Open Advanced Search
Get 20M+ Full-Text Papers For Less Than $1.50/day.
Start a 14-Day Trial for You or Your Team.
Learn More →
An Intelligent Shooting Reward Learning Network Scheme for Medical Image Landmark Detection
An Intelligent Shooting Reward Learning Network Scheme for Medical Image Landmark Detection
Huang, Kai;Feng, Feng
applied sciences Article An Intelligent Shooting Reward Learning Network Scheme for Medical Image Landmark Detection Kai Huang and Feng Feng * School of Information Engineering, Ningxia University, Yinchuan 750021, China * Correspondence: firstname.lastname@example.org Abstract: As the need for medical services has grown in recent years, medical image critical point detection has emerged as a new subject of research for academics. In this paper, a search decision network method is proposed for medical image landmark detection. Unlike the conventional coarse- to-ﬁne methods which generate bias prediction due to poor initialization, our method is to use the neural network structure search strategy to ﬁnd a suitable network structure and then make reasonable decisions for robust prediction. To achieve this, we formulate medical landmark detection as a Markov decision process and design a shooting reward function to interact with the task. The task aims to maximize the discount of the received value and search for the optimal network architecture over the entire search space. Furthermore, we embed the central difference convolution, which typically extracts the data invariant feature representation, into the architectural search space. In experiments using standard accessible datasets, our approach achieves a detection accuracy of 98.59% in the 4 mm detection range. Our results demonstrate that, on standard datasets, our proposed approach consistently outperforms the majority of methods. Keywords: neural architecture search; medical landmark detection; reinforcement learning Citation: Huang, K.; Feng, F. An 1. Introduction Intelligent Shooting Reward Learning Network Scheme for Recently, orthodontics is one of the most popular surgeries, which improves patients’ Medical Image Landmark Detection. facial appearance. A successful orthodontics surgery requires reliable and precise preoper- Appl. Sci. 2022, 12, 10190. https:// ative preparation. The stomatologist analyzes the orthodontic patient’s tooth angle and doi.org/10.3390/app122010190 linear measurement of the point position through the anatomical landmarks annotated (Figure 1) in the skull X-ray images, makes a clinical diagnosis, and formulates an accu- Academic Editor: Yu-Dong Zhang rate and effective treatment plan according to the measurement results . However, the Received: 6 September 2022 manual annotation of the landmarks still requires time, even among seasoned medical Accepted: 24 September 2022 professionals. Hence, fully automatic and accurate cephalometric landmark detection is Published: 11 October 2022 currently the main research. Many methods have been devoted to automatic cephalometric landmark detection. Publisher’s Note: MDPI stays neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in Deep learning-based techniques and conventional image-based strategies are the two basic published maps and institutional afﬁl- types of landmark detection. The more widely used techniques for detecting images include iations. pixel classiﬁcation [2,3] and random forest regression [4,5], which are based primarily on statistical a priori information. Deep learning techniques have been extensively applied in recent years to issues with medical image analysis. Deep learning techniques perform landmark detection tasks on medical images far more accurately than conventional machine Copyright: © 2022 by the authors. learning techniques [6–10]. For the ﬁrst time, Lee et al. utilized the deep learning approach Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. to cephalometric landmark detection . In order to identify different landmarks on MR This article is an open access article images of the brain, Zhang et al. integrated two deep CNN networks, one of which was distributed under the terms and used to regress the coordinates of image landmarks and the other to learn the correlation conditions of the Creative Commons between local image patches and the target anatomical landmarks . Regarding the pro- Attribution (CC BY) license (https:// posed U-net network, U-net is also widely used in medical image landmark detection . creativecommons.org/licenses/by/ Zhong et al. proposed two U-nets to produce ‘coarse’ and ‘ﬁne’ heatmap predictions 4.0/). Appl. Sci. 2022, 12, 10190. https://doi.org/10.3390/app122010190 https://www.mdpi.com/journal/applsci Appl. Sci. 2022, 12, 10190 2 of 16 of landmark locations . In simultaneously classifying and identifying landmarks of abdominal ultrasound images using a single network, Xu et al. presented a multi-task learning (MTL) strategy. They discovered that the training method of the multi-task net- work outperformed the single-task processing method . Payer et al. implicitly modeled the relationships by a spatial conﬁguration block . Anatomical landmarks are often found close to the margin of a particular anatomical area, and Chen et al. developed a cascaded two-stage U-Net network based on this idea for heat map regression . Liu et al. evaluated the clinically signiﬁcant correlations between the landmarks and position- constrained landmarks with the clinically signiﬁcant associations, then generated both heat maps and position-constrained vectors for the landmarks . However, the researchers personally created each of the aforementioned neural network architectures. It would not be best to deploy neural network designs that were manually created. On account of this, neural network architectures that can automatically determine the most effective medical landmark regression under the supervised signal of the pertinent task should be taken into consideration. Figure 1. Doctors perform linear measurements based on the positions of the annotated landmarks. ANB = \L L L , the angle between the landmark 5, 2 and 6. SNB = \L L L , the angle between the 5 2 6 1 2 6 landmarks 1, 2 and 6. SNA = \L L L , the angle between the landmark 1, 2 and 5. 