Get 20M+ Full-Text Papers For Less Than $1.50/day. Start a 14-Day Trial for You or Your Team.

Learn More →

Species Composition, Relative Abundance, and Habitat Association of Avifauna in Zegie Peninsula Forest Patches and Associated Wetlands, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia

Species Composition, Relative Abundance, and Habitat Association of Avifauna in Zegie Peninsula... Hindawi International Journal of Zoology Volume 2021, Article ID 9928284, 12 pages https://doi.org/10.1155/2021/9928284 Research Article Species Composition, Relative Abundance, and Habitat Association of Avifauna in Zegie Peninsula Forest Patches and Associated Wetlands, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia 1 2 1 Misganaw Mola , Dessalegn Ejigu, and Yibelu Yitayih Mizan Tepi University, College of Natural and Computational Science, Department of Biology, P.O. Box 121, Tepi, Ethiopia Bahir Dar University, Science College Department of Biology, P.O. Box 79, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia Correspondence should be addressed to Misganaw Mola; misganawmola@gmail.com Received 20 March 2021; Revised 5 May 2021; Accepted 30 June 2021; Published 10 July 2021 Academic Editor: Irene Pellegrino Copyright © 2021 Misganaw Mola et al. 'is is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Introduction. Ethiopia is one of the most avifauna rich countries in Africa. Avifaunal surveys are required to inform conservation decisions and enhance land management for biodiversity. Avifaunal surveys from Ethiopia are lacking. 'is study examines species composition, relative abundance, and habitat association of avian fauna in Zegie Peninsula forest patches and associated wetlands from surveys carried out from August 2018 to March 2019, covering both the wet and dry seasons. Data Collection. Forest, shrub, lakeshore, and wetland habitats were identified as ecologically relevant habitats in the study area for data collection. Data were collected using point count and line transect methods, for 24 days in total for both seasons in the morning and afternoon. Results. A total of 96 species of birds were identified during the whole study period. Out of the total, 40 species were observed during the wet season, 13 during dry and 43 species in both seasons. 'ere was significant variation of species dis- tribution among habitats. During the wet season, the highest species diversity was recorded in the wetland habitat followed by forest habitat. During the dry season, avian diversity was the highest in the lakeshore followed by wetlands. 'e highest evenness was observed in the shrubland during both the wet and dry seasons. During the wet season, the highest species similarity was recorded between wetland and lakeshore habitats, and during the dry season, the highest species similarity was recorded between forest and shrub habitats. Based on encounter rate data, 64 (66.66%) of the avian species were uncommon. Conclusions. Compared to previous studies conducted in the study area, species diversity was lower. 'is might be due to various anthropogenic activities such as deforestation of trees for timber and cutting trees for firewood. 'erefore, awareness creation should be given to the local community to reduce habitat destruction due to various human-induced factors. over 320 species of mammals, over 860 species of birds, 200 1. Introduction species of reptiles, 63 species of amphibians, and 145 species Ethiopia has diverse sets of ecosystems ranging from humid of fish are known [5]. In terms of the avian fauna, Ethiopia is forests and extensive wetlands to deserts, supporting a wide one of the most diverse countries in Africa [6]. Forests, variety of life forms [1, 2]. Its topography varies from vast wetlands, and riverine systems are sites for wintering or plains to high mountains having an altitudinal range of passaging migrant birds in Ethiopia [1, 7]. To promote the 110 m below sea level (Kobar sink) in the Afar depression to conservation of these birds and their habitats, 73 Important the highest peak at Ras Dejen with an altitude of 4620 m a.s.l. Bird Areas (IBAs) have been identified in Ethiopia, 30 of [3]. Wide altitudinal variation and the extensive areas under these sites (41% of total IBAs) comprise wetlands, while the Afro-alpine habitat, compared to the rest of Africa, have rest are representatives of other ecosystems [8]. Lake Tana contributed to the diversity of flora and fauna of Ethiopia and the surrounding area (including Zegie Peninsula) [4]. 'e country is rich in its faunal diversity, and as a result, qualify as an IBA because they possess globally threatened 2 International Journal of Zoology species such as Wattled Crane (Bugeranus carunculatus), used to record the locations and to identify the altitudinal Lesser Flamingo (Phoeniconaias minor), Rouget’s Rail ranges of the study habitats. (Rougetius rougetti), Pallid Harrier (Circus macrourus), and Greater Spotted Eagle (Aquila clanga) [9]. Over 300 species 2.3. Sampling Design. Based on the preliminary survey, the of bird have been observed and recorded in the Lake Tana habitats of the study area were identified and categorized Basin, which has been defined as an international bird site by into four different habitats depending on the vegetation BirdLife International (BLI) [10]. composition. 'ese are forest, shrubland, lakeshore, and Birds are not restricted to wetlands. 'ey also occupy wetland habitats. 'e forest is a large area dominated by other habitats like forests, forest edges, grasslands, shrubs, trees and representative of typical dense vegetation. Locally, and lakeshores [11]. Forests are important habitats for this site is designated as a conservation area. 'is site has a migrating birds in the major flyways [12]. As primary closed, dense canopy. 'e shrubland is located at the consumers, birds get nutrients from nectar, fruits, seeds, and boundaries of Ararat Mountain and covered by small to vegetative tissues such as roots, shoots, and leaves [13]. 'e medium-sized woody plants and dwarf trees. 'is habitat is distribution and abundance of many bird species are de- clearly different from dense forests by its vegetation type and termined by the composition of the vegetation that forms a size. 'is area is dominated by Vernonia schimperi, Capparis major element of their habitats [9]. African forests are home tomentosa, Acacia oerfota, and Carissa edulis. 'e lakeshore to a particularly wide variety of species [14]. 'ese especially represents a transitional area between undisturbed (dense) include birds that are associated with vegetation, and the forest and Lake Tana. 'e vegetation of this habitat pre- existence of trees is vital to their life cycle [15]. dominantly comprises species of Typha and papyrus [9]. 'e Ecological studies on birds are important to determine wetlands are lowland plains and are regularly inundated with the biodiversity in the area and to understand the habitat water. 'e area is located toward the western side of Zegie requirements of the species and population dynamics [16]. Peninsula at the border of Wonjita Kebele. 'is area is the In Ethiopia, a limited amount of research has been carried transition between a land-based and water-based ecosystem. out on avian diversity, distribution, and abundance in Sampling units representing each habitat type were selected different ecosystems, particularly in National Parks and based on a stratified random sampling method. 'e tech- protected areas [17]. 'e present study focusses on avian nique involved dividing the study area into blocks by species composition, relative abundance, and habitat choosing the location of each habitat with random numbers association in Zegie Peninsula forest patches and asso- [19]. Random blocks were selected for forest, shrubland, ciated wetlands. lakeshore, and wetland habitats [20]. We applied a grid to each habitat consisting of 0.5 ×1 km cells. 'en, we ran- 2. Methods domly selected blocks from the grid resulting in 5 blocks in the forest, shrubland, and wetland and 4 blocks in the 2.1. Description of the Study Area. Zegie is the largest pen- lakeshore (Table 1). insula along Lake Tana and is mostly covered with dense In each block, there were point counting stations. 'e forest. 'e lake and its adjacent area are registered as point count stations in a sample block were 150–200 m apart UNESCO’s Biosphere Reserve site for its rich biodiversity. It to avoid under- or overestimation during the counting extends beyond the southwestern shore of the lake. It is process. 'e point count method was used to count birds in ° ° located at coordinates of 11 40’ to 11 43’ N latitude and forest, shrub, and lakeshore habitats [21]. In wetland hab- ° ° 37 19’ to 37 21’ E longitude, 600 km northwest of Addis itats, we carried out line transects instead of point counts Ababa, at an altitude ranging from 1770 m a.s.l. along the because the habitat is uniform and has less vegetation banks of the lake to 1975 m a.s.l. at its summit called Ararat. coverage. 'erefore, birds are easily visible. In this habitat, a Zegie is part of Bahir Dar city administration and is 32 km total of 20 transects were laid down. 