Buildings 2022, 12, x FOR PEER Buildings Buildings REVIEW 2022 2022 Buildings , 12 , 12 , x FO , x FO 2022 R P R P EER ,EER 12, x FO R R E E VIEW VIEW R PEER REVIEW 6 of 18 6 of 6 of 18 18 6 of 18 Buildings 2022, 12, x FOR PEER REVIEW 6 of 18 Buildings 2022, 12, x FOR P EER REVIEW 6 of 18 Table 3. Apartment building Table 3. types by Apart perio ment bu d. ilding types by period. Table 3. Apart Table 3. ment bu Apart ilding m ent bu types by ilding perio tyd pes by . period. Table 3. Apartment building types by period. Table 3. Apartment building types by period. Table 3. Apartment building types by period. Table 3. Apartment building types by period. Table 3. Apart Table 3. ment bu Apart ilding ment bu types by ilding perio types by d. period. Table 3. Apartment buTable 3. ilding types by Apartm perio ent bu d. ilding types by period. Table 3. Apartment building types by period. Table 3. Apartment building types by period. Table 3. Apart Table 3. ment bu Apart ilding ment bu types by ilding perio types by d. period. Table 3. Apartment building Table 3. types by Apart Table 3. perio ment bu d Apart . ilding ment bu types by ilding perio types by d. period. Table 3. Apartment building types by period. Table 3. Apartment building types by period. Division Division Examples of Buildings and Exam Years ples of Buildings and Years Division Division Examples of Bu Exam ildin pg les of Bu s and Years ildings and Years Division Examples of Buildings and Years Division Examples of Buildings and Years Division Divi Division sion Examples Exam of Buildings ples of Bu and ildY in ears gs and Exam Years ples of Buildings and Years Di Di vi vi si si on on Exam Exam pp les of Bu les of Bu ild ilid nig ns and gs and Years Years Division Division Examples of Bu Exam ildip nl g es of Bu s and Years ildings and Years Division Examples of Buildings and Years Division Division Di Di vi vi si si on on Division Examples of Bu Exam ildip nl g es of Bu s and Exam Exam Years ildp p in l les of Bu es of Bu gs and Exam Years il ild d p iin ln es of Bu g gs and s and Years Years ildings and Years Division Division Examples of Bu Exam ildi p n lg es of Bu s and Years ildings and Years Period 1 Period 1 Period 1 Period 1 Period 1 Period 1 Period 1 Per Per io io d d 1 1 Period 1 Period 1 Period 1 Period 1 Period 1 Period 1 Per Per io io dd 1 1 Period 1 Period 1 Period 1 1 1−−3 Han 2 Hans w in an (1978) g ( 11−977) 3 Han sin (1978) 1−3 Hansin (1978) 1−2 Hanwang ( 11− 1977) 2 Han −1 Sin w don anga ( g ( 11−1983) 977) 2 Han wan1 g (−3 Han 1977)s in (1978) 1−4 Eunma (1979) 1−4 E unma (1979) 1−4 Eunma (1979) 1−5 Sunkyung (1983) 1−1 Sindonga ( 11983) −1 Sin donga (1 1983) −1 Sin donga (1983) 1−1 4 E −3 Han unma sin (1979) (1978) 1−5 Sunkyung1 (− 15 Su 983)n kyung ( 11−983) 5 Su nkyung (1983) 1−2 Hanwang (1977) 1−3 Hansin (1978) 1−4 Eunma (1979) 1−1 Sindonga (1983) 1−2 Hanwang (1977) 1−4 Eunma (1979) 1−5 Sunkyung (1983) 1−1 Sindonga (1983) 1−3 Hansin (1978) 1−5 Sunkyung (1983) 1−2 Hanwang ( 1− 12 Han 977) wan 1g (−2 Han 1977)w ang ( 11− 1− 2 Han 977) 3 Han w san in ( g ( 1978) 1 1− 977) 3 Han sin (1 1978) 1−3 Han 3 Hansin sin (1978) (1978) 1−3 Han sin (1978) 1 1−−3 Han 4 E unm sin a ( (1979) 1978) 1−4 Eunma (1979) 1−1 Sindonga ( 11983) −1 Sin don1 ga ( −1 Sin 1983) don ga (1 1983) −1 Sin donga (1983) 1−2 Hanwan 11 g ( −2 2 Han 1 1− Hanwang 977) 3 Han wan sing ( (1977) 1 (− 1978) 1 2 Han 977) wang ( 11−977) 3 Han sin (1978) 11−− 3 Han 4 E unsm ina ( 1978) (1979) 1−4 Eunma (1979) 11 1−− 5 5 Su 4 E Sunkyung u n n kyun ma (g (1983) 1979) 1 1 (−− 1 4 E 5 Su 983) un n kyun ma (1979) g ( 1− 15 Su 983) nkyun 1−g 5 Su (1983) nkyun g (1983) 1−1 Sindonga ( 1−1 Sin 11983) −2 Han d onw ga ( an 11 1− g ( 1983) − 1 1 Sin 1 2 Han Sindonga −1 2 Han 977) don w w an ga ( an (1983) g ( g ( 1983) 1977) 1977) 11−− 2 Han 3 Han w sin an ( g ( 1978) 1 1 1− 977) − 3 Han 3 Han ss in in ( ( 1978) 1978) 1−3 Han sin (1978) 1−4 E unma (1979) 14 Eunma (1979) 1−4 Eunma (1979) 1−4 E unma (1979) 1−5 Sunkyung (11 983) −5 Su nkyung 1− (5 Su 1983) nkyun g (1983) 1−1 Sindon1 ga ( −1 Sin 1− 1983) 1 Sin don don ga ( 1 ga ( − 1983) 1 Sin 1983) don ga ( 1− 1− 2 Han 1983) 1 Sin d w on anga ( g (1 1983) 977) 1−2 Hanwang (1977) 1−2 Hanwang (1977) 1−4 Eunma (1979) 1 1 1−−−4 E 4 E 3 Han u un nm m sin a a ( ( (1979) 1979) 1978) 1−4 E unma (1979) 1−5 Su nkyung 11 (−− 1 5 Su 5 Su 983) n n kyun kyun gg ( ( 11 983) 983) 1−5 Sunkyung (1983) 1−1 Sindonga (1983) 1−1 Sindonga (1983) 1−5 Sunkyung1 (− 14 E 983) un ma (1979) 1−5 Su nkyung (1983) 1−5 Sunkyung (1983) Period 1 1−6 Kyungnam (1984) 1−6 Kyu ngnam (1984) 1−6 Kyu ngnam (1984) 1−6 Kyungnam (1984) 1−8 Mido (1985) 1−7 Samik (1984) 1−8 Mid o (1985) 1 1−− 8 Mid 7 Samo ik ( (1985) 1984) 1− 8 Mid o (1985) 1−7 Sam 1−6 Kyu ik (n 1984) gn 1am (1984) −7 Sam ik ( 1984) 1−9 Hansin (1985) 1−9 Hansin (1985) 1−10 Kyu ngnam (1978 1−10 Kyungnam (1978 1−6 Kyungn 1am (1984) −6 Kyungn am (1984) 1−6 Kyungnam (1984) 1−6 Kyun gnam (1984) 1−7 Samik (1984) 1−1 9 Han −8 Mid sin o ( (1985) 1985) 1−9 Han sin (1985) 1−10 Kyungnam 1− 10 Kyu (1978 ngnam (1978 1−6 Kyungnam (1984) 1−6 Kyu ngn1 am (1984) −6 Kyungn am (1984) 1−6 Kyun gn 1am (1984) 6 Kyungnam (1984) 1−8 Mido (1985) 1−8 Mid o (1985) 1−8 Mid o (1985) 1−8 Mid o (1985) 1− 8 Mido (1985) 1−9 Hansin (1985) 1−10 Kyungnam (1978 1−7 Sam 1−7 Sam ik ( ik ( 1984) 1984) 1− 17 Sam − 7 Sam ik ( ik ( 1984) 1984) 1−7 Sam ik (1984) 11−− 7 Sam 8 Mid ik ( o (1984) 1985) 1−7 Sam 1 − 8 Mid ik ( o1984) (1985) 18 Mido (1985) 1−8 Mido (1985) 110 Kyungnam (1978) 1−6 Kyungnam (1984) 1−6 Kyu ngn 1am (1984) −1 6 Kyu −6 Kyu ngn n gn am (1984) 1 am (1984) −6 Kyu ngn am (1984) 1−6 Kyun gnam (1984) 11−7 7 Sam Samik ik ( (1984) 1984) 1− 8 Mido (1985) 1−8 Mid o (1985) 11−− 9 Han 9 Han ssin in ( (1985) 1985) 11 1−−9 9 Han 9 Han Hansin s sin in (1985) ( (1985) 1985) 1−9 Han sin (1985) 1− 1 19 Han −−10 Kyu 10 Kyu sin n n ( gn gn 1985) am 1 1 am 1−−− 10 Kyu 9 Han 10 Kyu ((1978 1978 s n in n gn ( gn 1985) am 1am −10 Kyu ( 1978 ( 1978 n gnam 1−10 Kyu (1978 ngnam 1 − (1978 10 Kyu ngnam (1978 1−7 Samik (1984) 1− 17 Sam −7 Sam ik ( ik ( 1984) 1984) 1− 8 Mid o (1985) 1−7 Sam ik (1984) 1−8 Mid o (1985) 1− 8 Mido (1985) 1−8 Mid o (1985) 1−9 Hansin (1985) 1−10 Kyungnam (1978 1−7 Samik (1984) 1−7 Samik (1984) 1−9 Hansin (1985) 1 1−−9 Han 9 Han ss in in ( ( 1985) 1985) 1 1−−9 Han 10 Kyu sin ngn (1985) 1 am− 110 Kyu − 10 Kyu (1978 ngn ngn am am (1978 (1978 1−10 Kyungnam (1978 1−6 Kyungnam (1984) 1−9 Hansin (1985) 1−8 Mid o (1985) 1 1−−10 Kyu 9 Hans n in gn (am 1985) (1978 1−10 Kyungnam (1978 1−7 Samik (1984) 1−9 Hansin (1985) 1−10 Kyungnam (1978 Period 2 Period 2 Period 2 Period 2 Period 2 Per Per io io d d 2 2 Period 2 Per Per iod i 2 od 2 Period 2 Period 2 Period 2 Period 2 Period 2 Per Per iod io 2 d 2 Period 2 Period 2 Period 2 2−1 Hyu 2n−d 1 Hyu ae( 21986) −1 Hyu nda e(n 1986) 2d−a 1 Hyu e(1986) nd ae(1986) 2−1 Hyundae(1986) 2−1 Hyundae(1986) 2−1 Hyunda2 e( 2−− 1986) 1 Hyu 1 Hyu n n d d aa e( e( 1986) 1986) 2−1 Hyundae(2 1986) −1 Hyu ndae(1986) 2−1 Hyundae( 2 1986) 1 Hyundae(1986) 2−1 Hyundae(1986) 2−1 Hyundae(2 1986) −1 Hyu ndae( 21986) −1 Hyu ndae(1986) 2−2 Daerim (1986 2−2 Daerim ) (1986) 2−3 Kukdon 2g ( −2 Daerim 2− 13 Ku 986) kd ( on 1986 2 g ( 2−3 1 3 Ku )9 Kukdong 86)kd ong ( (1986) 1986) 2−3 Kukdong (1986) 2−2 Daerim (1986 2−2 Daerim ) (1986 2− 22 Daerim − )2 Daerim ( 2 ( 1986 2− 1986 3 Ku 2 Daerim ) ) kdon(1986) g ( 21−9 3 Ku 86) kdong (2 1− 93 Ku 86) kdong ( 2 2−− 2 1 3 Ku 3 Ku − 9 4 Woos 86)kd kd on on ug ( g ( ng 1 2 1 (9− 9 1987) 86) 4 Woos 86) ung 2 (1987) −4 Woos ung 2− (1987) 5 Mid o (1987) 2− 4 Woosung (1987) 2−1 Hyundae(2 2 1986) −−1 Hyu 2 Daerim nda (e( 1986 22 1986) −− 1 Hyu 2 Daerim ) nda ( e( 1986 1986) ) 2 22−−− 2 Daerim 2 Daerim 3 Kukdon ( (1986 1986 g ( 21−9 3 Ku ) ) 86) kdong (1986) 2−2 4 Woos −3 Kukd un on g g ( 2 (1987) −4 Woos 1986) ung 2(− 1987) 4 Woos ung (1987) 22−− 5 Mid 5 Mid oo ( ( 1987) 1987) 2 − 5 Mido (1987) 2−5 Mido (1987) 2−2 Daerim (1986) 2−4 Woosung 22 ( 1987) −4 4 Woos Woosung ung (1987) (1987) 2 2− 2 2−4 Woos 2− 4 Woos − 5 Mid 54 Woos Mido u o u (1987) n ( n g u 1987) g n (( 1987) g 1987) (1987) 2−5 Mido (1987) 22−− 5 Mid 5 Mid oo ( ( 1987) 1987) 2−2 Daerim (1986) 2−3 Kukdon2 g (−2 2 Daerim 1−9 3 Ku 86) kdon (1986 g ( 2− 13 Ku ) 9 86) kdong (1986) 2−3 Kukdong (1986) 2−5 Mido (1987) 2− 5 Mido (1987) 2−5 Mido (1987) 2−2 Daerim (1986 2−1 Hyu ) ndae(2 1986) −2 Daerim (1986) 2−4 Woosung 2(−1987) 4 Woos ung (1987) 2−4 Woosung (1987) 2−5 Mido (1987) 2−2 Daerim (1986) 2−3 Kukdong ( 2− 14 Woos 986) ung 2 (1987) −3 Ku kdong (1986) 2−5 Mido (1987) 2− 5 Mido (1987) 2−5 Mid o (1987) 2−2 Daerim (1986 2−2 Daerim ) (1986) 2−3 Kukdong (1986) 2−4 Woosung (1987) 2−4 Woosung (1987) 2−4 Woosung (1987) 2−5 Mido (1987) 2− 5 Mido (1987) 2−5 Mid o (1987) 2−2 Daerim (1986) 2−3 Kukdong (1986) Period 2 2−4 Woosung (1987) 2−5 Mido (1987) Buildings 2022, 12, x FOR PEER REVIEW 7 of 18 Buildings 2022, 12, x FOR PEER REVIEW 7 of 18 Buildings 2022, 12, x FOR PEER REVIEW 7 of 18 Buildings 2022Buildings , 12, x FO2022 R PEER , 12 R , x FO EVIEW R PEER Buildings REVIEW 2022 Buildings , 12, x FO2022 R PEER , 12, x FO REVIEW R PEER REVIEW 7 of 18 7 of 18 7 of 18 7 of 18 Buildings 2022 Buildings , 12, x FO 2022 R P,EER 12, x FO REVIEW R PEER REVIEW 7 of 18 7 of 18 Buildings 2022, 12, x FOR PEER REVIEW 7 of 18 2−6 Misung in 1987 2−6 Misung in 1987 2−9 Kukdong ( 1989) 2−6 Misung in 1987 2−8 Olympic ( 2 1988) −8 Olym pic ( 1988) 2−9 Kukdong (1989) 2−10 Hyundae(1989) 2− 26 Mis −7 Sam un pg yu i 2 n n 1987 6 2 g− Misung (1988) 7 Sam p in yu 1987 ng(1988) 2−10 Hyundae(1989) 2−6 Misung in2 1987 −6 Mis ung in 1987 2−6 Misung i2 n− 1987 6 Mis ung in 1987 2−8 Olympic (1988) 2−9 Kukdong ( 2 −1 9 Ku 989)kd ong (1989) 2−10 Hyundae(1989) 2−6 Misung in2 1987 −6 Mis ung in 1987 2−6 Mis ung in 1987 2−7 Sampyung(1988) 2 −8 Olympic (1988) 22− 9 Ku 10 Hyundae kdong (1 (1989) 989) 2−10 Hyundae(1989) 2−6 Misung in 1987 2−6 Misung in 1987 22 2−− 7 7 Sam 8 Olym Sampyung pyu pic ( ng (1988) 2 ( 1988) 1988) −8 Olym pic ( 22 1988) −8 8 Olym Olympic pic ( (1988) 22− 1988) − 8 Olym 9 Ku kd pic ( ong ( 2 2 1988) 2 2−− 1− 9 Ku 9 8 Olym 9 9 Ku 89) Kukdong kd kd on pic ( on g ( g ( (1989) 2 1988) 11− 99 9 Ku 89) 89) kdong (1989) 2 2−−9 Ku 10 Hyu kdon ndg ( ae( 11989) 989) 2−10 Hyundae(1989) 2−10 Hyu ndae(1989) 2−6 Misung in 1987 2−6 Misung i2 n− 1987 7 Sam pyung 2(− 1988) 7 Sam pyung(1988) 2− 28 Olym −7 Samp pic ( yun1988) 2 2 g−− (8 Olym 1988) 7 Sam ppic ( yung 1988) (1988) 2−9 Kukdong (1989) 22−−10 Hyu 10 Hyun nd da ae( e( 21989) − 1989) 10 Hyu ndae( 21989) −10 Hyu ndae(1989) 2−7 Sampyung 2(2− 1988) − 7 Sam 6 Mis p uyu ngn ig n 2 ( 1987 1988) −7 Sam pyung(1988) 2−8 Olympic ( 21988) −8 Olym pic ( 2 2 1988) −− 9 Ku 8 Olym kdon pic ( g ( 21 1988) −9 9 Ku 89) kdong ( 2− 19 Ku 989) kdong (2 1− 99 Ku 89) kdong ( 2− 110 Hyu 989) ndae(1989) 2−7 Sampyung(1988) 22−− 7 Sam 8 Olym pyu pic ( ng1988) (1988) 2−10 Hyunda2 e(−1989) 9 Kukd ong ( 21−9 10 Hyu 89) ndae(1989) 2−10 Hyu ndae(1989) 2−6 Misung in2 1987 −7 Sam pyung(1988) 2−7 Sampyung(1988) 2−8 Olympic (1988) 2−10 Hyundae(1989) 2−6 Misung in 2− 1987 6 Mis ung in 1987 2−7 Sampyung(1988) 2−8 Olympic (1988) 2−8 Olympic ( 21988) −9 Ku kdong ( 21−9 9 Ku 89) kdong ( 2− 19 Ku 989)kd ong (2 1− 910 Hyu 89) ndae(1989) 2−6 Misung i2 n− 1987 7 Sam pyung(1988) 2−8 Olympic (1988) 2−10 Hyunda2 e(−1989) 10 Hyu ndae(1989) 2−7 Sampyun2 g−(7 Sam 1988) pyung(1988) 2−8 Olympic (1988) 2−9 Kukdong (1989) 2−10 Hyundae(1989) 2−7 Sampyung(1988) Period 3 Period 3 Period 3 Peri Per od 3 io d 3 Period 3 Period 3 Period 3 Period 3 Period 3 3−1 Hyundae in 1997 3−1 Hyundae in 1997 3−1 Hyund3 a− e in 31 Hyu −1 Hyu 1997 nd na d 3 e in a−e in 2 Moklyu 1997 1997 n (1993) 3−1 Hyundae in 1997 3− 31 Hyu −1 Hyu nn dd ae in a 3e in 3−1 1 Hyu 1997 Hyundae 1997 n dain e in 1997 1997 3−3 Hansol (1994 3−2 Moklyu ) n (1993) 3−1 Hyundae in 1997 3−2 Moklyu3 n 3− (− 2 Moklyu 1993) 2 Moklyu n n ( 3 ( 1993) 1993) 2 Moklyun (1993) 3−3 Hansol (3 1994 3−3 Han 3 Hansol ) sol ( (1994) 1994 3−4 San ) sung (1997) 3−3 Han sol (1994) 3−2 Moklyun ( 31993) −2 Moklyu n (1993) 33−−2 Moklyu 2 Moklyun n ( 3 (1993) − 1993) 2 Moklyu n ( 31993) −3 Han sol (1994 3−3 Han ) sol (1994 3−3 Han ) sol (1994) 3−4 Sansung (1997) 3−3 Hansol (1994 3−3 Han ) sol (1994) 3−3 Hansol (1994 33−4 4 San Sansung ) sung ( (1997) 33− 1997) − 4 San 4 San ss uu nn g ( g ( 1997) 1997) 3−4 Sansung (3 1997) −4 San sung (1997) 33 3−−− 4 San 5 Sin 4 San sd u son u nn g ( ga ( g ( 1997) 3 1997) − 1992) 4 San sung (1997) 35 Sindonga (1992) 3−5 Sindonga ( 3− 31992) 5 Sin −5 Sin d on don ga ( ga ( 1992) 1992) 3−5 Sindonga (1992) 3−5 Sindonga (1992) 3−3 5 Sin −5 Sin don don ga ( ga ( 1992) 3− 1992) 5 Sin donga (1992) 3−5 Sindonga (1992) Period 3 3−6 Kachi (1992) 3−6 Kach i (1992) 36 Kachi (1992) 33−10 10 Hyu Hyundae nda(1993) e( 3−1993) 10 Hyu nda 3e(−10 Hyu 1993) ndae(1993) 3−6 Kachi (1992) 3−6 Kachi (1992) 37 Samteo (1993) 3−8 Rukki (1993) 3 3−8 Ru 8 Rukki kki ( (1993) 1993) 3−10 Hyundae(1993) 3−10 Hyu ndae(1993) 3−7 Samteo (1993 33−− )6 Kach 7 Samti ( eo ( 1992) 3 1993 −7 Sam ) teo (3 1993 −8 Ru ) kki (1993) 3−8 Rukki (1993) 39 Doosan (1994) 3−10 Hyundae(1993) 3−6 Kachi (1992) 3−6 Kachi (1992) 3−7 Samteo (1993 3−7 Sam ) teo (1993 3−8 Ru ) kki (1993) 3 3−−9 Doos 8 Rukki ( an1993) (3 1994) −9 Doos an (1994) 3−10 Hyundae(1993) 3−10 Hyundae( 3−1993) 10 Hyu ndae(1993) 3−6 Kachi (1992) 3−6 Kach i (1992) 3−6 Kachi (1992) 3−7 Samteo (1993) 3−9 Doosan (1994) 3−8 Ru kki (1993) 33−− 9 Doos 10 Hyu an n ( d 1994) ae(1993) 3−7 Samteo (1993) 3 3−−8 Ru 7 Sam kki ( teo ( 1993) 1993 3 3−−8 Ru 7 Sam ) kki ( teo ( 1993) 1993 ) 3−8 Rukki (1993) 3−9 Doosan (1994) 3−7 Samteo (1993) 3−9 Doosan (1994) 3−9 Doosan (1994) 3−9 Doosan (1994) 3−9 Doos an (1994) 3−9 Doosan (1994) Period 4 Period 4 Period 4 Period 4 Period 4 Period 4 Period 4 Period 4 Period 4 Period 4 4−1 Donga in 4 1999 −1 Donga in 1999 4−1 Donga in 1999 4−1 Donga in 1999 4−1 Donga in 1999 4−1 Donga in 1999 4−1 Donga in 1999 4−1 Donga in 1999 4−1 Donga in 1999 4−1 Donga in 1999 4−3 Hankalam 4− ( 3 Han 1998)k alam (1998) 4−2 Lotte(1999) 4−3 Hankalam 4 (−1998) 4 Hom etown 4−4 Hom (2001) etown(2001) 4−5 Hyundae ( 4−2001) 5 Hyu ndae (2001) 4−2 Lotte(1999) 4−2 Lotte(1999) 4−4 Hometown(2001) 4−5 Hyundae (2001) 4−3 Hankalam (1998) 4−2 Lotte(1999) 4−3 Hankalam 4− ( 4 Hom 1998) etown 4(− 23 Han 001) kalam (1998) 4−5 Hyundae (2001) 4−2 Lotte(1999) 4−3 Hankalam 4− (4 Hom 1998) etown(2001) 4−4 Hometown 4− (2 5 Hyu 001) ndae (2001) 4−5 Hyundae (2001) 4−2 Lotte(1999) 4− 3 Hankalam 4 (−1998) 3 Han kalam (1998) 4−3 Hankalam 4− ( 4 Hom 1998) etown(2001) 4−4 Hometown 4 4−−(4 Hom 5 Hyu 2001) n ed to awn e (2001) (2001) 4−5 Hyundae ( 4− 2001) 5 Hyu ndae (2001) 4−2 Lotte(1999) 4− 2 Lotte(1999) 4−2 Lotte(1999) 4− 2 Lotte(1999) 4−4 Hometown(2001) 4−5 Hyundae (2001) 4−6 Laemian4 in−6 Laem 2001 ian in 2001 4−8 Kangchon 4− ( 8 Kan 1998)g chon (1998) 4−6 Laemian in 2001 4−7 Taeyoung (2000) 4−8 Kangchon4 (− 19 Hyu 998) ndae ( 4−2001) 9 Hyu ndae (2001) 4−10 Hanjin (2000) 4−7 Taeyoung (2000) 4−7 Taeyoung (2000) 4−9 Hyundae (2001) 4−10 Han jin (2000) 4−10 Hanjin (2000) 4−6 Laemian in 2001 4−8 Kangchon (1998) 4−9 Hyundae (2001) 4−7 Taeyoung (2 4000) −6 Laem ian in 2001 4−8 Kangchon (1998) 4−10 Hanjin (200 4−9 Hyu 0) ndae (2001) 4−6 Laemian in 2001 4−6 Laemian in 2001 4−7 Taeyoung4 (−2 8 Kan 000) gchon (1998) 4−8 Kangchon 4− (9 Hyu 1998) ndae (2001) 4−10 Hanjin (2000) 4−6 Laemian in 4− 2 6 Laem 001 ian in 2001 4−6 Laemian in 2001 4−7 Taeyoung 4 (−2 8 Kan 000) gchon4 (−1 8 Kan 998) gchon (1998) 44−− 9 Hyu 8 Kann gd ch ae ( on 42001) − (9 Hyu 1998) ndae (2001) 4−9 Hyundae ( 4− 2001) 9 Hyu ndae ( 42001) −10 Han jin (2000) 4−7 Taeyoung4 (− 27 Taey 000) oung (2000) 4−7 Taeyoung4 (−2 7 Taey 000) oung (2000) 4−10 Hanjin (200 4−10 Han 0) jin (2000) 4−10 Hanjin (200 4−10 Han 0) jin (2000) Buildings 2022, 12 Buildings , x FOR P 2022 EER , 12 R , x FO EVIEW R P EER REVIEWBuildings 2022, 12, x FOR PEER REVIEW 7 of 18 7 of 18 7 of 18 Buildings 2022 Buildings , 12, x FO2022 R PEER , 12, x FO REVIEW R PEER REVIEW 7 of 18 7 of 18 Period 3 Period 3 Period 3 Buildings 2022, 12, x FOR PEER REVIEW 7 of 18 Buildings 2022, 12, x FO Buildings R PEER 2022 RE , 12 VIEW Buildings , x FO R PEER 2022 R , 12 EVIEW , x FO R PEER REVIEW 7 of 18 7 of 18 7 of 18 Buildings 2022, 12, x FOR PEER REVIEW 7 of 18 Period 3 Period 3 Period 3 Period 3 Period 3 Period 3 Period 3 3−1 Hyundae in 1997 3−1 Hyundae in 1997 3−1 Hyundae in 1997 3−2 Moklyun (1993) 3−2 Moklyu n (1993) 3 −2 Moklyun (1993) 3−3 Hansol (1994 3−) 3 Han sol (1994) 3−3 Hansol ( 1994) 3−4 Sansung (1997) 3−4 San sung (1997) 3−4 Sansun g (1997) 3−5 Sindonga (1992) 3−5 Sin donga (1992) 3−5 Sindonga (1992) 3−1 Hyundae in 3−1 Hyu 1997 ndae in 1997 3−2 Moklyun ( 31993) −2 Moklyu n (1993) 3−3 Hansol (1994) 3−3 Hansol (1994) 3−4 Sansung (3 1997) −4 San sung (1997) 3−5 Sindonga ( 3− 1992) 5 Sin donga (1992) 3−1 Hyundae in 1997 3−1 Hyundae in 1997 3− 1 Hyundae in 1997 3−1 Hyu nda3 e in −2 Moklyu 1997 n (1993) 3−2 Moklyun (1993) 3 −2 Moklyun (1993) 3−2 Moklyu n ( 3− 1993) 3 Han sol (1994) 3−3 Hansol (1994) 3−3 Hansol (1994)3 −3 Hansol (1994 3−4 San ) sung (1997) 3−4 Sansung (1997) 3−4 Sansung (1997) 3− 4 Sansung (1997) 3−1 Hyundae in 1997 3−5 Sindonga (1992) 3−2 Moklyun (1993) 3−3 Hansol (1994) 3−5 Sindonga (1992) 3 −5 Sindonga (1992) 3−5 Sin donga (1992) 3−4 Sansung (1997) 3−5 Sindonga (1992) Buildings 2022, 12, 892 7 of 16 Table 3. Cont. 3−10 Hyu ndae(1993) 3−6 Kachi (1992) 3− 6 Kachi (1992) 3−6 Kachi (1992) 3−10 Hyundae(1993) 3−10 Hyundae(1993) 3−7 Samteo (1993 3−7 Sam ) teo (1993) 3−8 Rukki (1993) 33−− 7 Sam 8 Rukki ( teo ( 1993) 1993) 3−8 Rukki (1993) 3−9 Doosan (1994) 3−9 Doos an (1994) 3−9 Doosan (1994) 3−6 Kachi (1992) 3−10 Hyu nda3 e(−1993) 10 Hyu ndae(1993) 3 −6 Kachi (1992) 3−8 Rukki (1993) 3−7 Samteo ( 1993 3−7 Sam ) teo (1993 ) 3−8 Rukki ( 1993) 3−9 Doosan (1994) 3−9 Doos an (1994) 3−6 Kachi (1992) 3−10 Hyundae(1993) 3−6 Kachi (1992) 3−6 Kachi (1992) 3−6 Kachi (1992) 3−7 Sam teo (1993) 3−8 Rukki (1993) 3−10 Hyundae(1993) 3− 10 Hyundae(1993) 3−10 Hyu ndae(1993) Division 3−6 Kachi ( 3− 1992) 7 Sam teo (1993) 3−7 Samteo (1993)3 −7 Sam 3−8 Ru teo ( kki ( 1993 1993) ) Examples 3−8 Rukki ( of Buildings 1993) 3−8 Ru and kki ( Years 1993) 3−9 Doos an (1994) 3−10 Hyundae(1993) 3−8 Rukki (1993) 3−9 Doos an (1994) 3−9 Doosan (1994) 3 −9 Doosan (1994) Period 4 Period 4 Period 4 3−7 Samteo (1993) 3−9 Doosan (1994) Period 4 Period 4 Period 4 Period 4 Period 4 Period 4 Period 4 4−1 Donga in 1999 4−1 Donga in 1999 4−1 Don 4− g1 Don a in 1999 ga in 1999 4−1 Donga in 1999 4−1 Donga in 1999 4−1 Donga in 1999 44−1 Don 1 Donga ga in in 1999 1999 4−1 Donga in 1999 4−1 Donga in 1999 4−3 Hankalam (1998) 4−3 Han kalam (1998) 4−4 Hometown(2001) 4−5 Hyundae (2001) 4− 44 3 Han −2 L 2 Lotte ottk e(alam 1999) (1999) 4−3 Han ( 41998) −3 Han kalam kalam (1998) 4 (− 3 Han 1998)k alam (1998) 4−3 Han kalam 44− (− 4 Hom 1998) 3 Han etk own alam (2001) (1998) 4−5 Hyundae (2001) 4−2 Lotte(1999)4 −2 Lotte(1999) 4−2 L otte(1999) 4−2 Lotte(1999) 4 3 Hankalam 4− (1998) 4 Hom 4−4 Hom etown e4 t4 ( o− 2 wn 4 4 Hom 001) Hometown (2001) 4−e 4 Hom town (2001) e (2 to 001) wn(2 001) 4−4 Hom 4 4 4−−5 Hyu 5 Hyu 5 e Hyundae town nd n (a 2 d e ( 001) ae ( 2001) (2001) 4 2001) 4−− 4 Hom 4 5 Hyu −5 Hyu e n n td d oa wn a e ( e ( 2001) (2001) 24 001) −5 Hyu ndae (2001) 4−5 Hyundae (2001) 4−2 Lotte(1999) 4−2 Lotte(1999) 4−2 Lotte(1999) 4−3 Hankalam 4 (−3 Han 1998) kalam (1998) 4−2 Lotte(1999) 4−4 Hometown 4−(4 Hom 2001) etown(2001) 4−5 Hyundae ( 4− 2001) 5 Hyu ndae (2001) 4−2 Lotte(1999) Period 4 Buildings 2022, 12, x FOR PEER REVIEW 8 of 18 Buildings 2022, 12, x FOR PEER REVIEW Buildings 2022, 12, x FOR PEER REVIEW 8 of 18 8 of 18 Buildings 2022 Buildings , 12, x FO 2022 R P Buildings EER , 12, x FO REVIEW 2022 R PEER , 12 , x FO REVIEW R PEER REVIEW 8 of 18 8 of 18 8 of 18 Buildings 2022 Buildings , 12, x FO 2022 R PEER , 12, x FO REVIEW R PEER REVIEW 8 of 18 8 of 18 Buildings 2022, 12, x FOR PEER REVIEW 8 of 18 Buildings 2022, 12, x FOR PEER REVIEW 8 of 18 4−6 Laemian in 2001 4−8 Kangchon (1998) 4−7 Taeyoung (2000) 4−9 Hyundae (2001) 4−10 Hanjin (2000) 4−6 Laemian in 2001 4−8 Kangchon (1998) 4−9 Hyundae (2001) 4−6 Laemian in 2001 4− 6 Laemian in 2001 4−6 Laem ian 4 in−7 Taey 2001 oung (2000) 4−8 Kangchon (1998) 4− 8 Kangchon (1998) 4−8 Kan 4−9 Hyu gchon n d (a 1e ( 998) 2001) 4 −9 Hyundae (2001) 4−9 Hyu ndae ( 42001) −10 Han jin (2000) 4−7 Taeyoun g (2000) 4− 7 Taeyoung (2000) 4−7 Taey oung (2000) 4−10 Hanjin (200 0) 4−10 Hanjin (2000) 4 −10 Hanjin (2000) 4−6 Laemian in 2001 47 Taeyoung (2000) 4 4−8 Kan 8 Kangchon gchon(1998) (1998) 4−6 Laemian in 2001 4−7 Taeyoung (2000) 4−8 Kangchon (1998) 4−9 Hyundae ( 4− 2001) 9 Hyu ndae (2001) 4−10 Hanjin (2000) 4−6 Laemian in4 2−001 6 Laem ian in 2001 4 4−6 Laem 6 Laemian ian in in 2001 2001 4−4 8 Kan −7 Taey gch ou on n ( g4 ( 1−998) 2 8 Kan 000) gchon (1998) 4−9 Hyundae (4 4 2001) 4−−8 Kan 9 9 Hyu Hyundae g n ch da on (2001) e ( ( 2001) 1998) 410 Hanjin (2000) 4−9 Hyundae (2001) 4−10 Hanjin (2000) 4−7 Taeyoung (4 2− 000) 7 Taey oung (2000) 4−7 Taeyoung (2000) 4−10 Hanjin (200 4−0) 10 Han jin (2000) 4−10 Hanjin (2000) Period 5 Period 5 Period 5 Period 5 Period 5 Period 5 Period 5 Period 5 Period 5 Period 5 52 Centrabill (2005) 5−1 Arthill in5 2004 −1 Arthill in5 2004 −1 Arthill in 5− 2004 1 A 5−2 C rth eill in ntrabill ( 2004 5−2 C 2005) en trabill ( 5−2 C 2005) en trabill ( 5−2 C 5 2005) −3 Ipark ( en trabill ( 200 55 2005) − 6) 3 3 Ipark ( Ipark (2006) 200 5− 6) 3 Ipark ( 2006) 5 5 5−− 3 Ipark ( 4 L 4 Lake ake ( (2006) 2006) 200 5− 6) 4 L ake (2006) 5−54 L 5aIpark ke (2006) (2007) 5−4 Lake (2006) 51 Arthill in 2004 5−5 Ipark (200 5− 7) 5 Ipark ( 200 5− 7) 5 Ipark ( 2007) 5−5 Ipark (2007) 5−1 Arthill in 5 2004 −1 Arthill in5 2004 −1 Arthill in 2004 5−2 Centrabill ( 5−2 C 2005) ent rabill ( 5−2 C 2005) en trabill (2005) 5−3 Ipark ( 200 5− 6) 3 Ipark ( 200 5− 6) 3 Ipark ( 2006) 5 −4 Lake (2006) 5−4 L ake (2006) 5−4 L ake (2006) 5−5 Ipark (200 5− 7) 5 Ipark ( 2007) 5−1 Art 5h−ill in 1 Art 2004 hill in 2004 5−2 C5 e− n 2 C trabill ( entrabill ( 2005) 5−1 A 2005) rthill in 2004 5−3 Ipark ( 5−3 Ipark ( 200200 6) 5− 2 C 6) entrabill (2005) 5−5 4 L −4 L ake ( ake ( 2006) 2006) 5 − 3 Ipark (2006) 55−− 5 Ipark ( 4 Lake ( 200 2006) 7) 5−5 Ipark (2007) 5 5−−5 Ipark ( 5 Ipark (200 2007) 7) Period 5 510 Lets (2008) 5−6 Risente (2008) 5−6 Ris ente (2008) 5−6 Ris ente (2008) 5−7 Hillst ate (2008) 5−8 Tulajium 55 (− 2007) 8 8 Tu Tulajium lajiu m (2007) 5 (− 2007) 8 Tulajiu m (2007) 5−9 L aemian ( 52009) −9 La emian ( 5− 2009) 9 La emian (2009) 5−10 L ets (2008) 5−10 L ets (2008) 5−10 L ets (2008) 5−6 Risente (2008) 5−6 Ris ente (2008) 5−7 Hillstate5 (200 5−7 7 Hillst Hillstate 8) ate (2008) (2008) 5−8 Tulajium5 (− 2007) 8 Tulajiu m (2007) 59 Laemian (2009) 5−9 Laemian ( 5− 2009) 9 Laem ian (2009) 5−10 L ets (2008) 5−10 L ets (2008) 5−10 L ets (2008) 5−6 Risente (2008) 56 5− Risente 7 Hillst (2008) ate (200 5−7 Hillst 8) ate (200 5−7 Hillst 8) ate (200 5−8) 8 Tulajium (2007) 5−9 Laemian (2009) 5−6 Risente (2008) 5−7 Hillstate (2008) 5−8 Tulajium (2007) 5−9 Laemian (2009) 5−10 Lets (2008) 5−6 Risente (2008) 5−7 Hillstate (2008) 5−8 Tulajium (2007) 5−9 Laemian (2009) 5−10 Lets (2008) 5−6 Risente (2008) 5−8 Tulajium (2007) 5−10 Lets (2008) 5− 9 Laemian (2009) 5−10 Lets (2008) 5−6 Risente (2008) 5−7 Hillstate (2008) 5−8 Tulajium (5 2007) −7 Hillst ate (2008) 5−9 Laemian (2009) 3.3. Changes in Exterior Design by Period 3.3.1. Period 1: Introduction of Apartment Buildings (1976–1985) According to the survey and analysis of the sample complexes, most apartment buildings during this period were plate-type. Additionally, the number of floors in the residential buildings’ range from 12 to fewer than 15. Due to the large-scale development during this period, there were no changes in the number of floors or differentiation of residential buildings within the complexes. According to statistical analysis, plate-type residential buildings accounted for a high proportion at 95%. In particular, among the plate-type buildings, most were south-facing with a straight layout. Furthermore, mixed types of Y- and :-shaped layouts were rare. In terms of the number of floors, 85% of the apartment buildings had fewer than 15 floors, while 15% had 15 or more. Regarding the height of residential buildings inside complexes, there were barely any changes in the number of floors, and they had the same floor height and a uniform layout. The residential buildings were mainly finished with brown colors, and there was no differentiation in finishing materials. Hence, the type, colors, materials, and the number of floors of the residential buildings were uniform, resulting in a uniform exterior of the apartment buildings. 