1 2 5 Manually created regression detection networks with excellent performance need signiﬁcant skill and a large number of comparing experiments to evaluate the network’s relevant parameters. As a result, the majority of researchers presently use pre-existing networks (such as U-Net  and ResNet ) and build on top of them with different modiﬁcations for different tasks. Therefore, Zoph et al. presented the neural architecture search (NAS) approach, which intends to automatically search for more appropriate neu- ral network architectures for learning than those created manually by experts . The controller is principally responsible for the reinforcement-based strategy for producing new designs for training and assessing the performance of the search architecture. As a reward for architectural search training, the controller utilizes the accuracy of the search architectures on the validation set. NAS has proven to be quite effective in natural image recognition, and researchers are now adapting it to medical image analysis, such as medical segmentation  and medical object detection . Appl. Sci. 2022, 12, 10190 3 of 16 In this work, we present using reinforcement learning to optimize the loss function and search for accurate and reliable neural network architectures to evaluate the accuracy of regression image landmarks. Specifically, we employ a neural architecture search approach that is based on the optimization of a reinforcement learning algorithm. We propose medical landmark detection as a Markov decision process. To achieve the accuracy of landmark regression, we created the shooting reward function, a learnable reward function that con- trols the neural network architecture to search and then optimizes the regression process for training landmarks. Compared with vanilla convolution, central difference convolution can better extract semantic information and gradient-level details. Hence, we add central differ- ence convolution in vanilla convolution to extract the data-invariant feature representation. Relevant experiments were carried out using a widely used publicly available dataset, and the experimental findings demonstrated the reliability of the proposed approach. The main contributions of this work are summarized two-fold: • We propose an intelligent shooting reward learning network to regress the medical landmark. Beneﬁting from the full access to all landmarks, our method simultaneously achieves the invariant feature representation and makes reasonable decisions for robust prediction. • Moreover, the central difference convolution is introduced inside our model, replacing the vanilla convolution to extract the data invariant feature representation. Hence, our method extracts the semantic information and gradient-level detailed messages for robust medical landmark regression. • Experimentally, we present folds of comparisons with the state of the art and ablation studies on different components. Both the quantitative and qualitative results indicate the effectiveness of the proposed method on the standard dataset. The remainder of the paper is organized as follows. In Section 2, we give more related work related to medical landmark detection. In Section 3, we discuss the components of our shooting reward learning network algorithm and develop the guidelines for the reward function and network architecture, searching to achieve algorithm stability and robustness based on the theoretic analysis. Section 4 presents our model and discusses the experimental results. Finally, we conclude our work and discuss further work in Section 5. 2. Related Work In this subsection, we brieﬂy review the related literature on landmark detection. Conventional landmark detection. Image landmark detection is widely used in face- alignment tasks. In face-alignment research, cascaded regression is widely used to map landmark feature localization to shape. In the initial detection of landmarks in medical images, methods such as pixel classiﬁcation and random forest regression are mainly used. These methods utilize prior knowledge in statistics to be data driven to explore mathematical relationships between landmarks. However, there are some problems with both face-alignment and landmark-detection methods in medical images. Essentially, the features of images are extracted manually, which requires professional experts and consumes a lot of time. Furthermore, the mapping of linear features cannot handle the localization of landmarks in complex scenes, and the prediction stability of these methods is relatively poor. Hence, proposing a stable and robust method for landmark detection is an extremely challenging task. Deep Learning-based landmark detection. Deep learning networks have been used to address the issue of landmark recognition in recent years , mostly in an end-to-end manner with better nonlinear capabilities for image-to-shape mapping. Deep neural net- works learn adaptive feature representations directly from raw image pixels and greatly improved model robustness. For example, Zhang et al. proposed a deep cascade convo- lutional network, which, with the powerful feature extraction ability of a convolutional neural network and improved the detection accuracy of landmarks . Lee et al.  applied a deep learning network to cephalometric landmark detection for the ﬁrst time, which proposes an end-to-end deep learning system for cephalometric landmark detection. Appl. Sci. 2022, 12, 10190 4 of 16 The landmark detection methods based on deep learning can be divided into those based on coordinate regression, heatmap regression, and graph network regression. Dollar et al.  presented cascaded pose regression (CPR) which gradually reﬁnes a speciﬁed initial prediction value through a series of regressors, where each regressor relies on the output of the previous regressor to perform a simple image operation. The whole system can automatically learn from the training samples. Zhang et al.  proposed a multi-task cascaded convolutional network (MTCNN) that can handle both face detection and alignment. MTCNN adopts an online selection method to improve network perfor- mance, which can select difﬁcult samples during the training process. However, these methods provide less supervision information during the training process, and the model