Article A Case Study on Soundscape Analysis for the Historical and Ethnic Village of Dong Nationality in Zhaoxing County 1 1 1 1 2, Zhiyong Deng , Kexin Dong , Danfeng Bai , Kaicheng Tong and Aili Liu * Music College, Capital Normal University, Beijing 100048, China; firstname.lastname@example.org (Z.D.); email@example.com (K.D.); firstname.lastname@example.org (D.B.); email@example.com (K.T.) College of Resource Environment and Tourism, Capital Normal University, Beijing 100048, China * Correspondence: firstname.lastname@example.org Abstract: A soundscape is a sound environment of the awareness of auditory perception and social or cultural understandings. Based on a soundscape investigation in 2019 in the historical and ethnic village of Dong Nationality in Zhaoxing County, Guizhou Province of China, a case study on the soundscape analysis with the acoustical sound pressure level and an impressive sound event or soundmark is introduced in this paper. Furthermore, in order to determine the subjective sound- scape experience and its influence by the length of background music listening, the independent variable “Length of Listening” and six adjective pairs, such as “Monotonous” to “Rich”, “Clamorous” to “Quiet”, “Stressing” to “Relaxing”, “Boring” to “Vivid”, “Noisy” to “Musical” and “Disliked” to “Preferable” are chosen to obtain a curve-fit, which shows that the length of the music listening background has a higher correlation to the subjective experience, and no sufficient attention has been paid to the context of the traditional soundscape preservation, ethnic music and quiet and soft ambient sounds. Citation: Deng, Z.; Dong, K.; Bai, D.; Tong, K.; Liu, A. A Case Study on Keywords: soundscape; sound level mapping; curve-fit; Dong nationality Soundscape Analysis for the Historical and Ethnic Village of Dong Nationality in Zhaoxing County. Acoustics 2021, 3, 16. 1. Introduction https://doi.org/10.3390/ acoustics3020016 A soundscape, as suggested by Schafer, is a sound environment of the awareness of auditory perception and social or cultural understandings with the three features of key- Academic Editor: Francesco Aletta note, sound signal and soundmark , or as defined by ISO, an “acoustic environment as perceived or experienced and/or understood by a person or people, in context” . Do- Received: 24 December 2020 mestic scholars mostly regard Chinese gardens and urban parks as research objects, for Accepted: 19 March 2021 the collection, measurement and acoustical evaluation of soundscapes of noise control or Published: 24 March 2021 architectural engineering design projects [3–6]. In the case of soundscape investigation and its human awareness, so much research Publisher’s Note: MDPI stays neu- has been carried out to prove the importance of protecting soundscapes in historical areas tral with regard to jurisdictional [7–9]. As a whole, sound sources, acoustic environment and its subjective evaluation, in- claims in published maps and insti- dividual behaviors, social and demographical characteristics are the factors that influence tutional affiliations. soundscapes in historical areas . Semantic differential analysis is often used to acquire the subjective evaluation , and then, for Chinese people, some adjective pairs which are easy to understand such as “Clamorous” to “Quiet”, “Boring” to “Vivid”, “Com- mon” to “Divine”, “Traditional” to “Modern”, “Rough” to “Smooth”, “Directional” to Copyright: © 2021 by the authors. “Omni”, “Far” to “Close”, “Strong” to “Weak” and “Disliked” to “Preferable”, were also Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article suggested as the common semantic parameters to evaluate soundscape experience in his- distributed under the terms and con- torical areas . ditions of the Creative Commons At- Based on 37 typical binaural-recorded samples and the questionnaire on site in the tribution (CC BY) license (http://cre- historical and ethnic village of Dong Nationality in Zhaoxing County of Guizhou Province ativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/). of China in 2019, a case study on the soundscape analysis with the acoustical sound pres- sure level, curve-fit and an impressive sound event or soundmark is introduced in this Acoustics 2021, 3, 221–234. https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics3020016 www.mdpi.com/journal/acoustics Acoustics 2021, 3, 16 222 paper. The aim of this case study is to determine which kind of keynote, sound signal, soundmark to preserve or restore, the subjective semantic soundscape experience and its influence by the three features and the length of background music listening. 