'ese transects were from Bahir Dar city in a northwest direction. It can be separated from each other by 150–200 m depending on the accessed from and to Bahir Dar by both land and water. vegetation cover and accessibility of the area. Census of birds Zegie Peninsula includes a town called Zegie (Afaf) and two was carried out on foot within a radius of 25 m at both sides rural Kebeles, Ura and Yiganda, with an area of 1347 ha [18]. of the transect line following the methods of Aynalem and 'e total size of the study area is 1827 hectares, and an Bekele [8]. 'e sequence in which the transects and stations additional 480 ha of land from Wonjita Kebele is included in were visited was systematically alternating between sampling the wetland habitats. 'e size of habitats in the study area is periods to partially compensate for the effects of hourly 500, 460, 387, and 480 hectares for forest, shrub, lakeshore, variation in bird activity [22]. Every effort was taken to avoid and wetlands, respectively (Figure 1). mistakes during the census period. 2.2. Preliminary Survey. 'e preliminary survey was carried 2.4. Data Collection. Based on the information gathered out in August 2018 to collect information about vegetation during the preliminary survey, fieldwork was carried out types, human settlement, land use, and the topography of the from August to October 2018 to collect the wet season data. study area. Additional information about the area was Dry season data collection was carried out from January to March 2019. Data were collected over six months, i.e., three gathered from the local people such as previous forest coverage. Global Positioning System (GPS) readings were months during the wet season and three months during the International Journal of Zoology 3 37°18′30″E 37°19′30″E 37°20′30″E 37°21′30″E Ethiopia Wetland Shrub Forest Amhra Lakeshore 0 0.5 1 2 3 km 37°18′30″E 37°19′30″E 37°20′30″E 37°21′30″E Wetland Shrub Lakeshore Forest Figure 1: Location map of the study area. Table 1: stations for the point count and transect count methods. Sample blocks Habitat type Total area (km ) Total blocks (0.5 ×1 km) Number of point stations Number of line transects (0.5 ×1 km) Forest 5 (500 ha) 10 5 13 — Shrubland 4.6 (460 ha) 9 5 12 — Lakeshore 3.87 (387 ha) 8 4 10 — Wetland 4.8 (480 ha) 10 5 — 20 Total 18.27 (1827 ha) 37 19 35 20 dry season, for a total of 24 days, i.e., four days per month in Avian identification was based on different morphological both seasons. Data were collected from 6:30 a.m. to 10:00 features such as plumage pattern, color, body size, and shape a.m. and from 3:00 p.m. to 6:00 p.m. when the weather [26]. We additionally used a field guide to the birds of East conditions were convenient and birds become active [23]. Africa [27]. Observations were assisted by binoculars, and photographs were also taken for further confirmation of the To minimize disturbance during the census, a waiting period of 3–5 minutes prior to counting individuals of avian species. species was maintained [24]. During data collection, the observer and assistants stood at a particular point for a fixed time (10 minutes), and all birds that could be seen within a 2.5. Data Analysis. Data analysis methods for this study were performed using the Shannon-Wiener diversity index fixed radius of 25 m were recorded. Species observed during the survey were identified and (H′), Simpson’s Index of Diversity (D), and quantitative and qualitatively by using ANOVA and chi-square. taxonomically classified following Sinclari and Ryan [25]. 11°39′30″N 11°40′30″N 11°41′30″N 11°42′30″N 11°43′30’’N 11°44′30″N 11°39′30″N 11°40′30″N 11°41′30″N 11°42′30″N 11°43′30″N 11°44′30″N 4 International Journal of Zoology 'e species diversity was calculated using the formula 'e Chi-square test was used to compare seasonal provided by Shannon and Weaver [28] as variations in diversity and evenness of birds at the 95% level of significance. ANOVA was used to analyze the effect of season and habitat. SPSS (version 20.0) statistical program ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ ⎞ H � − 􏽘 PiLnPi , (1) was used to run the analysis. where H’ is the Shannon-Wiener index, Pi is the proportion 3. Results of the ith species, and Ln is the Natural Logarithm. Equitability or evenness index was calculated by using the 3.1. Species Composition. In the present study, a total of 96 ratio of observed diversity to the maximum diversity using avian species belonging to 38 families were identified from all study sites during both the wet and dry seasons. Of these, (2) E � , the majority (9 species) of the species are in the family H max Alcedinidae (Kingfishers), which was followed by Anatidae where E is the evenness index, H’ is the Shannon-Wiener and Columbidae (7 species for each). Two of the total species diversity index, and Hmax is the natural log of the total identified were endemic to Ethiopia (blue-winged goose number of species. (Cyanochen cyanoptera) and yellow-fronted parrot (Poice- Simpson’s Index of Diversity (D) was used to evaluate phalus flavifrons)). Among the total 96 species, 40 species the relative abundance of avian species in each habitat type. were recorded only during the wet season, while 13 species It is a measure of diversity that takes into account both were recorded only during the dry season and 43 species richness and evenness. 'e index gives the probability of any were recorded during both seasons (Table 2). two individuals drawn from a noticeably large community belonging to different species. 3.2. Species Diversity. Variations in species diversity among 􏽐 n(n − 1) D � 1 − , (3) the different habitats during the wet and dry seasons were 􏼠 􏼡 N(N − 1) recorded. 'us, species diversity was higher during the wet season in all habitats compared to the dry season where n is the total number of individuals of a particular (Tables 3–5). species, and N is the total number of individuals of all During the wet season, the highest diversity of avian species. species was recorded in the wetland habitat (H’ � 3.3), fol- 'e relative abundance of each species was estimated lowed by forest habitat (H’ � 2.9), and then shrub habitat from encounter rates. 'is value is used to give each species (H’ � 2.7), and the lowest diversity was recorded in the an ordinal rank of abundance using the ranking scale of lakeshore (H’ � 2.6) (Table 3). Bibby et al. [29]. Encounter rate was calculated for each During the dry season, the lakeshore habitat (H’ � 2.58) species by dividing the number of birds recorded by the supported the highest diversity of avian species, which was number of hours spent searching, to get the number of followed by wetland habitat (H’ � 2.51). 'e lowest diversity individuals per hour for each species. of birds was recorded in the shrubland habitat (H’ � 2.16) number of individual of a species (Table 4). Encounter rate � × 100. number of observation hours 'e highest evenness (E � 0.87 and E � 0.84) was (4) recorded in the shrub habitat during the wet and dry sea- sons, respectively, and evenness was the lowest in the shrub Following Bibby et al. [21], encounter rate values were habitat (E � 0.68) when considering both seasons together used to categorize each species into the following five (Table 5). abundance categories: <0.1, 0.1–2.0, 2.1–10.0, 10.1–40.0, and >40. For each category, the following abundance score was given: 1 (Rare), 2 (Uncommon), 3 (Frequent), 4 (Common), 3.3. Species Richness. Variation in the number of species was and 5 (Abundant), respectively. observed among the four different habitats and between Simpson’s similarity index (SI) (Simpson, 1949) was seasons in the same habitat. 'e species composition of birds used to evaluate the similarity of species between four between the wet and dry seasons showed significant dif- different habitats in both seasons by using the following ferences (χ �17.2, df � 2, p< 0.05). formula: During the wet season, the highest species richness was recorded in the wetland (44) and the lowest in lakeshore 4C SI � + LS + S + W, (5) (22). During the dry season, the highest species richness was in lakeshore (22) and the lowest in the shrub (13) (Figure 2). where SI is Simpson’s similarity index, F is the number of species that occur in forest habitat, LS is the number of species that occur in lakeshore habitat, S is the number of 3.4. Species Similarity. Bird species similarity between dif- species that occur in shrubland habitat, W is the number of ferent habitats showed variations between seasons species that occur in wetland habitat, and C is the number of (Tables 6–8). During the wet season, more species similarity common species that occur in all habitat types. was recorded between lakeshore and wetland habitats International Journal of Zoology 5 Table 2: Bird species recorded in the study area during wet, dry, and both season surveys, representing the most common species. Seasons SN Bird species Family Wet Dry Both 1. Abdim’s stork (Ciconia abdimii) Ciconiidae Yes — — 2. AbyssinianSlaty-flycatcher (Melaenornis chocolatina) Muscicapidae Yes — — 3. Abyssinian thrush (Turdus abyssinicus) Turdidae — — Yes 4. Abyssinian woodpecker (Dendropicos abyssinicus) Picidae — — Yes 5. African sacred ibis (8reskiornis aethiopicus) 'reskiornithidae — — Yes 6. African black duck (Anas sparsa) Anatidae — — Yes 7. African collared-dove (Streptopelia roseogrisea) Columbidae Yes — — 8. African comb duck (Sarkidiornis melanotos) Anatidae Yes — — 9. African darter (Anhinga rufa) Anhingidae — — Yes 10. African fish-eagle (Haliaeetus vocifer) Accipitridae — — Yes 11. African jacana (Actophilornis africana) Jacanidae — — Yes 12. African paradise-flycatcher (Terpsiphone viridis) Monarchidae — Yes — 13. African pied wagtail (Motacilla aguimp) Motacillidae Yes — — 14. African pygmy-goose (Nettapus auritus) Anatidae — — Yes 15. African pygmy kingfisher (Ispidina picta) Alcedinidae Yes — — 16. African woolly-neck (Ciconia microscelis) Ciconiidae Yes — — 17. Bare-faced go-away-bird (Corythaixoides personata) Musophagidae Yes — — 18. Barred warbler (Sylvia nisoria) Sylviidae — — Yes 19. Bearded woodpecker (Dendropicos namaquus) Picidae — Yes — 20. Bimaculated lark (Melanocorypha bimaculata) Alaudidae Yes — — 21. Black-billed barbet (Lybius guifsobalito) Lybiidae — — Yes 22 Black-crowned crane (Balearica pavonina) Gruidae Yes — — 23. Black-headed weaver (Ploceus melanocephalus) Ploceidae Yes — — 24. Black-billed wood-dove (Turtur abyssinicus) Columbidae Yes — — 25. Black-headed lapwing (Vanellus tectus) Charadriidae Yes — — 26. Black-winged lovebird (Agapornis taranta)-EE Psittacidae — — Yes 27. Blue-breasted bee-eater (Merops variegates) Meropidae Yes — — 28. Blue-breasted kingfisher(Halcyon malimbica) Alcedinidae — — Yes 29. Blue-headed coucal (Centropus monachus) Alcedinidae — — Yes 30. Blue-spotted wood –dove (Turtur afer) Columbidae Yes — — 31. Blue-winged goose (Cynochen cyanoptera)-E Anatidae — — Yes 32. Bronze sunbird (Nectarinia kilimensis) Nectariniidae — Yes — 33. Bruce’s green-pigeon (Treron waalia) Columbidae — Yes — 34. Cattle egret (Bubulcus ibis) Ardeidae — — Yes 35. Chestnut-backed sparrow-lark (Eremopterix leucotis) Alaudidae — — Yes 36. Citrine wagtail (Motacilla citreola) Motacillidae Yes — 37. Collared sunbird (Anthreptes collaris) Nectariniidae — — Yes 38. Common bulbul (Pycnonotus barbatus) Pycnonotidae — Yes 39. Common fiscal (Lanius collaris) Laniidae Yes — — 40. Common sandpiper (Actitis hypoleucos) Scolopacidae — — Yes 41. Common stonechat (Saxicola torquata) Muscicapidae — Yes — 42. Coppery tailed coucal (Centropus cupreicaudus) Cuculidae Yes — — 43. Dark chanting goshawk (Melierax metabates) Accipitridae Yes — — 44. Double-toothed barbet (Lybius bidentatus) Lybiidae Yes — — 45. Dusky crested flycatcher (Elminia albiventris) Stenostiridae Yes — — 46. Eastern plantain-eater (Crinifer zonurus) Musophagidae — Yes — 47. Egyptian goose (Alopochen aegyptiacus) Anatidae Yes — — 48. Ethiopian bee-eater (Merops lafresnayii) Meropidae — Yes — 49. Giant kingfisher (Megaceryle maximus) Alcedinidae — — Yes 50. Glossy ibis (Plegadis falcinellus) 'reskiornithidae — — Yes 51. Goliath heron (Ardea goliath) Ardeidae Yes — — 52. Gray-crowned crane (Balearica regulorum) Gruidae Yes — — 53. Great reed-warbler (Acrocephalus arundinaceus) Acrocephalidae — — Yes 54. Great-white egret (Egretta alba) Ardeidae — — Yes 55. Green sandpiper (Tringa ochropus) Scolopacidae Yes — — 56. Gray-headed wood pecker (Dendropicos spodocephalus) Picidae Yes — — 57. Grey-backed fiscal (Lanius excubitoroides) Laniidae — Yes — 58. Grey-headed kingfisher (Halcyon leucocephala) Alcedinidae — Yes — 59. Hadada ibis (Bostrychia hagedash) 'reskiornithidae — — Yes 6 International Journal of Zoology Table 2: Continued. Seasons SN Bird species Family Wet Dry Both 60. Hammer kop (Scopus umbretta) Scopidae Yes — — 61. Hooded vulture (Necrosyrtes monachus) Accipitridae — — Yes 62. Isabelline wheatear (Oenanthe isabellina) Turdidae — Yes — 63. Isabelline shrike (lanius isabellinus) Laniidae — Yes — 64. Jameson’s fire finch (Lagonosticta rhodopareia) Estrildidae Yes — — 65. Lesser-swamp-warbler (Acrocephalus gracilirostris) Acrocephalidae — — Yes 66. Little bee-eater (Merops pusillus) Meropidae — — Yes 67. Little spotted woodpecker (campethera cailliautii) Picidae — — Yes 68. Little weaver (Ploceus luteolus) Ploceidae Yes — — 69. Long-crested eagle (Lophaetus occipitalis) Accipitridae — — Yes 70. Malachite kingfisher (Alcedo cristata) Alcedinidae — — Yes 71. Marsh sandpiper (Tringa stagnatilis) Scolopacidae — — Yes 72. Marsh warbler (Acrocephalus palustris) Acrocephalidae Yes — — 73. Namaqua dove (Oena capensis) Columbidae — Yes — 74. Pied kingfisher (Ceryle rudis) Alcedinidae Yes — — 75. Red -billed fire finch (Lagonosticta senegala) Estrildidae Yes — — 76. Red-chested cuckoo (Cuculus solitarius) Alcedinidae Yes — — 77. Red-eyed dove (Streptopelia semitorquata) Columbidae — — Yes 78. Ruppell’s robin-chat (Cossypha semirufa) Muscicapidae — — Yes 79. Ruppell’s weaver (Ploceus galbula) Ploceidae Yes — — 80. Sacred ibis (8reskiornis aethiopicus) 'reskiornithidae — — Yes 81. Silvery-cheeked hornbill (Ceratogymna brevis) Bucerotidae — — Yes 82. Speckled mousebird (Colius striatus) Coliidae Yes — — 83. 83. Speckled pigeon (Columba guinea) Columbidae — — Yes 84. Spectacled weaver (Ploceus ocularis) Ploceidae — — Yes 85. Spur-winged goose (Plectropterus gambensis) Anatidae — — Yes 86. Spur-winged lapwing (Vanellus spinosus) Charadriidae — — Yes 87. Squacco heron (Ardeola ralloides) Ardeidae Yes — — 88. Striped kingfisher (Halcyon chelicuti) Alcedinidae — — Yes 89. Tropical boubou (Laniarius aethiopicus) Malaconotidae — — Yes 90. Wattled ibis (Bostrychia carunculata)-EE 'reskiornithidae Yes — — 91. White browed coucal (Centropus superciliosus) Cuculidae — — Yes 92. White-faced whistling duck (Dendrocygna viduata) Anatidae Yes — — 93. White-winged tern (Chlidonias leucopterus) Laridae Yes — — 94. White-fronted black chat (Oenanthe albifrons) Muscicapidae Yes — — 95. Yellow-billed stork (Mycteria ibis) Ciconiidae — — Yes 96. Yellow-fronted parrot (Poicephalus flavifrons)-E Psittacidae — — Yes E = Endemic to only Ethiopia, EE � Endemic to Ethiopia and Eritrea. Table 3: Species diversity of birds during the wet season. Habitat Species richness Abundance H’ Hmax H’/Hmax D � 1 − 􏽐 Pi Forest 30 318 2.9 3.4 0.85 0.926 Lakeshore 22 396 2.6 3.1 0.84 0.910 Shrub 23 209 2.7 3.1 0.87 0.914 Wetland 44 802 3.3 3.8 0.86 0.954 Table 4: Species diversity of birds during the dry season. Habitat Species richness Abundance H’ Hmax H’/Hmax D � 1 − 􏽐 Pi Forest 20 172 2.44 2.99 0.81 0.874 Lakeshore 22 333 2.58 3.09 0.83 0.904 Shrub 13 46 2.16 2.56 0.84 0.86 Wetland 20 386 2.51 2.99 0.84 0.903 International Journal of Zoology 7 Table 5: Species diversity of birds during both seasons. Habitat Species richness Abundance H’ Hmax H’/Hmax D � 1 − 􏽐 Pi Forest 17 126 2.2 2.8 0.79 0.833 Lakeshore 15 228 2.1 2.7 0.79 0.85 Shrub 9 72 1.5 2.2 0.68 0.64 Wetland 19 357 2.4 2.9 0.82 0.89 Note: H’ � Shannon-Wiener Index; H/H’max � Evenness; D � Diversity Index; H’max � ln(S). (SI � 0.39) (Table 6). 'e least similarity of species was observed between shrub and wetland habitats (SI � 0.08). During the dry season, the highest similarity was recorded between forest and shrub (SI � 0.6), and the least species similarity was recorded between lakeshore and shrub habitats (SI � 0.057) (Table 7). Species similarity was higher between bird species of forest and shrubs when considering both the wet and dry seasons together (SI � 0.58) (Table 8). 'e lowest species similarity was seen between shrub and wetland habitats (SI � 0.07). Within the same habitat, the percentage comparison of species similarity during the wet and dry seasons showed the highest species similarity in the lakeshore habitat (68.2%). 'e least similarity was obtained in the shrub habitat (50%) (Table 9). Forest Lakeshore Shrub Wetland Habitats 3.5. Habitat Association. Chi-squared test showed that the Wet season distribution of bird species in different habitats was sig- Dry season nificantly different (χ �11.89, df � 3, p< 0.05) (Table 10). Both Among the observed bird species, 34 (25.2%) of them Figure 2: Species richness of birds in the four different habitats. were recorded from the forest, 32 (23.7%) of them were recorded from the lakeshore, 29 (21.5%) of them recorded from the shrub, and 40 (29.6%) of them were recorded from Table 6: Simpson’s similarity index (SI) during the wet season. wetland habitats. Habitat Forest Lakeshore Shrub Wetland Bird species abundance varied among the habitats. Forest — 8 (0.31) 10 (0.37) 5 (0.13) During the wet season, the numbers of individuals recorded Lakeshore — — 6 (0.26) 13 (0.39) were 802, 396, 318, and 209 in the wetland, lakeshore, forest, Shrub — — — 3 (0.09) and shrub habitats, respectively. During the dry season, Wetland — — — — there were 386, 333, 172, and 46 individuals in the wetland, lakeshore, forest, and shrub habitats, respectively (Figure 3). 'e mean number of individuals per habitat was sta- Table 7: Simpson’s similarity index (SI) during the dry season. tistically significant (p< 0.05, df � 3). 'is indicates that Habitat Forest Lakeshore Shrub Wetland habitat differences had a significant effect on the abundance Forest — 4 (0.10) 10 (0.60) 2 (0.10) of birds. However, there was not a statistically significant Lakeshore — — 1 (0.06) 6 (0.28) difference in the abundance of birds within the same habitat Shrub — — — 1 (0.06) between seasons (p> 0.05, df � 2). Wetland — — — — 'e relative abundance score and rank of each avian species in different habitats and seasons were determined by using encounter rate data. Encounter rate showed that, during the wet and dry seasons, 32 (33.33%) of the species Table 8: Simpson’s similarity index (SI) during both seasons. were frequent and 64 (66.67%) of the species were Habitat Forest Lakeshore Shrub Wetland uncommon. Forest — 3 (0.18) 7 (0.58) 0 Lakeshore — — 0 6 (0.35) 4. Discussion Shrub — — — 1 (0.07) Wetland — — — — A total of 96 species of birds were recorded from the study Note: Simpson’s similarity index (SI) � 2C/A + B where A is the number of area. Compared to the size of the study area, this result species in habitat A, B is the number of species in habitat B, and C is the number of common species for both habitats. indicates that the area is moderately rich in avian diversity. Species richness (S) 8 International Journal of Zoology Table 9: Seasonal species similarity within the same habitats. Habitats Wet season Dry season Common species Similarity index (SI) Species similarity between seasons (%) Forest 30 20 17 0.68 68 Lakeshore 22 22 15 0.682 68.2 Shrub 23 13 9 0.5 50 Wetland 44 20 19 0.594 59.3 Note: Similarity Index (SI) � 2C/A + B Table 10: Multiple pairwise comparisons of mean difference in species abundance in different habitats using LSD. (I) habitat (J) habitat Mean difference (I-J) Std. error Sig.