converges slowly. To address the problem, heatmap-based approaches [10,13,22,23] have also been proposed for landmark detection on a large scale. The deep learning network based on heatmap directly regresses the probability of each class of landmarks, providing supervision information. The network converges faster, and at the same time, predicting the position of each pixel can improve the positioning accuracy of landmarks. Kowalski et al. proposed a new heatmap-based cascaded deep neural network (DAN), which can effec- tively overcome the problems caused by pose changes and initialization by taking the entire image as input. Since the U-net is widely used in the ﬁeld of medical image processing, the landmark detection of medical images uses the U-net network to predict the landmark heatmap and then process the ﬁnal landmark position. Yao et al.  implemented a multi-task U-net to predict both heatmaps and offset maps simultaneously. Zhu et al.  developed a general anatomical landmark detection model to implement hybrid-based end- to-end training for multiple landmark detection tasks, and the model design requires much fewer parameters than models with standard convolutions. It is well known that all current fully supervised image landmark detection methods require professional doctors to label training data, which usually consumes considerable time and cost. Hence, Yao et al.  proposed a self-supervised novel framework named cascade comparing to detect (CC2D) for one-shot landmark detection. The task of landmark localization is particularly suitable for modeling graph networks, and graph modeling is performed based on the positional relationship between landmarks and landmarks [27–30]. Zhou et al.  presented the exemplar-based graph matching (EGM) network, using network learned shape constraints to model graph network structure matching and directly obtain optimal landmark conﬁgu- rations. Li et al.  proposed a topology-adaptive deep graph learned end-to-end network by two graph convolutional networks (GCNs) to construct graph signals using local image features and global shape features. Neural Architecture Search. Recently, many research studies have been conducted on automatic neural architecture search methods [15,32–37], and neural architecture search (NAS) is gradually being applied to many computer vision tasks , such as image classi- ﬁcation , object detection  or image segmentation . Meanwhile, current neural architecture search algorithms are based on reinforcement learning (RL) , the evolu- tionary algorithm (EA) , and the gradient-based method . In RL-based methods, Baker et al.  model the network architecture search as a Markov decision process, using RL methods (speciﬁcally, the Q-learning algorithm) to generate CNN architectures. For each layer of CNN, learn to choose the type of layer and corresponding parameters. The evaluation accuracy obtained after training after generating the network structure is rewarded. Liu et al.  mixed the candidate operations using the softmax function. In this way, the search space becomes a continuous space, and the objective function becomes a differentiable function. Gradient-based optimization methods can be used to ﬁnd the optimal structure. After the search is over, these mixed operations are replaced by the operations with the largest weight to form the ﬁnal result network. After that, NAS was gradually applied to the ﬁeld of medical image segmentation. Yan et al.  proposed a multi-scale NAS framework with a multi-scale search space from the network backbone to cell operations and a multi-scale fusion function that fuses features of different sizes. Utilize partial connectivity and two-step decoding to reduce computational overhead while main- Appl. Sci. 2022, 12, 10190 5 of 16 taining optimal quality. Zhu et al. formulated structural learning as a differentiable neural architecture search and let the network itself choose between 2D, 3D, or Pseudo-3D (P3D) convolutions at each layer . Kim et al.  proposed a neural architecture search (NAS) framework for 3D medical image segmentation, where the NAS framework searches the structure of each layer in the encoder and decoder. Yu et al.  presented a coarse-to-ﬁne neural architecture search (C2FNAS) to automatically search 3D segmentation networks from scratch to address inconsistencies in network size or input size. In this work, our method automatically searches for a task-adapted neural network architecture by designing an excitation function and providing a well-initialized parameter during training. 3. Our Proposed Shooting Reward Learning Network As shown in Figure 2, we present a reinforcement learning-based neural network architectural search technique for searching the regression neural network for the optimal landmarks. Moreover, we create a new learnable reward mechanism function that serves as an effective supervisory signal for neural architecture search and regression network training. Technically, we formulate medical landmark detection as a Markov decision process and leverage reinforcement learning algorithms to incorporate NAS with the medi- cal image landmark regression task. We present central difference convolution, replacing vanilla convolution because central difference convolution can extract the intensity-level semantic information and gradient-level detailed information. Figure 2. The overall framework of our method. We design a reward (shooting reward) and exploit a neural architecture search algorithm (reinforcement learning-based with LSTM controller) beyond a search space. 