2. Methods 2.1. Case Study Area and Samples The area for this case study is the famous village of Dong Nationality in Zhaoxing County (Zhaoxing village for short) located in the southeast of Liping County, Southeast Miao and the Dong Autonomous Prefecture of Guizhou Province. It is one of the largest Dong villages with lots of drum towers and an area of 180,000 m surrounded by moun- tains. For the local people of Dong Nationality, the drum tower is a special building for religious, social, traditional music and dancing, performing activities and fire warning. A strong drum beat can be heard all over the village when it works. The shape of this area is shown in Figure 1 . In 2009, the traditional music of Dong Nationality called Kam Grand Choirs (Dong Grand Song) was listed in the World Intan- gible Cultural Heritage list by United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organ- ization (UNESCO). Figure 1. The location of Zhaoxing village. All the samples involved in this paper were recorded on site in Zhaoxing village as shown in Figure 1, including the County Road 886 (the main street), the riversides, the Museum, the Performance Area, the Dong Garden, the Main Gate and the North Gate, four characteristic alleys, Alley 1, Alley 4, Alley 5 and the Xicai Alley, and five primary drum towers, the Lituan Drum Tower, the Xintuan Drum Tower, the Rentuan Drum Tower, the Yituan Drum Tower and the Zhituan Drum Tower. Acoustics 2021, 3, 16 223 There are 18 binaural soundwalk recordings, 19 binaural location recordings used to analyze the sound level mapping and to extract the keynotes, sound signals and soundmarks. Additionally, the interviews of 125 respondents (71 males, 54 females) on site from 16 to 22 August of 2019 are used to analyze the curve-fit. 2.2. Algorithm of Acoustic Parameter LAeq In Figure 2, we use the equivalent sound pressure level in dBA (LAeq) to represent the sound level of each sample as Equation (1): 1 0.1L LA 10lg 10 (1) eq i1 Lpi— n—the numbers of equal duration section within a sample in the time domain, the sound pressure level in dBA of each duration section. 2.3. Recording and Measuring Techniques According to the complex situation on site and the local regulatory policy, it is im- possible to use visible or big acoustic measuring equipment like large microphones or sound meters. Therefore, for the recordings, all the samples were binaurally recorded by an Apple iPhone X with a pair of Sennheiser AMBEO smart headsets (calibrated with a standard sound level meter in advance) plugged into the ears of the recording engineers. Additionally, especially for the soundwalk recordings, soft soles were required to avoid the sounds of footsteps. In order to simulate a listening situation of common people, re- cording engineers could freely or naturally do some slight body movements such as turn- ing the head and squats during the soundwalks. Then, for the measurement of LAeq, firstly, according to the length of a sample, we cut each sample into 10 or more sections, calculated the sound pressure level (Lp0) in dBA with the microphone’s sensitivity and the equivalent voltage level just at the first section of sample; then the Lpi can be calculated as Equation (2), and finally, the LAeq, can be calcu- lated by Lpi as Equation (1). L L L (2) p p u i 0 i Lp0—the sound pressure level just at the beginning of each sample, ΔLui—the differ- ence between the equivalent voltage level of each section and that of the first section of this sample; the equivalent voltage level can be directly read from the recording software. 