(p) Lakeshore −7.04 2.69 .009 Forest Shrub 1.91 2.90 .511 Wetland −9.43 2.47 .000 Forest 7.04 2.69 .009 Lakeshore Shrub 8.95 2.98 .003 Wetland −2.38 2.56 .353 Forest −1.91 2.9 .511 Shrub Lakeshore −8.95 2.98 .003 Wetland −11.34 2.79 .000 Forest 9.43 2.47 .000 Wetland Lakeshore 2.38 2.56 .353 Shrub 1.13 2.79 .000 'e mean difference is significant at the 0.05 level. Forest Lakeshore Shrub Wetland Habitats Wet Dry Both Figure 3: Abundance of the bird during wet, dry, and both seasons from all habitats. From these recorded avian species, two species, namely, Aynalem. 'is could indicate that diversity is declining blue-winged goose (Cyanochen cyanoptera) and Yellow- because of various anthropogenic activities such as defor- fronted parrot (Poicephalus flavifrons), are endemic to only estation of trees for timber and cutting trees for firewood. Ethiopia and black-winged lovebird (Agapornis taranta) and 'e forest coverage in the area is declining, which could also Wattled Ibis (Bostrychia carunculata) are endemic to affect avian diversity [30, 31]. Ethiopia and Eritrea. Even though bird species richness and relative abundance A previous study in the same area by Aynalem and are influenced by local resource availability and vegetation Bekele [8] showed that the area harbored 129 bird species. composition, a study by Hansson [32] indicated that the Currently, we have recorded fewer species than Shimelis number of plant species is not clearly correlated with the Abundance International Journal of Zoology 9 indigenous trees and they have changed the area to agri- number of bird species. However, according to Aynalem and Bekele [9], the distribution and abundance of many bird species cultural land for coffee plantation, and this could affect the bird’s niche. 'is finding is in line with Rana [46], who are determined by the composition of the vegetation that forms a major element of their habitats. Differences in habitat reported that in natural habitats where the intervention of characteristics and feeding habits of bird species in the study humans is lower, the diversity of species is higher than area are likely responsible for the variation in species diversity habitats where intensive farming is apparent. and the number of individuals of bird species among different As the number of vegetation layers increases, the number habitats [33]. Wetlands, forests, lakeshore, and shrubs are the of available niches for birds also increases and so does the most dominant habitats in our study area. diversity of avian species [47]. 'e fluctuation of species diversity in different habitats and seasons might be due to Wetlands provide a home for a considerable diversity of wildlife including birds, mammals, fish, frogs, and various the local migration of birds from one habitat to the other in search of food [48, 49]. Natural seasonal fluctuations and invertebrate species [34]. 'is is partly because wetland habitats contain different food sources for these organisms, anthropogenic activities are driven in the shrub habitat; as a result, birds migrate to nearby habitats. including water plants and planktons [35]. Wetland birds are heterogeneous in their feeding habits [36]. In the study area, During the wet season, the highest species richness was this habitat is enclosed with papyrus vegetation (Cyperus recorded in the wetland, followed by the forest habitat. 'is papyrus) and Typha plants. 'ese are important for feeding, might be due to the high availability of resources in the nesting, and breeding sites [9]; for instance, black-headed wetlands for wetland birds [50] and the high structural weaver (Ploceus melanocephalus), which was the most complexity of vegetation in the forest [51]. 'e difference in dominant bird species in the area, uses papyrus vegetation species richness between habitats might be due to variations such as topography and vertical and horizontal vegetation (Cyperus papyrus) and Typha for nesting. Also, the wetland habitat is close to forest habitat, which could provide an structure [52]. 'e highest evenness value was in shrub habitat, which also had the lowest species richness. 'is opportunity for lakeshore birds as a waiting area to detect their prey in the nearby Lake Tana. agrees with the idea of Krebs [48], which describes that evenness is independent of species richness. Most bird species, particularly large tree users like woodpecker species, occur in forest habitats. 'is is because 'e analysis of bird species similarity among the four trees provide nest sites for cavity-nesting birds [37] and they habitat types showed the highest similarity of bird species may also support abundant food resources for birds such as was observed between the wetland and lakeshore habitats arthropods in bark and dead woody tissues [38]. during the wet season and between forest and shrub habitats During the dry season, the bird species of the lakeshore during the dry season. 'is similarity might be due to the habitat were more diverse than other habitats. 'is might be presence of stable bird niches and the similarity in vegetation composition in the two habitats. 'is result coincides with due to the presence of diversified vegetation cover in the area that provides various functions for different avian species the results of Karr [53], which state that faunas under similar ecological conditions are more similar to each other in and the availability of food that attracts birds that feed on aquatic animals like fish and crustaceans at the edge of the species richness and topographic structure than faunas lake. According to Baker and Baker [39], large numbers of under different ecological conditions. In contrast, the least species are expected to occur along the edges of different avian species similarity was observed between shrub and habitats. Most species of the family Alcedinidae including wetland habitats (SI � 0.08). 'is might be due to the dif- (African pygmy kingfisher (Ispidina picta), blue-breasted ference in resources and breeding site requirements among kingfisher (Halcyon malimbica), and giant kingfisher the different bird species. (Megaceryle maximus)) are concentrated in lakeshore hab- 'e distribution of birds within the four habitats varied. itats as they prey on fish that inhabit the lake. 'is idea is also 'is variation might be due to the variation in the foraging strategy of birds. Some groups of birds feed on insects, some supposed by Terborgh et al. [40]. Edge effects may have a great contribution to the increase in the number of species. on flowers, some on seeds, and others feed on aquatic an- imals. 'e distribution and abundance of many bird species 'e lowest avian diversity was recorded in the shrub habitat. 'is might be because birds move to the adjacent area that are determined by the composition of the vegetation that has an abundant supply of food and a stable source of food comprises a major element of their habitats [52, 54]. and cover [41]. 'e highest number of individuals was observed in the In addition to this, the low number of species recorded at wetland habitat (40), followed by forest habitat (34). 'is each habitat type might be due to different reasons including might be due to the availability of aquatic animals that are the less conspicuous nature of some avian species and the used as a food source for birds in wetlands. And also, there is higher vegetation complexity in the forest than in other lower detectability of small cryptic birds in the area [42, 43]. 'is idea is supported by Tassie and Bekele [44]. Generally, it habitats. As a result, the high number of individual species of birds was concentrated on specific trees. 'is might be the is difficult to list all species available in a natural community [45]. suitability and the availability of a high amount of fruits. For example, Bruce’s Green-Pigeon (Treron waalia) was con- 'e study showed that lower avian species diversity was recorded during the wet season in the shrub habitat com- centrated on Ficus vasta trees during the dry season. pared to the other habitat types. 'is might be because of 'e difference in the relative abundance of birds anthropogenic activities. 'e local people clear the recorded at the present study areas might be due to the 10 International Journal of Zoology availability of food, habitat condition, and breeding Data Availability nature of the species. 