3.3.2. Period 2: Expansion of Mass Supply (1986–1989) According to the analysis of residential building types in the sample complexes during this period, plate-type apartment buildings accounted for 100% of them, most of which Buildings 2022, 12, 892 8 of 16 were corridor-style. A high proportion of residential buildings, 60%, had fewer than 15 floors, while those with 15 to 19 floors comprised less than 40%. Although super high- rise apartment buildings with at least 20 floors emerged during this period, owing to the development of Sanggye New Town, they were not observed in the sample complexes discussed in this paper. However, the fact that 40% of apartment buildings had at least 15 floors shows that the number of floors was increasing compared to the previous period. Moreover, complexes with changes in the number of floors accounted for 10%, indicat- ing that the heights of apartment buildings inside complexes gradually changed from this period. Meanwhile, planners began to explore modifications to the monotonous exteriors of apartment buildings through color. In terms of color, 40% of the residential buildings were brown, 30% were white, 20% were apricot, and 10% were other. This indicates that planners began to use a wider variety of colors. These changes also affected the sidewalls and apartment elevation. The visual design of residential buildings began to change through the diversification of their monotonous colors. 3.3.3. Period 3: Expansion of Mass Supply (1990–1997) According to the survey and analysis of apartment building types during this period, plate-type buildings accounted for 100% of apartment buildings. Thus, plate-type apart- ment buildings were still the prevailing trend. Meanwhile, residential buildings with 15 to 19 floors were the most common at 50%, while those with fewer than 15 floors comprised 33%, and super high-rise apartment buildings with 20 or more floors comprised 17%. Thus, the ratio of apartments with 15 to 19 floors exceeded the ratio of those with fewer than 15 floors, showing that the number of floors in apartment buildings continued to rise. Furthermore, complexes with changes in the number of floors accounted for 33%, sig- naling attempts to diversify the number of floors. This suggests the intention of introducing changes to apartment complexes, which were densely populated due to the construction of super high-rise apartment buildings. In terms of color, 42% of the residential buildings were brown, 25% were white, 17% were apricot, and 17% were other, indicating the universal diversification of colors. This is the result of efforts to break away from the uniform and monotonous building colors with finishes of various colors and to diversify the elevations of residential buildings by varying the number of floors. 3.3.4. Period 4: Differentiation of Exteriors (1998–2002) According to the survey and analysis of residential building types during this period, plate-type buildings still accounted for 100% of apartment buildings. However, what is noteworthy is the number of floors in the residential buildings. In all sample complexes, 100% of the residential buildings had at least 20 floors. This demonstrates that in Period 3, when super high-rise apartment buildings began to emerge, all of the apartment buildings were constructed as super high-rises within just a few years. As the number of floors in apartment buildings rose to super high-rise levels, residential buildings became diversified in several ways. First, apartment complexes with changes in the number of floors in residential build- ings increased to an overwhelming 83%. In most apartment complexes, the number of floors of the residential buildings was changed. Moreover, 50% of apartment complexes showed differentiation in the upper, middle, and lower floors in residential buildings, showing the full implementation of strategies to differentiate the exterior design of apartment buildings. These diverse changes manifested especially in the colors of residential buildings, which changed, for example, to brown, apricot, and white. 3.3.5. Period 5: Diversification of Exteriors (2003–2010) According to the analysis of residential building types in this period, 44% were mixed- type, 31% were plate-type, and 25% were tower-type, demonstrating that various changes occurred in the types of residential buildings. This is the largest change compared to the previous period. Buildings 2022, 12, x FOR PEER REVIEW 9 of 16 Buildings 2022, 12, 892 9 of 16 changes occurred in the types of residential buildings. This is the largest change compared to the previous period. Consequently, substantial changes have occurred in the length and number of house- holds Consequently that make up , su apar bstantial tment bu changes ildinghave s. Mean occurr while ed , 87% o in the flength resideand ntial b number uilding of s had house- at least 20 floors and 13% had 15 to 19 floors, indicating the continuing trend of high density holds that make up apartment buildings. Meanwhile, 87% of residential buildings had due to super high-rise apartment buildings from the previous period. Apartment com- at least 20 floors and 13% had 15 to 19 floors, indicating the continuing trend of high density plexes wi due th c to hange super s high-rise in the number apartment of floors buildings in resifr de om ntia the l bu pr ild evious ings accoun period.ted Apartment for 81%, complexes showing tha with t planner changes s con in s the idered number the sk ofyline floors by in mod residential ifying th buildings e number of accounted floors for in r 81%, esi- showing that planners considered the skyline by modifying the number of floors in resi- dential buildings. During this period, 69% of apartment complexes showed differentiation dential in the upper, buildings. middle During , and this lower f period, loors69% in res ofiden apartment tial buil complexes dings, andshowed it is alsodif wor fertentiation h noting in the upper, middle, and lower floors in residential buildings, and it is also worth noting the beginning of diverse attempts to change materials and exterior finishes. the beginning of diverse attempts to change materials and exterior finishes. Nevertheless, the colors of residential buildings were mostly unchanged compared Nevertheless, the colors of residential buildings were mostly unchanged compared to to the previous period, with 50% brown and 19% apricot, but gray emerged as a new color the previous period, with 50% brown and 19% apricot, but gray emerged as a new color with 25%. with 25%. 3.3.6. Discussion 3.3.6. Discussion The previous subsection analyzed the changes in the exterior design of apartment The previous subsection analyzed the changes in the exterior design of apartment buildings according to the time period. This subsection presents a comprehensive system buildings according to the time period. This subsection presents a comprehensive system summarizing the trends in the changes of each component based on the above analysis. summarizing the trends in the changes of each component based on the above analysis. When analyzing the results of the survey by period, less than 20% of apartments have When analyzing the results of the survey by period, less than 20% of apartments have less than 12 floors in Period 1 and are not found after Period 2. Apartments with 12 or less than 12 floors in Period 1 and are not found after Period 2. Apartments with 12 or more floors and 15 or fewer floors account for a high proportion, 60%, in Period 2 but less more floors and 15 or fewer floors account for a high proportion, 60%, in Period 2 but than 40% in Period 3 and are not found in Periods 4 and 5. Apartments with 15 to 19 floors less than 40% in Period 3 and are not found in Periods 4 and 5. Apartments with 15 to continued to increase to about 50% until Period 3, and then decreased from Period 4. There 19 floors continued to increase to about 50% until Period 3, and then decreased from Period were no apartments with at least 20 floors in Periods 1 and 2, but they grew to 20% in 4. There were no apartments with at least 20 floors in Periods 1 and 2, but they grew to Period 3 and increased rapidly to 100% in Period 4, continuing to increase to 80% in Period 20% in Period 3 and increased rapidly to 100% in Period 4, continuing to increase to 80% in Period 5. Based on the results of the analysis as shown in Figure 2, plate-type buildings were Based on the results of the analysis as shown in Figure 2, plate-type buildings were the most prominent type of residential building in all the periods, and, from Period 5, they the most prominent type of residential building in all the periods, and, from Period 5, diversified into tower-type and mixed-type buildings. Moreover, from Periods 1 to 5, the they diversified into tower-type and mixed-type buildings. Moreover, from Periods 1 to number of floors of residential buildings rose to 15 or more floors, demonstrating the phe- 5, the number of floors of residential buildings rose to 15 or more floors, demonstrating nomenon of super high-rise apartment buildings. By contrast, apartment buildings with the phenomenon of super high-rise apartment buildings. By contrast, apartment buildings fewer than 12 floors were no longer observed. Regarding the color of residential buildings, with fewer than 12 floors were no longer observed. Regarding the color of residential brown accounted for the highest proportion, and there were no substantial changes be- buildings, brown accounted for the highest proportion, and there were no substantial tween periods. changes between periods. Figure 2. Changes in the number of floors in residential buildings by period. Figure 2. Changes in the number of floors in residential buildings by period. Differentiation was based on changes in the shape of residential buildings and changes Differentiation was based on changes in the shape of residential buildings and in the color of the exterior. Section 3.3 investigated the shape and color of buildings changes in the color of the exterior. Section 3.3 investigated the shape and color of for each period, while a statistical analysis was conducted to reflect the results of the changes observed. Buildings 2022, 12, x FOR PEER REVIEW 10 of 16 Buildings 2022, 12, 892 10 of 16 buildings for each period, while a statistical analysis was conducted to reflect the results of the changes observed. The change in floor numbers gradually increased to less than 30% from Periods 1 to The change in floor numbers gradually increased to less than 30% from Periods 1 3, and rapidly increased to more than 80% in Period 4, staying at 80% until Period 5. The to 3, and rapidly increased to more than 80% in Period 4, staying at 80% until Period 5. differentiation of apartment buildings also rose to 20% up to Period 3 but increased to 50% The differentiation of apartment buildings also rose to 20% up to Period 3 but increased in Period 4 and 70% in Period 5. Based on the analysis results, it can be seen that high-rise to 50% in Period 4 and 70% in Period 5. Based on the analysis results, it can be seen that apartments have been built since Period 4 with an increase in the differentiation of resi- high-rise apartments have been built since Period 4 with an increase in the differentiation dential buildings as shown in Figure 3. of residential buildings as shown in Figure 3. Figure 3. Differentiation of residential buildings by period. Figure 3. Differentiation of residential buildings by period. 4. Influencing Factors of Changes in the Exterior Design of Apartment Buildings 4. Influencing Factors of Changes in the Exterior Design of Apartment Buildings In terms of factors inducing changes in the exterior design of apartment buildings, In terms of factors inducing changes in the exterior design of apartment buildings, the first are institutional factors related to the type of multi-family housing, which has a the first are institutional factors related to the type of multi-family housing, which has a decisive influence on the changes in type. The second are economic factors; in this regard, decisive influence on the changes in type. The second are economic factors; in this regard, apartments function as simple living spaces and are also highly important investments in apartments function as simple living spaces and are also highly important investments in the form of assets. The third is changes in type due to the development of construction tech- the form of assets. The third is changes in type due to the development of construction nology, where both the exterior and type change according to the changes in construction technology, where both the exterior and type change according to the changes in construc- methods or mechanical facilities. tion methods or mechanical facilities. 4.1. Institutional Factors 4.1. Institutional Factors Apartment buildings previously had the same number of floors, although in Seoul this Apartment buildings previously had the same number of floors, although in Seoul began to change as high-rise apartment buildings developed. First, behind the development this began to change as high-rise apartment buildings developed. First, behind the devel- of these high-rise apartment buildings is the easing of regulations on the number of floors. In opment o May 1975, f these h building igh-rise review aparguidelines tment build that ings limited is the ea the sing of number reguof lations on floors inth apartment e number of floors. In May 1975, building review guidelines that limited the number of floors in buildings to 12 were enacted, and in April 1977, the 12-floor limit was lifted [18] (pp. 21–50). apartment buildings to 12 were enacted, and in April 1977, the 12-floor limit was lifted At the same time, installation standards for basement floors in the Building Act were r [elaxed, 18] (pp. making 21–50). At t it advantageous he same time, i to n constr stallauct tion apartments standards fwith or ba15 sem or ent mor floors e floors in t[ h 19 e Bui ]. ld- ing Act Accor were ding rel to axed, the m survey aking i and t adv analysis antagr eous esults to cons of this truc study t ap , artm residential ents wi buildings th 15 or m with ore between 12 and 15 floors rapidly increased in floors during Period 2 (1986–1989), while floors [19]. super high-rise apartment buildings with at least 20 floors started to develop in Period 3 According to the survey and analysis results of this study, residential buildings with (1990–1997) and rapidly increased in Period 4 (1998–2002). This is a result of the relaxation between 12 and 15 floors rapidly increased in floors during Period 2 (1986–1989), while in the number of floors in residential buildings and the government’s institutional change super high-rise apartment buildings with at least 20 floors started to develop in Period 3 to supply high-density housing for planned community development. (1990–1997) and rapidly increased in Period 4 (1998–2002). This is a result of the relaxation Regarding changes in residential building type, plate-type residential buildings have in the number of floors in residential buildings and the government’s institutional change been the most common residential building type, which created the south-facing housing to supply high-density housing for planned community development. layout, the traditionally preferred layout since the 1970s when apartments began to be Regarding changes in residential building type, plate-type residential buildings have supplied [20] (pp. 30–50). At that time, legal regulations for securing separation distance, been the most common residential building type, which created the south-facing housing e.g., regulations on the distance between buildings, could be easily met with a plate-type layout, the traditionally preferred layout since the 1970s when apartments began to be residential building layout. However, scholars have noted that plate-type residential supplied [20] (pp. 30–50). At that time, legal regulations for securing separation distance, buildings are a major factor in creating uniform and monotonous apartment complexes. Moreover, consumers’ obsession with south-facing apartments has resulted in excessively long straight buildings and created a stifling urban landscape. Moreover, the trend of Buildings 2022, 12, 892 11 of 16 super high-rises and the elevation of excessively large buildings not only overwhelms the surrounding landscape but also occludes beautiful natural scenery. As problems of urban aesthetics due to these uniform apartment buildings were raised in the mid-1980s, changes were introduced to diversify residential building types [21] (pp. 20–30). Sanggye New Town, built by Korea National Housing Corporation in 1985 to 1988, introduced Y-shaped residential buildings that opened the landscape to Jungnangcheon Stream. This is a case demonstrating that the residential building type should be decided by considering not only the buildings’ direction but also their view. In the late 1990s, spurred by the deregulation of new house sale prices, the government of Seoul set relevant standards and decided to actively intervene from the establishment stage of apartment district master plans. The government announced a policy forbidding construction unless in the case of a high-quality apartment building with unique charac- teristics [22]. Thus, the high-quality apartment complexes that Seoul sought to promote Buildings 2022, 12, x FOR P Buildings EER REVIEW 2022, 12 , x FOR PEER REVIEW 13 of 18 13 of 18 Buildings 2022, 12, x FO wer R P e based EER REon VIEW the idea of appropriately mixing and harmonizing tower-type and Y-shaped 13 of 18 layouts, as shown in Table 4. Table 4. Changes in the exterior types of residential buildings. Table 4. Changes in the ex Table 4. terior ty Chang pes of es in resi the ex dential teri bu or ty ildpes of ings. residential buildings. Table 4. Changes in the exterior types of residential buildings. 1980s: Plate-Type 1990s: Y-Shaped 2000s: Tower-Type 1980s: Plate-Type 1980s: Plate-Type 1990s: Y-Shaped 1990s: Y-Shaped2 000s: Tower-Type 2000s: Tower-Type 1980s: Plate-Type 1990s: Y-Shaped 2000s: Tower-Type Various type Varis of bu ous type ilding Var s of bu iouex s type terior de ilding s of bu exsig terior de ilding ns have eme sig exterior de ns have eme rged s sig ince the ns have eme rged s 2000s, ince the r as sho ged s 2000s, ince the wn as sho 2000s, wn as shown Various types of building exterior designs have emerged since the 2000s, as shown in in Table 5 in . In August 200 Table 5. In August 200 in Tabl 7, the e 5. In August 200 Seoul 7, the government conducted Seoul7, the government conducted Seoul government conducted a pilot im apl pementa ilot impl tiaon of ementa pilot im tion of plementation of Table 5. In August 2007, the Seoul government conducted a pilot implementation of build- building review and improvement measures to eliminate matchbox-like apartments, building rev build iew and imp ing review and imp rovement me rovement asures to el measures iminatto el e maimi tchbox- nate ma like tchbox- apartments like a, partments, ing review and improvement measures to eliminate matchbox-like apartments, based on based on which the “ based on Seoul Ap wh art ich t ment he “ Hous Seoing De ul Apart sign ment Review Hous ing De Guideline sign ” w Review as est aG b-uideline” was estab- based on which the “Seoul Apartment Housing Design Review Guideline” was estab- which the “Seoul Apartment Housing Design Review Guideline” was established [23]. The lished [23lish ]. Th ed e gu [23 ide ]. T lish line he gu e c d o [2 ide mprises 3]line . Th c e gu o fmprises ive ide main line f c it ive o ems: mprises main divers it f ems: ive ificat main divers ion it of re ems: ificat sid d ion ie vers nt of re ia if l icat build side ion nt ing ia of re l build side ing ntia l building guideline comprises five main items: diversification of residential building type, elevation type, elev tat yp io e, el n and evat lta io yndsc p n and e, el ap ev l e p a at ndsc io lan, n and ap eco e p l -fr a lan, ndsc iend eco ly ap-fr and e p iend l energ an,ly eco and y-fr -s energ av iend ing p ly yand -s lan, av energ l in ag p you ly an, t and -sav lain yo ex- g p ut and lan, lex- ayout and ex- and landscape plan, eco-friendly and energy-saving plan, layout and external space plan, ternal space p ternal lan, and au space p ternal lan, and au xili spar ace p y falci xili an, and au litar iey s p falci an lit xili (e. iear s g., p y lparkin an faci (e. litg ig lot e., s parkin plsan ). The it (e. g lot g., ems were set parkin s). The it g lot ems were set s). in The it ems were set in in and auxiliary facilities plan (e.g., parking lots). The items were set in with consideration for with consider with consider ation for with consider the ation environment for the ation environment for and the the sp environment and ace the sp used, r ace and ather used, r the sp than simply a ace ther used, r than simply aesthetic ather than simply aesthetic aesthetic the environment and the space used, rather than simply aesthetic appearance. Particularly, appearance. Particularly, there are many mandatory items regarding the exterior, such as appearanceap . Part pear icance ularly, t . Part here are m icularly, t ah nere are m y mandatory any m items reg andatory ard items reg ing the exterio arding the exterio r, such as r, such as there are many mandatory items regarding the exterior, such as the increase in wall ratio the increase in wall ra the i tio (4 ncrease in wa 0%), restrict ll ra ions on the apa tio (40%), restri rtment l ctions on the apa