2.4. Subjective Evaluation and Its Curve-Fit Method In order to determine the subjective soundscape experience on site and its influence by the length of background music listening, a short questionnaire on site based on the semantic differential analysis was design as shown in Table 1. Table 1. Subjective Soundscape Experience Evaluation Questions and Adjective Pairs. Adjective Pairs in Likert Five Scale (Without Unit) Questions −2 −1 0 1 2 1. The music or sound environment here makes you feel: Monotonous - Rich 2. What do you think of the sound volume here? Clamorous - Quiet 3. The music or sound environment here makes you feel: Stressing - Relaxing 4. The music or sound environment here makes you feel: Boring - Vivid 5. Do you think the sound environment here is musical? Noisy - Musical 6. How much do you like this music or sound environment? Disliked - Preferable Question for the Independent Variable (Length of Listening, LOL) - - How long do you listen to music on average every day? (in Not often 0–30 30–60 60–90 >90 minutes) Acoustics 2021, 3, 16 224 The independent variable Length of Listening (LOL) acquired by the question of “How long do you listen to music on average every day? (in minutes)”, and six questions with the corresponding adjective pairs, differentiated in semantics as “Monotonous” to “Rich”, “Clamorous” to “Quiet”, “Stressing” to “Relaxing”, “Boring” to “Vivid”, “Noisy” to “Mu- sical” and “Disliked” to “Preferable” were chosen to obtain a curve-fit. Then, the linear and quadratic curve-fit is used to show the length of music listening influence on the sub- jective soundscape experience represented by the average evaluation score of each adjec- tive pair. 2.5. Soundscape Features Keynote Keynote is a term derived from musicology, which refers to the first primary note in a particular musical scale. It is usually the fundamental tone. Keynote sounds are those which are heard by a particular lineage frequently enough to form a natural or social sound environmental background against other sounds. Examples might be the sound of wind for a valley village, or the sound of traffic in a big city. Most of the keynote sounds are lower in the sound pressure level, stable in the frequency spectrum, and then often ignored by the people. Sound Signal The sound signals contrasted by keynote sounds are those which directly give atten- tion or a particular information, such as traffic alert and church bell sounds, which may often be organized into some codes permitting messages to be transmitted quickly and clearly. However, for now, signals are also expanded to refer to some special sound events or sound objects in the foreground. Soundmark The term soundmark is derived from landmark to refer to a special sound event which is native, unique and specially regarded or noticed by the people in a community, a village, a city, a country or, etc. Once a soundmark has been identified, its nativity, soci- ality and history related to its native time–spatial identifiability , deserves to be pro- tected. 3. Results 3.1. Sound Level Mapping The Sound level mapping (in LAeq) is shown as Figure 2. Acoustics 2021, 3, 16 225 Figure 2. Sound level mapping (in LAeq) of Zhaoxing Village during the day (left) and night (right, the estimated value for riverside soundwalk at night). 3.2. Soundscape Features Analysis According to Figure 2 and the results of the experts’ listening sessions, the sound- scape analysis including keynotes, sound signals (signals for short) and soundmarks in detail is listed in Table 2. Table 2. Soundscape features analysis. No. Duration (Figure Native Location LAeq Illustration Analysis (mm:ss) 2) Main Street and its Sides Soundwalk Both sides of this small road are domi- Main Gate nated by shops, restaurants and guest- to house. People often wear traditional 1 04:31 60–65 Museum en- clothes. The sound is relatively quiet trance mainly with the natural sounds with a few of people at night. Acoustics 2021, 3, 16 226 Keynote: Wind, Chirps, Water flow, Crowd noise. Signals: The collision sound of Dong’s silverware. Soundmarks: None. This is a noisy road with many shops. Museum en- Since County Road 886 is a main road, trance the traffic is busy and noisy. 2 to 04:23 65 Keynotes: Crowd noise, Traffic noise. County Road 886 Signals: Car horn. and Alley 1 Soundmarks: None. This section of the road, with traffic, tourists and shops, is a main street of County Road 886 Zhaoxing Village. The overall sound en- and Alley 1 vironment is very noisy. 