'e distinct seasonality of rainfall 'e data used and analyzed during the current study are and seasonal variation in the abundance of food resources available from the corresponding author upon request. result in seasonal changes in the species abundance of birds [52]. It is complicated to estimate the absolute density of Conflicts of Interest species from count data in a multispecies study with dense vegetation. Instead, the encounter rate can be more 'e authors declare no conflicts of interest regarding the appropriate. 'e data provided by the encounter rates do publication of this paper. not provide an accurate indication of abundance and are not a substitute for the density estimate. In addition, the Authors’ Contributions relative abundance of species may have little relation with IUCN species category criteria; rather, it is useful to MM, DE, and YY proposed the research idea and collected know the abundance of the species in a particular area the data from the respondents. MM organized the data in a [8]. computer; did the analysis, interpretation, and identifica- 'e presence of more uncommon species of birds in the tion; and wrote the manuscript. DE and YY revised the present study area might be due to the relatively large home manuscript for scientific content and did the language check. range and large niche requirement of the species. Ryan and All authors read and approved the final manuscript. Owino [55] suggested that the presence of large numbers of uncommon species in a certain area could be related to the Acknowledgments breeding nature and the large home range of the species. In addition, degradation of the habitat might be a reason for the 'e authors are thankful to the local community of Zegie species to be uncommon. Aynalem and Bekele [8] suggested Peninsula for their hospitality and kind response for sharing that cutting trees and clearing vegetation for coffee plan- their accumulative indigenous knowledge with our inquir- tations and firewood production to sell to the nearest town ing data. Moreover, the authors would like to extend their were common in the area, and this affects the relative appreciation to the College of Science, Bahir Dar University, abundance of birds. which supplied the required materials like GPS and Bird guide book. 5. Conclusion Zegie Peninsula forest patches and associated wetlands References support diverse avian species including endemic species of [1] Ethiopian Wildlife and Natural History Society (EWNHS), birds in different habitats. During the survey, a total of 96 Important Bird Areas of Ethiopia: A First Inventory, p. 300, species of birds belonging to 38 families were identified from Ethiopian Wildlife and Natural History Society, Addis Ababa, the study area. 'e highest number of bird species were Ethiopia, 1996. recorded from the family Alcedinidae. Species diversity and [2] L. J. Viveropol, A Guide to Endemic Birds of Ethiopia and richness were higher in both the wetland and forest habitats, Eritrea, Shama Books, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2001. and this might be associated with the presence of a sufficient [3] S. Tedla, “Protected areas management crisis in Ethiopia,” amount of food, habitat conditions, and the breeding nature Walia, vol. 16, pp. 17–30, 1995. of species. [4] D. W. Yalden and M. J. Largen, “'e endemic mammals of 'ere was significant variation in species across habitats. Ethiopia,” Mammal Review, vol. 22, no. 3-4, pp. 115–150, 'e variation in the habitat depends on the types of vege- tation in the area. During the wet season, the diversity of [5] A. Bekele and D. W. Yalden, Mammals of Ethiopia and avian species was the highest in wetland habitat and the Eritrea, Addis Ababa University Press, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, lowest in shrub habitat. During the dry season, the highest [6] WCMC, Endangered Birds, p. 60, World Conservation diversity of birds was observed in lakeshore habitats, perhaps Monitoring Centre, Chicago, IL, USA, 1995. because it is an intermediate between aquatic and terrestrial [7] J. C. Hillman, Ethiopia: Compendium of Wildlife Conservation habitats. 'is habitat plays a great role for opportunistic Information, Ethiopian Wildlife Conservation Organization, birds, especially for kingfisher species. vol. 1, p. 454, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 1993. 'e results of the present study showed that the [8] S. Aynalem and A. Bekele, “Species composition, relative majority of avian species in the area were known as abundance, and habitat association of the bird Fauna of the uncommon and frequent. 'e forest is shrinking in size Montane Forest of Zegie Peninsula and Nearby Islands, Lake from all directions due to various anthropogenic activities Tana, Ethiopia,” SINET: Ethiopian Journal of Science, vol. 32, including clear cutting of trees for firewood and con- no. 1, 2009. struction materials (timber production). 'e wetland [9] S. Aynalem and A. Bekele, “Species composition, relative habitat is also exposed to overgrazing by livestock which abundance and distribution of bird Fauna of Riverine and has a negative impact on both birds’ diversity and Wetland Habitats of Infranz and Yiganda at Southern Tip of abundance. It seems likely that the bird species diversity in Lake Tana, Ethiopia,” Tropical Ecology, vol. 49, no. 2, the area will decline. pp. 199–209, 2008. International Journal of Zoology 11 [10] A. Shimelis, Birds of Lake Tana Area, Ethiopia, a Photographic [30] D. Pomeroy, Counting Birds. A Guide to Assessing Numbers, Field Guide, View Graphics and Printers, Addis Ababa Uni- Biomass and Diversity of Afro Tropical Birds, p. 25, African versity Press, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2013. Wild Life Foundation, Nairobi, Kenya, 1992. [11] M. Clouet and J. Joachim, “Variations in bird communities of [31] O. Langrand and L. Wilme, “'e effects of forest fragmen- the Saharan mountains,” Ostrich, vol. 84, no. 3, pp. 205–211, tation on bird species abundance: a case study of the Central High Plateau of Madagascar,” Ostrich, vol. 71, no. 1-2, p. 315, [12] J. S. Kirby, A. J. Stattersfield, S. H. M. Butchart et al., “Key conservation issues for migratory land- and waterbird species [32] L. Hansson, “Environmental determinants of plant and bird on the world’s major flyways,” Bird Conservation Interna- diversity in ancient oak-hazel woodland in Sweden,” Forest tional, vol. 18, no. S1, pp. S49–S73, 2008. Ecology and Management, vol. 91, no. 2-3, pp. 137–143, 1997. [13] M. L. Faliarivola, M. J. Raherilalao, A. Andrianarimisa, and [33] R. Smith, Elements of Ecology, Harper Collins Publishers Ltd, S. M. Goodman, “'e diet of Malagasy dry forest understory London, UK, 3rd edition, 1992. birds based on faecal samples,” Ostrich, vol. 91, no. 1, [34] S. Buckton, “Managing wetlands for sustainable livelihoods at pp. 35–44, 2020. Koshi Tappu,” Danphe, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 12-13, 2007. [14] E. Sande, “Understorey bird species diversity and abundance [35] S. Basavarajappa, “Avifauna of agro-ecosystems of Maidan in three forest types of Semuliki National Park, Uganda,” area of Karnataka,” Zoos Print Journal, vol. 21, no. 4, Ostrich, vol. 71, no. 1-2, pp. 64–68, 2000. pp. 2217–2219, 2004. [15] Y. Getnet and D. Ejigu, “Community composition, relative [36] R. B. Colyn, H. A. Campbell, and A. M. Smit-Robinson, “'e abundance and habitat association of avian species in Apini application of camera trapping to assess Rallidae species and Dikuma forest patches, Awi Administrative Zone, richness within palustrine wetland habitat in South Africa,” Ethiopia,” Ethiopian Journal of Science and Technology, Ostrich, vol. 88, no. 3, pp. 235–245, 2017. vol. 10, no. 1, 2017. [37] I. Newton, “'e role of nest sites in limiting the numbers of [16] D. W. Gibbons, D. A. Hill, and W. J. Sutherland, “Birds,” in hole-nesting birds: a review,” Biological Conservation, vol. 70, Ecological Census Techniques: A Handbook, pp. 81–95, no. 3, pp. 265–276, 1994. Cambridge University Press, New York, NY, USA, 1996. [38] T. S. Sillett, “Foraging ecology of epiphyte-searching insec- [17] A. M. Abrah, S. A. Zelelew, H. K. Nigus, and A. Alelign, tivorous birds in Costa Rica,” 8e Condor, vol. 96, no. 4, “Diurnal activity patterns of Harwood’s Spurfowl Pternistis pp. 863–877, 1994. Harwoodi in relation to habitat types and climatic conditions [39] M. C. Baker and A. E. M. Baker, “Niche relationships among in the Central Highlands of Ethiopia,” Ostrich, vol. 89, no. 2, six species of Shorebirds on their wintering and breeding pp. 195–201, 2018. ranges,” Ecological Monographs, vol. 43, no. 2, pp. 193–212, [18] G. Gebeyehu and A. Bekele, “Human-wildlife conflict in Zegie Peninsula (Ethiopia) with emphasis on Grivet Monkey 2002. [40] J. Terborgh, S. K. Robinson, T. A. Parker III, C. A. Munn, and (Cercopithecus aethiops aethiops),” SINET: Ethiopian Journal N. Pierpont, “Structure and Organization of an Amazonian of Science, vol. 32, no. 2, 2009. [19] W. J. Sutherland, Ecological Census Techniques: A Hand Book, forest bird community,” Ecological Monographs, vol. 60, no. 2, p. 336, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 1996. pp. 213–238, 1990. [20] C. Bibby and B. Jones, Bird Census Techniques, pp. 239–241, [41] C. Werema, “Seasonal abundance and distribution of red- Academic Press, London, UK, 1999. capped robin chat cossypha natalensis in the eastern arc [21] C. J. Bibby, N. D. Burgess, and H. David, Bird Census mountains, Tanzania,” Ostrich, vol. 91, no. 2, pp. 129–133, Techniques, Academic Press, London, UK, 1992. [22] A. Rodr´ıguez-ferraro and J. G. Blake, “Diversity patterns of [42] B. J. Halstead, J. P. Rose, and P. M. Kleeman, “Time-to-de- bird assemblages in arid zones of Northern Venezuela,” 8e tection occupancy methods: performance and utility for Condor, vol. 110, no. 3, pp. 405–420, 2008. improving efficiency of surveys,” Ecological Applications, [23] G. E. Centerbury, T. E. Martin, D. R. Petit, L. J. Petit, and vol. 31, no. 3, p. 3, 2021. D. F. Bradford, “Bird communities and habitats are ecological [43] G. Woldegeorgis and T. Wube, “A survey on mammals of the indicators of forest condition in regional monitoring,” Con- yayu forest in Southwest Ethiopia,” SINET: Ethiopian Journal servation Biology, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 544–558, 2000. of Sciences, vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 135–138, 2012. [24] M. E. Hosteler and M. B. Martin, Florida Monitoring Program: [44] Nega T. and A. Bekele (2007). 