ogo and balrctment l ony length ogo and balcony length the increase in wall ratio (40%), restrictions on the apartment logo and balcony length (40%), restrictions on the apartment logo and balcony length (70%), and a review of land- (70%), and (70%) a re, v and iew o a (7 r f0%) land eview o , and scap f a e land r li eght vscap iew o inge . The f l land ight se cha iscap ng. The e n l ges ight se cha in in the exteri gn . The ges i sn e cha the exteri or an rges e not ior nli the exteri mi are not ted to lior mia ted to re not limited to scape lighting. These changes in the exterior are not limited to Seoul but also impact other Seoul butSeou also impact l but alSeou so ot impact her l bloca ut a ot l l so govern her impact loca ment l ot govern her s. Acco loca ment l rd govern s. Acco ing to t ment r h d e ing “B s. Acco uil to t dh in e r g P “B ding uil lan t d o G in t u h g P ide e “B lan line uil G d u in ide g P line lan Guideline local governments. According to the “Building Plan Guideline for Buildings in District for Buildings for Bu inild Di ings stfor rict in Bu U Di n ild it st P ings rict lann in Un i Di ng it P st Zones” lann rict iU ng n anno it Zones” Plann unced anno ing in Zones” S unced uwon Cit anno in Su y unced won Cit on 19 in A S yu on u gwon Cit ust 19 , Auy g on ust, 19 August, Unit Planning Zones” announced in Suwon City on 19 August, the external appearance of the external appearance of buildings is determined differently in each district unit zone, the external t h ae ext ppearanc ernale a of ppearanc building e of s is build deteing rmined d s is deitf efrmined d erently ini e fferent ach dist ly in rict e un ach dist it zone rict , unit zone, buildings is determined differently in each district unit zone, and regulations and mandates and regulations and m and r and eat gu es t lato io im ns an pro d m ve ta hn e exterio dates tor im arp e bein rove t g str he exterio engthened [24]. r are being strengthened [24]. and regulations and mandates to improve the exterior are being strengthened [24]. to improve the exterior are being strengthened [24]. Buildings 2022, 12, 892 12 of 16 Buildings 2022, 12, x FO Buildings R PEER R 2022 EVIEW , 12, x FOR PEER REVIEW 14 of 18 14 of 18 Table 5. Diversification of the exterior of apartment buildings since 2000. Table 5. Diversification of the exterior of apartment buildings since 2000. Table 5. Diversification of the exterior of apartment buildings since 2000. CW Apartment Exterior Plan KM Apartment Exterior Plan CW Apartment Exterior Plan KM Apartment Exterior Plan CW Apartment Exterior Plan KM Apartment Exterior Plan - Landmark tower-type roof - Landmark tower-type roof - Diversification of elevations through overlapping masses - Landmark tower-type roof - Diversification of elevations through overlapping masses - Composition of various elevations through solids and - Diversification of elevations through - Composition of various elevations through solids and - Composition of various elevations and varying balcon and v ies arying balconies overlapping masses and varying voids voids through solids and voids - Formation of visual points by differentiating the materials - Formation of visual points by differentiating the materials balconies Point elements to address - Point elements thto e staleness o address thefstaleness building of s Point elements to address the staleness of buildings - Formation of visual points by of each element of each element buildings - Stable clay brick finish suited for lower floors - Stable clay brick finish suited for lower floors differentiating the materials of each - Stable clay brick finish suited for lower element floors 4.2. Economic Factors 4.2. Economic Factors Apartment development has rapidly spread through super high-rise apartments, and Apartment development has rapidly spread through super high-rise apartments, and 4.2. Economic Factors the first super high-rise apartments of 24 to 30 floors were sold in Seoul. This rapid spread the first super high-rise apartments of 24 to 30 floors were sold in Seoul. This rapid spread of super high-rise apartment buildings has also further exacerbated densification. The sys- of s Apartment uper high- development rise apartment has build rapidl ing ysspr has a ead lso thr fu ough rther super exacerb high-ri ated d se eapartments, nsification. The sys and - the tem f first super or apartment sa high-rise tem f apartments le prices was revised so or apartment sa of 24 tole 30 prices was revised so floors that wer it would e sold in be Seoul. ad thv at ant T ithis would ageo rapid us fboe spr r ad hous ead vant ing ageous for housing suppliers, from a business perspective, to construct super high-rise apartment buildings. of super suppliers, from high-rise apartment a business pers buildings pectivhas e, to construct also further super hi exacerbated gh-rise densification. apartment bui The ldings. system for apartment In November sale prices was 1989, revised after so the governme that it would be nt implement advantageous ed for an housing apartment construction cost In November 1989, after the government implemented an apartment construction cost suppliers, from a business linkaperspective, ge system, approxim to construct ately super 12% o high-rise f excess con apartment struction costs buildings. for In super high-rise apart- linkage system, approximately 12% of excess construction costs for super high-rise apart- November 1989, after ment the government buildings we implemented re recognize an d comp apartment ared t constr o 15-fuction loor apart costm linkage ent buildings; given the up- ment buildings were recognized compared to 15-floor apartment buildings; given the up- system, approximately 12% of excess construction costs for super high-rise apartment per limit on new hou per l sing imit s on ale pric new hou es, ths eing raise sad con le pric ses, truct thie on co raise st d con stand sta ruct rd for ion co super hi st stand gh- ard for super high- buildings were recognized compared to 15-floor apartment buildings; given the upper rise apartments was rise adv apart ant m ageou ents was s for adv housin antageou g buils fo ders r housin [25]. Thi g b s l uail te ders r ent [2 ice 5]d hous . This ling ate r enticed housing limit on new housing sale prices, the raised construction cost standard for super high-rise builders to construct super high-rise apartments. builders to construct super high-rise apartments. apartments was advantageous for housing builders [25]. This later enticed housing builders Hence, this institutional support, coupled with housing providers’ pursuit of profit, Hence, this institutional support, coupled with housing providers’ pursuit of profit, to construct super high-rise apartments. led to the rapid development of super high-rise apartment buildings. Since the average led to the rapid development of super high-rise apartment buildings. Since the average Hence, this institutional support, coupled with housing providers’ pursuit of profit, development density for apartment sites was often set to at most 200% of the floor area development density for apartment sites was often set to at most 200% of the floor area led to the rapid development of super high-rise apartment buildings. Since the aver- ratio according to housi ratio according to housi ng site development pl ng site devel ans, it w opment pl as possible to preven ans, it was possible to preven t the over- t the over- age development density for apartment sites was often set to at most 200% of the floor densification of residential complexes. Nevertheless, in major redeveloped and recon- densification of residential complexes. Nevertheless, in major redeveloped and recon- area ratio according to housing site development plans, it was possible to prevent the structed apartment complexes in Seoul, super high-rise apartment buildings were con- structed apartment complexes in Seoul, super high-rise apartment buildings were con- over-densification of residential complexes. Nevertheless, in major redeveloped and re- structed in large numbers at high densities of over 300% [26]. The construction of high- structed in large numbers at high densities of over 300% [26]. The construction of high- constructed apartment complexes in Seoul, super high-rise apartment buildings were rise apartment buildings is more often carried out by private rather than public develop- rise apartment buildings is more often carried out by private rather than public develop- constructed in large numbers at high densities of over 300% [26]. The construction of ment. For the Korea ment. For the Korea National Housing Na Corpora tional Housi tion, itng wa Corpora s not unti tion, l the la it wate 198 s not unti 0s tha l the la t te 1980s that high-rise apartment buildings is more often carried out by private rather than public de- high-rise apartment construction surpassed low-rise apartment construction, whereas pri- high-rise apartment construction surpassed low-rise apartment construction, whereas pri- velopment. For the Korea National Housing Corporation, it was not until the late 1980s vate corporations had already been constructing high-rise apartment buildings much ear- vate corporations had already been constructing high-rise apartment buildings much ear- that high-rise apartment construction surpassed low-rise apartment construction, whereas lier. This is evidenced by the fact that in Gangnam-gu, more super high-rise apartment lier. This is evidenced by the fact that in Gangnam-gu, more super high-rise apartment private corporations had already been constructing high-rise apartment buildings much complexes were already being built in 1978. This situation arose because profit-pursuing complexes were already being built in 1978. This situation arose because profit-pursuing earlier. This is evidenced by the fact that in Gangnam-gu, more super high-rise apartment private companies f privat aced p e comp oor condit anies fion aced p s for pu oor condit rchasing a ionsffo for pu rdablrcha e hous sing a ing s ffo itrd es; t abl he hous ere- ing sites; there- complexes were already being built in 1978. This situation arose because profit-pursuing fore, they participated fore, they early in the con participated struction o early in the con f high-rise struction o apartmf ent build high-rise ing apartm s. In add ent build i- ings. In addi- private companies faced poor conditions for purchasing affordable housing sites; therefore, tion, the exterior design was differentiated by the branding of apartments after 2000, while tion, the exterior design was differentiated by the branding of apartments after 2000, while they participated early in the construction of high-rise apartment buildings. In addition, the exterior finishing material was decorated with marble, as shown in Figure 4 on the the exterior finishing material was decorated with marble, as shown in Figure 4 on the the exterior design was differentiated by the branding of apartments after 2000, while the low floor, and various designs were introduced at the entrances to make the apartments low floor, and various designs were introduced at the entrances to make the apartments exterior finishing material was decorated with marble, as shown in Figure 4 on the low more luxurious [27]. In fact, rooftop design and main building design also affected apart- more luxurious [27]. In fact, rooftop design and main building design also affected apart- floor, and various designs were introduced at the entrances to make the apartments more ment prices [28]. However ment prices [28]. However , even with an ad,di even tiona with l cost f an ad or exteri ditiona or design, addi l cost for exteri tiona or design, addi l tional luxurious [27]. In fact, rooftop design and main building design also affected apartment profits are generated, which is economically advantageous [29]. In other words, factors profits are generated, which is economically advantageous [29]. In other words, factors prices [28]. However, even with an additional cost for exterior design, additional profits related to apartment building planning affect economic value [30]. related to apartment building planning affect economic value [30]. Buildings Buildings 2022 2022 , 12 , 12 , 892 , x FOR PEER REVIEW 13 of 13 of 16 16 are generated, which is economically advantageous [29]. In other words, factors related to profits are generated, which is economically advantageous [29]. In other words, factors apartment building planning affect economic value [30]. related to apartment building planning affect economic value [30]. Figure 4. Diversification of lower floors and entrances of apartments after 2000. Figure 4. Diversification of lower floors and entrances of apartments after 2000. 4.3. Technological Factors 4.3. Technological Factors The development of construction technology also plays a key role in the changes The development of construction technology also plays a key role in the changes in in the height of apartment buildings. Even in the 1970s when apartments were first the height of apartment buildings. Even in the 1970s when apartments were first supplied supplied in South Korea, the buildings used a Rahman structure with columns and in South Korea, the buildings used a Rahman structure with columns and beams [31] (pp. beams [31] (pp. 21–30). The Rahman structure is the most common method for high-rise 21–30). The Rahman structure is the most common method for high-rise buildings with buildings with 10 or more floors. However, in apartment buildings where even the smallest 10 or more floors. However, in apartment buildings where even the smallest space is val- space is valuable, the columns that occupy space in the lower floors make the unit plans uable, the columns that occupy space in the lower floors make the unit plans highly unfa- highly unfavorable, and the additional floor height caused by the beams has raised con- vorable, and the additional floor height caused by the beams has raised construction costs struction costs all over the country. Moreover, limited natural water pressure to supply all over the country. Moreover, limited natural water pressure to supply water restricted water restricted the height of buildings. The increase in high-rise apartment buildings the height of buildings. The increase in high-rise apartment buildings from the initial 12 from the initial 12 floors to 13 and 14 floors is the result of strenuous efforts to increase floors to 13 and 14 floors is the result of strenuous efforts to increase the number of floors the number of floors as much as possible under these structural conditions. However, the as much as possible under these structural conditions. However, the detailed drawings detailed drawings and construction of rebars on the walls of apartments built in the 1970s and construction of rebars on the walls of apartments built in the 1970s also reveal prob- also reveal problems [32]. lems [32]. The advent of wall-type structures in the late 1980s brought about the development The advent of wall-type structures in the late 1980s brought about the development of technology, freeing builders from these structural limitations. The wall-type structure of technology, freeing builders from these structural limitations. The wall-type structure replaced columns and beams with load-bearing walls and flat slabs and was a revolutionary replaced columns and beams with load-bearing walls and flat slabs and was a revolution- technological advancement at the time. Consequently, 14-floor column-beam apartment ary technological advancement at the time. Consequently, 14-floor column-beam apart- buildings began to transition to 15-floor wall-type apartment buildings while maintaining ment buildings began to transition to 15-floor wall-type apartment buildings while main- the same height [33] (pp. 15–20). However, the wall-type structure also has limitations. taining the same height [33] (pp. 15–20). However, the wall-type structure also has limita- As these buildings evolved into super high-rises with 16 or more floors, the limit that tions. As these buildings evolved into super high-rises with 16 or more floors, the limit the load-bearing walls could withstand became an issue. The solution to this was the that the load-bearing walls could withstand became an issue. The solution to this was the production of high-strength rebar and high-strength cement. Current technology has made production of high-strength rebar and high-strength cement. Current technology has it possible to reach 30 floors with a load-bearing wall structure. made it possible to reach 30 floors with a load-bearing wall structure. High-rise apartment buildings were made possible with the introduction of a steel High-rise apartment buildings were made possible with the introduction of a steel frame, whose performance was insufficient with the existing reinforced concrete [34]. From frame, whose performance was insufficient with the existing reinforced concrete [34]. a structural point of view, the steel-framed apartment had excellent stability [35]. With the From a structural point of view, the steel-framed apartment had excellent stability [35]. Buildings 2022, 12, 892 14 of 16 Buildings Buildings 2022 2022,, 12 12, x FO , x FOR P R PEER EER R RE EVIEW VIEWdevelopment of such a steel frame, the number of floors of the apartment was develo 16 of 16 of 18 18 ped into a super high-rise. When such a high-rise apartment became possible, a splendid decorative element was introduced into the monotonous exterior of the apartment building since the 2000s. In particular, various elements are being used in design that owe themselves apart apartm ment ent b bu uild ilding ing s siince nce t th he e 20 200 00 0s. s. In In part partic icul ular, ar, va vari rious ous element elementss are are bein being g use used d in in d de e-- to the symbolic meaning and technological development of high-rise apartments on roofs si sign tha gn thatt owe themsel owe themselv ves to the symbol es to the symboliicc m meeaning aning an and t d teechno chnolloogic gicaall dev deveelo lop pm ment ent of of and rooftops, as shown in Table 6. high-r high-rise ise apartments on ro apartments on roofs ofs and and rooft roofto ops, ps, as as show shown in T n in Ta able 6. ble 6. Table 6. Diversification of roofs and rooftops since 2000. Table 6. Table 6. Diversificat Diversification of ion of roof roofs and rooftops s and rooftops since since 2000. 2000. D-Apartment L-Apartment D-AD-Apparartmtmeenntt L-Ap L-Apartmartmenentt 5. Con 5. Conc clus lusiio on ns s 5. Conclusions The exterio The exterior r designs of designs of ap apartment build artment buildings ings h ha ave v ve va ar riied ed wid wide ely ly ac across different ross different time time The exterior designs of apartment buildings have varied widely across different time periods periods a an nd d were grea were greattlly impa y impacted by cha cted by chan nges ges in la in laws and sy ws and syst stems, as ems, as we well ll a as s economic economic periods and were greatly impacted by changes in laws and systems, as well as economic and techno and technolo logic gica al ch l chang ange es. The s. The influenc influence of these ch e of these change factors v ange factors va aries ries in d in de egre gree e accor accord d-- and technological changes. The influence of these change factors varies in degree according iin ng to the ti g to the tim me e peri period. od. to the time period. Fi Firstly, a rstly, ap pa ar rttm ments were ents were mostl mostly y llo oca cated ar ted around the ound the Hangang Riv Hangang Rive er with r with a goo a good d land- land- Firstly, apartments were mostly located around the Hangang River with a good scap scape e from from p pe eriod riod 1 1 and and 2. 