3 to 01:39 68 Keynotes: Crowd and traffic noise, mu- County Road 886 sic amplified. and Alley 4 Signals: Car horn. Soundmarks: None. This section to Zhituan Drum Tower is a small alley with lots of restaurants and hostels but fewer tourists on both sides County Road 886 of the river. The sound is dominated by and Alley 4 the natural and the local people’s daily 4 to 01:26 60 life sounds. Zhituan Drum Keynotes: Chirps, Water flow, Daily life. Tower Signals: None. Soundmarks: Dialects (Dong Lan- guage). The alleys opposite of Zhituan Drum Tower are mainly quiet resident areas with few tourists. Zhituan Drum 5 01:15 53–57 Keynotes: Natural sounds, Crowd noise, Tower Trod Daily life. Signals: None. Soundmarks: Dialects. This is a noisy road section with a lot of handcrafts or foods vendors. County Road 886 Keynotes: Tourists’ conversation, Traffic and Alley 5 6 01:33 65 noise. to Signals: Vendors’ broadcasting and Performing Area barking sounds. Soundmarks: Sounds of hawking. This is a quiet alley with less local peo- Zhituan Drum ple. Tower Keynotes: Natural sounds, Light dia- 7 06:23 58 to lects. Xicai Alley Signals: None. Soundmarks: None. Acoustics 2021, 3, 16 227 This is a noisy resident section with lots Fork Road of parking areas and a few guesthouses. 8 to 03:24 66 Keynotes: Daily life, Traffic noise North Gate Signals: None. Soundmarks: None. This noisy section with a few shops, res- taurants and many pedestrians is the Fork Road eastern end of the main street. To 9 05:22 62 Keynotes: Natural sounds, Light dialects Yituan Drum and traffic. Tower Signals: None. Soundmarks: None. This section is passing Yituan Huaqiao Bridge and a small market. Since the Yituan Drum Tower is close to the resi- dent areas and the Main Street, the Yituan Drum sound environment is relatively noisy. Tower There are so many bars located across of 10 01:08 72 To the main street and the river, and they Main Street are full of people at night. Keynotes: Natural sounds, Business noise. Signals: None. Soundmarks: None. Riverside Soundwalk This road is a trail along the river with the local house buildings on the left side, the river on the right side and a few shops on both sides. The sound environ- Main Gate ment is dominated by low-density natu- to ral and pedestrian sounds. The sound I Yituan Drum 11:58 55–75 level starts at 55 dBA lower, then grows Tower higher, and there is not a commercial at- (East side) mosphere obviously. Keynotes: River sounds. Signals: Beat piling. Soundmarks: None. With the river on the left side and a few inns on the right, this promenade is Yituan Drum sparsely populated with high-density Tower natural sounds as the main tone of an av- II 04:13 50–55 to erage sound pressure level of 55 dBA. Bridgehead Bar Keynotes: River sounds. Signals: None. Soundmarks: None. Acoustics 2021, 3, 16 228 This commercial route in the village with the natural and business sounds mostly around 70 dBA is mostly filled with tour- ists and shops. There are so many bars Bridgehead Bar located across the main street and the III to 03:43 60–70 river, and they are full of people at night. Dong Garden Keynotes: Natural sound; Business noise. Signals: None. Soundmarks: None. This promenade is separated by a small river-branch but with the same atmos- phere of business at a lower sound pres- Dong Garden sure level around 60 dBA. IV to 09:13 55–65 Keynotes: Natural sounds; Business Qifeng Pavilion noise. Signals: None. Soundmarks: None. There are mostly resident houses with Yituan Drum low-density natural sounds, crowd noise Tower and a few construction sounds in this V to 15:47 55–75 area. Main Gate Keynotes: Natural sounds, crowd noise. (West side) Signals: Construction sounds. Soundmarks: None. Main Nodes The village gate is the entrance to Zhaoxing Dong. Every morning and noon, the people of the Dong ethnic group welcome guests from afar with an original ecological performance. Gener- ally, the sound level is moderate, with the natural sound and the conversation A Main Gate 01:09 56 sound of tourists. Few people access the village by the main gate at night Keynotes: Winds, Water sounds, Tour- ists’ noise. Signals: Guide broadcasting. Soundmarks: Traditional music and dancing performance (at special times). There are many sound and Multimedia Installations in this Museum, including Lusheng (68 dBA), Kuanyeu (56 dBA), Dong Opera (64 dBA), Kam Grand Museum Choirs (Dong Grand Song, 51 dBA), a Sound and Multi- B–G 05:25 51–68 Wax Printing Craft performance (55 media Installa- dBA) and a Dong Custom exhibition (59 tions dBA). Keynotes: Quiet and silence with low tourists’ noise. Signals: None. Acoustics 2021, 3, 16 229 Soundmarks: Traditional music and sounds. This intersection is located at the junction of County Road 886 and Alley 1, where it is close to the vegetable market. There- fore, so many motors pass through and County Road 886 H 00:30 68 the sound pressure level is relatively Intersection higher. Keynotes: Traffic noise. Signals: None. Soundmarks: None. Dong Tea Time is a milk tea shop with some pop music at a high sound pres- sure level. I Dong Tea Time 00:44 69 Keynotes: Loud background music, Crowd noise, Traffic noise. Signals: None. Soundmarks: None. Xintuan Drum Tower is the first drum tower that can be seen after the Main Gate. It is close to County Road 886 in a noisy sound environment. Xintuan Drum Keynotes: Noise, Traffic noise, Music J 00:30 68 Tower amplified. Signals: Drum beat (at special times). Soundmarks: Traditional music and dancing performance (at special times), Dialects. Zhituan drum tower is located in alley- way 4, adjacent to the river, with few tourists coming and going. Most of the locals take a rest here, and the sound en- vironment is relatively quiet. Zhituan Drum K 00:37 59 Keynotes: Chirps, Daily life, Traffic Tower noise, Music amplified. Signals: Drum beat (at special times). Soundmarks: Traditional music and dancing performance (at special times), Dialects. The performance area at the back of the Zhituan Drum Tower is located in Alley 5. It is generally quiet in the daytime, but full of vivid traditional music and danc- Performance ing performing sounds at night. L 01:25 65 Area Keynotes: Quiet (daytime), Live sounds (night). Signals: None. Soundmarks: Traditional music and dancing performance (at night). Acoustics 2021, 3, 16 230 The Teaching House for the Dong Grand Song is located in a small shop next to the Lituan Drum Tower. A local teaches children to learn how to the sing dong Teaching House grand song. Lovely and musical songs M for the Dong 03:00 65 and some chatting in dialects can be Grand Song heard during the Dong Grand Song clas- ses for the children. Keynotes: Unknown. Signals: None. Soundmarks: Dong Grand Song. Quiet Lituan Drum Tower with few tour- ists is located in Alley 6. Keynotes: Natural sounds. Lituan Drum N 05:04 62 Signals: Drum beat (in special time). Tower Soundmarks: Traditional music and dancing performance (in special time), Dialects. There are so many natural or artificial sounds such as cascades in the river. When you pass through the bridge, you can feel the noisy but vivid sound of O Cascades 00:25 82 rushing water. Keynotes: Water. Signals: None. Soundmarks: None. The most quiet Rentuan Drum Tower with few tourists is the easternmost drum tower of the village and close to the river. Rentuan Drum P 03:36 62 Keynotes: Natural sound, Daily life. Tower Signals: Drum beat (in special time). Soundmarks: Traditional music and dancing performance (at special times), Dialects. In this village, many residents use a hose to divert water and a bucket to store it. The water is usually used for washing Q The Fork 00:29 65 vegetables. Keynotes: Natural sounds. Signals: None. Soundmarks: Washing sounds. The North Gate with few of pedestrians is located in the north-easternmost area of the village. It is mainly occupied by R North Gate 00:56 61 vehicles. Keynotes: Natural sounds, traffic noise. Signals: None. Soundmarks: None. Acoustics 2021, 3, 16 231 The area around the Yituan Drum Tower is mainly inhabited by local residents. During the daytime, there are many lo- cals resting and chatting. This tower is close to the river, and the vivid flowing Yituan Drum water sound is integrated into the envi- S 01:18 70 Tower ronment. Keynotes: Flowing water sound. Signals: Drum beat (in special time). Soundmarks: Traditional music and dancing performance (in special time), Dialects. In order to analyze the soundscape features of Keynote, Sound Signal, and Soundmark suggested by Schafer , with all the samples played in headphones, two listening sessions (one for the soundwalk recordings, one for the location recordings the next day) were carried out in a lab for 5 experts to extract the three features and give some comments on the tourist flow, tourist behavior, tourism routing, the form of business and the aspects