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Science of botulinum toxin: structure, mechanisms of action and therapeutic uses

Science of botulinum toxin: structure, mechanisms of action and therapeutic uses Botulinum toxin is the exotoxin of Clostridium botulinum. The bacteria produce seven different serotypes, namely type A, B, C (C1, C2), D, E, F and G, with toxins A and B being available commercially. Both botulinum toxins A and B are 150 kD dichain polypeptides and, when activated, form a heavy chain (100 kD) and a light chain (50 kD). Activation occurs in three steps: binding and internalisation, bisulfide bond reduction and chain separation, and light chain enzymatic activity. The transport and eventual release of acetylcholine into the terminal nerve membrane is controlled by a group of proteins called the SNARE complex. All serotypes work to cleave the SNARE complex, but do so in various places. When the SNARE complex is not formed, the membranes do not fuse, acetylcholine is not released and contraction of the muscle is inhibited. Approval from the Food and Drug Administration has been granted for clinical use in a number of conditions, including blepharospasm and strabismus, dystonia, upper motor neuron syndrome, hyperhidrosis, chronic migraine, and, perhaps the most well-known, cosmetic use. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Journal of Aesthetic Nursing Mark Allen Group

Science of botulinum toxin: structure, mechanisms of action and therapeutic uses

Journal of Aesthetic Nursing , Volume 1 (2): 8 – Jul 1, 2012

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Publisher
Mark Allen Group
Copyright
Copyright © 2012 MA Healthcare Limited
ISSN
2050-3717
eISSN
2052-2878
DOI
10.12968/joan.2012.1.2.76
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Botulinum toxin is the exotoxin of Clostridium botulinum. The bacteria produce seven different serotypes, namely type A, B, C (C1, C2), D, E, F and G, with toxins A and B being available commercially. Both botulinum toxins A and B are 150 kD dichain polypeptides and, when activated, form a heavy chain (100 kD) and a light chain (50 kD). Activation occurs in three steps: binding and internalisation, bisulfide bond reduction and chain separation, and light chain enzymatic activity. The transport and eventual release of acetylcholine into the terminal nerve membrane is controlled by a group of proteins called the SNARE complex. All serotypes work to cleave the SNARE complex, but do so in various places. When the SNARE complex is not formed, the membranes do not fuse, acetylcholine is not released and contraction of the muscle is inhibited. Approval from the Food and Drug Administration has been granted for clinical use in a number of conditions, including blepharospasm and strabismus, dystonia, upper motor neuron syndrome, hyperhidrosis, chronic migraine, and, perhaps the most well-known, cosmetic use.

Journal

Journal of Aesthetic NursingMark Allen Group

Published: Jul 1, 2012

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