2. The 3r The 3rd p d pe er riio od d st sta ar rtte ed t d th he e iin nttr roduct oductiion o on off hi high-r gh-rise ise ap apart artm ment ents s, , landscape from period 1 and 2. The 3rd period started the introduction of high-rise which event which eventu ual ally bec ly becaame me a new t a new trren end d in t in th he e e eaarl rly y period o period off t teecchnology. hnology. It It is is a w a wiide dely ly apartments, which eventually became a new trend in the early period of technology. It distrib distribu uted in ted inland land area of area of Gangnam Gangnam,, w wh here th ere the floor e floor are area a can be can be optimized optimized.. Since then, Since then, is a widely distributed inland area of Gangnam, where the floor area can be optimized. tth he G e Ga ang ngseo seo are area a b be ec ca am me e a p a po op pu ulla arr p plla ac ce fo e for b r bu uiilldin ding g ap apart artm ment ents s durin during g t th he e ne new exp w expe er- r- Since then, the Gangseo area became a popular place for building apartments during the im iment enta all p pe erio riod d t th hat at occu occurre rred in t d in th he e 4t 4th p h pe eriod. riod. The The are area a h ha ad d shown shown a new a new t tr rend, end, i in nclud cluding ing new experimental period that occurred in the 4th period. The area had shown a new trend, the emergenc the emergence of tower e of tower--ty type high-r pe high-rise ise apar aparttm ment entss,, which are which are m maain inly ly llaarg rge-sc e-scale ale ap apart art-- including the emergence of tower-type high-rise apartments, which are mainly large-scale ments wi ments with th a a modern ci modern city concept. In a ty concept. In ad ddi diti tion, duri on, during the 5 ng the 5tth period, the h period, the a ap pa ar rttm ments ha ents had d apartments with a modern city concept. In addition, during the 5th period, the apartments a a tendency to become l tendency to become lu uxuri xurious a ous ag gai ain and a n and arre di e distributed i stributed in n the Ga the Gangna ngnam m a arrea ea where where had a tendency to become luxurious again and are distributed in the Gangnam area where there are m there are ma an ny y high-en high-end d o offfice fices s in in Seo Seou ul—in term l—in terms o s off skysc skyscr raper apers s and de and design sign d diifferentia- fferentia- there are many high-end offices in Seoul—in terms of skyscrapers and design differentiation ti tion i on in n exterior. exterior. in exterior. As a resul As a resul As a result tt of a of a of n nal al analyzing yz yziin ng the a g the a the p partments tha artments tha apartments that tt are the subject of this are the subject of this are the subject of this study, study, study in Pe in Pe , in riod Period riod 1( 1(1 11(1976–1985), 9 97 76 6– –1 19 98 85 5)),, 85% o 85% o 85% ff t t of h he a e a the p part art apartments m ment entss ha had fewer t d fewer t had fewer h han an than 15 15 15 st storie orie stories s an s and m d m ando o most st st of t of t of h hem em them were were were low-rise apartments. In Period 2 (1986–1989), 100% of flat-type apartments were the same llo ow- w-ri rise se a ap pa ar rtments. In tments. In Peri Period od 2 (19 2 (1986– 86–19 1989) 89), 100 , 100% of % of fflla att--ttype ype a ap pa ar rtments were the sa tments were the same me as as as ap apart apartment artm ment ent b bu uild buildings, ildings ings,, a an nd d and 60% 60% 60% o off of aap part apartments artm ment entss h haad f had d feewer wer fewer t th han an than 1 155 f f 15 lloor oor floors. s. s. In Per In Per In Period iiod od 33 3 (1990–1997), 33% of apartments with fewer than 15 floors and 17% of apartments with at (1 (19 99 90 0– –1 19 99 97 7), ), 33% o 33% off ap apart artm ment ents s wit with h fe fewer t wer th han 1 an 15 5 fl floors an oors and 1 d 17 7% % of ap of apart artm ment ents s wit with h at at least 20 floors started to be built. In Periods 4 and 5 (1998–2010), the number of apartment lle east 20 ast 20 fflloors sta oors star rted to be ted to be bui builltt. In Peri . In Period ods 4 a s 4 an nd 5 (1 d 5 (199 998–2 8–2010 010), the ), the number of number of a ap pa ar rtment tment floors increased sharply to 80% or more for buildings with at least 20 floors, and the floor floors s incre increa asse ed sh d sharpl arply t y to o 8 80 0% % or more or more for for bu build ildings ings wit with h at at lea leasstt 20 20 f flloors oors,, and and t th he d e diiff-- differentiation of residential buildings due to high rise appeared. In Period 5 (2003—2010), ferent ferentiia attiion o on off res resiident dentiia al l build building ingss du due t e to o hi high ri gh rise a se appea ppearred. In Peri ed. In Period 5 od 5 (2 (200 003-– 3-–201 2010) 0), , the differentiation of apartment buildings reached its peak at more than 70%. tth he dif e diffferent erentiiat ation o ion off ap apart artm ment ent b bu uil ildin ding gs re s reached ached it its s p pe eak ak at at m mo orre e t th han an 70% 70%.. In Period 1 (1976–1985), when the mass supply of apartments first began, mass produc- In Peri In Period od 1 (19 1 (1976– 76–198 1985) 5), when the m , when the ma ass ss su supply pply of a of ap partments artments first bega first began, n, mass pro mass pro-- tion’s economic feasibility was the main determinant of building type, whereas in Period 2 duct duction’s eco ion’s econ nomic fe omic feas asibi ibilit lity w y wa as s t th he e main main de determina terminan nt of t of b bu uil ilding type, wherea ding type, whereas i s in n Pe- Pe- (1986–1989), welfare facilities for the disabled and the development of construction tech- ri riod 2 od 2 ((198 1986–1 6–1989 989), welf ), welfa ar re f e fa aci cili liti ties es ffo or the r the di disa sabl bled ed and the devel and the develo opment of pment of constructi constructio on n nology and methods exerted a greater influence, while that of economic factors declined. technol technolo ogy gy and methods exerted a and methods exerted a grea greater i ter in nfflluence, whi uence, whille e tha thatt of of economi economicc factors de- factors de- In Periods 4 and 5 (1998–2010), economic factors exerted a substantial influence, after cl cliin ned. ed. In In Peri Periods ods 4 a 4 an nd 5 ( d 5 (199 1998–2 8–2010 010)),, econom economic fact ic factors ors exe exerrtte ed a d a subst substa ant ntiia al in l influ flue ence, nce, which differentiation in building type due to the emergence of brands began to have an aft afte er wh r which di ich differ ffere ent ntiat iatiion on iin n build building t ing ty ype du pe due to the emergence of e to the emergence of brands beg brands bega an n to have to have influence. Most importantly, in Period 5 (2003–2010), decorative changes transformed the an in an infl fluence. uence. Most Most import importa an nttlly, in y, in Per Periio od d 5 5 ((200 2003–2 3–2010 010), decora ), decorati tive cha ve chan nges tra ges tran nsf sformed ormed exterior designs of buildings; particularly, affordable building materials made it possible tth he ext e exte erior rior d de esign signs o s off b bu uiilld dings ings; p ; pa art rtic icu ullar arly, ly, af afford forda ab ble bu le buil ilding ding mat mate eri rial als m s ma ade it de it pos- pos- to diversify exterior wall materials and even influenced changes in building type. Of sible t sible to o d diivers versify ify ext exte erior w rior wa allll mat mate er riia alls s a an nd even inf d even infllu ue enced chan nced change ges in bu s in build ilding t ing ty ype. Of pe. Of course course, e , ea ach ch factor’s level factor’s level o off in influence fluence so somewhat var mewhat variie es s depend depending ing on the exterio on the exterior r design design component. Neverthele component. Nevertheless, they can con ss, they can conffident identlly y be cit be cite ed as m d as ma ajor factors inc jor factors inciitin ting g change changes s in e in ea ach comp ch component. onent. Buildings 2022, 12, 892 15 of 16 course, each factor ’s level of influence somewhat varies depending on the exterior design component. Nevertheless, they can confidently be cited as major factors inciting changes in each component. This study is significant in that it attempted to understand and analyze the exterior designs of apartment buildings under increasingly complex social and economic conditions using an approach from various factors. The findings of this study can present directions for designers and policymakers for more desirable exterior designs of apartment buildings, as well as substantially contribute to establishing future policies. A limitation of this study is that because the number of complexes selected for the case study was limited, their locations were limited to Seoul, and they mainly consisted of large apartment complexes. However, the cause analysis extended somewhat beyond the data analysis results. Future research should expand the scope of investigation to the national level and perform a more in-depth and objective analysis based on case studies and surveys. Author Contributions: Conceptualization, K.G.; methodology, K.G. and J.N.; formal analysis, J.N.; investigation, K.G.; data curation, J.N.; writing—original draft preparation, K.G.; writing—review and editing, J.N.; supervision, K.G. All authors have read and agreed to the published version of the manuscript. Funding: This research received no external funding. Institutional Review Board Statement: Not applicable. Informed Consent Statement: Not applicable. Data Availability Statement: The data presented in this study are available on request from the corresponding author. Conflicts of Interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest. References 1. Chio, L.; Gong, Y.K.; Park, H.J. Analysis on the Preference against the Residential-building Forms in Muti-family Attached Houses Employing the Multinomail Logit Model. J. Archit. Korea 2008, 24, 57–65. 2. Kim, N.K. A Study on the Changing Characteristics of the Public Housing through the Architectural Design Competitions. Master ’s Thesis, Chungang University, Seoul, Korea, 2005. 3. Park, J.Y. A Study on the Exterior Design Trend by Analysis of Elevation of Apartment Housing in the Metropolitan Area. Master ’s Thesis, Kyonggi University, Suwon-si, Korea, 2007. 4. Exterior Definition in Oxford Learner Dictionary. Available online: https://www.oxfordlearnersdictionaries.com/definition/ english/exterior_1 (accessed on 29 December 2021). 5. Scruton, R. The Aesthetics of Architecture; Kim, K., Translator; Seogwangsa Press: Seosan-si, Korea, 1985; pp. 23–25. 6. Erikson, E.H. Identity: Youth and Crisis; W.W. Norton & Company: New York, USA, 1968; pp. 173–175. 7. Arnaud, L. Forms and Functions Twentieth-Century Architecture; Hamlin, T., Ed.; Columbia University Press: New York, NY, USA, 1952; Volume 1, pp. 12–20. 8. Lynch, K.A. A Theory of Good City Form; MIT Press: Cambridge, Massachusetts, MA, USA, 1981; pp. 20–30. 9. Apartment Definition in Cambridge Dictionary. Available online: https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/ apartment (accessed on 28 December 2021). 10. Yim, J.S.; Yim, S.H.; Jang, Y.H.; Jeong, R.S. Case Study of Large Complex Development; Korea National Housing Corporation Press: Jinju-si, Korea, 1986; pp. 20–21. 11. Rapoport, A. House Form and Culture; Pergamon Press: Oxford, UK, 1969; pp. 5–15. 12. Zevi, B. The Modern Language of Architecture; Lee, H., Translator; Sejinsa Press: Busan, Korea, 1995; pp. 9–20. 13. Park, C. Urban Architecture in Suburban Society; Sejinsa Press: Busan, Korea, 1997; pp. 34–50. 14. Lee, J.S. A Study on Approaches to the Exterior Design of High-Rise Apartments. Ph.D. Thesis, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea, 1992. 15. Cheon, E.Y. A Study on the Behavioral Model and Simulation in the Architectural Space. Master ’s Thesis, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea, 1987. 16. Kim, J.J. A Study on the Systematization of the Exterior of Residential Architecture. Ph.D. Thesis, Hongik University, Seoul, Korea, 1993. 17. Cha, C.H. A Study on the Components of the Exterior of High-Rise Apartments. Master ’s Thesis, Dankook University School of Architecture, Yongin-si, Korea, 1996. Buildings 2022, 12, 892 16 of 16 18. Kang, B.S. History of Multi-Family Housing in South Korea; Sejinsa Press: Busan, Korea, 1999; pp. 21–50. 19. Korean Law Information Center. The Enforcement Decree of the Building Act. 1970. Available online: https://www.law.go.kr (accessed on 10 February 2022). (In Korean) 20. Kang, Y.H. History of Korean Residential Culture; Gimondang Press: Seoul, Korea, 2002; pp. 30–50. 21. Kang, B.S. Urban Collective Housing Planning; Balun Press: Seoul, Korea, 1997; pp. 20–30. 22. The City History Compilation Committee of Seoul. Seoul Government Journal in 1990; Seoul City Press: Seoul, Korea, 1999. 23. Seoul Metropolitan City Building Review Guideline. Available online: https://news.seoul.go.kr/citybuild/files/2012/01/5c7 3b5eaa72453.10222334.pdf (accessed on 20 December 2021). (In Korean) 24. Suwon City District Unit Planning Implementation Guideline. Available online: https://www.suwon.go.kr/sw-www/ deptHome/dep_city/cityCreate02/cityCreate02-02.jsp (accessed on 23 December 2021). (In Korean) 25. Ceiling on New Housing Sale Prices. Available online: https://www.archives.go.kr/next/search/listSubjectDescription.do?id= 009749&pageFlag=A&sitePage=1-2-1 (accessed on 14 January 2022). (In Korean) 26. Seoul Redevelopment and Reconstruction Project. 2010. Available online: https://data.seoul.go.kr/dataList/OA-2253/S/1/ datasetView.do (accessed on 14 January 2022). (In Korean) 27. Gong, K.R. A Study on the Diachronic Change and the Influential Factors of the Exterior Design in High-Rise Apartments. Ph.D. Thesis, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea, 2011. 28. Lee, I.H. The Influences of Aesthetic Design Factors on Apartment Prices Focused on Gang-Nam District in Seoul. Ph.D. Thesis, Kangwon University, Chuncheon-si, Korea, 2008. 29. Bae, J.H. A Study on Variation of Exterior Design in Domestic Apartments According to Economic Characteristics; Korea Institute of Industrial Technology: Cheonan, Korea, 2000. 30. Kim, W.P. A Study on Identifying Major Planning Factors and Siting of Building Blocks in High-Rise Apartment Housing through the Estimation of Economics. J. Archit. Korea 2000, 8, 127–133. 31. Jang, S.S.; Lim, S.H.; Kim, W.P. History of Multi-Family Housing Production Technology in South Korea; Korea Housing Corporation Press: Jinju-si, Korea, 1995; pp. 21–30. 32. Kim, S.J. Investigation on the Reinforced Concrete Shear Wall Structual Details of Existing Apartment Buildings. Master ’s Thesis, Hanwang University, Seoul, Korea, 2003. 33. Jang, S.Y.; Yim, I.S. A review of the changes in multi-family housing in South Korea. J. Archit. Hist. 2002, 11, 37–55. 34. Jeong, J.K. Structural System of Steel Framde High-Rise Apartment. Master ’s Thesis, Dongkuk University, Seoul, Korea, 2001. 35. Kim, J.K. A Study on the Structual Systems of Steel Frame Tall Apartment. Master ’s Thesis, Dongkuk University, Seoul, Korea, 1999. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Buildings Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute

Diachronic Changes and Factors Influencing the Exterior Design of High-Rise Apartment Buildings

Buildings , Volume 12 (7) – Jun 24, 2022

Loading next page...
 
/lp/multidisciplinary-digital-publishing-institute/diachronic-changes-and-factors-influencing-the-exterior-design-of-high-4XRubOqfWa
Publisher
Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Copyright
© 1996-2022 MDPI (Basel, Switzerland) unless otherwise stated Disclaimer The statements, opinions and data contained in the journals are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publisher and the editor(s). MDPI stays neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. Terms and Conditions Privacy Policy
ISSN
2075-5309
DOI
10.3390/buildings12070892
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

buildings Article Diachronic Changes and Factors Influencing the Exterior Design of High-Rise Apartment Buildings 1 2 , Keumrok Gong and Jeehyun Nam * Department of Architecture, Induk University, Seoul 01878, Korea; gonglee@induk.ac.kr Department of Urban Planning & Housing, Gyeonggi Research Institute, Suwon 16207, Korea * Correspondence: skyish@gri.re.kr Abstract: High-rise apartment buildings, the preferred type of housing in South Korea, have very similar exteriors. Thus, apartment complexes tend to look similar with no unique identity of com- plex or city. This study aimed to identify the factors influencing the exterior design of high-rise apartment buildings in their 40-year history. I surveyed 50 apartment complexes from the 1970s to 2010, categorized important periods in Korean history, and analyzed corresponding changes in the exterior design of high-rise apartment buildings. I visited apartments in Seoul to take photos and conduct field surveys, and statistically analyzed the results by classifying the buildings’ external characteristics. I found correlations between the exterior design of the buildings and three major factors influencing their changes and development. The first is increasing institutional supply in the 1970s and developing landscapes in the 2000s. The second is an economic factor—economic growth. Third, as technology developed, apartment buildings transitioned from low-rise to high-rise, and their exterior design underwent many changes. This study reveals the relationship between changes in high-rise apartment buildings’ exteriors as they developed alongside South Korea’s growth and the influencing factors, and presents major factors that determine the direction of exterior design for high-rise apartment buildings in the future. Citation: Gong, K.; Nam, J. Keywords: high-rise apartment buildings; residential buildings; exterior design; influencing factors Diachronic Changes and Factors Influencing the Exterior Design of High-Rise Apartment Buildings. Buildings 2022, 12, 892. https:// 1. Introduction doi.org/10.3390/buildings12070892 Apartments comprise the majority of housing in South Korea and are the most common Academic Editors: Pierfrancesco De and preferred type of housing in the country. The period when apartments were introduced Paola and Baojie He and developed, the 1970s, roughly coincides with the period of industrialization in South Received: 27 April 2022 Korea. High-rise apartment buildings emerged in the form of large-scale complexes from Accepted: 22 June 2022 the early 1970s and have greatly developed in their type and structure throughout their Published: 24 June 2022 40-year history. Despite these changes and developments, however, apartment complexes look similar Publisher’s Note: MDPI stays neutral in appearance all over the country. The mainstream style is a design of matchboxes arranged with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affil- side by side. Consequently, apartment complexes inevitably look similar nationwide, and it iations. becomes difficult for a complex or city to capture its unique identity. In these circumstances, the only way to secure a complex’s identity is to partially modify the exterior elements that can differentiate the complex without greatly changing the interior. Possible elements include the residential building type, roof, rooftop, and lower floors. Copyright: © 2022 by the authors. Many studies on the exterior design of apartment buildings have been conducted Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. since 2000. In particular, studies have been conducted on the exterior, color, and material This article is an open access article characteristics of residential buildings, roof and rooftop changes, and exterior design in distributed under the terms and low-rise areas. Regarding the type of apartment building, various planning methods for the conditions of the Creative Commons type of building and the planned characteristics of the type of residential building have been Attribution (CC BY) license (https:// conducted. These studies have mainly focused on the arrangement of residential buildings creativecommons.org/licenses/by/ in terms of sunlight and direction. In addition, one study investigated the preference for 4.0/). Buildings 2022, 12, 892. https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12070892 https://www.mdpi.com/journal/buildings Buildings 2022, 12, 892 2 of 16 certain types of building in multi-family housing [1] (pp. 57–65). The characteristics of the changes in apartment building plans have also been investigated, but actual completed apartment buildings or architectural plans were not the focus [2]. Although the exterior design of the apartment building in the Seoul metropolitan area is being studied, there is a limitation that resulted in a failure to investigate due to the Seoul Metropolitan Government, which guides the exterior of the apartment [3]. However, no analysis has been undertaken on the changes in the type of buildings by era. This study focuses on the changes in the exterior design of various apartments and the changing factors of elements that constitute their exterior from the past to the present. I investigate how the physical form of apartments has been influenced by institutional, economic, and technological factors according to the time period and how these factors are interrelated. Although numerous studies have examined the exterior of apartments, they do not clearly explain why the exterior designs have changed so much in terms of influencing factors. Apartments have become an important form of housing and the most important element of the urban landscape. To promote more desirable exterior designs in the future, it is necessary to answer this question at both the academic and policy levels. 2. Theoretical Review 2.1. Theories on Exterior In the field of architecture, definitions of “exterior” originate from the various views of buildings. It is simply described as “the outside of something, especially a building,” and there are no specific theories regarding its concept and definition. However, explanations lean toward the concept of “identity” or emphasize the “external appearance of the aesthetic range” visually perceived by humans [4]. In architecture, the exterior is the most outwardly expressed part of a building. Just as the building itself is influenced by changes in the surrounding environment, so is its exterior. Functioning to distinguish between places and other buildings, the exterior reflects the surrounding environment and thus can become the building’s identity. The building’s identity must be reflected in its external appearance to retain its essential character, which Roger Scruton described as its local attributes [5] (pp. 23–25). Thus, various works are restricted in buildings due to the sense of location, and the exterior of buildings is influenced by the area’s character. As local characteristics are reflected in buildings, they are also reflected in the exterior of buildings. The building’s identity is ultimately transferred to its exterior and exerts influence. Although people may have different feelings or a different understanding about the exterior of a building, since a building cannot have multiple appearances at once, it formally possesses the commonality of one unified exterior [6] (pp. 173–178). Furthermore, if a building’s exterior expresses its identity, then differences in the exterior come from the building’s character. The character of a building is an expression of its intended purpose and originates from the implicit emotional relationship between the building and people [7]. Hence, buildings are an important medium of commonality and emotional relation- ships and possess a unique identity signified by the exterior itself. It has its own significance independent of the process or content in which the exterior is formed, and this identity is also considered to provide distinctiveness to its external appearance. Kevin Lynch argued that identity is the characteristic that enhances the ability to recognize an environment, makes an object memorable and vivid, attracts attention and distinguishes it from other locations, and that identity is what gives buildings distinctiveness [8] (pp. 20–30). The aesthetic meaning, sense of place, and uniqueness of the exterior are attributes of all buildings, and the exterior contains not only a simple visual meaning but various internal aspects as well. The exterior also carries important architectural significance as it creates an image necessary to distinguish the entity from other objects. When the exterior is being developed, it is influenced by the surrounding environment, which leads to changes in exterior planning elements. Therefore, for planners or policymakers to become involved Buildings 2022, 12, 892 3 of 16 in the process of creating building exteriors, it is necessary to first investigate the changing process of exterior design. 