of ethnomusicology (Table 2), according to following guidelines: 3.3. Curve-Fit Mapping The average evaluation score without the unit of each interval in the question for the independent variable LOL is shown in Table 3, and the linear or quadratic curve-fit map- pings are shown in Figure 3. Table 3. Subjective evaluation score. Question for the Independent Variable (Length of Listening, LOL) How Long Do you Listen to Music on Average Every Day? (in Minutes) Not Often 0–30 30–60 60–90 >90 Average Scores Q.1 0.00 0.58 0.90 0.82 0.88 Q.2 −0.25 0.08 0.25 0.12 −0.13 Q.3 0.50 0.68 0.85 0.59 0.44 Q.4 0.50 0.45 0.67 0.71 0.75 Q.5 0.75 0.63 0.64 0.47 0.75 Q.6 0.50 0.53 0.75 0.88 0.93 (a) Q.1 “Monotonous” to “Rich” (b) Q.2 “Clamorous” to “Quiet” (c) Q.3 “Stressing” to “Relaxing” Acoustics 2021, 3, 16 232 (d) Q.4 “Boring” to “Vivid” (e) Q.5 “Noisy” to “Musical” (f) Q.6 “Disliked” to “Preferable” Figure 3. Curve-fit mapping results of average scores (y-axis in the suitable scale for each question) distribution with the “Length of Listening (LOL)” (x-axis). 4. Discussions 4.1. Soundscape Features Analysis According to Figure 2 and Table 2, except the main gate and the cross of the main street and the river, there was a similar distribution of other streets and alleys during the day and night. As the experts’ comments on sample No.1, No.10, sample No.III and sam- ple No.A in Table 2, the sound level of the cross was higher at night due to so many bars full of people at night in this cross, while that of the main gate was lower, because few people access the village by the main gate at night. For sample No.3 of the main street, there were more people at night but a lot of traffic in the daytime, so there was a similar sound level both at the day and night. In general, the sound levels were changing from 55 dBA to 85 dBA both in the day and night, and it is much noisier in the middle of the village than both in the south and north ends. The keynotes were mainly the natural sounds, traffic and business noise, with the sound signals of car horns. It was learned about from the local people that the drum beats from the drum towers were the most important sound signal for the local daily life for the religious, social, traditional music and dance performing activities and fire alert, but they were rarely heard in recent years. In this famous village, the traditional music and dancing performance is the most important soundmark obviously; however, accord- ing to the experts’ comments, without a traditional cultural background as in the past, it is just like a newfangled performance for the tourists and an obligatory task for the local people. Therefore, both for the tourists and the local people, for the function of this kind of traditional music and dancing performance, they may have different interpretations and expectations. Additionally, in other words, the further research can be focused on a semantic analysis for the perception and understanding of keynotes, signals, soundmarks. 4.2. Relationships between Length of Listening and the Semantics Base on Table 2 and Figure 3, some possible relationships between Length of Listen- ing (LOL, the independent variable in Table 1) and the semantics (represented as the sub- jective evaluation scores in Table 3) could be shown in the curve-fit mappings with three types of the linear increasing, the optimal threshold and the worst threshold. 4.2.1. The Linear Increasing The linear increasing for the adjective pairs such as “Monotonous” to “Rich” (Q.1), “Boring” to “Vivid” (Q.4) and “Disliked” to “Preferable” (Q.6). The accumulation of Acoustics 2021, 3, 16 233 length of listening to music could lead to the improvement of “Rich”, “Vivid” and “Pref- erable” perception of the soundscape. It can be also found that people’s joviality, happi- ness and preference brought by the accumulation of intensity, and this increasing phe- nomenon is more in line with our daily feelings. 4.2.2. The Optimal Threshold The optimal threshold of 30–60 min for the adjective pairs such as “Clamorous” to “Quiet” (Q.2) and “Stressing” to “Relaxing” (Q.3). This is different from the result of linear increase in Type I, while Type II is a kind of interval for the optimal threshold. The highest points of curve-fit mapping for “Clamorous” to “Quiet” and “Stressing” to “Re- laxing” both appear at 30–60 min. The negative effect of lower or higher intensity for “Quiet” or “Relaxing” is nervousness or panic, while a moderate intensity will achieve a good effect more consistent with our cognition. 