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Thyroid Cancer: Molecular and Modern Advances

Thyroid Cancer: Molecular and Modern Advances Hindawi Publishing Corporation Journal of Oncology Volume 2010, Article ID 317034, 2 pages doi:10.1155/2010/317034 Editorial 1 2 3 Jennifer E. Rosen, Steven K. Libutti, and Stephanie L. Lee Section of Surgical Oncology and Endocrine Surgery and Boston Medical Center, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA 02118, USA Department of Surgery, Montefiore Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine Yeshiva University, Bronx, NY 10466, USA Section of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Nutrition and Boston Medical Center, Department of Medicine, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA 02118, USA Correspondence should be addressed to Jennifer E. Rosen, jennifer.rosen@bmc.org Received 14 December 2010; Accepted 14 December 2010 Copyright © 2010 Jennifer E. Rosen et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignancy which can result in poor voice quality and the potential for and accounts for approximately 44,670 cases and 1,690 recurrent aspiration. Sanuki et al. discuss their findings of deaths in 2010 per the ACS. The purpose of this special issue immediate reconstruction of the recurrent laryngeal nerve is to provide an update on recent advances in the under- during thyroid cancer surgery in terms of voice outcomes standing of thyroid tumorigenesis and their implications using videostroboscopic, aerodynamic, and perceptual anal- in clinical practice and new surgical approaches to thyroid yses. While their numbers were small, it addresses an im- cancer and to the adoption of techniques used successfully portant question often raised in surgery as to whether imme- in other tumor types for use in patients with thyroid cancer. diate or delayed reconstruction should be performed. Invited papers addressed several of the above topics. Advances in genomics have offered exciting insights into Advances in surgery promise to allow expanded surgical the biology of thyroid cancer. While much attention has been treatment options and potentially make thyroid cancer focused on the traditional nucleic acids, the study of proteins surgery safer and better accepted by patients. Lang et al. pro- and their function has been relatively neglected, in part due vide a detailed overview of refinement in surgical techniques to the difficulty of the techniques required. The paper by including endoscopic thyroidectomy techniques, the addi- Miyoshi et al. provides a comprehensive overview of the tion of the da Vinci robot, and the use of operative adjuncts vital role of glycosylation and functional glycomics in thyroid in thyroid surgery such as intraoperative neuromonitoring cancer. and quick intraoperative parathyroid hormone. They also As clinicians well know, an accurate cytological diagnosis outline the clinical studies needed to better analyze the is key to the treatment approach for patients with thyroid use of this new technology and its relative benefits and nodules; this diagnosis is based on distinctive cytologi- risks. Lombardi et al. present their review of a large series cal features in combination with immunocytochemistry. of patients with papillary thyroid cancer who underwent Pazaitou-Panayiotou and colleagues present here their study video-assisted thyroidectomy (VAT) for completeness of the of 83 thyroid cancer fine needle aspirations using Thin surgical resection and short-to-medium term recurrence. Layer Cytology. They present data on a panel of immuno- Their results, while retrospective, seem to indicate that markers (including Cytokeratin-19, Galectin-3, HBME1, VAT is feasible and safe and may be a valid alternative to CD-44, CD-56, and E-Cadherin) and describe this promising conventional surgery for small PTC. No surgical approach new technique to improve diagnostic accuracy. is without its concomitant risks—in thyroid surgery, this Early detection is a key component of familial thyroid includes injury to one or both recurrent laryngeal nerves cancer; Bonora et al. provide us with an excellent review of 2 Journal of Oncology the familial syndromes, genetic abnormalities, and risk fac- tors proposed to increase the likelihood of this type of neoplasia. Giovanella et al. present a very interesting case example of a rare functioning trabecular tumor of the thyroid gland which serves as a reminder to us that we must not overlook the potential for malignancy in the high-uptake pertechnetate positive nodule. While the most extensively studied pathway for targeted therapy in thyroid cancer is RAS/RAF/MEK, clinical trials targeting therapies in this pathway are relatively new. The review by Poon and Tai provides us with a comprehensive update of known genomic changes in thyroid cancer and how this information is being used in clinical trials to improve targeted therapy. Treatment of certain subtypes of thyroid cancer has been limited in part due to a dearth in therapeutic strate- gies. In a seminal paper, Dr. Steven Rosenberg proposed the concept that the body’s immune system could be manipulated for cancer therapy. (Rosenberg SA (Jan 1984). “Adoptive immunotherapy of cancer: accomplishments and prospects”. Cancer Treat Rep 68 (12): 233–55). Since then, a wide variety of immunotherapeutic approaches have been tested in clinical trials, in particular using either cell-based therapy or immunomodulators. These have led to fairly modest improvements in patient outcomes and a number of therapeutic challenges. This initial work has set the basis for a vigorous research effort to better understand the complex relationship and numerous intersecting pathways which regulate the body’s response not only to cancer but to therapy for cancer as well. In their excellent review of dendritic cell-based immunotherapy for the subset of advanced, metastatic, or undifferentiated and anaplastic thyroid carcinoma, Papewalis et al. provide us with a focus on understanding the advances of antitumor immune response in thyroid carcinoma and well summarizes the rationale for adoptive dendritic cell transfer including the technical approach to this interesting new modality of treatment. We hope that this special issue will educate, stimulate, and inspire support for participation in clinical trials and new research in the field of thyroid cancer. The development of new surgical approaches, effective targeted therapies, and better preventive interventions will assist in improving treatment and outcome in patients with thyroid cancer. Jennifer E. Rosen Steven K. Libutti Stephanie L. Lee MEDIATORS of INFLAMMATION The Scientific Gastroenterology Journal of World Journal Research and Practice Diabetes Research Disease Markers Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 International Journal of Journal of Immunology Research Endocrinology Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 Submit your manuscripts at http://www.hindawi.com BioMed PPAR Research Research International Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 Journal of Obesity Evidence-Based Journal of Journal of Stem Cells Complementary and Ophthalmology International Alternative Medicine Oncology Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 Parkinson’s Disease Computational and Behavioural Mathematical Methods AIDS Oxidative Medicine and in Medicine Research and Treatment Cellular Longevity Neurology Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Journal of Oncology Hindawi Publishing Corporation