2.2. Changes in the Form of Apartments and Influencing Factors An apartment is defined as “a set of rooms for living in, usually on one floor of a large building” or “a self-contained housing unit that occupies only part of a building,” and refers to a building composed of multiple units [9]. Accordingly, an apartment house refers to a building comprising one or more dwelling units designed for one family, called a “flat” in the UK. An apartment house also refers to a group of houses built together, particularly a multi-family house built in large numbers [10] (pp. 20–21). In South Korea, when there are multiple independent single-family dwelling units comprising one or more rooms and sharing an entry stairway or hallway in a building, each dwelling is called an apartment, and the building is called an apartment house. From a planning perspective, an apartment building refers to a middle-rise or taller multi-family housing; in terms of height, low-rise apartment buildings have four to five floors, while high-rise apartment buildings have at least six floors. The Enforcement Decree of the Building Act stipulates that multi-family housing with five or more stories is an apartment building, and it is differentiated from tenement houses that have four floors or fewer. The first apartment building in South Korea and the first multi-family housing was the Jongam Apartment built in 1958, which scholars regard as having served as a prototype for urban apartments that emerged later. To understand the essential concept of the exterior design of apartment buildings, this study first reviews theories on the exterior design of buildings. In particular, this study examines the meaning contained in the exterior of a building and discusses how the exterior forms the building’s identity. This investigation finds that the identity of a building’s exterior has an important influence on the exterior. The uniqueness, distinctiveness, and identity of a building’s exterior are directly applied to the exterior of residential buildings. Therefore, we can understand the fundamental meanings of a residential complex’s identity, the urban landscape formed by the complex, and the exterior of apartment buildings. The exterior of apartment buildings is an important factor that determines a city’s skyline. Apartment buildings’ exteriors form the city skyline according to changes in its shape, number of floors, and height, and also directly affects the urban landscape. As such, design plans for the exterior of apartment buildings must consider the urban landscape created by not only one building but also the entire complex. If that is the case, what factors influence an apartment building’s exterior design? Considering that the exterior of an apartment building is also a part of the housing style, the factors influencing the exterior design do not greatly vary from those influencing housing. Cultural, technological, and environmental factors are cited as those which influence housing, and they impact the exte- rior design as well [11]. The exterior designs of apartment buildings have morphed along with each time period, which is attributed to the diverse influences from cultural, social, and economic factors [12]. Historically significant background circumstances and events were the triggers inciting changes throughout the history of apartment buildings’ exterior designs. Regarding factors affecting the formation of the exterior of residential architecture, Korean scholars have cited environmental, traditional, functional, and formative factors, and some studies mainly address institutional aspects [13] (pp. 34–50). In summary, a commonality of previous studies is that they cite institutional, economic, and socio-cultural factors as influencing factors. 2.3. Components of the Exterior Design of Apartment Buildings It is necessary to examine the components forming apartment buildings’ exterior design and its principles of composition. First, this can be analyzed through the lens of visual perception theory. Through a review of prior literature and related theories from this perspective, this study found that the exterior design of apartment buildings has been classified according to researchers’ varied perspectives, and that specific parts Buildings 2022, 12, 892 4 of 16 of detailed items are also classified differently. Similar results were found in terms of other theories as well. For this reason, it seems impossible to address all the elements and influences of exterior design at once. Accordingly, this study first categorizes the exterior design of apartment buildings into complex layout, residential building, and unit dwelling according to scale, and then classifies all detailed elements from layout to exterior design [14]. According to an apartment building’s slope topography, its elements are classified into complex shape elements, slope characteristic elements, and building shape elements [15]. Another study classified them into structural elements, exterior elements, and decorative and finishing elements [16]. An apartment building’s exterior design has also been divided into primary, secondary, and tertiary perceptual elements and its components into detailed categories [17]. As such, researchers have different classifications for the detailed components of an apartment building’s exterior according to their specific criteria and analyze specific aspects of the components differently according to varying standards. This study aims to analyze the exterior design of high-rise apartment buildings with the scope limited to residential buildings, which have undergone the most changes in terms of the exterior design of apartment buildings. Even if the examination of exteriors is limited to residential buildings, it is necessary to first determine how to divide the exterior components of a residential building, and which elements play an important role in forming the exterior ’s identity and image. Regarding the exterior design of apartment buildings, this study determines the residential building type, roof, rooftop, side walls, and lower floors to be important factors constituting the exterior. Among these, this study analyzes the residential building type, which is an important element of the exterior type. 3. Analysis of the Changes in the Exterior Design of Apartment Buildings 3.1. Research Scope The scope of the study is 40 years from the mid-1970s—when the supply of multi- family housing in South Korea began to greatly expand—to 2010. Although the exterior designs of apartment buildings have undergone various changes since the 2000s, a trend of gradual changes can be observed from the 1970s, when the full-fledged development of apartment buildings began. This study analyzed apartment complexes in Seoul, as shown in Table 1, which were selected by considering their year of establishment, number of households, and construction company—based on data on housing supply conditions and actual housing statistics. Table 1. Scope of research. Scope Description Notes Analysis of changes in the exterior Time 40 years from 1970 to 2010 design of apartment buildings Area Apartment complexes in Seoul Analysis of apartment complexes 1. Factors influencing changes in the exterior design of residential Correlations between influencing buildings: institutional, economic, Content factors and components of the exterior and technological review design of residential buildings 2. Correlations between exterior design and influencing factors The process of changes is divided into five periods based on major historical events and era-specific circumstances, which form the background of changes in apartment buildings’ exterior design over 40 years from the 1970s to 2010, as shown in Table 2. Buildings 2022, 12, x FOR PEER REVIEW 5 of 16 The process of changes is divided into five periods based on major historical events and era-specific circumstances, which form the background of changes in apartment Buildings 2022, 12, 892 5 of 16 buildings’ exterior design over 40 years from the 1970s to 2010, as shown in Table 2. Table 2. Designation of time periods. Table 2. Designation of time periods. Division Criterion Period Notes Introduction of apartment Development of large-scale private Division Criterion Period Notes Period 1 1976–1985 buildings apartment buildings Introduction of apartment Development of large-scale private Period 1 1976–1985 New town development, design com- buildings apartment buildings Period 2 Expansion of mass supply 1986–1989 petitions New town development, design Period 2 Expansion of mass supply 1986–1989 Planned community development, sup- competitions Period 3 Expansion of high-rises 1990–1997 ply of 2 million housing units Planned community development, Period 3 Expansion of high-rises 1990–1997 IMF f supply oreign excha of 2 million nge housing crisis, deregu units la- Period 4 Differentiation of exterior 1998–2002 tion of new house sale prices IMF foreign exchange crisis, Period 4 Differentiation of exterior 1998–2002 deregulation of new house sale prices Participatory government, unsold Period 5 Diversification of exteriors 2003–2010 houses, global economic recession Participatory government, unsold Period 5 Diversification of exteriors 2003–2010 houses, global economic recession 3.2. Targets of Study 3.2. Targets of Study Judging 500 households to be the minimum size wherein new attempts to construct new building types are possible, this study analyzed apartment complexes with at least Judging 500 households to be the minimum size wherein new attempts to construct 500 households. In particular, 10 apartment complexes for 5 different areas located in new building types are possible, this study analyzed apartment complexes with at least Seoul were selected, giving a total of 50 complexes for the study. Apartment complexes 500 households. In particular, 10 apartment complexes for 5 different areas located in Seoul located in Seoul might not best represent the nationwide trend, but this was not consid- were selected, giving a total of 50 complexes for the study. Apartment complexes located in ered an Seoulissue since ap might not best artm repr ent esent complexe the nationwide s in Seoul ten trend, d to but set trend this was s across not the consider countr ed y. In an issue additi since on, laapartment rge complexes complexes built m in ain Seoul ly bytend large con to set st tr ru ends ction comp across the anies we country re .inves In addition, tigated lar becau ge comp se atte lexes mpts to ch built mainly ange and by lar im ge prconstr ove exter uction ior companies design can b wer e found m e investigated ainly in com because- attempts plexes of larg to change e constr and uctio impr n companie ove exterior s with design financial can power. be found It is mainly desira in ble t complexes o use com- of large construction companies with financial power. It is desirable to use complexes of a plexes of a medium or large size because new attempts for small complexes are almost medium or large size because new attempts for small complexes are almost impossible, impossible, which is owed to cost problems. This subsection analyzes apartment com- which is owed to cost problems. This subsection analyzes apartment complexes with more plexes with more than 500 households, as shown in Figure 1. I physically visited the apart- than 500 households, as shown in Figure 1. I physically visited the apartments in Seoul to ments in Seoul to take photos and conduct field surveys for the study, as shown in Table take photos and conduct field surveys for the study, as shown in Table 3, and statistically 3, and statistically analyzed the results by classifying the external characteristics of the analyzed the results by classifying the external characteristics of the apartment buildings. apartment buildings. Figure 1. Location of apartment buildings used in this study in Seoul. Figure 1. Location of apartment buildings used in this study in Seoul. Buildings 2022, 12, x FOR PEER REVIEW 6 of 18 Buildings 2022,Buildings 12, x FOR P 2022 EER ,Buildings 12 R , x FO EVIEW R P 2022 EER , 12 R , x FO EVIEW R P EER REVIEW 6 of 18 6 of 18 6 of 18 Buildings 2022, 12, x FOR PEER REVIEW 6 of 18 Buildings 2022, 12, x FOR PEER REVIEW 6 of 18 Buildings 2022, 12, 892 6 of 16 Buildings 2022, 12, x FOR PEER REVIEW 6 of 18 Buildings 2022 Buildings , 12, x FO 2022 R PEER , 12, x FO REVIEW R PEER REVIEW 6 of 18 6 of 18 Buildings 2022, 12, x FOR P Buildings EER REVIEW 2022 Buildings , 12 , x FO 2022 R PEER , 12, x FO REVIEW R PEER REVIEW 6 of 18 6 of 18 6 of 18 Buildings 2022, 12, x FOR PEER REVIEW 6 of 18 Buildings 2022, 12, x FOR PEER REVIEW 6 of 18 Buildings 2022, 12, x FOR PEER Buildings Buildings REVIEW 2022 2022 Buildings , 12 , 12 , x FO , x FO 2022 R P R P EER ,EER 12, x FO R R E E VIEW VIEW R PEER REVIEW 6 of 18 6 of 6 of 18 18 6 of 18 Buildings 2022, 12, x FOR PEER REVIEW 6 of 18 Buildings 2022, 12, x FOR P EER REVIEW 6 of 18 Table 3. Apartment building Table 3. types by Apart perio ment bu d. ilding types by period. Table 3. Apart Table 3. ment bu Apart ilding m ent bu types by ilding perio tyd pes by . period. Table 3. Apartment building types by period. Table 3. Apartment building types by period. Table 3. Apartment building types by period. Table 3. Apartment building types by period. Table 3. Apart Table 3. ment bu Apart ilding ment bu types by ilding perio types by d. period. Table 3. Apartment buTable 3. ilding types by Apartm perio ent bu d. ilding types by period. Table 3. Apartment building types by period. Table 3. Apartment building types by period. Table 3. Apart Table 3. ment bu Apart ilding ment bu types by ilding perio types by d. period. Table 3. Apartment building Table 3. types by Apart Table 3. perio ment bu d Apart . ilding ment bu types by ilding perio types by d. period. Table 3. Apartment building types by period. Table 3. Apartment building types by period. Division Division Examples of Buildings and Exam Years ples of Buildings and Years Division Division Examples of Bu Exam ildin pg les of Bu s and Years ildings and Years Division Examples of Buildings and Years Division Examples of Buildings and Years Division Divi Division sion Examples Exam of Buildings ples of Bu and ildY in ears gs and Exam Years ples of Buildings and Years Di Di vi vi si si on on Exam Exam pp les of Bu les of Bu ild ilid nig ns and gs and Years Years Division Division Examples of Bu Exam ildip nl g es of Bu s and Years ildings and Years Division Examples of Buildings and Years Division Division Di Di vi vi si si on on Division Examples of Bu Exam ildip nl g es of Bu s and Exam Exam Years ildp p in l les of Bu es of Bu gs and Exam Years il ild d p iin ln es of Bu g gs and s and Years Years ildings and Years Division Division Examples of Bu Exam ildi p n lg es of Bu s and Years ildings and Years Period 1 Period 1 Period 1 Period 1 Period 1 Period 1 Period 1 Per Per io io d d 1 1 Period 1 Period 1 Period 1 Period 1 Period 1 Period 1 Per Per io io dd 1 1 Period 1 Period 1 Period 1 1 1−−3 Han 2 Hans w in an (1978) g ( 11−977) 3 Han sin (1978) 1−3 Hansin (1978) 1−2 Hanwang ( 11− 1977) 2 Han −1 Sin w don anga ( g ( 11−1983) 977) 2 Han wan1 g (−3 Han 1977)s in (1978) 1−4 Eunma (1979) 1−4 E unma (1979) 1−4 Eunma (1979) 1−5 Sunkyung (1983) 1−1 Sindonga ( 11983) −1 Sin donga (1 1983) −1 Sin donga (1983) 1−1 4 E −3 Han unma sin (1979) (1978) 1−5 Sunkyung1 (− 15 Su 983)n kyung ( 11−983) 5 Su nkyung (1983) 1−2 Hanwang (1977) 1−3 Hansin (1978) 1−4 Eunma (1979) 1−1 Sindonga (1983) 1−2 Hanwang (1977) 1−4 Eunma (1979) 1−5 Sunkyung (1983) 1−1 Sindonga (1983) 1−3 Hansin (1978) 1−5 Sunkyung (1983) 1−2 Hanwang ( 1− 12 Han 977) wan 1g (−2 Han 1977)w ang ( 11− 1− 2 Han 977) 3 Han w san in ( g ( 1978) 1 1− 977) 3 Han sin (1 1978) 1−3 Han 3 Hansin sin (1978) (1978) 1−3 Han sin (1978) 1 1−−3 Han 4 E unm sin a ( (1979) 1978) 1−4 Eunma (1979) 1−1 Sindonga ( 11983) −1 Sin don1 ga ( −1 Sin 1983) don ga (1 1983) −1 Sin donga (1983) 1−2 Hanwan 11 g ( −2 2 Han 1 1− Hanwang 977) 3 Han wan sing ( (1977) 1 (− 1978) 1 2 Han 977) wang ( 11−977) 3 Han sin (1978) 11−− 3 Han 4 E unsm ina ( 1978) (1979) 1−4 Eunma (1979) 11 1−− 5 5 Su 4 E Sunkyung u n n kyun ma (g (1983) 1979) 1 1 (−− 1 4 E 5 Su 983) un n kyun ma (1979) g ( 1− 15 Su 983) nkyun 1−g 5 Su (1983) nkyun g (1983) 1−1 Sindonga ( 1−1 Sin 11983) −2 Han d onw ga ( an 11 1− g ( 1983) − 1 1 Sin 1 2 Han Sindonga −1 2 Han 977) don w w an ga ( an (1983) g ( g ( 1983) 1977) 1977) 11−− 2 Han 3 Han w sin an ( g ( 1978) 1 1 1− 977) − 3 Han 3 Han ss in in ( ( 1978) 1978) 1−3 Han sin (1978) 1−4 E unma (1979) 14 Eunma (1979) 1−4 Eunma (1979) 1−4 E unma (1979) 1−5 Sunkyung (11 983) −5 Su nkyung 1− (5 Su 1983) nkyun g (1983) 1−1 Sindon1 ga ( −1 Sin 1− 1983) 1 Sin don don ga ( 1 ga ( − 1983) 1 Sin 1983) don ga ( 1− 1− 2 Han 1983) 1 Sin d w on anga ( g (1 1983) 977) 1−2 Hanwang (1977) 1−2 Hanwang (1977) 1−4 Eunma (1979) 1 1 1−−−4 E 4 E 3 Han u un nm m sin a a ( ( (1979) 1979) 1978) 1−4 E unma (1979) 1−5 Su nkyung 11 (−− 1 5 Su 5 Su 983) n n kyun kyun gg ( ( 11 983) 983) 1−5 Sunkyung (1983) 1−1 Sindonga (1983) 1−1 Sindonga (1983) 1−5 Sunkyung1 (− 14 E 983) un ma (1979) 1−5 Su nkyung (1983) 1−5 Sunkyung (1983) Period 1 1−6 Kyungnam (1984) 1−6 Kyu ngnam (1984) 1−6 Kyu ngnam (1984) 1−6 Kyungnam (1984) 1−8 Mido (1985) 1−7 Samik (1984) 1−8 Mid o (1985) 1 1−− 8 Mid 7 Samo ik ( (1985) 1984) 1− 8 Mid o (1985) 1−7 Sam 1−6 Kyu ik (n 1984) gn 1am (1984) −7 Sam ik ( 1984) 1−9 Hansin (1985) 1−9 Hansin (1985) 1−10 Kyu ngnam (1978 1−10 Kyungnam (1978 1−6 Kyungn 1am (1984) −6 Kyungn am (1984) 1−6 Kyungnam (1984) 1−6 Kyun gnam (1984) 1−7 Samik (1984) 1−1 9 Han −8 Mid sin o ( (1985) 1985) 1−9 Han sin (1985) 1−10 Kyungnam 1− 10 Kyu (1978 ngnam (1978 1−6 Kyungnam (1984) 1−6 Kyu ngn1 am (1984) −6 Kyungn am (1984) 1−6 Kyun gn 1am (1984) 6 Kyungnam (1984) 1−8 Mido (1985) 1−8 Mid o (1985) 1−8 Mid o (1985) 1−8 Mid o (1985) 1− 8 Mido (1985) 1−9 Hansin (1985) 1−10 Kyungnam (1978 1−7 Sam 1−7 Sam ik ( ik ( 1984) 1984) 1− 17 Sam − 7 Sam ik ( ik ( 1984) 1984) 1−7 Sam ik (1984) 11−− 7 Sam 8 Mid ik ( o (1984) 1985) 1−7 Sam 1 − 8 Mid ik ( o1984) (1985) 18 Mido (1985) 1−8 Mido (1985) 110 Kyungnam (1978) 1−6 Kyungnam (1984) 1−6 Kyu ngn 1am (1984) −1 6 Kyu −6 Kyu ngn n gn am (1984) 1 am (1984) −6 Kyu ngn am (1984) 1−6 Kyun gnam (1984) 11−7 7 Sam Samik ik ( (1984) 1984) 1− 8 Mido (1985) 1−8 Mid o (1985) 11−− 9 Han 9 Han ssin in ( (1985) 1985) 11 1−−9 9 Han 9 Han Hansin s sin in (1985) ( (1985) 1985) 1−9 Han sin (1985) 1− 1 19 Han −−10 Kyu 10 Kyu sin n n ( gn gn 1985) am 1 1 am 1−−− 10 Kyu 9 Han 10 Kyu ((1978 1978 s n in n gn ( gn 1985) am 1am −10 Kyu ( 1978 ( 1978 n gnam 1−10 Kyu (1978 ngnam 1 − (1978 10 Kyu ngnam (1978 1−7 Samik (1984) 1− 17 Sam −7 Sam ik ( ik ( 1984) 1984) 1− 8 Mid o (1985) 1−7 Sam ik (1984) 1−8 Mid o (1985) 1− 8 Mido (1985) 1−8 Mid o (1985) 1−9 Hansin (1985) 1−10 Kyungnam (1978 1−7 Samik (1984) 1−7 Samik (1984) 1−9 Hansin (1985) 1 1−−9 Han 9 Han ss in in ( ( 1985) 1985) 1 1−−9 Han 10 Kyu sin ngn (1985) 1 am− 110 Kyu − 10 Kyu (1978 ngn ngn am am (1978 (1978 1−10 Kyungnam (1978 1−6 Kyungnam (1984) 1−9 Hansin (1985) 1−8 Mid o (1985) 1 1−−10 Kyu 9 Hans n in gn (am 1985) (1978 1−10 Kyungnam (1978 1−7 Samik (1984) 1−9 Hansin (1985) 1−10 Kyungnam (1978 Period 2 Period 2 Period 2 Period 2 Period 2 Per Per io io d d 2 2 Period 2 Per Per iod i 2 od 2 Period 2 Period 2 Period 2 Period 2 Period 2 Per Per iod io 2 d 2 Period 2 Period 2 Period 2 2−1 Hyu 2n−d 1 Hyu ae( 21986) −1 Hyu nda e(n 1986) 2d−a 1 Hyu e(1986) nd ae(1986) 2−1 Hyundae(1986) 2−1 Hyundae(1986) 2−1 Hyunda2 e( 2−− 1986) 1 Hyu 1 Hyu n n d d aa e( e( 1986) 1986) 2−1 Hyundae(2 1986) −1 Hyu ndae(1986) 2−1 Hyundae( 2 1986) 1 Hyundae(1986) 2−1 Hyundae(1986) 2−1 Hyundae(2 1986) −1 Hyu ndae( 21986) −1 Hyu ndae(1986) 2−2 Daerim (1986 2−2 Daerim ) (1986) 2−3 Kukdon 2g ( −2 Daerim 2− 13 Ku 986) kd ( on 1986 2 g ( 2−3 1 3 Ku )9 Kukdong 86)kd ong ( (1986) 1986) 2−3 Kukdong (1986) 2−2 Daerim (1986 2−2 Daerim ) (1986 2− 22 Daerim − )2 Daerim ( 2 ( 1986 2− 1986 3 Ku 2 Daerim ) ) kdon(1986) g ( 21−9 3 Ku 86) kdong (2 1− 93 Ku 86) kdong ( 2 2−− 2 1 3 Ku 3 Ku − 9 4 Woos 86)kd kd on on ug ( g ( ng 1 2 1 (9− 9 1987) 86) 4 Woos 86) ung 2 (1987) −4 Woos ung 2− (1987) 5 Mid o (1987) 2− 4 Woosung (1987) 2−1 Hyundae(2 2 1986) −−1 Hyu 2 Daerim nda (e( 1986 22 1986) −− 1 Hyu 2 Daerim ) nda ( e( 1986 1986) ) 2 22−−− 2 Daerim 2 Daerim 3 Kukdon ( (1986 1986 g ( 21−9 3 Ku ) ) 86) kdong (1986) 2−2 4 Woos −3 Kukd un on g g ( 2 (1987) −4 Woos 1986) ung 2(− 1987) 4 Woos ung (1987) 22−− 5 Mid 5 Mid oo ( ( 1987) 1987) 2 − 5 Mido (1987) 2−5 Mido (1987) 2−2 Daerim (1986) 2−4 Woosung 22 ( 1987) −4 4 Woos Woosung ung (1987) (1987) 2 2− 2 2−4 Woos 2− 4 Woos − 5 Mid 54 Woos Mido u o u (1987) n ( n g u 1987) g n (( 1987) g 1987) (1987) 2−5 Mido (1987) 22−− 5 Mid 5 Mid oo ( ( 1987) 1987) 2−2 Daerim (1986) 2−3 Kukdon2 g (−2 2 Daerim 1−9 3 Ku 86) kdon (1986 g ( 2− 13 Ku ) 9 86) kdong (1986) 2−3 Kukdong (1986) 2−5 Mido (1987) 2− 5 Mido (1987) 2−5 Mido (1987) 2−2 Daerim (1986 2−1 Hyu ) ndae(2 1986) −2 Daerim (1986) 2−4 Woosung 2(−1987) 4 Woos ung (1987) 2−4 Woosung (1987) 2−5 Mido (1987) 2−2 Daerim (1986) 2−3 Kukdong ( 2− 14 Woos 986) ung 2 (1987) −3 Ku kdong (1986) 2−5 Mido (1987) 2− 5 Mido (1987) 2−5 Mid o (1987) 2−2 Daerim (1986 2−2 Daerim ) (1986) 2−3 Kukdong (1986) 2−4 Woosung (1987) 2−4 Woosung (1987) 2−4 Woosung (1987) 2−5 Mido (1987) 2− 5 Mido (1987) 2−5 Mid o (1987) 2−2 Daerim (1986) 2−3 Kukdong (1986) Period 2 2−4 Woosung (1987) 2−5 Mido (1987) Buildings 2022, 12, x FOR PEER REVIEW 7 of 18 Buildings 2022, 12, x FOR PEER REVIEW 7 of 18 Buildings 2022, 12, x FOR PEER REVIEW 7 of 18 Buildings 2022Buildings , 12, x FO2022 R PEER , 12 R , x FO EVIEW R PEER Buildings REVIEW 2022 Buildings , 12, x FO2022 R PEER , 12, x FO REVIEW R PEER REVIEW 7 of 18 7 of 18 7 of 18 7 of 18 Buildings 2022 Buildings , 12, x FO 2022 R P,EER 12, x FO REVIEW R PEER REVIEW 7 of 18 7 of 18 Buildings 2022, 12, x FOR PEER REVIEW 7 of 18 2−6 Misung in 1987 2−6 Misung in 1987 2−9 Kukdong ( 1989) 2−6 Misung in 1987 2−8 Olympic ( 2 1988) −8 Olym pic ( 1988) 2−9 Kukdong (1989) 2−10 Hyundae(1989) 2− 26 Mis −7 Sam un pg yu i 2 n n 1987 6 2 g− Misung (1988) 7 Sam p in yu 1987 ng(1988) 2−10 Hyundae(1989) 2−6 Misung in2 1987 −6 Mis ung in 1987 2−6 Misung i2 n− 1987 6 Mis ung in 1987 2−8 Olympic (1988) 2−9 Kukdong ( 2 −1 9 Ku 989)kd ong (1989) 2−10 Hyundae(1989) 2−6 Misung in2 1987 −6 Mis ung in 1987 2−6 Mis ung in 1987 2−7 Sampyung(1988) 2 −8 Olympic (1988) 22− 9 Ku 10 Hyundae kdong (1 (1989) 989) 2−10 Hyundae(1989) 2−6 Misung in 1987 2−6 Misung in 1987 22 2−− 7 7 Sam 8 Olym Sampyung pyu pic ( ng (1988) 2 ( 1988) 1988) −8 Olym pic ( 22 1988) −8 8 Olym Olympic pic ( (1988) 22− 1988) − 8 Olym 9 Ku kd pic ( ong ( 2 2 1988) 2 2−− 1− 9 Ku 9 8 Olym 9 9 Ku 89) Kukdong kd kd on pic ( on g ( g ( (1989) 2 1988) 11− 99 9 Ku 89) 89) kdong (1989) 2 2−−9 Ku 10 Hyu kdon ndg ( ae( 11989) 989) 2−10 Hyundae(1989) 2−10 Hyu ndae(1989) 2−6 Misung in 1987 2−6 Misung i2 n− 1987 7 Sam pyung 2(− 1988) 7 Sam pyung(1988) 2− 28 Olym −7 Samp pic ( yun1988) 2 2 g−− (8 Olym 1988) 7 Sam ppic ( yung 1988) (1988) 2−9 Kukdong (1989) 22−−10 Hyu 10 Hyun nd da ae( e( 21989) − 1989) 10 Hyu ndae( 21989) −10 Hyu ndae(1989) 2−7 Sampyung 2(2− 1988) − 7 Sam 6 Mis p uyu ngn ig n 2 ( 1987 1988) −7 Sam pyung(1988) 2−8 Olympic ( 21988) −8 Olym pic ( 2 2 1988) −− 9 Ku 8 Olym kdon pic ( g ( 21 1988) −9 9 Ku 89) kdong ( 2− 19 Ku 989) kdong (2 1− 99 Ku 89) kdong ( 2− 110 Hyu 989) ndae(1989) 2−7 Sampyung(1988) 22−− 7 Sam 8 Olym pyu pic ( ng1988) (1988) 2−10 Hyunda2 e(−1989) 9 Kukd ong ( 21−9 10 Hyu 89) ndae(1989) 2−10 Hyu ndae(1989) 2−6 Misung in2 1987 −7 Sam pyung(1988) 2−7 Sampyung(1988) 2−8 Olympic (1988) 2−10 Hyundae(1989) 2−6 Misung in 2− 1987 6 Mis ung in 1987 2−7 Sampyung(1988) 2−8 Olympic (1988) 2−8 Olympic ( 21988) −9 Ku kdong ( 21−9 9 Ku 89) kdong ( 2− 19 Ku 989)kd ong (2 1− 910 Hyu 89) ndae(1989) 2−6 Misung i2 n− 1987 7 Sam pyung(1988) 2−8 Olympic (1988) 2−10 Hyunda2 e(−1989) 10 Hyu ndae(1989) 2−7 Sampyun2 g−(7 Sam 1988) pyung(1988) 2−8 Olympic (1988) 2−9 Kukdong (1989) 2−10 Hyundae(1989) 2−7 Sampyung(1988) Period 3 Period 3 Period 3 Peri Per od 3 io d 3 Period 3 Period 3 Period 3 Period 3 Period 3 3−1 Hyundae in 1997 3−1 Hyundae in 1997 3−1 Hyund3 a− e in 31 Hyu −1 Hyu 1997 nd na d 3 e in a−e in 2 Moklyu 1997 1997 n (1993) 3−1 Hyundae in 1997 3− 31 Hyu −1 Hyu nn dd ae in a 3e in 3−1 1 Hyu 1997 Hyundae 1997 n dain e in 1997 1997 3−3 Hansol (1994 3−2 Moklyu ) n (1993) 3−1 Hyundae in 1997 3−2 Moklyu3 n 3− (− 2 Moklyu 1993) 2 Moklyu n n ( 3 ( 1993) 1993) 2 Moklyun (1993) 3−3 Hansol (3 1994 3−3 Han 3 Hansol ) sol ( (1994) 1994 3−4 San ) sung (1997) 3−3 Han sol (1994) 3−2 Moklyun ( 31993) −2 Moklyu n (1993) 33−−2 Moklyu 2 Moklyun n ( 3 (1993) − 1993) 2 Moklyu n ( 31993) −3 Han sol (1994 3−3 Han ) sol (1994 3−3 Han ) sol (1994) 3−4 Sansung (1997) 3−3 Hansol (1994 3−3 Han ) sol (1994) 3−3 Hansol (1994 33−4 4 San Sansung ) sung ( (1997) 33− 1997) − 4 San 4 San ss uu nn g ( g ( 1997) 1997) 3−4 Sansung (3 1997) −4 San sung (1997) 33 3−−− 4 San 5 Sin 4 San sd u son u nn g ( ga ( g ( 1997) 3 1997) − 1992) 4 San sung (1997) 35 Sindonga (1992) 3−5 Sindonga ( 3− 31992) 5 Sin −5 Sin d on don ga ( ga ( 1992) 1992) 3−5 Sindonga (1992) 3−5 Sindonga (1992) 3−3 5 Sin −5 Sin don don ga ( ga ( 1992) 3− 1992) 5 Sin donga (1992) 3−5 Sindonga (1992) Period 3 3−6 Kachi (1992) 3−6 Kach i (1992) 36 Kachi (1992) 33−10 10 Hyu Hyundae nda(1993) e( 3−1993) 10 Hyu nda 3e(−10 Hyu 1993) ndae(1993) 3−6 Kachi (1992) 3−6 Kachi (1992) 37 Samteo (1993) 3−8 Rukki (1993) 3 3−8 Ru 8 Rukki kki ( (1993) 1993) 3−10 Hyundae(1993) 3−10 Hyu ndae(1993) 3−7 Samteo (1993 33−− )6 Kach 7 Samti ( eo ( 1992) 3 1993 −7 Sam ) teo (3 1993 −8 Ru ) kki (1993) 3−8 Rukki (1993) 39 Doosan (1994) 3−10 Hyundae(1993) 3−6 Kachi (1992) 3−6 Kachi (1992) 3−7 Samteo (1993 3−7 Sam ) teo (1993 3−8 Ru ) kki (1993) 3 3−−9 Doos 8 Rukki ( an1993) (3 1994) −9 Doos an (1994) 3−10 Hyundae(1993) 3−10 Hyundae( 3−1993) 10 Hyu ndae(1993) 3−6 Kachi (1992) 3−6 Kach i (1992) 3−6 Kachi (1992) 3−7 Samteo (1993) 3−9 Doosan (1994) 3−8 Ru kki (1993) 33−− 9 Doos 10 Hyu an n ( d 1994) ae(1993) 3−7 Samteo (1993) 3 3−−8 Ru 7 Sam kki ( teo ( 1993) 1993 3 3−−8 Ru 7 Sam ) kki ( teo ( 1993) 1993 ) 3−8 Rukki (1993) 3−9 Doosan (1994) 3−7 Samteo (1993) 3−9 Doosan (1994) 3−9 Doosan (1994) 3−9 Doosan (1994) 3−9 Doos an (1994) 3−9 Doosan (1994) Period 4 Period 4 Period 4 Period 4 Period 4 Period 4 Period 4 Period 4 Period 4 Period 4 4−1 Donga in 4 1999 −1 Donga in 1999 4−1 Donga in 1999 4−1 Donga in 1999 4−1 Donga in 1999 4−1 Donga in 1999 4−1 Donga in 1999 4−1 Donga in 1999 4−1 Donga in 1999 4−1 Donga in 1999 4−3 Hankalam 4− ( 3 Han 1998)k alam (1998) 4−2 Lotte(1999) 4−3 Hankalam 4 (−1998) 4 Hom etown 4−4 Hom (2001) etown(2001) 4−5 Hyundae ( 4−2001) 5 Hyu ndae (2001) 4−2 Lotte(1999) 4−2 Lotte(1999) 4−4 Hometown(2001) 4−5 Hyundae (2001) 4−3 Hankalam (1998) 4−2 Lotte(1999) 4−3 Hankalam 4− ( 4 Hom 1998) etown 4(− 23 Han 001) kalam (1998) 4−5 Hyundae (2001) 4−2 Lotte(1999) 4−3 Hankalam 4− (4 Hom 1998) etown(2001) 4−4 Hometown 4− (2 5 Hyu 001) ndae (2001) 4−5 Hyundae (2001) 4−2 Lotte(1999) 4− 3 Hankalam 4 (−1998) 3 Han kalam (1998) 4−3 Hankalam 4− ( 4 Hom 1998) etown(2001) 4−4 Hometown 4 4−−(4 Hom 5 Hyu 2001) n ed to awn e (2001) (2001) 4−5 Hyundae ( 4− 2001) 5 Hyu ndae (2001) 4−2 Lotte(1999) 4− 2 Lotte(1999) 4−2 Lotte(1999) 4− 2 Lotte(1999) 4−4 Hometown(2001) 4−5 Hyundae (2001) 4−6 Laemian4 in−6 Laem 2001 ian in 2001 4−8 Kangchon 4− ( 8 Kan 1998)g chon (1998) 4−6 Laemian in 2001 4−7 Taeyoung (2000) 4−8 Kangchon4 (− 19 Hyu 998) ndae ( 4−2001) 9 Hyu ndae (2001) 4−10 Hanjin (2000) 4−7 Taeyoung (2000) 4−7 Taeyoung (2000) 4−9 Hyundae (2001) 4−10 Han jin (2000) 4−10 Hanjin (2000) 4−6 Laemian in 2001 4−8 Kangchon (1998) 4−9 Hyundae (2001) 4−7 Taeyoung (2 4000) −6 Laem ian in 2001 4−8 Kangchon (1998) 4−10 Hanjin (200 4−9 Hyu 0) ndae (2001) 4−6 Laemian in 2001 4−6 Laemian in 2001 4−7 Taeyoung4 (−2 8 Kan 000) gchon (1998) 4−8 Kangchon 4− (9 Hyu 1998) ndae (2001) 4−10 Hanjin (2000) 4−6 Laemian in 4− 2 6 Laem 001 ian in 2001 4−6 Laemian in 2001 4−7 Taeyoung 4 (−2 8 Kan 000) gchon4 (−1 8 Kan 998) gchon (1998) 44−− 9 Hyu 8 Kann gd ch ae ( on 42001) − (9 Hyu 1998) ndae (2001) 4−9 Hyundae ( 4− 2001) 9 Hyu ndae ( 42001) −10 Han jin (2000) 4−7 Taeyoung4 (− 27 Taey 000) oung (2000) 4−7 Taeyoung4 (−2 7 Taey 000) oung (2000) 4−10 Hanjin (200 4−10 Han 0) jin (2000) 4−10 Hanjin (200 4−10 Han 0) jin (2000) Buildings 2022, 12 Buildings , x FOR P 2022 EER , 12 R , x FO EVIEW R P EER REVIEWBuildings 2022, 12, x FOR PEER REVIEW 7 of 18 7 of 18 7 of 18 Buildings 2022 Buildings , 12, x FO2022 R PEER , 12, x FO REVIEW R PEER REVIEW 7 of 18 7 of 18 Period 3 Period 3 Period 3 Buildings 2022, 12, x FOR PEER REVIEW 7 of 18 Buildings 2022, 12, x FO Buildings R PEER 2022 RE , 12 VIEW Buildings , x FO R PEER 2022 R , 12 EVIEW , x FO R PEER REVIEW 7 of 18 7 of 18 7 of 18 Buildings 2022, 12, x FOR PEER REVIEW 7 of 18 Period 3 Period 3 Period 3 Period 3 Period 3 Period 3 Period 3 3−1 Hyundae in 1997 3−1 Hyundae in 1997 3−1 Hyundae in 1997 3−2 Moklyun (1993) 3−2 Moklyu n (1993) 3 −2 Moklyun (1993) 3−3 Hansol (1994 3−) 3 Han sol (1994) 3−3 Hansol ( 1994) 3−4 Sansung (1997) 3−4 San sung (1997) 3−4 Sansun g (1997) 3−5 Sindonga (1992) 3−5 Sin donga (1992) 3−5 Sindonga (1992) 3−1 Hyundae in 3−1 Hyu 1997 ndae in 1997 3−2 Moklyun ( 31993) −2 Moklyu n (1993) 3−3 Hansol (1994) 3−3 Hansol (1994) 3−4 Sansung (3 1997) −4 San sung (1997) 3−5 Sindonga ( 3− 1992) 5 Sin donga (1992) 3−1 Hyundae in 1997 3−1 Hyundae in 1997 3− 1 Hyundae in 1997 3−1 Hyu nda3 e in −2 Moklyu 1997 n (1993) 3−2 Moklyun (1993) 3 −2 Moklyun (1993) 3−2 Moklyu n ( 3− 1993) 3 Han sol (1994) 3−3 Hansol (1994) 3−3 Hansol (1994)3 −3 Hansol (1994 3−4 San ) sung (1997) 3−4 Sansung (1997) 3−4 Sansung (1997) 3− 4 Sansung (1997) 3−1 Hyundae in 1997 3−5 Sindonga (1992) 3−2 Moklyun (1993) 3−3 Hansol (1994) 3−5 Sindonga (1992) 3 −5 Sindonga (1992) 3−5 Sin donga (1992) 3−4 Sansung (1997) 3−5 Sindonga (1992) Buildings 2022, 12, 892 7 of 16 Table 3. Cont. 3−10 Hyu ndae(1993) 3−6 Kachi (1992) 3− 6 Kachi (1992) 3−6 Kachi (1992) 3−10 Hyundae(1993) 3−10 Hyundae(1993) 3−7 Samteo (1993 3−7 Sam ) teo (1993) 3−8 Rukki (1993) 33−− 7 Sam 8 Rukki ( teo ( 1993) 1993) 3−8 Rukki (1993) 3−9 Doosan (1994) 3−9 Doos an (1994) 3−9 Doosan (1994) 3−6 Kachi (1992) 3−10 Hyu nda3 e(−1993) 10 Hyu ndae(1993) 3 −6 Kachi (1992) 3−8 Rukki (1993) 3−7 Samteo ( 1993 3−7 Sam ) teo (1993 ) 3−8 Rukki ( 1993) 3−9 Doosan (1994) 3−9 Doos an (1994) 3−6 Kachi (1992) 3−10 Hyundae(1993) 3−6 Kachi (1992) 3−6 Kachi (1992) 3−6 Kachi (1992) 3−7 Sam teo (1993) 3−8 Rukki (1993) 3−10 Hyundae(1993) 3− 10 Hyundae(1993) 3−10 Hyu ndae(1993) Division 3−6 Kachi ( 3− 1992) 7 Sam teo (1993) 3−7 Samteo (1993)3 −7 Sam 3−8 Ru teo ( kki ( 1993 1993) ) Examples 3−8 Rukki ( of Buildings 1993) 3−8 Ru and kki ( Years 1993) 3−9 Doos an (1994) 3−10 Hyundae(1993) 3−8 Rukki (1993) 3−9 Doos an (1994) 3−9 Doosan (1994) 3 −9 Doosan (1994) Period 4 Period 4 Period 4 3−7 Samteo (1993) 3−9 Doosan (1994) Period 4 Period 4 Period 4 Period 4 Period 4 Period 4 Period 4 4−1 Donga in 1999 4−1 Donga in 1999 4−1 Don 4− g1 Don a in 1999 ga in 1999 4−1 Donga in 1999 4−1 Donga in 1999 4−1 Donga in 1999 44−1 Don 1 Donga ga in in 1999 1999 4−1 Donga in 1999 4−1 Donga in 1999 4−3 Hankalam (1998) 4−3 Han kalam (1998) 4−4 Hometown(2001) 4−5 Hyundae (2001) 4− 44 3 Han −2 L 2 Lotte ottk e(alam 1999) (1999) 4−3 Han ( 41998) −3 Han kalam kalam (1998) 4 (− 3 Han 1998)k alam (1998) 4−3 Han kalam 44− (− 4 Hom 1998) 3 Han etk own alam (2001) (1998) 4−5 Hyundae (2001) 4−2 Lotte(1999)4 −2 Lotte(1999) 4−2 L otte(1999) 4−2 Lotte(1999) 4 3 Hankalam 4− (1998) 4 Hom 4−4 Hom etown e4 t4 ( o− 2 wn 4 4 Hom 001) Hometown (2001) 4−e 4 Hom town (2001) e (2 to 001) wn(2 001) 4−4 Hom 4 4 4−−5 Hyu 5 Hyu 5 e Hyundae town nd n (a 2 d e ( 001) ae ( 2001) (2001) 4 2001) 4−− 4 Hom 4 5 Hyu −5 Hyu e n n td d oa wn a e ( e ( 2001) (2001) 24 001) −5 Hyu ndae (2001) 4−5 Hyundae (2001) 4−2 Lotte(1999) 4−2 Lotte(1999) 4−2 Lotte(1999) 4−3 Hankalam 4 (−3 Han 1998) kalam (1998) 4−2 Lotte(1999) 4−4 Hometown 4−(4 Hom 2001) etown(2001) 4−5 Hyundae ( 4− 2001) 5 Hyu ndae (2001) 4−2 Lotte(1999) Period 4 Buildings 2022, 12, x FOR PEER REVIEW 8 of 18 Buildings 2022, 12, x FOR PEER REVIEW Buildings 2022, 12, x FOR PEER REVIEW 8 of 18 8 of 18 Buildings 2022 Buildings , 12, x FO 2022 R P Buildings EER , 12, x FO REVIEW 2022 R PEER , 12 , x FO REVIEW R PEER REVIEW 8 of 18 8 of 18 8 of 18 Buildings 2022 Buildings , 12, x FO 2022 R PEER , 12, x FO REVIEW R PEER REVIEW 8 of 18 8 of 18 Buildings 2022, 12, x FOR PEER REVIEW 8 of 18 Buildings 2022, 12, x FOR PEER REVIEW 8 of 18 4−6 Laemian in 2001 4−8 Kangchon (1998) 4−7 Taeyoung (2000) 4−9 Hyundae (2001) 4−10 Hanjin (2000) 4−6 Laemian in 2001 4−8 Kangchon (1998) 4−9 Hyundae (2001) 4−6 Laemian in 2001 4− 6 Laemian in 2001 4−6 Laem ian 4 in−7 Taey 2001 oung (2000) 4−8 Kangchon (1998) 4− 8 Kangchon (1998) 4−8 Kan 4−9 Hyu gchon n d (a 1e ( 998) 2001) 4 −9 Hyundae (2001) 4−9 Hyu ndae ( 42001) −10 Han jin (2000) 4−7 Taeyoun g (2000) 4− 7 Taeyoung (2000) 4−7 Taey oung (2000) 4−10 Hanjin (200 0) 4−10 Hanjin (2000) 4 −10 Hanjin (2000) 4−6 Laemian in 2001 47 Taeyoung (2000) 4 4−8 Kan 8 Kangchon gchon(1998) (1998) 4−6 Laemian in 2001 4−7 Taeyoung (2000) 4−8 Kangchon (1998) 4−9 Hyundae ( 4− 2001) 9 Hyu ndae (2001) 4−10 Hanjin (2000) 4−6 Laemian in4 2−001 6 Laem ian in 2001 4 4−6 Laem 6 Laemian ian in in 2001 2001 4−4 8 Kan −7 Taey gch ou on n ( g4 ( 1−998) 2 8 Kan 000) gchon (1998) 4−9 Hyundae (4 4 2001) 4−−8 Kan 9 9 Hyu Hyundae g n ch da on (2001) e ( ( 2001) 1998) 410 Hanjin (2000) 4−9 Hyundae (2001) 4−10 Hanjin (2000) 4−7 Taeyoung (4 2− 000) 7 Taey oung (2000) 4−7 Taeyoung (2000) 4−10 Hanjin (200 4−0) 10 Han jin (2000) 4−10 Hanjin (2000) Period 5 Period 5 Period 5 Period 5 Period 5 Period 5 Period 5 Period 5 Period 5 Period 5 52 Centrabill (2005) 5−1 Arthill in5 2004 −1 Arthill in5 2004 −1 Arthill in 5− 2004 1 A 5−2 C rth eill in ntrabill ( 2004 5−2 C 2005) en trabill ( 5−2 C 2005) en trabill ( 5−2 C 5 2005) −3 Ipark ( en trabill ( 200 55 2005) − 6) 3 3 Ipark ( Ipark (2006) 200 5− 6) 3 Ipark ( 2006) 5 5 5−− 3 Ipark ( 4 L 4 Lake ake ( (2006) 2006) 200 5− 6) 4 L ake (2006) 5−54 L 5aIpark ke (2006) (2007) 5−4 Lake (2006) 51 Arthill in 2004 5−5 Ipark (200 5− 7) 5 Ipark ( 200 5− 7) 5 Ipark ( 2007) 5−5 Ipark (2007) 5−1 Arthill in 5 2004 −1 Arthill in5 2004 −1 Arthill in 2004 5−2 Centrabill ( 5−2 C 2005) ent rabill ( 5−2 C 2005) en trabill (2005) 5−3 Ipark ( 200 5− 6) 3 Ipark ( 200 5− 6) 3 Ipark ( 2006) 5 −4 Lake (2006) 5−4 L ake (2006) 5−4 L ake (2006) 5−5 Ipark (200 5− 7) 5 Ipark ( 2007) 5−1 Art 5h−ill in 1 Art 2004 hill in 2004 5−2 C5 e− n 2 C trabill ( entrabill ( 2005) 5−1 A 2005) rthill in 2004 5−3 Ipark ( 5−3 Ipark ( 200200 6) 5− 2 C 6) entrabill (2005) 5−5 4 L −4 L ake ( ake ( 2006) 2006) 5 − 3 Ipark (2006) 55−− 5 Ipark ( 4 Lake ( 200 2006) 7) 5−5 Ipark (2007) 5 5−−5 Ipark ( 5 Ipark (200 2007) 7) Period 5 510 Lets (2008) 5−6 Risente (2008) 5−6 Ris ente (2008) 5−6 Ris ente (2008) 5−7 Hillst ate (2008) 5−8 Tulajium 55 (− 2007) 8 8 Tu Tulajium lajiu m (2007) 5 (− 2007) 8 Tulajiu m (2007) 5−9 L aemian ( 52009) −9 La emian ( 5− 2009) 9 La emian (2009) 5−10 L ets (2008) 5−10 L ets (2008) 5−10 L ets (2008) 5−6 Risente (2008) 5−6 Ris ente (2008) 5−7 Hillstate5 (200 5−7 7 Hillst Hillstate 8) ate (2008) (2008) 5−8 Tulajium5 (− 2007) 8 Tulajiu m (2007) 59 Laemian (2009) 5−9 Laemian ( 5− 2009) 9 Laem ian (2009) 5−10 L ets (2008) 5−10 L ets (2008) 5−10 L ets (2008) 5−6 Risente (2008) 56 5− Risente 7 Hillst (2008) ate (200 5−7 Hillst 8) ate (200 5−7 Hillst 8) ate (200 5−8) 8 Tulajium (2007) 5−9 Laemian (2009) 5−6 Risente (2008) 5−7 Hillstate (2008) 5−8 Tulajium (2007) 5−9 Laemian (2009) 5−10 Lets (2008) 5−6 Risente (2008) 5−7 Hillstate (2008) 5−8 Tulajium (2007) 5−9 Laemian (2009) 5−10 Lets (2008) 5−6 Risente (2008) 5−8 Tulajium (2007) 5−10 Lets (2008) 5− 9 Laemian (2009) 5−10 Lets (2008) 5−6 Risente (2008) 5−7 Hillstate (2008) 5−8 Tulajium (5 2007) −7 Hillst ate (2008) 5−9 Laemian (2009) 3.3. Changes in Exterior Design by Period 3.3.1. Period 1: Introduction of Apartment Buildings (1976–1985) According to the survey and analysis of the sample complexes, most apartment buildings during this period were plate-type. Additionally, the number of floors in the residential buildings’ range from 12 to fewer than 15. Due to the large-scale development during this period, there were no changes in the number of floors or differentiation of residential buildings within the complexes. According to statistical analysis, plate-type residential buildings accounted for a high proportion at 95%. In particular, among the plate-type buildings, most were south-facing with a straight layout. Furthermore, mixed types of Y- and :-shaped layouts were rare. In terms of the number of floors, 85% of the apartment buildings had fewer than 15 floors, while 15% had 15 or more. Regarding the height of residential buildings inside complexes, there were barely any changes in the number of floors, and they had the same floor height and a uniform layout. The residential buildings were mainly finished with brown colors, and there was no differentiation in finishing materials. Hence, the type, colors, materials, and the number of floors of the residential buildings were uniform, resulting in a uniform exterior of the apartment buildings. 3.3.2. Period 2: Expansion of Mass Supply (1986–1989) According to the analysis of residential building types in the sample complexes during this period, plate-type apartment buildings accounted for 100% of them, most of which Buildings 2022, 12, 892 8 of 16 were corridor-style. A high proportion of residential buildings, 60%, had fewer than 15 floors, while those with 15 to 19 floors comprised less than 40%. Although super high- rise apartment buildings with at least 20 floors emerged during this period, owing to the development of Sanggye New Town, they were not observed in the sample complexes discussed in this paper. However, the fact that 40% of apartment buildings had at least 15 floors shows that the number of floors was increasing compared to the previous period. Moreover, complexes with changes in the number of floors accounted for 10%, indicat- ing that the heights of apartment buildings inside complexes gradually changed from this period. Meanwhile, planners began to explore modifications to the monotonous exteriors of apartment buildings through color. In terms of color, 40% of the residential buildings were brown, 30% were white, 20% were apricot, and 10% were other. This indicates that planners began to use a wider variety of colors. These changes also affected the sidewalls and apartment elevation. The visual design of residential buildings began to change through the diversification of their monotonous colors. 3.3.3. Period 3: Expansion of Mass Supply (1990–1997) According to the survey and analysis of apartment building types during this period, plate-type buildings accounted for 100% of apartment buildings. Thus, plate-type apart- ment buildings were still the prevailing trend. Meanwhile, residential buildings with 15 to 19 floors were the most common at 50%, while those with fewer than 15 floors comprised 33%, and super high-rise apartment buildings with 20 or more floors comprised 17%. Thus, the ratio of apartments with 15 to 19 floors exceeded the ratio of those with fewer than 15 floors, showing that the number of floors in apartment buildings continued to rise. Furthermore, complexes with changes in the number of floors accounted for 33%, sig- naling attempts to diversify the number of floors. This suggests the intention of introducing changes to apartment complexes, which were densely populated due to the construction of super high-rise apartment buildings. In terms of color, 42% of the residential buildings were brown, 25% were white, 17% were apricot, and 17% were other, indicating the universal diversification of colors. This is the result of efforts to break away from the uniform and monotonous building colors with finishes of various colors and to diversify the elevations of residential buildings by varying the number of floors. 3.3.4. Period 4: Differentiation of Exteriors (1998–2002) According to the survey and analysis of residential building types during this period, plate-type buildings still accounted for 100% of apartment buildings. However, what is noteworthy is the number of floors in the residential buildings. In all sample complexes, 100% of the residential buildings had at least 20 floors. This demonstrates that in Period 3, when super high-rise apartment buildings began to emerge, all of the apartment buildings were constructed as super high-rises within just a few years. As the number of floors in apartment buildings rose to super high-rise levels, residential buildings became diversified in several ways. First, apartment complexes with changes in the number of floors in residential build- ings increased to an overwhelming 83%. In most apartment complexes, the number of floors of the residential buildings was changed. Moreover, 50% of apartment complexes showed differentiation in the upper, middle, and lower floors in residential buildings, showing the full implementation of strategies to differentiate the exterior design of apartment buildings. These diverse changes manifested especially in the colors of residential buildings, which changed, for example, to brown, apricot, and white. 3.3.5. Period 5: Diversification of Exteriors (2003–2010) According to the analysis of residential building types in this period, 44% were mixed- type, 31% were plate-type, and 25% were tower-type, demonstrating that various changes occurred in the types of residential buildings. This is the largest change compared to the previous period. Buildings 2022, 12, x FOR PEER REVIEW 9 of 16 Buildings 2022, 12, 892 9 of 16 changes occurred in the types of residential buildings. This is the largest change compared to the previous period. Consequently, substantial changes have occurred in the length and number of house- holds Consequently that make up , su apar bstantial tment bu changes ildinghave s. Mean occurr while ed , 87% o in the flength resideand ntial b number uilding of s had house- at least 20 floors and 13% had 15 to 19 floors, indicating the continuing trend of high density holds that make up apartment buildings. Meanwhile, 87% of residential buildings had due to super high-rise apartment buildings from the previous period. Apartment com- at least 20 floors and 13% had 15 to 19 floors, indicating the continuing trend of high density plexes wi due th c to hange super s high-rise in the number apartment of floors buildings in resifr de om ntia the l bu pr ild evious ings accoun period.ted Apartment for 81%, complexes showing tha with t planner changes s con in s the idered number the sk ofyline floors by in mod residential ifying th buildings e number of accounted floors for in r 81%, esi- showing that planners considered the skyline by modifying the number of floors in resi- dential buildings. During this period, 69% of apartment complexes showed differentiation dential in the upper, buildings. middle During , and this lower f period, loors69% in res ofiden apartment tial buil complexes dings, andshowed it is alsodif wor fertentiation h noting in the upper, middle, and lower floors in residential buildings, and it is also worth noting the beginning of diverse attempts to change materials and exterior finishes. the beginning of diverse attempts to change materials and exterior finishes. Nevertheless, the colors of residential buildings were mostly unchanged compared Nevertheless, the colors of residential buildings were mostly unchanged compared to to the previous period, with 50% brown and 19% apricot, but gray emerged as a new color the previous period, with 50% brown and 19% apricot, but gray emerged as a new color with 25%. with 25%. 3.3.6. Discussion 3.3.6. Discussion The previous subsection analyzed the changes in the exterior design of apartment The previous subsection analyzed the changes in the exterior design of apartment buildings according to the time period. This subsection presents a comprehensive system buildings according to the time period. This subsection presents a comprehensive system summarizing the trends in the changes of each component based on the above analysis. summarizing the trends in the changes of each component based on the above analysis. When analyzing the results of the survey by period, less than 20% of apartments have When analyzing the results of the survey by period, less than 20% of apartments have less than 12 floors in Period 1 and are not found after Period 2. Apartments with 12 or less than 12 floors in Period 1 and are not found after Period 2. Apartments with 12 or more floors and 15 or fewer floors account for a high proportion, 60%, in Period 2 but less more floors and 15 or fewer floors account for a high proportion, 60%, in Period 2 but than 40% in Period 3 and are not found in Periods 4 and 5. Apartments with 15 to 19 floors less than 40% in Period 3 and are not found in Periods 4 and 5. Apartments with 15 to continued to increase to about 50% until Period 3, and then decreased from Period 4. There 19 floors continued to increase to about 50% until Period 3, and then decreased from Period were no apartments with at least 20 floors in Periods 1 and 2, but they grew to 20% in 4. There were no apartments with at least 20 floors in Periods 1 and 2, but they grew to Period 3 and increased rapidly to 100% in Period 4, continuing to increase to 80% in Period 20% in Period 3 and increased rapidly to 100% in Period 4, continuing to increase to 80% in Period 5. Based on the results of the analysis as shown in Figure 2, plate-type buildings were Based on the results of the analysis as shown in Figure 2, plate-type buildings were the most prominent type of residential building in all the periods, and, from Period 5, they the most prominent type of residential building in all the periods, and, from Period 5, diversified into tower-type and mixed-type buildings. Moreover, from Periods 1 to 5, the they diversified into tower-type and mixed-type buildings. Moreover, from Periods 1 to number of floors of residential buildings rose to 15 or more floors, demonstrating the phe- 5, the number of floors of residential buildings rose to 15 or more floors, demonstrating nomenon of super high-rise apartment buildings. By contrast, apartment buildings with the phenomenon of super high-rise apartment buildings. By contrast, apartment buildings fewer than 12 floors were no longer observed. Regarding the color of residential buildings, with fewer than 12 floors were no longer observed. Regarding the color of residential brown accounted for the highest proportion, and there were no substantial changes be- buildings, brown accounted for the highest proportion, and there were no substantial tween periods. changes between periods. Figure 2. Changes in the number of floors in residential buildings by period. Figure 2. Changes in the number of floors in residential buildings by period. Differentiation was based on changes in the shape of residential buildings and changes Differentiation was based on changes in the shape of residential buildings and in the color of the exterior. Section 3.3 investigated the shape and color of buildings changes in the color of the exterior. Section 3.3 investigated the shape and color of for each period, while a statistical analysis was conducted to reflect the results of the changes observed. Buildings 2022, 12, x FOR PEER REVIEW 10 of 16 Buildings 2022, 12, 892 10 of 16 buildings for each period, while a statistical analysis was conducted to reflect the results of the changes observed. The change in floor numbers gradually increased to less than 30% from Periods 1 to The change in floor numbers gradually increased to less than 30% from Periods 1 3, and rapidly increased to more than 80% in Period 4, staying at 80% until Period 5. The to 3, and rapidly increased to more than 80% in Period 4, staying at 80% until Period 5. differentiation of apartment buildings also rose to 20% up to Period 3 but increased to 50% The differentiation of apartment buildings also rose to 20% up to Period 3 but increased in Period 4 and 70% in Period 5. Based on the analysis results, it can be seen that high-rise to 50% in Period 4 and 70% in Period 5. Based on the analysis results, it can be seen that apartments have been built since Period 4 with an increase in the differentiation of resi- high-rise apartments have been built since Period 4 with an increase in the differentiation dential buildings as shown in Figure 3. of residential buildings as shown in Figure 3. Figure 3. Differentiation of residential buildings by period. Figure 3. Differentiation of residential buildings by period. 