'e Impact of Habitat Types on Transect and Point Count Method for Surveying Birds, Uni- the Diversity of Birds in the Dembia Plain Wetland of Lake versity of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA, 2001. Tana, Ethiopia. [25] I. Sinclari and P. Ryan, Comprehensive Illustrated Filled Guide. [45] C. J. Krebs, Ecological Methodologyp. 620, 2nd edition, Birds of Africa South of the Sahara, p. 759, Struik Publishers, Addison Welsey Longman, CA, USA, 1999. Cape Town, South Africa, 2003. [46] S. V. S. Rana, Essentials of Ecology and Environmental Science, [26] C. Redman, M. Johnes, and S. Marsden, Expedition Field Prentice-Hall of India Private Ltd., New Delhi, India, 2nd Techniques: Bird Surveys, pp. 134–137, Royal Geographical edition, 2005. Society, London, UK, 2009. [47] V. R. Cueto and J. L. Casenave, “Determinants of bird species [27] T. Stevenson and J. Fanshawe, A Field Guide to the Birds of richness: role of climate and vegetation structure at a regional East Africa, Bloomsbury Publishing, London, UK, 2001. scale,” Journal of Biogeography, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 487–492, [28] C. E. Shannon and W. Weaver, 8e Mathematical 8eory of Communication, University of Illinois press, Urbana, IL, USA, [48] A. I. Adeyemo and I. A. Ayodele, “Food and feeding ecology of the rock fowl picatthartes oreas in old Oyo National Park, [29] C. J. Bibby, M. Jones, and S. Marsden, Expedition Field Techniques: Bird Surveys, pp. 134–137, 'e Expedition Ad- Nigeria,” African Journal of Ecology, vol. 43, no. 1, pp. 1–6, visory Center Royal Geographic Society, London, UK, 1998. 2005. 12 International Journal of Zoology [49] T. G. Martin and H. P. Possingham, “Predicting the impact of livestock grazing on birds using foraging height data,” Journal of Applied Ecology, vol. 42, no. 2, pp. 400–408, 2005. [50] R. M. Erwin and R. A. Beck, “Restoration of water bird habitats in Chesapeake Bay: great expectations or Sisyphus revisited?” Water Birds, vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 163–176, 2007. [51] B. O. Oindo, R. A. De By, and A. K. Skidmore, “Environ- mental factors influencing bird species diversity in Kenya,” African Journal of Ecology, vol. 39, no. 3, pp. 295–302, 2001. [52] J. R. Karr, “Birds,” in Tropical Rain Forest Ecosystems, C. Redman and Johnes, Eds., vol. 24, pp. 401–416, Elsevier, Amsterdam, Netherlands, 1989. [53] J. R. Karr, “Geographical variation in avifauna’s of tropical forest under growth,” 8e Auk, vol. 97, pp. 283–298, 1980. [54] P.-Y. Lee and J. T. Rotenberry, “Relationships between bird species and tree species assemblages in forested habitats of eastern North America,” Journal of Biogeography, vol. 32, no. 7, pp. 1139–1150, 2005. [55] P. G. Ryan and A. O. Owino, Habitat Association of Papyrus Specialist Birds at 8ree Papyrus Swamps in Western Kenya, Blackwell Publishing. Ltd, Nairobi, Kenya, 2006. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png International Journal of Zoology Hindawi Publishing Corporation

Species Composition, Relative Abundance, and Habitat Association of Avifauna in Zegie Peninsula Forest Patches and Associated Wetlands, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia

Loading next page...
 
/lp/hindawi-publishing-corporation/species-composition-relative-abundance-and-habitat-association-of-zYjFAR3i0n
Publisher
Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Copyright
Copyright © 2021 Misganaw Mola et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
ISSN
1687-8477
eISSN
1687-8485
DOI
10.1155/2021/9928284
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Hindawi International Journal of Zoology Volume 2021, Article ID 9928284, 12 pages https://doi.org/10.1155/2021/9928284 Research Article Species Composition, Relative Abundance, and Habitat Association of Avifauna in Zegie Peninsula Forest Patches and Associated Wetlands, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia 1 2 1 Misganaw Mola , Dessalegn Ejigu, and Yibelu Yitayih Mizan Tepi University, College of Natural and Computational Science, Department of Biology, P.O. Box 121, Tepi, Ethiopia Bahir Dar University, Science College Department of Biology, P.O. Box 79, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia Correspondence should be addressed to Misganaw Mola; misganawmola@gmail.com Received 20 March 2021; Revised 5 May 2021; Accepted 30 June 2021; Published 10 July 2021 Academic Editor: Irene Pellegrino Copyright © 2021 Misganaw Mola et al. 'is is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Introduction. Ethiopia is one of the most avifauna rich countries in Africa. Avifaunal surveys are required to inform conservation decisions and enhance land management for biodiversity. Avifaunal surveys from Ethiopia are lacking. 'is study examines species composition, relative abundance, and habitat association of avian fauna in Zegie Peninsula forest patches and associated wetlands from surveys carried out from August 2018 to March 2019, covering both the wet and dry seasons. Data Collection. Forest, shrub, lakeshore, and wetland habitats were identified as ecologically relevant habitats in the study area for data collection. Data were collected using point count and line transect methods, for 24 days in total for both seasons in the morning and afternoon. Results. A total of 96 species of birds were identified during the whole study period. Out of the total, 40 species were observed during the wet season, 13 during dry and 43 species in both seasons. 'ere was significant variation of species dis- tribution among habitats. During the wet season, the highest species diversity was recorded in the wetland habitat followed by forest habitat. During the dry season, avian diversity was the highest in the lakeshore followed by wetlands. 'e highest evenness was observed in the shrubland during both the wet and dry seasons. During the wet season, the highest species similarity was recorded between wetland and lakeshore habitats, and during the dry season, the highest species similarity was recorded between forest and shrub habitats. Based on encounter rate data, 64 (66.66%) of the avian species were uncommon. Conclusions. Compared to previous studies conducted in the study area, species diversity was lower. 'is might be due to various anthropogenic activities such as deforestation of trees for timber and cutting trees for firewood. 'erefore, awareness creation should be given to the local community to reduce habitat destruction due to various human-induced factors. over 320 species of mammals, over 860 species of birds, 200 1. Introduction species of reptiles, 63 species of amphibians, and 145 species Ethiopia has diverse sets of ecosystems ranging from humid of fish are known [5]. In terms of the avian fauna, Ethiopia is forests and extensive wetlands to deserts, supporting a wide one of the most diverse countries in Africa [6]. Forests, variety of life forms [1, 2]. Its topography varies from vast wetlands, and riverine systems are sites for wintering or plains to high mountains having an altitudinal range of passaging migrant birds in Ethiopia [1, 7]. To promote the 110 m below sea level (Kobar sink) in the Afar depression to conservation of these birds and their habitats, 73 Important the highest peak at Ras Dejen with an altitude of 4620 m a.s.l. Bird Areas (IBAs) have been identified in Ethiopia, 30 of [3]. Wide altitudinal variation and the extensive areas under these sites (41% of total IBAs) comprise wetlands, while the Afro-alpine habitat, compared to the rest of Africa, have rest are representatives of other ecosystems [8]. Lake Tana contributed to the diversity of flora and fauna of Ethiopia and the surrounding area (including Zegie Peninsula) [4]. 'e country is rich in its faunal diversity, and as a result, qualify as an IBA because they possess globally threatened 2 International Journal of Zoology species such as Wattled Crane (Bugeranus carunculatus), used to record the locations and to identify the altitudinal Lesser Flamingo (Phoeniconaias minor), Rouget’s Rail ranges of the study habitats. (Rougetius rougetti), Pallid Harrier (Circus macrourus), and Greater Spotted Eagle (Aquila clanga) [9]. Over 300 species 2.3. Sampling Design. Based on the preliminary survey, the of bird have been observed and recorded in the Lake Tana habitats of the study area were identified and categorized Basin, which has been defined as an international bird site by into four different habitats depending on the vegetation BirdLife International (BLI) [10]. composition. 