Thyroid Cancer: Molecular and Modern Advances

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Publisher
Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Copyright
Copyright © 2010 Jennifer E. Rosen et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
ISSN
1687-8450
eISSN
1687-8469
DOI
10.1155/2010/317034
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Abstract

Hindawi Publishing Corporation Journal of Oncology Volume 2010, Article ID 317034, 2 pages doi:10.1155/2010/317034 Editorial 1 2 3 Jennifer E. Rosen, Steven K. Libutti, and Stephanie L. Lee Section of Surgical Oncology and Endocrine Surgery and Boston Medical Center, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA 02118, USA Department of Surgery, Montefiore Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine Yeshiva University, Bronx, NY 10466, USA Section of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Nutrition and Boston Medical Center, Department of Medicine, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA 02118, USA Correspondence should be addressed to Jennifer E. Rosen, jennifer.rosen@bmc.org Received 14 December 2010; Accepted 14 December 2010 Copyright © 2010 Jennifer E. Rosen et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignancy which can result in poor voice quality and the potential for and accounts for approximately 44,670 cases and 1,690 recurrent aspiration. Sanuki et al. discuss their findings of deaths in 2010 per the ACS. The purpose of this special issue immediate reconstruction of the recurrent laryngeal nerve is to provide an update on recent advances in the under- during thyroid cancer surgery in terms of voice outcomes standing of thyroid tumorigenesis and their implications using videostroboscopic, aerodynamic, and perceptual anal- in clinical practice and new surgical approaches to thyroid yses. While their numbers were small, it addresses an im- cancer and to the adoption of techniques used successfully portant question often raised in surgery as to whether imme- in other tumor types for use in patients with thyroid cancer. diate or delayed reconstruction should be performed. Invited papers addressed several of the above topics. Advances in genomics have offered exciting insights into Advances in surgery promise to allow expanded surgical the biology of thyroid cancer. While much attention has been treatment options and potentially make thyroid cancer focused on the traditional nucleic acids, the study of proteins surgery safer and better accepted by patients. Lang et al. pro- and their function has been relatively neglected, in part due vide a detailed overview of refinement in surgical techniques to the difficulty of the techniques required. The paper by including endoscopic thyroidectomy techniques, the addi- Miyoshi et al. provides a comprehensive overview of the tion of the da Vinci robot, and the use of operative adjuncts vital role of glycosylation and functional glycomics in thyroid in thyroid surgery such as intraoperative neuromonitoring cancer. and quick intraoperative parathyroid hormone. They also As clinicians well know, an accurate cytological diagnosis outline the clinical studies needed to better analyze the is key to the treatment approach for patients with thyroid use of this new technology and its relative benefits and nodules; this diagnosis is based on distinctive cytologi- risks. Lombardi et al. present their review of a large series cal features in combination with immunocytochemistry. of patients with papillary thyroid cancer who underwent Pazaitou-Panayiotou and colleagues present here their study video-assisted thyroidectomy (VAT) for completeness of the of 83 thyroid cancer fine needle aspirations using Thin surgical resection and short-to-medium term recurrence. Layer Cytology. They present data on a panel of immuno- Their results, while retrospective, seem to indicate that markers (including Cytokeratin-19, Galectin-3, HBME1, VAT