4. Influencing Factors of Changes in the Exterior Design of Apartment Buildings 4. Influencing Factors of Changes in the Exterior Design of Apartment Buildings In terms of factors inducing changes in the exterior design of apartment buildings, In terms of factors inducing changes in the exterior design of apartment buildings, the first are institutional factors related to the type of multi-family housing, which has a the first are institutional factors related to the type of multi-family housing, which has a decisive influence on the changes in type. The second are economic factors; in this regard, decisive influence on the changes in type. The second are economic factors; in this regard, apartments function as simple living spaces and are also highly important investments in apartments function as simple living spaces and are also highly important investments in the form of assets. The third is changes in type due to the development of construction tech- the form of assets. The third is changes in type due to the development of construction nology, where both the exterior and type change according to the changes in construction technology, where both the exterior and type change according to the changes in construc- methods or mechanical facilities. tion methods or mechanical facilities. 4.1. Institutional Factors 4.1. Institutional Factors Apartment buildings previously had the same number of floors, although in Seoul this Apartment buildings previously had the same number of floors, although in Seoul began to change as high-rise apartment buildings developed. First, behind the development this began to change as high-rise apartment buildings developed. First, behind the devel- of these high-rise apartment buildings is the easing of regulations on the number of floors. In opment o May 1975, f these h building igh-rise review aparguidelines tment build that ings limited is the ea the sing of number reguof lations on floors inth apartment e number of floors. In May 1975, building review guidelines that limited the number of floors in buildings to 12 were enacted, and in April 1977, the 12-floor limit was lifted [18] (pp. 21–50). apartment buildings to 12 were enacted, and in April 1977, the 12-floor limit was lifted At the same time, installation standards for basement floors in the Building Act were r [elaxed, 18] (pp. making 21–50). At t it advantageous he same time, i to n constr stallauct tion apartments standards fwith or ba15 sem or ent mor floors e floors in t[ h 19 e Bui ]. ld- ing Act Accor were ding rel to axed, the m survey aking i and t adv analysis antagr eous esults to cons of this truc study t ap , artm residential ents wi buildings th 15 or m with ore between 12 and 15 floors rapidly increased in floors during Period 2 (1986–1989), while floors [19]. super high-rise apartment buildings with at least 20 floors started to develop in Period 3 According to the survey and analysis results of this study, residential buildings with (1990–1997) and rapidly increased in Period 4 (1998–2002). This is a result of the relaxation between 12 and 15 floors rapidly increased in floors during Period 2 (1986–1989), while in the number of floors in residential buildings and the government’s institutional change super high-rise apartment buildings with at least 20 floors started to develop in Period 3 to supply high-density housing for planned community development. (1990–1997) and rapidly increased in Period 4 (1998–2002). This is a result of the relaxation Regarding changes in residential building type, plate-type residential buildings have in the number of floors in residential buildings and the government’s institutional change been the most common residential building type, which created the south-facing housing to supply high-density housing for planned community development. layout, the traditionally preferred layout since the 1970s when apartments began to be Regarding changes in residential building type, plate-type residential buildings have supplied [20] (pp. 30–50). At that time, legal regulations for securing separation distance, been the most common residential building type, which created the south-facing housing e.g., regulations on the distance between buildings, could be easily met with a plate-type layout, the traditionally preferred layout since the 1970s when apartments began to be residential building layout. However, scholars have noted that plate-type residential supplied [20] (pp. 30–50). At that time, legal regulations for securing separation distance, buildings are a major factor in creating uniform and monotonous apartment complexes. Moreover, consumers’ obsession with south-facing apartments has resulted in excessively long straight buildings and created a stifling urban landscape. Moreover, the trend of Buildings 2022, 12, 892 11 of 16 super high-rises and the elevation of excessively large buildings not only overwhelms the surrounding landscape but also occludes beautiful natural scenery. As problems of urban aesthetics due to these uniform apartment buildings were raised in the mid-1980s, changes were introduced to diversify residential building types [21] (pp. 20–30). Sanggye New Town, built by Korea National Housing Corporation in 1985 to 1988, introduced Y-shaped residential buildings that opened the landscape to Jungnangcheon Stream. This is a case demonstrating that the residential building type should be decided by considering not only the buildings’ direction but also their view. In the late 1990s, spurred by the deregulation of new house sale prices, the government of Seoul set relevant standards and decided to actively intervene from the establishment stage of apartment district master plans. The government announced a policy forbidding construction unless in the case of a high-quality apartment building with unique charac- teristics [22]. Thus, the high-quality apartment complexes that Seoul sought to promote Buildings 2022, 12, x FOR P Buildings EER REVIEW 2022, 12 , x FOR PEER REVIEW 13 of 18 13 of 18 Buildings 2022, 12, x FO wer R P e based EER REon VIEW the idea of appropriately mixing and harmonizing tower-type and Y-shaped 13 of 18 layouts, as shown in Table 4. Table 4. Changes in the exterior types of residential buildings. Table 4. Changes in the ex Table 4. terior ty Chang pes of es in resi the ex dential teri bu or ty ildpes of ings. residential buildings. Table 4. Changes in the exterior types of residential buildings. 1980s: Plate-Type 1990s: Y-Shaped 2000s: Tower-Type 1980s: Plate-Type 1980s: Plate-Type 1990s: Y-Shaped 1990s: Y-Shaped2 000s: Tower-Type 2000s: Tower-Type 1980s: Plate-Type 1990s: Y-Shaped 2000s: Tower-Type Various type Varis of bu ous type ilding Var s of bu iouex s type terior de ilding s of bu exsig terior de ilding ns have eme sig exterior de ns have eme rged s sig ince the ns have eme rged s 2000s, ince the r as sho ged s 2000s, ince the wn as sho 2000s, wn as shown Various types of building exterior designs have emerged since the 2000s, as shown in in Table 5 in . In August 200 Table 5. In August 200 in Tabl 7, the e 5. In August 200 Seoul 7, the government conducted Seoul7, the government conducted Seoul government conducted a pilot im apl pementa ilot impl tiaon of ementa pilot im tion of plementation of Table 5. In August 2007, the Seoul government conducted a pilot implementation of build- building review and improvement measures to eliminate matchbox-like apartments, building rev build iew and imp ing review and imp rovement me rovement asures to el measures iminatto el e maimi tchbox- nate ma like tchbox- apartments like a, partments, ing review and improvement measures to eliminate matchbox-like apartments, based on based on which the “ based on Seoul Ap wh art ich t ment he “ Hous Seoing De ul Apart sign ment Review Hous ing De Guideline sign ” w Review as est aG b-uideline” was estab- based on which the “Seoul Apartment Housing Design Review Guideline” was estab- which the “Seoul Apartment Housing Design Review Guideline” was established [23]. The lished [23lish ]. Th ed e gu [23 ide ]. T lish line he gu e c d o [2 ide mprises 3]line . Th c e gu o fmprises ive ide main line f c it ive o ems: mprises main divers it f ems: ive ificat main divers ion it of re ems: ificat sid d ion ie vers nt of re ia if l icat build side ion nt ing ia of re l build side ing ntia l building guideline comprises five main items: diversification of residential building type, elevation type, elev tat yp io e, el n and evat lta io yndsc p n and e, el ap ev l e p a at ndsc io lan, n and ap eco e p l -fr a lan, ndsc iend eco ly ap-fr and e p iend l energ an,ly eco and y-fr -s energ av iend ing p ly yand -s lan, av energ l in ag p you ly an, t and -sav lain yo ex- g p ut and lan, lex- ayout and ex- and landscape plan, eco-friendly and energy-saving plan, layout and external space plan, ternal space p ternal lan, and au space p ternal lan, and au xili spar ace p y falci xili an, and au litar iey s p falci an lit xili (e. iear s g., p y lparkin an faci (e. litg ig lot e., s parkin plsan ). The it (e. g lot g., ems were set parkin s). The it g lot ems were set s). in The it ems were set in in and auxiliary facilities plan (e.g., parking lots). The items were set in with consideration for with consider with consider ation for with consider the ation environment for the ation environment for and the the sp environment and ace the sp used, r ace and ather used, r the sp than simply a ace ther used, r than simply aesthetic ather than simply aesthetic aesthetic the environment and the space used, rather than simply aesthetic appearance. Particularly, appearance. Particularly, there are many mandatory items regarding the exterior, such as appearanceap . Part pear icance ularly, t . Part here are m icularly, t ah nere are m y mandatory any m items reg andatory ard items reg ing the exterio arding the exterio r, such as r, such as there are many mandatory items regarding the exterior, such as the increase in wall ratio the increase in wall ra the i tio (4 ncrease in wa 0%), restrict ll ra ions on the apa tio (40%), restri rtment l ctions on the apa ogo and balrctment l ony length ogo and balcony length the increase in wall ratio (40%), restrictions on the apartment logo and balcony length (40%), restrictions on the apartment logo and balcony length (70%), and a review of land- (70%), and (70%) a re, v and iew o a (7 r f0%) land eview o , and scap f a e land r li eght vscap iew o inge . The f l land ight se cha iscap ng. The e n l ges ight se cha in in the exteri gn . The ges i sn e cha the exteri or an rges e not ior nli the exteri mi are not ted to lior mia ted to re not limited to scape lighting. These changes in the exterior are not limited to Seoul but also impact other Seoul butSeou also impact l but alSeou so ot impact her l bloca ut a ot l l so govern her impact loca ment l ot govern her s. Acco loca ment l rd govern s. Acco ing to t ment r h d e ing “B s. Acco uil to t dh in e r g P “B ding uil lan t d o G in t u h g P ide e “B lan line uil G d u in ide g P line lan Guideline local governments. According to the “Building Plan Guideline for Buildings in District for Buildings for Bu inild Di ings stfor rict in Bu U Di n ild it st P ings rict lann in Un i Di ng it P st Zones” lann rict iU ng n anno it Zones” Plann unced anno ing in Zones” S unced uwon Cit anno in Su y unced won Cit on 19 in A S yu on u gwon Cit ust 19 , Auy g on ust, 19 August, Unit Planning Zones” announced in Suwon City on 19 August, the external appearance of the external appearance of buildings is determined differently in each district unit zone, the external t h ae ext ppearanc ernale a of ppearanc building e of s is build deteing rmined d s is deitf efrmined d erently ini e fferent ach dist ly in rict e un ach dist it zone rict , unit zone, buildings is determined differently in each district unit zone, and regulations and mandates and regulations and m and r and eat gu es t lato io im ns an pro d m ve ta hn e exterio dates tor im arp e bein rove t g str he exterio engthened [24]. r are being strengthened [24]. and regulations and mandates to improve the exterior are being strengthened [24]. to improve the exterior are being strengthened [24]. Buildings 2022, 12, 892 12 of 16 Buildings 2022, 12, x FO Buildings R PEER R 2022 EVIEW , 12, x FOR PEER REVIEW 14 of 18 14 of 18 Table 5. Diversification of the exterior of apartment buildings since 2000. Table 5. Diversification of the exterior of apartment buildings since 2000. Table 5. Diversification of the exterior of apartment buildings since 2000. CW Apartment Exterior Plan KM Apartment Exterior Plan CW Apartment Exterior Plan KM Apartment Exterior Plan CW Apartment Exterior Plan KM Apartment Exterior Plan - Landmark tower-type roof - Landmark tower-type roof - Diversification of elevations through overlapping masses - Landmark tower-type roof - Diversification of elevations through overlapping masses - Composition of various elevations through solids and - Diversification of elevations through - Composition of various elevations through solids and - Composition of various elevations and varying balcon and v ies arying balconies overlapping masses and varying voids voids through solids and voids - Formation of visual points by differentiating the materials - Formation of visual points by differentiating the materials balconies Point elements to address - Point elements thto e staleness o address thefstaleness building of s Point elements to address the staleness of buildings - Formation of visual points by of each element of each element buildings - Stable clay brick finish suited for lower floors - Stable clay brick finish suited for lower floors differentiating the materials of each - Stable clay brick finish suited for lower element floors 4.2. Economic Factors 4.2. Economic Factors Apartment development has rapidly spread through super high-rise apartments, and Apartment development has rapidly spread through super high-rise apartments, and 4.2. Economic Factors the first super high-rise apartments of 24 to 30 floors were sold in Seoul. This rapid spread the first super high-rise apartments of 24 to 30 floors were sold in Seoul. This rapid spread of super high-rise apartment buildings has also further exacerbated densification. The sys- of s Apartment uper high- development rise apartment has build rapidl ing ysspr has a ead lso thr fu ough rther super exacerb high-ri ated d se eapartments, nsification. The sys and - the tem f first super or apartment sa high-rise tem f apartments le prices was revised so or apartment sa of 24 tole 30 prices was revised so floors that wer it would e sold in be Seoul. ad thv at ant T ithis would ageo rapid us fboe spr r ad hous ead vant ing ageous for housing suppliers, from a business perspective, to construct super high-rise apartment buildings. of super suppliers, from high-rise apartment a business pers buildings pectivhas e, to construct also further super hi exacerbated gh-rise densification. apartment bui The ldings. system for apartment In November sale prices was 1989, revised after so the governme that it would be nt implement advantageous ed for an housing apartment construction cost In November 1989, after the government implemented an apartment construction cost suppliers, from a business linkaperspective, ge system, approxim to construct ately super 12% o high-rise f excess con apartment struction costs buildings. for In super high-rise apart- linkage system, approximately 12% of excess construction costs for super high-rise apart- November 1989, after ment the government buildings we implemented re recognize an d comp apartment ared t constr o 15-fuction loor apart costm linkage ent buildings; given the up- ment buildings were recognized compared to 15-floor apartment buildings; given the up- system, approximately 12% of excess construction costs for super high-rise apartment per limit on new hou per l sing imit s on ale pric new hou es, ths eing raise sad con le pric ses, truct thie on co raise st d con stand sta ruct rd for ion co super hi st stand gh- ard for super high- buildings were recognized compared to 15-floor apartment buildings; given the upper rise apartments was rise adv apart ant m ageou ents was s for adv housin antageou g buils fo ders r housin [25]. Thi g b s l uail te ders r ent [2 ice 5]d hous . This ling ate r enticed housing limit on new housing sale prices, the raised construction cost standard for super high-rise builders to construct super high-rise apartments. builders to construct super high-rise apartments. apartments was advantageous for housing builders [25]. This later enticed housing builders Hence, this institutional support, coupled with housing providers’ pursuit of profit, Hence, this institutional support, coupled with housing providers’ pursuit of profit, to construct super high-rise apartments. led to the rapid development of super high-rise apartment buildings. Since the average led to the rapid development of super high-rise apartment buildings. Since the average Hence, this institutional support, coupled with housing providers’ pursuit of profit, development density for apartment sites was often set to at most 200% of the floor area development density for apartment sites was often set to at most 200% of the floor area led to the rapid development of super high-rise apartment buildings. Since the aver- ratio according to housi ratio according to housi ng site development pl ng site devel ans, it w opment pl as possible to preven ans, it was possible to preven t the over- t the over- age development density for apartment sites was often set to at most 200% of the floor densification of residential complexes. Nevertheless, in major redeveloped and recon- densification of residential complexes. Nevertheless, in major redeveloped and recon- area ratio according to housing site development plans, it was possible to prevent the structed apartment complexes in Seoul, super high-rise apartment buildings were con- structed apartment complexes in Seoul, super high-rise apartment buildings were con- over-densification of residential complexes. Nevertheless, in major redeveloped and re- structed in large numbers at high densities of over 300% [26]. The construction of high- structed in large numbers at high densities of over 300% [26]. The construction of high- constructed apartment complexes in Seoul, super high-rise apartment buildings were rise apartment buildings is more often carried out by private rather than public develop- rise apartment buildings is more often carried out by private rather than public develop- constructed in large numbers at high densities of over 300% [26]. The construction of ment. For the Korea ment. For the Korea National Housing Na Corpora tional Housi tion, itng wa Corpora s not unti tion, l the la it wate 198 s not unti 0s tha l the la t te 1980s that high-rise apartment buildings is more often carried out by private rather than public de- high-rise apartment construction surpassed low-rise apartment construction, whereas pri- high-rise apartment construction surpassed low-rise apartment construction, whereas pri- velopment. For the Korea National Housing Corporation, it was not until the late 1980s vate corporations had already been constructing high-rise apartment buildings much ear- vate corporations had already been constructing high-rise apartment buildings much ear- that high-rise apartment construction surpassed low-rise apartment construction, whereas lier. This is evidenced by the fact that in Gangnam-gu, more super high-rise apartment lier. This is evidenced by the fact that in Gangnam-gu, more super high-rise apartment private corporations had already been constructing high-rise apartment buildings much complexes were already being built in 1978. This situation arose because profit-pursuing complexes were already being built in 1978. This situation arose because profit-pursuing earlier. This is evidenced by the fact that in Gangnam-gu, more super high-rise apartment private companies f privat aced p e comp oor condit anies fion aced p s for pu oor condit rchasing a ionsffo for pu rdablrcha e hous sing a ing s ffo itrd es; t abl he hous ere- ing sites; there- complexes were already being built in 1978. This situation arose because profit-pursuing fore, they participated fore, they early in the con participated struction o early in the con f high-rise struction o apartmf ent build high-rise ing apartm s. In add ent build i- ings. In addi- private companies faced poor conditions for purchasing affordable housing sites; therefore, tion, the exterior design was differentiated by the branding of apartments after 2000, while tion, the exterior design was differentiated by the branding of apartments after 2000, while they participated early in the construction of high-rise apartment buildings. In addition, the exterior finishing material was decorated with marble, as shown in Figure 4 on the the exterior finishing material was decorated with marble, as shown in Figure 4 on the the exterior design was differentiated by the branding of apartments after 2000, while the low floor, and various designs were introduced at the entrances to make the apartments low floor, and various designs were introduced at the entrances to make the apartments exterior finishing material was decorated with marble, as shown in Figure 4 on the low more luxurious [27]. In fact, rooftop design and main building design also affected apart- more luxurious [27]. In fact, rooftop design and main building design also affected apart- floor, and various designs were introduced at the entrances to make the apartments more ment prices [28]. However ment prices [28]. However , even with an ad,di even tiona with l cost f an ad or exteri ditiona or design, addi l cost for exteri tiona or design, addi l tional luxurious [27]. In fact, rooftop design and main building design also affected apartment profits are generated, which is economically advantageous [29]. In other words, factors profits are generated, which is economically advantageous [29]. In other words, factors prices [28]. However, even with an additional cost for exterior design, additional profits related to apartment building planning affect economic value [30]. related to apartment building planning affect economic value [30]. Buildings Buildings 2022 2022 , 12 , 12 , 892 , x FOR PEER REVIEW 13 of 13 of 16 16 are generated, which is economically advantageous [29]. In other words, factors related to profits are generated, which is economically advantageous [29]. In other words, factors apartment building planning affect economic value [30]. related to apartment building planning affect economic value [30]. Figure 4. Diversification of lower floors and entrances of apartments after 2000. Figure 4. Diversification of lower floors and entrances of apartments after 2000. 