3.1. Central Difference Convolution Following the convention of NAS, the generated building blocks for the outside network are called cells . The down-sampling and up-sampling blocks are named down-sampling cell (DC) and up-sampling cell (UC), respectively. We design two types of cell architectures called DC and UC based on a multi-task U-Net backbone . Central difference convolution can extract the data invariant feature representation . Semantic information and gradient-level detail information are critical for the regression of medical Appl. Sci. 2022, 12, 10190 6 of 16 image landmarks in medical images, which indicates that combining vanilla convolution with central differential convolution may yield more robust regression network models. Hence, we generalize central difference convolution as  y(p ) = q w(p ) (x(p + p ) x(p )) + (1 q) w(p ) (x(p + p ). (1) 0 n 0 n 0 n 0 n å å p p neR neR where p denotes the current location on both input and output feature maps, while p 0 n enumerates the locations in R. We replace the vanilla convolution in the backbone network’s up and down sampling with central difference convolution (CDC), and we also replace the vanilla convolution in the network’s deep network with CDC. 3.2. Markov Decision Process Formulation Inspired by the reinforcement learning for face-alignment tasks, in this work we pro- pose medical landmark detection as a Markov decision process . We deﬁne 2I L = [L , L , , L ] 2 R as a location vector of I points, where L denotes for the 1 2 I i horizontal and vertical coordinates of the i-th landmark, given a medical image I. All GT GT GT GT ground truth landmarks should be represented by the vector L = [L , L , , L ]. 1 2 I In this work, a Markov decision process is realized through the deﬁnition of an agent. We constrain the full procedure to have both an action space A and a discrete, ﬁnite state space S. The agent can select from a ﬁnite set of actions, A(s ) A, for each state s 2 S. With i i probability, an agent in state s will transition to state s after performing action a A(s ). i j i The agent is rewarded at each time step t, depending on the transition from state s to state s and the action a. Maximizing the total anticipated reward along the whole available struc- ture approaches is the agent’s purpose. Starting from a certain state s , perform action a in accordance with policy p. Bellman’s Equation, often known as the recursive maximization equation, can be articulated as Q (s , a) = E [E [rjs , a, s ] + g max Q (s , a )]. (2) i i j i p s js ,a rjs ,a,s p j i i j a 2A(s ) The Bellman equation could frequently be formulated as an iterative update : Q (s , a) = (1 b)Q (s , a) + b[R + g max Q (s , a )]. (3) t+1 i t i t i a 2A(s ) where R stands for the agent’s reward and Q (s , a) is the maximum total expected reward. t i Consequently, Q (s , a) is referred to as the Q-values. The weight provided to fresh knowledge over old information is determined by the Q-learning rate (b), while the weight given to immediate rewards over long-term rewards is determined by the discount factor (g). We evaluate each candidate’s quality value using the searched network and choose a course of action based on policy p: p (s) = max Q (s , a) (4) q i c p a2A(s ) where q denotes the network architecture parameters for the entire search. Shooting reward. We modiﬁed the distance between the anticipated regression land- mark and the target in different places after assessing the model’s performance, and we assigned various rewards depending on where the regression landmark was located. If we utilize ground truth as the target for the landmark detection task, landmark detection becomes identical to a shooting game that is repeatedly played to achieve the goal of get- ting nearer to the target. Therefore, to concurrently maximize both processes of learning a landmark loss function and routing a reliable regression network architecture, we designed a learnable incentive (shooting reward Figure 3). In particular, the reward function is intended to quantify the SDR evaluation index, which is deﬁned as follows: Appl. Sci. 2022, 12, 10190 7 of 16 GT d = qj L L j. (5) i i 10 d < 2.0 mm 8 2.0 mm d < 2.5 mm R = > 6 2.5 mm d < 3.0 mm 3 3.0 mm d < 4.0 mm R = R. (6) t å i=1 where q is the pixel spacing and L ,L are the horizontal and vertical differences between n n the predicted landmarks and the ground truth, respectively. Figure 3. Schematic of shooting reward. We take the target point as the center of the circle, and according to the SDR evaluation index of the data, we divide four regions with the radii of 2.0 mm, 2.5 mm, 3.0 mm, and 4.0 mm. The red points represent the ground truth, and the yellow points represent the landmarks predicted by the model. The predicted landmarks fall into different regions to give them different rewards. 3.3. Search Strategy Using a reinforcement learning technique, the agent sequentially selects structures until it reaches a termination state. The veriﬁcation accuracy and architectural description are deposited in the long short-term memory (LSTM), and the knowledge is sampled from the LSTM on a regular basis to update the Q-value via Equation (3). A neural network with that architecture is created after the controller LSTM has completed deriving it. The model calculates its accuracy on a constant validation sample during the search. The controller LSTM’s relevant settings are then optimized to enhance the anticipated validation accuracy of the search architecture. The controller ’s predicted list of operations may be construed as a set of procedures a for generating a sub-network architecture. We will train the LSTM 1:T controller based on the shooting reward and deploy it as a signal for the search architecture. We utilize Williams’ reinforcement rule in this work. Since the reward signal cannot be differentiated, we iteratively update q using the strategic gradient approach : m T rq J(q ) = rq log P(a ja ; q )(R b). (7) c c å å c t c t (t 1):1 k=1 t=1 where T is the total amount of hyperparameters our controller will predict in order to create a neural network architecture, and m is the total number of designs the controller samples in a batch. After being trained on a training dataset, the k-th neural network design achieves the validation accuracy of R , and b is an exponential moving average of the validation accuracy of the preceding architectures. Appl. Sci. 2022, 12, 10190 8 of 16 We design to embed the CDC operation within the search space in order to automat- ically search a network architecture with promising performance. The speciﬁcation of a hybrid module, which is the basic computational component in both downsampling cells and upsampling cells, is the ﬁrst element in explaining the searching space . The hybrid module combines N with several operations (OP ), all of which are guaranteed to have the 0 s same output structure. There is a parameter a that is assigned a weight to