'ese are forest, shrubland, lakeshore, and Birds are not restricted to wetlands. 'ey also occupy wetland habitats. 'e forest is a large area dominated by other habitats like forests, forest edges, grasslands, shrubs, trees and representative of typical dense vegetation. Locally, and lakeshores [11]. Forests are important habitats for this site is designated as a conservation area. 'is site has a migrating birds in the major flyways [12]. As primary closed, dense canopy. 'e shrubland is located at the consumers, birds get nutrients from nectar, fruits, seeds, and boundaries of Ararat Mountain and covered by small to vegetative tissues such as roots, shoots, and leaves [13]. 'e medium-sized woody plants and dwarf trees. 'is habitat is distribution and abundance of many bird species are de- clearly different from dense forests by its vegetation type and termined by the composition of the vegetation that forms a size. 'is area is dominated by Vernonia schimperi, Capparis major element of their habitats [9]. African forests are home tomentosa, Acacia oerfota, and Carissa edulis. 'e lakeshore to a particularly wide variety of species [14]. 'ese especially represents a transitional area between undisturbed (dense) include birds that are associated with vegetation, and the forest and Lake Tana. 'e vegetation of this habitat pre- existence of trees is vital to their life cycle [15]. dominantly comprises species of Typha and papyrus [9]. 'e Ecological studies on birds are important to determine wetlands are lowland plains and are regularly inundated with the biodiversity in the area and to understand the habitat water. 'e area is located toward the western side of Zegie requirements of the species and population dynamics [16]. Peninsula at the border of Wonjita Kebele. 'is area is the In Ethiopia, a limited amount of research has been carried transition between a land-based and water-based ecosystem. out on avian diversity, distribution, and abundance in Sampling units representing each habitat type were selected different ecosystems, particularly in National Parks and based on a stratified random sampling method. 'e tech- protected areas [17]. 'e present study focusses on avian nique involved dividing the study area into blocks by species composition, relative abundance, and habitat choosing the location of each habitat with random numbers association in Zegie Peninsula forest patches and asso- [19]. Random blocks were selected for forest, shrubland, ciated wetlands. lakeshore, and wetland habitats [20]. We applied a grid to each habitat consisting of 0.5 ×1 km cells. 'en, we ran- 2. Methods domly selected blocks from the grid resulting in 5 blocks in the forest, shrubland, and wetland and 4 blocks in the 2.1. Description of the Study Area. Zegie is the largest pen- lakeshore (Table 1). insula along Lake Tana and is mostly covered with dense In each block, there were point counting stations. 'e forest. 'e lake and its adjacent area are registered as point count stations in a sample block were 150–200 m apart UNESCO’s Biosphere Reserve site for its rich biodiversity. It to avoid under- or overestimation during the counting extends beyond the southwestern shore of the lake. It is process. 'e point count method was used to count birds in ° ° located at coordinates of 11 40’ to 11 43’ N latitude and forest, shrub, and lakeshore habitats [21]. In wetland hab- ° ° 37 19’ to 37 21’ E longitude, 600 km northwest of Addis itats, we carried out line transects instead of point counts Ababa, at an altitude ranging from 1770 m a.s.l. along the because the habitat is uniform and has less vegetation banks of the lake to 1975 m a.s.l. at its summit called Ararat. coverage. 'erefore, birds are easily visible. In this habitat, a Zegie is part of Bahir Dar city administration and is 32 km total of 20 transects were laid down. 'ese transects were from Bahir Dar city in a northwest direction. It can be separated from each other by 150–200 m depending on the accessed from and to Bahir Dar by both land and water. vegetation cover and accessibility of the area. Census of birds Zegie Peninsula includes a town called Zegie (Afaf) and two was carried out on foot within a radius of 25 m at both sides rural Kebeles, Ura and Yiganda, with an area of 1347 ha [18]. of the transect line following the methods of Aynalem and 'e total size of the study area is 1827 hectares, and an Bekele [8]. 'e sequence in which the transects and stations additional 480 ha of land from Wonjita Kebele is included in were visited was systematically alternating between sampling the wetland habitats. 'e size of habitats in the study area is periods to partially compensate for the effects of hourly 500, 460, 387, and 480 hectares for forest, shrub, lakeshore, variation in bird activity [22]. Every effort was taken to avoid and wetlands, respectively (Figure 1). mistakes during the census period. 2.2. Preliminary Survey. 'e preliminary survey was carried 2.4. Data Collection. Based on the information gathered out in August 2018 to collect information about vegetation during the preliminary survey, fieldwork was carried out types, human settlement, land use, and the topography of the from August to October 2018 to collect the wet season data. study area. Additional information about the area was Dry season data collection was carried out from January to March 2019. Data were collected over six months, i.e., three gathered from the local people such as previous forest coverage. Global Positioning System (GPS) readings were months during the wet season and three months during the International Journal of Zoology 3 37°18′30″E 37°19′30″E 37°20′30″E 37°21′30″E Ethiopia Wetland Shrub Forest Amhra Lakeshore 0 0.5 1 2 3 km 37°18′30″E 37°19′30″E 37°20′30″E 37°21′30″E Wetland Shrub Lakeshore Forest Figure 1: Location map of the study area. Table 1: stations for the point count and transect count methods. Sample blocks Habitat type Total area (km ) Total blocks (0.5 ×1 km) Number of point stations Number of line transects (0.5 ×1 km) Forest 5 (500 ha) 10 5 13 — Shrubland 4.6 (460 ha) 9 5 12 — Lakeshore 3.87 (387 ha) 8 4 10 — Wetland 4.8 (480 ha) 10 5 — 20 Total 18.27 (1827 ha) 37 19 35 20 dry season, for a total of 24 days, i.e., four days per month in Avian identification was based on different morphological both seasons. Data were collected from 6:30 a.m. to 10:00 features such as plumage pattern, color, body size, and shape a.m. and from 3:00 p.m. to 6:00 p.m. when the weather [26]. We additionally used a field guide to the birds of East conditions were convenient and birds become active [23]. Africa [27]. Observations were assisted by binoculars, and photographs were also taken for further confirmation of the To minimize disturbance during the census, a waiting period of 3–5 minutes prior to counting individuals of avian species. species was maintained [24]. During data collection, the observer and assistants stood at a particular point for a fixed time (10 minutes), and all birds that could be seen within a 2.5. Data Analysis. Data analysis methods for this study were performed using the Shannon-Wiener diversity index fixed radius of 25 m were recorded. Species observed during the survey were identified and (H′), Simpson’s Index of Diversity (D), and quantitative and qualitatively by using ANOVA and chi-square. taxonomically classified following Sinclari and Ryan [25]. 11°39′30″N 11°40′30″N 11°41′30″N 11°42′30″N 11°43′30’’N 11°44′30″N 11°39′30″N 11°40′30″N 11°41′30″N 11°42′30″N 11°43′30″N 11°44′30″N 4 International Journal of Zoology 'e species diversity was calculated using the formula 'e Chi-square test was used to compare seasonal provided by Shannon and Weaver [28] as variations in diversity and evenness of birds at the 95% level of significance. ANOVA was used to analyze the effect of season and habitat. SPSS (version 20.0) statistical program ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ ⎞ H � − 􏽘 PiLnPi , (1) was used to run the analysis. where H’ is the Shannon-Wiener index, Pi is the proportion 3. Results of the ith species, and Ln is the Natural Logarithm. Equitability or evenness index was calculated by using the 3.1. Species Composition. In the present study, a total of 96 ratio of observed diversity to the maximum diversity using avian species belonging to 38 families were identified from all study sites during both the wet and dry seasons. Of these, (2) E � , the majority (9 species) of the species are in the family H max Alcedinidae (Kingfishers), which was followed by Anatidae where E is the evenness index, H’ is the Shannon-Wiener and Columbidae (7 species for each). Two of the total species diversity index, and Hmax is the natural log of the total identified were endemic to Ethiopia (blue-winged goose number of species. (Cyanochen cyanoptera) and yellow-fronted parrot (Poice- Simpson’s Index of Diversity (D) was used to evaluate phalus flavifrons)). Among the total 96 species, 40 species the relative abundance of avian species in each habitat type. were recorded only during the wet season, while 13 species It is a measure of diversity that takes into account both were recorded only during the dry season and 43 species richness and evenness. 'e index gives the probability of any were recorded during both seasons (Table 2). two individuals drawn from a noticeably large community belonging to different species. 