4.2.3. The Worst Threshold The worst threshold of 30–60 min for the adjective pair of “Noisy” to “Musical” (Q.5). In contrast of Type II, there is the worst threshold of 30–60 min for the “Noisy” to “Musical” perception. It is obviously that the musicality of soundscape is more compli- cated; that is, no more attention has been paid to the music content. 5. Conclusions According to results and discussions, for which kind of keynote, sound signal, soundmark to preserve or restore, the traditional music and dancing could be the most important soundmark with keynotes of natural sounds, local dialects and slight tourists or bossiness noise when the most important sound signal—drum beat is restored to work in its traditional ways. For the subjective semantic soundscape experience and its influence by the length of background music listening, the perceptions of “Rich”, “Vivid” and “Preferable” have a positive link with an accumulation of daily listening time, while the perceptions of “Quiet” and “Relaxing” perceptions need a suitable length of not too little or too much daily listening time. The “Muscial” perception for the soundscape is more complicated, with a worse score in a much more suitable daily listening time. Finally, the historical and ethnic Zhaoxing village was originally full of natural sounds, songs of insects or birds, traditional music, dancing and cultures. However, however, due to the influence of the modernization, the keynotes and soundmarks are not clear, with an increasing sound pressure level of kinds of noise. The excessively high volume of traffic, amplifiers, and performance leads to more noise than the traditional music itself, which also shows that the length of background music listening has a higher correlation to the subjective expe- rience, and no sufficient attention has been paid to the context of the traditional sound- scape preservation, ethnic music and the quiet and soft ambient sounds. Additionally, many more questions were revealed in this case study, such as the rea- son why the drum beat could not be heard in recent years, the relationship between the subjective experience and the contents of the keynote, sound signal, soundmark, the “Mu- sical” or “Artistic” perception, the necessity and the ways to restore the traditions of his- torical or ethnic soundscapes, are worthy of more research. Author Contributions: Conceptualization, Z.D. and A.L.; methodology, Z.D.; software, D.B. and K.D.; validation, K.D., A.L. and Z.D.; formal analysis, K.T.; investigation, D.B., K.D. and K.T.; re- sources, Z.D.; data curation, K.T.; writing—original draft preparation, K.D. and D.B.; writing—re- view and editing, Z.D. and A.L.; visualization, D.B., K.D. and K.T.; supervision, A.L.; project admin- istration, Z.D. and A.L.; funding acquisition, A.L. and K.D. All authors have read and agreed to the published version of the manuscript. Acoustics 2021, 3, 16 234 Funding: This research was funded by NSFC (Beijing, China), grant number 41871130 (2019, hosted by Liu Aili) and Capital Normal University (Beijing, China), grant number 90 (2019, hosted by Dong Kexin). Institutional Review Board Statement: Not applicable. Informed Consent Statement: Not applicable. Conflicts of Interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest. References 1. Schafer, R.M. Introduction. In The Soundscape: Our Sonic Environment and the Tuning of the World; Alfred Knopf: New York, NY, USA, 1997; pp. 3–12. 2. International Organization for Standardization. ISO 12913-1:2014 Acoustics—Soundscape—Part 1: Definition and Conceptual Framework; ISO: Geneva, Switzerland, 2014. 3. Qin, Y. The Domain of Soundscape. Build. Technol. 2005, 1, 45–46. 4. Deng, Z.; Liu, A. A Soundscape Methodology for the Ritual Music. Chin. Music 2019, 3, 54–60. 5. Liu, A. Soundscape and its application in research of tourism geography: A new perspective. Geogr. 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Acoustics – Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Published: Mar 24, 2021
Keywords: soundscape; sound level mapping; curve-fit; Dong nationality