the output of each OP , where i 2 [1, N ]. The optimizers will enhance the a, whose bonded OP affected the 0 s hybrid module more as the search process progressed, and decrease the other a that belong to a less signiﬁcant OP . In this research, we present two different types of hybrid modules, the DC and UC. As a consequence, our approach concentrates on selecting the optimal DC and UC design. Table 1 lists the alternative search subspace DC and UC operations. Table 1. Operation candidates for down-sampling cell and up-samping cell. Operation Candidates Down-Sampling Cell Up-Sampling Cell 1 avg-pool up-cweight 2 max-pool up-dep-conv 3 down-cweight up-CDC 4 down-dil-conv up-dil-conv 5 down-dep-conv - 6 down-CDC - The CDC, in addition to a number of frequently used candidate operations, such as 3 3 dilated convolution, 3 3 and 5 5 depthwise separable convolution, 3 3 cweight operation, 2 2 pooling operation, and skip connection, make up the search space for the DC and UC. Algorithm 1 details the training procedure of our shooting reward learning network (SRLN). Algorithm 1: SRLN Input: Training set:L with N samples, T = 300, t = 75. sharing parameters w, LSTM controller parameters q . Output: SRLN model searching step: for Epoch = 1, . . . , T do Initialize w and q ; A random selection of network architectures a ; Update w and q on training sample; Compute Reward R via Equations (5) and (6); Optimize w and q by Maximizing the function Equation (7); Update parameters and the search network parameters; end training step: for Epoch = 1, . . . , T do for t = 1, . . . , t do Load the searched network architecture a ; Initialize searched network with q and w; Execute action a and the new state s ; t t Compute Reward R via Equations (5) and (6); Update a = p (s ) based on Equation (4); t+1 q t Optimize p and q by Maximizing the function Equation (3); Update a = p (s ) based on Equation (4); t+1 q t end end Appl. Sci. 2022, 12, 10190 9 of 16 4. Performance Evaluation In this section, we qualitatively and quantitatively evaluate our model and compare it with the public methods on a standard X-ray dataset. In addition, we perform an ablation experiment to show how certain components enhance the effectiveness of our model. 4.1. Setting All of our experiments were completed on an NVIDIA RTX 3090 GPU and were performed in Pytorch 1.8.0. A setup of 300 epochs was selected for the search neural network architecture task, and 300 epochs were set for neural network training. The training network and the search neural network design both have a batch size of two. We used the ADAM optimizer for both search and training throughout the process. Additionally, the maximum validation accuracy of the previous ﬁve epochs is the shooting reward utilized to update the NAS controller. During model training, we use the loss function to optimize the gradient and use the shooting reward to show the training accuracy of the model, as shown in Figure 4. 4.1.1. Dataset We made use of the 400 X-ray images from the IEEE ISBI 2015 Challenge, a widely used public dataset for cephalometric landmark recognition. For each X-ray image, 19 landmarks of clinical anatomical relevance were identiﬁed by two experienced doctors (Table 2). A training set of 150 images, a test set of 150 images, and a test set of 100 images, respectively, are separated from the dataset. Table 2. List of anatomical landmarks. Number L1 L2 L3 L4 L5 L6 L7 L8 L9 L10 Anatomical Sella Nasion Orbitale Porion Subspinale Supramentale Pogonion Menton Gnathion Gonion Name Number L11 L12 L13 L14 L15 L16 L17 L18 L19 Lower Upper Anatomical Soft tissue Posterior Anterior incisal incisal Upper lip Lower lip Subnasale Articulate Name pogonion nasal spine nasal spine incision incision 4.1.2. Metrics Mean radial error (MRE) and the corresponding standard deviation (SD) are used to measure the quantitative comparison. The successful detection rates for the accuracy rang- ing as 2.0 mm, 2.5 mm, 3.0 mm, and 4.0 mm served as another assessment criterion. Doctors designated a single pixel rather than a whole region as the location of each landmark. The detection of this landmark is regarded as successful if the absolute difference between the detected and the reference landmark is no larger than z; otherwise, it is regarded as a misdetection. The success detection rate (SDR) R with precision less than z is formulated as follows: #(i : jjL (i) L jj < z) gt(i) R = 100% (8) #w where L (i) and L represent the locations of the detected landmark and the ground gt(i) truth landmark, respectively; z denotes four precision ranges used in the evaluation, including 2.0 mm, 2.5 mm, 3.0 mm and 4.0 mm; i 2 w and #w represent the number of detections made. 4.2. Ablation Study We developed two baseline techniques and compared them to the ISBI2015 dataset in order to thoroughly justify the components of our proposed module. We used the multi- task U-net network’s results for Baseline-1 without making any changes. We evaluated the backbone multi-task U-net network with central difference convolution for Baseline-2. Based on Baseline-1, we trained the Baseline-3 model and used the proposed reinforcement Appl. Sci. 2022, 12, 10190 10 of 16 learning mechanism-based network architecture search to ﬁnd a network architecture with high performance. Figure 5, Tables 3 and 4 shows a comparison between our approach and the three established baselines. We show in Figure 6 the locations of the speciﬁc landmarks obtained by the different baseline methods. We can see from the ﬁgure that our method’s performance is better than the two previous baselines, which demonstrates how effective our network would be at reliably learning landmark regression. Comparing the result reveals a signiﬁcant increase in detection accuracy, proving the value of automatically searching for appropriate network architectures. 4.3. Architecture of Algorithmic Search The down-sampling and up-sampling cells that were searched using our approach are represented in Figures 7 and 8. Each cell in the ﬁgures has three intermediate nodes, each of which has two operations performed out from the preceding nodes. The nodes corre- spond to feature maps for each cell. Our proposed reward, which receives the maximum reward during the search optimization epochs, determines which cell structure is selected. Figures 7 and 8 demonstrate that the CDC operation is preferable in our search space by the search processing. In order to provide more accurate high-level semantic information and details of the gradient level between the down-sampling and up-sampling routes, the CDC procedure complements the conventional convolution operation. 