4.3. Technological Factors 4.3. Technological Factors The development of construction technology also plays a key role in the changes The development of construction technology also plays a key role in the changes in in the height of apartment buildings. Even in the 1970s when apartments were first the height of apartment buildings. Even in the 1970s when apartments were first supplied supplied in South Korea, the buildings used a Rahman structure with columns and in South Korea, the buildings used a Rahman structure with columns and beams [31] (pp. beams [31] (pp. 21–30). The Rahman structure is the most common method for high-rise 21–30). The Rahman structure is the most common method for high-rise buildings with buildings with 10 or more floors. However, in apartment buildings where even the smallest 10 or more floors. However, in apartment buildings where even the smallest space is val- space is valuable, the columns that occupy space in the lower floors make the unit plans uable, the columns that occupy space in the lower floors make the unit plans highly unfa- highly unfavorable, and the additional floor height caused by the beams has raised con- vorable, and the additional floor height caused by the beams has raised construction costs struction costs all over the country. Moreover, limited natural water pressure to supply all over the country. Moreover, limited natural water pressure to supply water restricted water restricted the height of buildings. The increase in high-rise apartment buildings the height of buildings. The increase in high-rise apartment buildings from the initial 12 from the initial 12 floors to 13 and 14 floors is the result of strenuous efforts to increase floors to 13 and 14 floors is the result of strenuous efforts to increase the number of floors the number of floors as much as possible under these structural conditions. However, the as much as possible under these structural conditions. However, the detailed drawings detailed drawings and construction of rebars on the walls of apartments built in the 1970s and construction of rebars on the walls of apartments built in the 1970s also reveal prob- also reveal problems [32]. lems [32]. The advent of wall-type structures in the late 1980s brought about the development The advent of wall-type structures in the late 1980s brought about the development of technology, freeing builders from these structural limitations. The wall-type structure of technology, freeing builders from these structural limitations. The wall-type structure replaced columns and beams with load-bearing walls and flat slabs and was a revolutionary replaced columns and beams with load-bearing walls and flat slabs and was a revolution- technological advancement at the time. Consequently, 14-floor column-beam apartment ary technological advancement at the time. Consequently, 14-floor column-beam apart- buildings began to transition to 15-floor wall-type apartment buildings while maintaining ment buildings began to transition to 15-floor wall-type apartment buildings while main- the same height [33] (pp. 15–20). However, the wall-type structure also has limitations. taining the same height [33] (pp. 15–20). However, the wall-type structure also has limita- As these buildings evolved into super high-rises with 16 or more floors, the limit that tions. As these buildings evolved into super high-rises with 16 or more floors, the limit the load-bearing walls could withstand became an issue. The solution to this was the that the load-bearing walls could withstand became an issue. The solution to this was the production of high-strength rebar and high-strength cement. Current technology has made production of high-strength rebar and high-strength cement. Current technology has it possible to reach 30 floors with a load-bearing wall structure. made it possible to reach 30 floors with a load-bearing wall structure. High-rise apartment buildings were made possible with the introduction of a steel High-rise apartment buildings were made possible with the introduction of a steel frame, whose performance was insufficient with the existing reinforced concrete [34]. From frame, whose performance was insufficient with the existing reinforced concrete [34]. a structural point of view, the steel-framed apartment had excellent stability [35]. With the From a structural point of view, the steel-framed apartment had excellent stability [35]. Buildings 2022, 12, 892 14 of 16 Buildings Buildings 2022 2022,, 12 12, x FO , x FOR P R PEER EER R RE EVIEW VIEWdevelopment of such a steel frame, the number of floors of the apartment was develo 16 of 16 of 18 18 ped into a super high-rise. When such a high-rise apartment became possible, a splendid decorative element was introduced into the monotonous exterior of the apartment building since the 2000s. In particular, various elements are being used in design that owe themselves apart apartm ment ent b bu uild ilding ing s siince nce t th he e 20 200 00 0s. s. In In part partic icul ular, ar, va vari rious ous element elementss are are bein being g use used d in in d de e-- to the symbolic meaning and technological development of high-rise apartments on roofs si sign tha gn thatt owe themsel owe themselv ves to the symbol es to the symboliicc m meeaning aning an and t d teechno chnolloogic gicaall dev deveelo lop pm ment ent of of and rooftops, as shown in Table 6. high-r high-rise ise apartments on ro apartments on roofs ofs and and rooft roofto ops, ps, as as show shown in T n in Ta able 6. ble 6. Table 6. Diversification of roofs and rooftops since 2000. Table 6. Table 6. Diversificat Diversification of ion of roof roofs and rooftops s and rooftops since since 2000. 2000. D-Apartment L-Apartment D-AD-Apparartmtmeenntt L-Ap L-Apartmartmenentt 5. Con 5. Conc clus lusiio on ns s 5. Conclusions The exterio The exterior r designs of designs of ap apartment build artment buildings ings h ha ave v ve va ar riied ed wid wide ely ly ac across different ross different time time The exterior designs of apartment buildings have varied widely across different time periods periods a an nd d were grea were greattlly impa y impacted by cha cted by chan nges ges in la in laws and sy ws and syst stems, as ems, as we well ll a as s economic economic periods and were greatly impacted by changes in laws and systems, as well as economic and techno and technolo logic gica al ch l chang ange es. The s. The influenc influence of these ch e of these change factors v ange factors va aries ries in d in de egre gree e accor accord d-- and technological changes. The influence of these change factors varies in degree according iin ng to the ti g to the tim me e peri period. od. to the time period. Fi Firstly, a rstly, ap pa ar rttm ments were ents were mostl mostly y llo oca cated ar ted around the ound the Hangang Riv Hangang Rive er with r with a goo a good d land- land- Firstly, apartments were mostly located around the Hangang River with a good scap scape e from from p pe eriod riod 1 1 and and 2. 2. The 3r The 3rd p d pe er riio od d st sta ar rtte ed t d th he e iin nttr roduct oductiion o on off hi high-r gh-rise ise ap apart artm ment ents s, , landscape from period 1 and 2. The 3rd period started the introduction of high-rise which event which eventu ual ally bec ly becaame me a new t a new trren end d in t in th he e e eaarl rly y period o period off t teecchnology. hnology. It It is is a w a wiide dely ly apartments, which eventually became a new trend in the early period of technology. It distrib distribu uted in ted inland land area of area of Gangnam Gangnam,, w wh here th ere the floor e floor are area a can be can be optimized optimized.. Since then, Since then, is a widely distributed inland area of Gangnam, where the floor area can be optimized. tth he G e Ga ang ngseo seo are area a b be ec ca am me e a p a po op pu ulla arr p plla ac ce fo e for b r bu uiilldin ding g ap apart artm ment ents s durin during g t th he e ne new exp w expe er- r- Since then, the Gangseo area became a popular place for building apartments during the im iment enta all p pe erio riod d t th hat at occu occurre rred in t d in th he e 4t 4th p h pe eriod. riod. The The are area a h ha ad d shown shown a new a new t tr rend, end, i in nclud cluding ing new experimental period that occurred in the 4th period. The area had shown a new trend, the emergenc the emergence of tower e of tower--ty type high-r pe high-rise ise apar aparttm ment entss,, which are which are m maain inly ly llaarg rge-sc e-scale ale ap apart art-- including the emergence of tower-type high-rise apartments, which are mainly large-scale ments wi ments with th a a modern ci modern city concept. In a ty concept. In ad ddi diti tion, duri on, during the 5 ng the 5tth period, the h period, the a ap pa ar rttm ments ha ents had d apartments with a modern city concept. In addition, during the 5th period, the apartments a a tendency to become l tendency to become lu uxuri xurious a ous ag gai ain and a n and arre di e distributed i stributed in n the Ga the Gangna ngnam m a arrea ea where where had a tendency to become luxurious again and are distributed in the Gangnam area where there are m there are ma an ny y high-en high-end d o offfice fices s in in Seo Seou ul—in term l—in terms o s off skysc skyscr raper apers s and de and design sign d diifferentia- fferentia- there are many high-end offices in Seoul—in terms of skyscrapers and design differentiation ti tion i on in n exterior. exterior. in exterior. As a resul As a resul As a result tt of a of a of n nal al analyzing yz yziin ng the a g the a the p partments tha artments tha apartments that tt are the subject of this are the subject of this are the subject of this study, study, study in Pe in Pe , in riod Period riod 1( 1(1 11(1976–1985), 9 97 76 6– –1 19 98 85 5)),, 85% o 85% o 85% ff t t of h he a e a the p part art apartments m ment entss ha had fewer t d fewer t had fewer h han an than 15 15 15 st storie orie stories s an s and m d m ando o most st st of t of t of h hem em them were were were low-rise apartments. In Period 2 (1986–1989), 100% of flat-type apartments were the same llo ow- w-ri rise se a ap pa ar rtments. In tments. In Peri Period od 2 (19 2 (1986– 86–19 1989) 89), 100 , 100% of % of fflla att--ttype ype a ap pa ar rtments were the sa tments were the same me as as as ap apart apartment artm ment ent b bu uild buildings, ildings ings,, a an nd d and 60% 60% 60% o off of aap part apartments artm ment entss h haad f had d feewer wer fewer t th han an than 1 155 f f 15 lloor oor floors. s. s. In Per In Per In Period iiod od 33 3 (1990–1997), 33% of apartments with fewer than 15 floors and 17% of apartments with at (1 (19 99 90 0– –1 19 99 97 7), ), 33% o 33% off ap apart artm ment ents s wit with h fe fewer t wer th han 1 an 15 5 fl floors an oors and 1 d 17 7% % of ap of apart artm ment ents s wit with h at at least 20 floors started to be built. In Periods 4 and 5 (1998–2010), the number of apartment lle east 20 ast 20 fflloors sta oors star rted to be ted to be bui builltt. In Peri . In Period ods 4 a s 4 an nd 5 (1 d 5 (199 998–2 8–2010 010), the ), the number of number of a ap pa ar rtment tment floors increased sharply to 80% or more for buildings with at least 20 floors, and the floor floors s incre increa asse ed sh d sharpl arply t y to o 8 80 0% % or more or more for for bu build ildings ings wit with h at at lea leasstt 20 20 f flloors oors,, and and t th he d e diiff-- differentiation of residential buildings due to high rise appeared. In Period 5 (2003—2010), ferent ferentiia attiion o on off res resiident dentiia al l build building ingss du due t e to o hi high ri gh rise a se appea ppearred. In Peri ed. In Period 5 od 5 (2 (200 003-– 3-–201 2010) 0), , the differentiation of apartment buildings reached its peak at more than 70%. tth he dif e diffferent erentiiat ation o ion off ap apart artm ment ent b bu uil ildin ding gs re s reached ached it its s p pe eak ak at at m mo orre e t th han an 70% 70%.. In Period 1 (1976–1985), when the mass supply of apartments first began, mass produc- In Peri In Period od 1 (19 1 (1976– 76–198 1985) 5), when the m , when the ma ass ss su supply pply of a of ap partments artments first bega first began, n, mass pro mass pro-- tion’s economic feasibility was the main determinant of building type, whereas in Period 2 duct duction’s eco ion’s econ nomic fe omic feas asibi ibilit lity w y wa as s t th he e main main de determina terminan nt of t of b bu uil ilding type, wherea ding type, whereas i s in n Pe- Pe- (1986–1989), welfare facilities for the disabled and the development of construction tech- ri riod 2 od 2 ((198 1986–1 6–1989 989), welf ), welfa ar re f e fa aci cili liti ties es ffo or the r the di disa sabl bled ed and the devel and the develo opment of pment of constructi constructio on n nology and methods exerted a greater influence, while that of economic factors declined. technol technolo ogy gy and methods exerted a and methods exerted a grea greater i ter in nfflluence, whi uence, whille e tha thatt of of economi economicc factors de- factors de- In Periods 4 and 5 (1998–2010), economic factors exerted a substantial influence, after cl cliin ned. ed. In In Peri Periods ods 4 a 4 an nd 5 ( d 5 (199 1998–2 8–2010 010)),, econom economic fact ic factors ors exe exerrtte ed a d a subst substa ant ntiia al in l influ flue ence, nce, which differentiation in building type due to the emergence of brands began to have an aft afte er wh r which di ich differ ffere ent ntiat iatiion on iin n build building t ing ty ype du pe due to the emergence of e to the emergence of brands beg brands bega an n to have to have influence. Most importantly, in Period 5 (2003–2010), decorative changes transformed the an in an infl fluence. uence. Most Most import importa an nttlly, in y, in Per Periio od d 5 5 ((200 2003–2 3–2010 010), decora ), decorati tive cha ve chan nges tra ges tran nsf sformed ormed exterior designs of buildings; particularly, affordable building materials made it possible tth he ext e exte erior rior d de esign signs o s off b bu uiilld dings ings; p ; pa art rtic icu ullar arly, ly, af afford forda ab ble bu le buil ilding ding mat mate eri rial als m s ma ade it de it pos- pos- to diversify exterior wall materials and even influenced changes in building type. Of sible t sible to o d diivers versify ify ext exte erior w rior wa allll mat mate er riia alls s a an nd even inf d even infllu ue enced chan nced change ges in bu s in build ilding t ing ty ype. Of pe. Of course course, e , ea ach ch factor’s level factor’s level o off in influence fluence so somewhat var mewhat variie es s depend depending ing on the exterio on the exterior r design design component. Neverthele component. Nevertheless, they can con ss, they can conffident identlly y be cit be cite ed as m d as ma ajor factors inc jor factors inciitin ting g change changes s in e in ea ach comp ch component. onent. Buildings 2022, 12, 892 15 of 16 course, each factor ’s level of influence somewhat varies depending on the exterior design component. Nevertheless, they can confidently be cited as major factors inciting changes in each component. This study is significant in that it attempted to understand and analyze the exterior designs of apartment buildings under increasingly complex social and economic conditions using an approach from various factors. The findings of this study can present directions for designers and policymakers for more desirable exterior designs of apartment buildings, as well as substantially contribute to establishing future policies. A limitation of this study is that because the number of complexes selected for the case study was limited, their locations were limited to Seoul, and they mainly consisted of large apartment complexes. However, the cause analysis extended somewhat beyond the data analysis results. Future research should expand the scope of investigation to the national level and perform a more in-depth and objective analysis based on case studies and surveys. Author Contributions: Conceptualization, K.G.; methodology, K.G. and J.N.; formal analysis, J.N.; investigation, K.G.; data curation, J.N.; writing—original draft preparation, K.G.; writing—review and editing, J.N.; supervision, K.G. All authors have read and agreed to the published version of the manuscript. Funding: This research received no external funding. Institutional Review Board Statement: Not applicable. Informed Consent Statement: Not applicable. Data Availability Statement: The data presented in this study are available on request from the corresponding author. Conflicts of Interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest. References 1. Chio, L.; Gong, Y.K.; Park, H.J. Analysis on the Preference against the Residential-building Forms in Muti-family Attached Houses Employing the Multinomail Logit Model. J. Archit. Korea 2008, 24, 57–65. 2. Kim, N.K. A Study on the Changing Characteristics of the Public Housing through the Architectural Design Competitions. Master ’s Thesis, Chungang University, Seoul, Korea, 2005. 3. Park, J.Y. A Study on the Exterior Design Trend by Analysis of Elevation of Apartment Housing in the Metropolitan Area. Master ’s Thesis, Kyonggi University, Suwon-si, Korea, 2007. 4. Exterior Definition in Oxford Learner Dictionary. Available online: https://www.oxfordlearnersdictionaries.com/definition/ english/exterior_1 (accessed on 29 December 2021). 5. Scruton, R. The Aesthetics of Architecture; Kim, K., Translator; Seogwangsa Press: Seosan-si, Korea, 1985; pp. 23–25. 6. Erikson, E.H. Identity: Youth and Crisis; W.W. Norton & Company: New York, USA, 1968; pp. 173–175. 7. Arnaud, L. Forms and Functions Twentieth-Century Architecture; Hamlin, T., Ed.; Columbia University Press: New York, NY, USA, 1952; Volume 1, pp. 12–20. 8. Lynch, K.A. A Theory of Good City Form; MIT Press: Cambridge, Massachusetts, MA, USA, 1981; pp. 20–30. 9. Apartment Definition in Cambridge Dictionary. Available online: https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/ apartment (accessed on 28 December 2021). 10. Yim, J.S.; Yim, S.H.; Jang, Y.H.; Jeong, R.S. Case Study of Large Complex Development; Korea National Housing Corporation Press: Jinju-si, Korea, 1986; pp. 20–21. 11. Rapoport, A. House Form and Culture; Pergamon Press: Oxford, UK, 1969; pp. 5–15. 12. Zevi, B. The Modern Language of Architecture; Lee, H., Translator; Sejinsa Press: Busan, Korea, 1995; pp. 9–20. 13. Park, C. Urban Architecture in Suburban Society; Sejinsa Press: Busan, Korea, 1997; pp. 34–50. 14. Lee, J.S. A Study on Approaches to the Exterior Design of High-Rise Apartments. Ph.D. Thesis, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea, 1992. 15. Cheon, E.Y. A Study on the Behavioral Model and Simulation in the Architectural Space. Master ’s Thesis, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea, 1987. 16. Kim, J.J. A Study on the Systematization of the Exterior of Residential Architecture. Ph.D. Thesis, Hongik University, Seoul, Korea, 1993. 17. Cha, C.H. A Study on the Components of the Exterior of High-Rise Apartments. Master ’s Thesis, Dankook University School of Architecture, Yongin-si, Korea, 1996. Buildings 2022, 12, 892 16 of 16 18. Kang, B.S. History of Multi-Family Housing in South Korea; Sejinsa Press: Busan, Korea, 1999; pp. 21–50. 19. Korean Law Information Center. The Enforcement Decree of the Building Act. 1970. Available online: https://www.law.go.kr (accessed on 10 February 2022). (In Korean) 20. Kang, Y.H. History of Korean Residential Culture; Gimondang Press: Seoul, Korea, 2002; pp. 30–50. 21. Kang, B.S. Urban Collective Housing Planning; Balun Press: Seoul, Korea, 1997; pp. 20–30. 22. The City History Compilation Committee of Seoul. Seoul Government Journal in 1990; Seoul City Press: Seoul, Korea, 1999. 23. Seoul Metropolitan City Building Review Guideline. Available online: https://news.seoul.go.kr/citybuild/files/2012/01/5c7 3b5eaa72453.10222334.pdf (accessed on 20 December 2021). (In Korean) 24. Suwon City District Unit Planning Implementation Guideline. Available online: https://www.suwon.go.kr/sw-www/ deptHome/dep_city/cityCreate02/cityCreate02-02.jsp (accessed on 23 December 2021). (In Korean) 25. Ceiling on New Housing Sale Prices. Available online: https://www.archives.go.kr/next/search/listSubjectDescription.do?id= 009749&pageFlag=A&sitePage=1-2-1 (accessed on 14 January 2022). (In Korean) 26. Seoul Redevelopment and Reconstruction Project. 2010. Available online: https://data.seoul.go.kr/dataList/OA-2253/S/1/ datasetView.do (accessed on 14 January 2022). (In Korean) 27. Gong, K.R. A Study on the Diachronic Change and the Influential Factors of the Exterior Design in High-Rise Apartments. Ph.D. Thesis, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea, 2011. 28. Lee, I.H. The Influences of Aesthetic Design Factors on Apartment Prices Focused on Gang-Nam District in Seoul. Ph.D. Thesis, Kangwon University, Chuncheon-si, Korea, 2008. 29. Bae, J.H. A Study on Variation of Exterior Design in Domestic Apartments According to Economic Characteristics; Korea Institute of Industrial Technology: Cheonan, Korea, 2000. 30. Kim, W.P. A Study on Identifying Major Planning Factors and Siting of Building Blocks in High-Rise Apartment Housing through the Estimation of Economics. J. Archit. Korea 2000, 8, 127–133. 31. Jang, S.S.; Lim, S.H.; Kim, W.P. History of Multi-Family Housing Production Technology in South Korea; Korea Housing Corporation Press: Jinju-si, Korea, 1995; pp. 21–30. 32. Kim, S.J. Investigation on the Reinforced Concrete Shear Wall Structual Details of Existing Apartment Buildings. Master ’s Thesis, Hanwang University, Seoul, Korea, 2003. 33. Jang, S.Y.; Yim, I.S. A review of the changes in multi-family housing in South Korea. J. Archit. Hist. 2002, 11, 37–55. 34. Jeong, J.K. Structural System of Steel Framde High-Rise Apartment. Master ’s Thesis, Dongkuk University, Seoul, Korea, 2001. 35. Kim, J.K. A Study on the Structual Systems of Steel Frame Tall Apartment. Master ’s Thesis, Dongkuk University, Seoul, Korea, 1999.

Journal

BuildingsMultidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute

Published: Jun 24, 2022

Keywords: high-rise apartment buildings; residential buildings; exterior design; influencing factors

There are no references for this article.