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Do Omega-3 Dietary Fatty Acids Lower Prostate Cancer Risk? A Review of the Literature

Do Omega-3 Dietary Fatty Acids Lower Prostate Cancer Risk? A Review of the Literature Prostate cancer mortality rates vary widely around theworld. Studies on the effects of environment, nutritionand migration on prostate cancer rates suggest that dietplays a pivotal role in the development of the disease.Animal and in vitro studies on prostate cancer indicatethat omega (ω)-3 fatty acids, especially the long-chainpolyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), inhibit carcinogenesis.Conversely, there is salient evidence that (ω)-6 PUFA suchas linoleic acid (LA) and arachidonic acid (AA) increaseprostate cancer risk. The main sources of human dietarylong-chain (ω)-3 PUFA are fatty fish and fish oils. To date,however, epidemiological findings on fatty fish consumptionand prostate cancer risk have been inconclusive. Apossible mechanism for the anticarcinogenic effect of(ω)-3 PUFA is the suppression of AA-derived eicosanoidbiosynthesis, whereby (ω)-3 PUFA compete with (ω)-6PUFA for enzymes in parallel pathways of eicosanoid synthesis,thus decreasing the production of (ω)-6-derived,tumor-promoting eicosanoids in favour of anti-inflammatory,3-series eicosanoids. In the present review, wepresent current knowledge on the association betweenomega (ω)-3 PUFA and prostate cancer risk. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Current Urology Karger

Do Omega-3 Dietary Fatty Acids Lower Prostate Cancer Risk? A Review of the Literature

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Publisher
Karger
Copyright
© 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel
ISSN
1661-7649
eISSN
1661-7657
DOI
10.1159/000106521
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Prostate cancer mortality rates vary widely around theworld. Studies on the effects of environment, nutritionand migration on prostate cancer rates suggest that dietplays a pivotal role in the development of the disease.Animal and in vitro studies on prostate cancer indicatethat omega (ω)-3 fatty acids, especially the long-chainpolyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), inhibit carcinogenesis.Conversely, there is salient evidence that (ω)-6 PUFA suchas linoleic acid (LA) and arachidonic acid (AA) increaseprostate cancer risk. The main sources of human dietarylong-chain (ω)-3 PUFA are fatty fish and fish oils. To date,however, epidemiological findings on fatty fish consumptionand prostate cancer risk have been inconclusive. Apossible mechanism for the anticarcinogenic effect of(ω)-3 PUFA is the suppression of AA-derived eicosanoidbiosynthesis, whereby (ω)-3 PUFA compete with (ω)-6PUFA for enzymes in parallel pathways of eicosanoid synthesis,thus decreasing the production of (ω)-6-derived,tumor-promoting eicosanoids in favour of anti-inflammatory,3-series eicosanoids. In the present review, wepresent current knowledge on the association betweenomega (ω)-3 PUFA and prostate cancer risk.

Journal

Current UrologyKarger

Published: Jan 1, 2007

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