4.4. Result We quantitatively compare our approach to various current state-of-the-art supervised algorithms as well as the ﬁrst and second place winners from the ISBI 2015 Challenge in Tables 5 and 6. As a consequence, our approach obtains MRE of 1.09 mm, 3 mm SDR of 95.54%, 4 mm SDR of 98.59%, and MRE of 1.34 mm, 4 mm SDR of 95.05% in test 2, which are competitive compared to other supervised methods. We provide the model detection image results in Figure 9 so that we can evaluate how accurately our model performs. On several measures, nevertheless, our experiment results fall short of the ideal performance. The fundamental cause of our method’s underperformance on all measures is that our model’s performance is very reliant on the backbone network. We draw the conclusion that each landmark detection produces a different variety of results based on the experimental results in Figure 10. The effectiveness of our model may also be increased by investigating the causes of the high MRE value of landmark detection and then further optimizing the network structure design. Figure 4. Model training situation, use the loss function to optimize the gradient during model training and display the score of the excitation function in the process. Appl. Sci. 2022, 12, 10190 11 of 16 Figure 5. Ablation study of our model. Success detection rates (SDRs) using four precision ranges, including 2 mm, 2.5 mm, 3 mm, and 4 mm, with 150 test images. Figure 6. Medical Landmark detection on the ISBI2015 dataset under a different method. From left to right are the results of Baseline-2, Baseline-3, and our method. Red points are predicted landmarks; green points are ground truth. Figure 7. Cell architecture search by our method on the ISBI2015 dataset. It is the down-sampling cell architecture. Appl. Sci. 2022, 12, 10190 12 of 16 Figure 8. Cell architecture search by our method on the ISBI2015 dataset. It is the up-sampling cell architecture. Figure 9. Visualized results of our approach for the ISBI2015 dataset. Red points are predicted landmarks; blue points are ground truth. Appl. Sci. 2022, 12, 10190 13 of 16 Figure 10. Mean radial errors (unit: 1 mm) in detection of individual landmarks on the ISBI2015 Test (1). Table 3. Ablation study results of Baseline-1, Baseline-2, Baseline-3 and our shooting reward learning in ISBI2015 test set 1 (measured by MRE and SDR). Method MRE 2.0 mm (SDR%) 2.5 mm (SDR%) 3.0 mm (SDR%) 4.0 mm (SDR%) Baseline-1 1.3 84.03 90.87 93.89 97.29 Baseline-2 1.27 85.5 91.32 94.00 97.96 Baseline-3 1.23 86.12 91.57 94.84 98.02 Ours 1.09 87.87 92.45 95.54 98.59 Table 4. Ablation study results of Baseline-1, Baseline-2, Baseline-3 and our shooting reward learning in ISBI2015 test set 2 (measured by MRE and SDR). Method MRE 2.0 mm (SDR%) 2.5 mm (SDR%) 3.0 mm (SDR%) 4.0 mm (SDR%) Baseline-1 1.58 71.26 80.36 85.94 93.73 Baseline-2 1.53 73.63 81.84 87.78 94.57 Baseline-3 1.46 74.21 83.47 88.10 94.63 Ours 1.34 79.05 87.95 89.79 95.05 Table 5. Comparisons of SDR of our method with recent compelling methods on ISBI2015 test set (1). Method 2.0 mm (SDR%) 2.5 mm (SDR%) 3.0 mm (SDR%) 4.0 mm (SDR%) Lindner et al.  74.95 80.28 84.56 89.68 Ibragimov et al.  71.72 77.4 81.93 88.04 Arik et al.  75.37 80.91 84.32 88.25 Zhong et al.  86.91 91.82 94.88 97.9 Chen et al.  86.67 92.67 95.54 98.53 Liu et al.  89.05 93.93 95.47 98.46 Ours 87.87 92.45 95.54 98.59 Table 6. Comparisons of SDR of our method with recent compelling methods on ISBI2015 test set (2). Method 2.0 mm (SDR%) 2.5 mm (SDR%) 3.0 mm (SDR%) 4.0 mm (SDR%) Lindner et al.  66.11 72.00 77.63 87.43 Ibragimov et al.  62.74 70.47 76.53 85.11 Arik et al.  67.68 74.16 79.11 84.63 HRnet18  69.89 78.95 85.16 92.32 Zhong et al.  76.00 82.9 88.74 94.32 Chen et al.  75.05 82.84 88.53 95.05 Liu et al.  80.42 87.84 89.68 94.63 Li et al.  76.57 83.68 88.21 94.31 Ours 79.05 87.95 89.79 95.05 5. Conclusions and Future Work In this paper, we develop a reinforcement learning approach and a learning reward to choose a reliable landmark regression network architecture. Extensive experimental Appl. Sci. 2022, 12, 10190 14 of 16 results on standard benchmarks show the validity of our shooting reward learning net- work on model balancing and its effectiveness of medical landmark detection. Future research will focus on self-supervised or unsupervised landmark recognition in medical images, which can solve the problem of expensive labeling. To raise the competence of our model, it would be desirable to design new network conﬁgurations and operators. Additionally, to provide supervision signals and improve model performance, structural information connecting medical landmarks will be introduced. We may conclude from our experiments that our model still falls short in terms of the regression accuracy of particular landmarks, and the following work might be examined and adapted for speciﬁc spots with inadequate identiﬁcation. Author Contributions: Writing—original draft, F.F. and K.H.; Writing—review & editing, F.F. and K.H. All authors have read and agreed to the published version of the manuscript. Funding: This research was funded by Ningxia Natural Science Foundation Key Project grant number: 2021AAC02004 and Ningxia Key Research and Development project grant number: 2022BEG02016. Institutional Review Board Statement: Not applicable. Informed Consent Statement: Not applicable. Data Availability Statement: The ISBI2015 database is available from http://www-o.ntust.edu.tw/ ~cweiwang/ISBI2015/challenge1. Conﬂicts of Interest: The authors declare no conﬂict of interest. References 1. Wang, C.W.; Huang, C.T.; Lee, J.H.; Li, C.H.; Chang, S.W.; Siao, M.J.; Lai, T.M.; Ibragimov, B.; Vrtovec, T.; Ronneberger, O.; et al. A benchmark for comparison of dental radiography analysis algorithms. Med. Image Anal. 2016, 31, 63–76. [CrossRef] [PubMed] 2. Lu, X.; Jolly, M.P. Discriminative context modeling using auxiliary markers for LV landmark detection from a single MR image. In Proceedings of the International Workshop on Statistical Atlases and Computational Models of the Heart, Nice, France, 5 October 2012; pp. 105–114. 