Get 20M+ Full-Text Papers For Less Than $1.50/day. Start a 14-Day Trial for You or Your Team.

Learn More →

Aesthetic applications for botulinum toxin type A: treating the upper and lower face

Aesthetic applications for botulinum toxin type A: treating the upper and lower face The background, mode of action and formulations of licensed botulinum toxin type A (BoNTA) are explored in this paper, as well as immunogenicity considerations. Some common aesthetic facial indications are discussed, along with contraindications and reported complications. A sound injection technique, accurate anatomical awareness, and the use of small gauge needles and/or precise injection devices can reduce the incidence of complications, and provide accurate product placement. Literature derived from meta-analyses demonstrates evidence documenting the clinical benefits of standard and high-dose levels of all active BoNTA vs placebo; however, the extent of evidence to guide selection between active formulations is limited. Equally, data are lacking with respect to the longevity of effects with different aesthetic treatment regimens. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Journal of Aesthetic Nursing Mark Allen Group

Aesthetic applications for botulinum toxin type A: treating the upper and lower face

Journal of Aesthetic Nursing , Volume 5 (7): 7 – Sep 2, 2016

Loading next page...
 
/lp/mark-allen-group/aesthetic-applications-for-botulinum-toxin-type-a-treating-the-upper-9VawsbXghr
Publisher
Mark Allen Group
Copyright
Copyright © 2016 MA Healthcare Limited
ISSN
2050-3717
eISSN
2052-2878
DOI
10.12968/joan.2016.5.7.330
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

The background, mode of action and formulations of licensed botulinum toxin type A (BoNTA) are explored in this paper, as well as immunogenicity considerations. Some common aesthetic facial indications are discussed, along with contraindications and reported complications. A sound injection technique, accurate anatomical awareness, and the use of small gauge needles and/or precise injection devices can reduce the incidence of complications, and provide accurate product placement. Literature derived from meta-analyses demonstrates evidence documenting the clinical benefits of standard and high-dose levels of all active BoNTA vs placebo; however, the extent of evidence to guide selection between active formulations is limited. Equally, data are lacking with respect to the longevity of effects with different aesthetic treatment regimens.

Journal

Journal of Aesthetic NursingMark Allen Group

Published: Sep 2, 2016

There are no references for this article.