is feasible and safe and may be a valid alternative to CD-44, CD-56, and E-Cadherin) and describe this promising conventional surgery for small PTC. No surgical approach new technique to improve diagnostic accuracy. is without its concomitant risks—in thyroid surgery, this Early detection is a key component of familial thyroid includes injury to one or both recurrent laryngeal nerves cancer; Bonora et al. provide us with an excellent review of 2 Journal of Oncology the familial syndromes, genetic abnormalities, and risk fac- tors proposed to increase the likelihood of this type of neoplasia. Giovanella et al. present a very interesting case example of a rare functioning trabecular tumor of the thyroid gland which serves as a reminder to us that we must not overlook the potential for malignancy in the high-uptake pertechnetate positive nodule. While the most extensively studied pathway for targeted therapy in thyroid cancer is RAS/RAF/MEK, clinical trials targeting therapies in this pathway are relatively new. The review by Poon and Tai provides us with a comprehensive update of known genomic changes in thyroid cancer and how this information is being used in clinical trials to improve targeted therapy. Treatment of certain subtypes of thyroid cancer has been limited in part due to a dearth in therapeutic strate- gies. In a seminal paper, Dr. Steven Rosenberg proposed the concept that the body’s immune system could be manipulated for cancer therapy. (Rosenberg SA (Jan 1984). “Adoptive immunotherapy of cancer: accomplishments and prospects”. Cancer Treat Rep 68 (12): 233–55). Since then, a wide variety of immunotherapeutic approaches have been tested in clinical trials, in particular using either cell-based therapy or immunomodulators. These have led to fairly modest improvements in patient outcomes and a number of therapeutic challenges. This initial work has set the basis for a vigorous research effort to better understand the complex relationship and numerous intersecting pathways which regulate the body’s response not only to cancer but to therapy for cancer as well. In their excellent review of dendritic cell-based immunotherapy for the subset of advanced, metastatic, or undifferentiated and anaplastic thyroid carcinoma, Papewalis et al. provide us with a focus on understanding the advances of antitumor immune response in thyroid carcinoma and well summarizes the rationale for adoptive dendritic cell transfer including the technical approach to this interesting new modality of treatment. We hope that this special issue will educate, stimulate, and inspire support for participation in clinical trials and new research in the field of thyroid cancer. The development of new surgical approaches, effective targeted therapies, and better preventive interventions will assist in improving treatment and outcome in patients with thyroid cancer. Jennifer E. Rosen Steven K. Libutti Stephanie L. Lee MEDIATORS of INFLAMMATION The Scientific Gastroenterology Journal of World Journal Research and Practice Diabetes Research Disease Markers Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 International Journal of Journal of Immunology Research Endocrinology Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 Submit your manuscripts at http://www.hindawi.com BioMed PPAR Research Research International Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 Journal of Obesity Evidence-Based Journal of Journal of Stem Cells Complementary and Ophthalmology International Alternative Medicine Oncology Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 Parkinson’s Disease Computational and Behavioural Mathematical Methods AIDS Oxidative Medicine and in Medicine Research and Treatment Cellular Longevity Neurology Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014

Journal

Journal of OncologyHindawi Publishing Corporation

Published: Feb 7, 2011

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