3. Mahapatra, D. Landmark detection in cardiac MRI using learned local image statistics. In Proceedings of the International Workshop on Statistical Atlases and Computational Models of the Heart, Nice, France, 5 October 2012; pp. 115–124. 4. Gao, Y.; Shen, D. Collaborative regression-based anatomical landmark detection. Phys. Med. Biol. 2015, 60, 9377. [CrossRef] [PubMed] 5. Han, D.; Gao, Y.; Wu, G.; Yap, P.T.; Shen, D. Robust anatomical landmark detection for MR brain image registration. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Medical Image Computing and Computer-Assisted Intervention, Boston, MA, USA, 14–18 September 2014; pp. 186–193. 6. Lee, H.; Park, M.; Kim, J. Cephalometric landmark detection in dental X-ray images using convolutional neural networks. In Proceedings of the Medical Imaging 2017: Computer-Aided Diagnosis (SPIE), Orlando, FL, USA, 11–16 February 2017; Volume 10134, pp. 494–499. 7. Zhang, J.; Liu, M.; Shen, D. Detecting anatomical landmarks from limited medical imaging data using two-stage task-oriented deep neural networks. IEEE Trans. Image Process. 2017, 26, 4753–4764. [CrossRef] [PubMed] 8. Zhong, Z.; Li, J.; Zhang, Z.; Jiao, Z.; Gao, X. An attention-guided deep regression model for landmark detection in cephalograms. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Medical Image Computing and Computer-Assisted Intervention, Shenzhen, China, 13–17 October 2019; pp. 540–548. 9. Xu, Z.; Huo, Y.; Park, J.; Landman, B.; Milkowski, A.; Grbic, S.; Zhou, S. Less is more: Simultaneous view classiﬁcation and landmark detection for abdominal ultrasound images. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Medical Image Computing and Computer-Assisted Intervention, Granada, Spain, 16–20 September 2018; pp. 711–719. 10. Liu, W.; Wang, Y.; Jiang, T.; Chi, Y.; Zhang, L.; Hua, X.S. Landmarks detection with anatomical constraints for total hip arthroplasty preoperative measurements. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Medical Image Computing and Computer-Assisted Intervention, Lima, Peru, 4–8 October 2020; pp. 670–679. 11. Ronneberger, O.; Fischer, P.; Brox, T. U-net: Convolutional networks for biomedical image segmentation. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Medical Image Computing and Computer-Assisted Intervention, Munich, Germany, 5–9 October 2015; pp. 234–241. 12. Payer, C.; Štern, D.; Bischof, H.; Urschler, M. Regressing heatmaps for multiple landmark localization using CNNs. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Medical Image Computing and Computer-Assisted Intervention, Athens, Greece, 17–21 October 2016; pp. 230–238. Appl. Sci. 2022, 12, 10190 15 of 16 13. Chen, R.; Ma, Y.; Chen, N.; Lee, D.; Wang, W. Cephalometric landmark detection by attentive feature pyramid fusion and regression-voting. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Medical Image Computing and Computer-Assisted Intervention, Shenzhen, China, 13–17 October 2019; pp. 873–881. 14. He, K.; Zhang, X.; Ren, S.; Sun, J. Deep residual learning for image recognition. In Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, Las Vegas, NV, USA, 27–30 June 2016; pp. 770–778. 15. Zoph, B.; Le, Q.V. Neural architecture search with reinforcement learning. arXiv 2016, arXiv:1611.01578. 16. Yu, Q.; Yang, D.; Roth, H.; Bai, Y.; Zhang, Y.; Yuille, A.L.; Xu, D. C2fnas: Coarse-to-ﬁne neural architecture search for 3d medical image segmentation. In Proceedings of the IEEE/CVF Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, Seattle, WA, USA, 13–19 June 2020; pp. 4126–4135. 17. Ghiasi, G.; Lin, T.Y.; Le, Q.V. Nas-fpn: Learning scalable feature pyramid architecture for object detection. In Proceedings of the IEEE/CVF Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, Long Beach, CA, USA, 15–20 June 2019; pp. 7036–7045. 18. Xia, J.; Qu, W.; Huang, W.; Zhang, J.; Wang, X.; Xu, M. Sparse Local Patch Transformer for Robust Face Alignment and Landmarks Inherent Relation Learning. In Proceedings of the IEEE/CVF Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, New Orleans, LA, USA, 21 June 2022; pp. 4052–4061. 19. Sun, Y.; Wang, X.; Tang, X. Deep convolutional network cascade for facial point detection. In Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, Portland, OR, USA, 23–28 June 2013; pp. 3476–3483. 20. Dollár, P.; Welinder, P.; Perona, P. Cascaded pose regression. In Proceedings of the 2010 IEEE Computer Society Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, San Francisco, CA, USA, 13–18 June 2010; pp. 1078–1085. 21. Zhang, K.; Zhang, Z.; Li, Z.; Qiao, Y. Joint face detection and alignment using multitask cascaded convolutional networks. IEEE Signal Process. Lett. 2016, 23, 1499–1503. [CrossRef] 22. Kowalski, M.; Naruniec, J.; Trzcinski, T. Deep alignment network: A convolutional neural network for robust face align- ment. In Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition Workshops, Honolulu, HI, USA, 21–26 July 2017; pp. 88–97. 23. Wang, F. Neural architecture search for gliomas segmentation on multimodal magnetic resonance imaging. arXiv 2020, arXiv:2005.06338. 24. Yao, Q.; He, Z.; Han, H.; Zhou, S.K. Miss the point: Targeted adversarial attack on multiple landmark detection. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Medical Image Computing and Computer-Assisted Intervention, Lima, Peru, 4–8 October 2020; pp. 692–702. 25. Zhu, H.; Yao, Q.; Xiao, L.; Zhou, S.K. You only learn once: Universal anatomical landmark detection. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Medical Image Computing and Computer-Assisted Intervention, Strasbourg, France, 27 September– 1 October 2021; pp. 85–95. 26. Yao, Q.; Quan, Q.; Xiao, L.; Kevin Zhou, S. One-shot medical landmark detection. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Medical Image Computing and Computer-Assisted Intervention, Strasbourg, France, 27 September–1 October 2021; pp. 177–188. 27. Zhu, S.; Li, C.; Change Loy, C.; Tang, X. Face alignment by coarse-to-ﬁne shape searching. In Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, Boston, MA, USA, 7–12 June 2015; pp. 4998–5006. 28. Yu, X.; Huang, J.; Zhang, S.; Metaxas, D.N. Face landmark ﬁtting via optimized part mixtures and cascaded deformable model. IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 2015, 38, 2212–2226. [CrossRef] [PubMed] 29. Yu, W.; Liang, X.; Gong, K.; Jiang, C.; Xiao, N.; Lin, L. Layout-graph reasoning for fashion landmark detection. In Proceedings of the IEEE/CVF Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, Long Beach, CA, USA, 15–20 June 2019; pp. 2937–2945. 30. Zhou, F.; Brandt, J.; Lin, Z. Exemplar-based graph matching for robust facial landmark localization. In Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Computer Vision, Sydney, Australia, 1–8 December 2013; pp. 1025–1032. 31. Li, W.; Lu, Y.; Zheng, K.; Liao, H.; Lin, C.; Luo, J.; Cheng, C.T.; Xiao, J.; Lu, L.; Kuo, C.F.; et al. Structured landmark detection via topology-adapting deep graph learning. In Proceedings of the European Conference on Computer Vision, Glasgow, UK, 23–28 August 2020; pp. 266–283. 32. Cheng, X.; Zhong, Y.; Harandi, M.; Dai, Y.; Chang, X.; Li, H.; Drummond, T.; Ge, Z. Hierarchical neural architecture search for deep stereo matching. Adv. Neural Inf. Process. Syst. 2020, 33, 22158–22169. 33. Ren, P.; Xiao, Y.; Chang, X.; Huang, P.Y.; Li, Z.; Chen, X.; Wang, X. A comprehensive survey of neural architecture search: Challenges and solutions. ACM Comput. Surv. 2021, 54, 76. [CrossRef] 34. Bashivan, P.; Tensen, M.; DiCarlo, J.J. Teacher guided architecture search. In Proceedings of the IEEE/CVF International Conference on Computer Vision, Seoul, Korea, 27 October–2 November 2019; pp. 5320–5329. 35. Zheng, X.; Ji, R.; Tang, L.; Zhang, B.; Liu, J.; Tian, Q. Multinomial distribution learning for effective neural architecture search. In Proceedings of the IEEE/CVF International Conference on Computer Vision, Seoul, Korea, 27 October–2 November 2019; pp. 1304–1313. 36. Mei, J.; Li, Y.; Lian, X.; Jin, X.; Yang, L.; Yuille, A.; Yang, J. Atomnas: Fine-grained end-to-end neural architecture search. arXiv 2019, arXiv:1912.09640. 37. Liu, X.; Zhao, J.; Li, J.; Cao, B.; Lv, Z. Federated neural architecture search for medical data security. IEEE Trans. Ind. Inform. 2022, 18, 5628–5636. [CrossRef] Appl. Sci. 2022, 12, 10190 16 of 16 38. Wang, Y.; Ma, Z.; Wei, X.; Zheng, S.; Wang, Y.; Hong, X. Eccnas: Efﬁcient crowd counting neural architecture search. ACM Trans. Multimed. Comput. Commun. Appl. 2022, 18, 36. [CrossRef] 39. Real, E.; Aggarwal, A.; Huang, Y.; Le, Q.V. Aging evolution for image classiﬁer architecture search. In Proceedings of the AAAI Conference on Artiﬁcial Intelligence, Honolulu, HI, USA, 27 January–1 February 2019; Volume 2, p. 2. 40. Zoph, B.; Vasudevan, V.; Shlens, J.; Le, Q.V. Learning transferable architectures for scalable image recognition. In Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, Salt Lake City, UT, USA, 18–22 June 2018; pp. 8697–8710. 41. Baker, B.; Gupta, O.; Naik, N.; Raskar, R. Designing neural network architectures using reinforcement learning. arXiv 2016, arXiv:1611.02167. 42. Real, E.; Aggarwal, A.; Huang, Y.; Le, Q.V. Regularized evolution for image classiﬁer architecture search. In Proceedings of the AAAI Conference on Artiﬁcial Intelligence, Honolulu, HI, USA, 27 January–1 February 2019; Volume 33, pp. 4780–4789. 43. Liu, H.; Simonyan, K.; Yang, Y. Darts: Differentiable architecture search. arXiv 2018, arXiv:1806.09055. 44. Yan, X.; Jiang, W.; Shi, Y.; Zhuo, C. Ms-nas: Multi-scale neural architecture search for medical image segmentation. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Medical Image Computing and Computer-Assisted Intervention, Lima, Peru, 4–8 October 2020; pp. 388–397. 45. Zhu, Z.; Liu, C.; Yang, D.; Yuille, A.; Xu, D. V-NAS: Neural architecture search for volumetric medical image segmentation. In Proceedings of the 2019 International Conference on 3D Vision (3DV), Quebec, QC, Canada, 15–18 September 2019; pp. 240–248. 46. Kim, S.; Kim, I.; Lim, S.; Baek, W.; Kim, C.; Cho, H.; Yoon, B.; Kim, T. Scalable neural architecture search for 3d medical image segmentation. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Medical Image Computing and Computer-Assisted Intervention, Shenzhen, China, 13–17 October 2019; pp. 220–228. 47. Weng, Y.; Zhou, T.; Li, Y.; Qiu, X. Nas-unet: Neural architecture search for medical image segmentation. IEEE Access 2019, 7, 44247–44257. [CrossRef] 48. Yu, Z.; Zhao, C.; Wang, Z.; Qin, Y.; Su, Z.; Li, X.; Zhou, F.; Zhao, G. Searching central difference convolutional networks for face anti-spooﬁng. In Proceedings of the IEEE/CVF Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, Seattle, WA, USA, 13–19 June 2020; pp. 5295–5305. 49. Liu, H.; Lu, J.; Guo, M.; Wu, S.; Zhou, J. Learning reasoning-decision networks for robust face alignment. IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 2018, 42, 679–693. [CrossRef] [PubMed] 50. Lindner, C.; Cootes, T.F. Fully automatic cephalometric evaluation using random forest regression-voting. In Proceedings of the IEEE International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging (ISBI) 2015–Grand Challenges in Dental X-ray Image Analysis–Automated Detection and Analysis for Diagnosis in Cephalometric X-ray Image, Brooklyn, NY, USA, 16–19 April 2015. 51. Ibragimov, B.; Likar, B.; Pernus, F.; Vrtovec, T. Computerized cephalometry by game theory with shape-and appearance-based landmark reﬁnement. In Proceedings of the International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging (ISBI), Brooklyn, NY, USA, 16–19 April 2015. 52. Arik, S.Ö.; Ibragimov, B.; Xing, L. Fully automated quantitative cephalometry using convolutional neural networks. J. Med. Imaging 2017, 4, 014501. [CrossRef] [PubMed] 53. Sun, K.; Xiao, B.; Liu, D.; Wang, J. Deep high-resolution representation learning for human pose estimation. In Proceedings of the IEEE/CVF Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, Long Beach, CA, USA, 15–20 June 2019; pp. 5693–5703.
Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
An Intelligent Shooting Reward Learning Network Scheme for Medical Image Landmark Detection
, Volume 12 (20) –
Oct 11, 2022
Share Full Text for Free
Add to Folder
Web of Science