3.2. Species Diversity. Variations in species diversity among 􏽐 n(n − 1) D � 1 − , (3) the different habitats during the wet and dry seasons were 􏼠 􏼡 N(N − 1) recorded. 'us, species diversity was higher during the wet season in all habitats compared to the dry season where n is the total number of individuals of a particular (Tables 3–5). species, and N is the total number of individuals of all During the wet season, the highest diversity of avian species. species was recorded in the wetland habitat (H’ � 3.3), fol- 'e relative abundance of each species was estimated lowed by forest habitat (H’ � 2.9), and then shrub habitat from encounter rates. 'is value is used to give each species (H’ � 2.7), and the lowest diversity was recorded in the an ordinal rank of abundance using the ranking scale of lakeshore (H’ � 2.6) (Table 3). Bibby et al. [29]. Encounter rate was calculated for each During the dry season, the lakeshore habitat (H’ � 2.58) species by dividing the number of birds recorded by the supported the highest diversity of avian species, which was number of hours spent searching, to get the number of followed by wetland habitat (H’ � 2.51). 'e lowest diversity individuals per hour for each species. of birds was recorded in the shrubland habitat (H’ � 2.16) number of individual of a species (Table 4). Encounter rate � × 100. number of observation hours 'e highest evenness (E � 0.87 and E � 0.84) was (4) recorded in the shrub habitat during the wet and dry sea- sons, respectively, and evenness was the lowest in the shrub Following Bibby et al. [21], encounter rate values were habitat (E � 0.68) when considering both seasons together used to categorize each species into the following five (Table 5). abundance categories: <0.1, 0.1–2.0, 2.1–10.0, 10.1–40.0, and >40. For each category, the following abundance score was given: 1 (Rare), 2 (Uncommon), 3 (Frequent), 4 (Common), 3.3. Species Richness. Variation in the number of species was and 5 (Abundant), respectively. observed among the four different habitats and between Simpson’s similarity index (SI) (Simpson, 1949) was seasons in the same habitat. 'e species composition of birds used to evaluate the similarity of species between four between the wet and dry seasons showed significant dif- different habitats in both seasons by using the following ferences (χ �17.2, df � 2, p< 0.05). formula: During the wet season, the highest species richness was recorded in the wetland (44) and the lowest in lakeshore 4C SI � + LS + S + W, (5) (22). During the dry season, the highest species richness was in lakeshore (22) and the lowest in the shrub (13) (Figure 2). where SI is Simpson’s similarity index, F is the number of species that occur in forest habitat, LS is the number of species that occur in lakeshore habitat, S is the number of 3.4. Species Similarity. Bird species similarity between dif- species that occur in shrubland habitat, W is the number of ferent habitats showed variations between seasons species that occur in wetland habitat, and C is the number of (Tables 6–8). During the wet season, more species similarity common species that occur in all habitat types. was recorded between lakeshore and wetland habitats International Journal of Zoology 5 Table 2: Bird species recorded in the study area during wet, dry, and both season surveys, representing the most common species. Seasons SN Bird species Family Wet Dry Both 1. Abdim’s stork (Ciconia abdimii) Ciconiidae Yes — — 2. AbyssinianSlaty-flycatcher (Melaenornis chocolatina) Muscicapidae Yes — — 3. Abyssinian thrush (Turdus abyssinicus) Turdidae — — Yes 4. Abyssinian woodpecker (Dendropicos abyssinicus) Picidae — — Yes 5. African sacred ibis (8reskiornis aethiopicus) 'reskiornithidae — — Yes 6. African black duck (Anas sparsa) Anatidae — — Yes 7. African collared-dove (Streptopelia roseogrisea) Columbidae Yes — — 8. African comb duck (Sarkidiornis melanotos) Anatidae Yes — — 9. African darter (Anhinga rufa) Anhingidae — — Yes 10. African fish-eagle (Haliaeetus vocifer) Accipitridae — — Yes 11. African jacana (Actophilornis africana) Jacanidae — — Yes 12. African paradise-flycatcher (Terpsiphone viridis) Monarchidae — Yes — 13. African pied wagtail (Motacilla aguimp) Motacillidae Yes — — 14. African pygmy-goose (Nettapus auritus) Anatidae — — Yes 15. African pygmy kingfisher (Ispidina picta) Alcedinidae Yes — — 16. African woolly-neck (Ciconia microscelis) Ciconiidae Yes — — 17. Bare-faced go-away-bird (Corythaixoides personata) Musophagidae Yes — — 18. Barred warbler (Sylvia nisoria) Sylviidae — — Yes 19. Bearded woodpecker (Dendropicos namaquus) Picidae — Yes — 20. Bimaculated lark (Melanocorypha bimaculata) Alaudidae Yes — — 21. Black-billed barbet (Lybius guifsobalito) Lybiidae — — Yes 22 Black-crowned crane (Balearica pavonina) Gruidae Yes — — 23. Black-headed weaver (Ploceus melanocephalus) Ploceidae Yes — — 24. Black-billed wood-dove (Turtur abyssinicus) Columbidae Yes — — 25. Black-headed lapwing (Vanellus tectus) Charadriidae Yes — — 26. Black-winged lovebird (Agapornis taranta)-EE Psittacidae — — Yes 27. Blue-breasted bee-eater (Merops variegates) Meropidae Yes — — 28. Blue-breasted kingfisher(Halcyon malimbica) Alcedinidae — — Yes 29. Blue-headed coucal (Centropus monachus) Alcedinidae — — Yes 30. Blue-spotted wood –dove (Turtur afer) Columbidae Yes — — 31. Blue-winged goose (Cynochen cyanoptera)-E Anatidae — — Yes 32. Bronze sunbird (Nectarinia kilimensis) Nectariniidae — Yes — 33. Bruce’s green-pigeon (Treron waalia) Columbidae — Yes — 34. Cattle egret (Bubulcus ibis) Ardeidae — — Yes 35. Chestnut-backed sparrow-lark (Eremopterix leucotis) Alaudidae — — Yes 36. Citrine wagtail (Motacilla citreola) Motacillidae Yes — 37. Collared sunbird (Anthreptes collaris) Nectariniidae — — Yes 38. Common bulbul (Pycnonotus barbatus) Pycnonotidae — Yes 39. Common fiscal (Lanius collaris) Laniidae Yes — — 40. Common sandpiper (Actitis hypoleucos) Scolopacidae — — Yes 41. Common stonechat (Saxicola torquata) Muscicapidae — Yes — 42. Coppery tailed coucal (Centropus cupreicaudus) Cuculidae Yes — — 43. Dark chanting goshawk (Melierax metabates) Accipitridae Yes — — 44. Double-toothed barbet (Lybius bidentatus) Lybiidae Yes — — 45. Dusky crested flycatcher (Elminia albiventris) Stenostiridae Yes — — 46. Eastern plantain-eater (Crinifer zonurus) Musophagidae — Yes — 47. Egyptian goose (Alopochen aegyptiacus) Anatidae Yes — — 48. Ethiopian bee-eater (Merops lafresnayii) Meropidae — Yes — 49. Giant kingfisher (Megaceryle maximus) Alcedinidae — — Yes 50. Glossy ibis (Plegadis falcinellus) 'reskiornithidae — — Yes 51. Goliath heron (Ardea goliath) Ardeidae Yes — — 52. Gray-crowned crane (Balearica regulorum) Gruidae Yes — — 53. Great reed-warbler (Acrocephalus arundinaceus) Acrocephalidae — — Yes 54. Great-white egret (Egretta alba) Ardeidae — — Yes 55. Green sandpiper (Tringa ochropus) Scolopacidae Yes — — 56. Gray-headed wood pecker (Dendropicos spodocephalus) Picidae Yes — — 57. Grey-backed fiscal (Lanius excubitoroides) Laniidae — Yes — 58. Grey-headed kingfisher (Halcyon leucocephala) Alcedinidae — Yes — 59. Hadada ibis (Bostrychia hagedash) 'reskiornithidae — — Yes 6 International Journal of Zoology Table 2: Continued. Seasons SN Bird species Family Wet Dry Both 60. Hammer kop (Scopus umbretta) Scopidae Yes — — 61. Hooded vulture (Necrosyrtes monachus) Accipitridae — — Yes 62. Isabelline wheatear (Oenanthe isabellina) Turdidae — Yes — 63. Isabelline shrike (lanius isabellinus) Laniidae — Yes — 64. Jameson’s fire finch (Lagonosticta rhodopareia) Estrildidae Yes — — 65. Lesser-swamp-warbler (Acrocephalus gracilirostris) Acrocephalidae — — Yes 66. Little bee-eater (Merops pusillus) Meropidae — — Yes 67. Little spotted woodpecker (campethera cailliautii) Picidae — — Yes 68. Little weaver (Ploceus luteolus) Ploceidae Yes — — 69. Long-crested eagle (Lophaetus occipitalis) Accipitridae — — Yes 70. Malachite kingfisher (Alcedo cristata) Alcedinidae — — Yes 71. Marsh sandpiper (Tringa stagnatilis) Scolopacidae — — Yes 72. Marsh warbler (Acrocephalus palustris) Acrocephalidae Yes — — 73. Namaqua dove (Oena capensis) Columbidae — Yes — 74. Pied kingfisher (Ceryle rudis) Alcedinidae Yes — — 75. Red -billed fire finch (Lagonosticta senegala) Estrildidae Yes — — 76. Red-chested cuckoo (Cuculus solitarius) Alcedinidae Yes — — 77. Red-eyed dove (Streptopelia semitorquata) Columbidae — — Yes 78. Ruppell’s robin-chat (Cossypha semirufa) Muscicapidae — — Yes 79. Ruppell’s weaver (Ploceus galbula) Ploceidae Yes — — 80. Sacred ibis (8reskiornis aethiopicus) 'reskiornithidae — — Yes 81. Silvery-cheeked hornbill (Ceratogymna brevis) Bucerotidae — — Yes 82. Speckled mousebird (Colius striatus) Coliidae Yes — — 83. 83. Speckled pigeon (Columba guinea) Columbidae — — Yes 84. Spectacled weaver (Ploceus ocularis) Ploceidae — — Yes 85. Spur-winged goose (Plectropterus gambensis) Anatidae — — Yes 86. Spur-winged lapwing (Vanellus spinosus) Charadriidae — — Yes 87. Squacco heron (Ardeola ralloides) Ardeidae Yes — — 88. Striped kingfisher (Halcyon chelicuti) Alcedinidae — — Yes 89. Tropical boubou (Laniarius aethiopicus) Malaconotidae — — Yes 90. Wattled ibis (Bostrychia carunculata)-EE 'reskiornithidae Yes — — 91. White browed coucal (Centropus superciliosus) Cuculidae — — Yes 92. White-faced whistling duck (Dendrocygna viduata) Anatidae Yes — — 93. White-winged tern (Chlidonias leucopterus) Laridae Yes — — 94. White-fronted black chat (Oenanthe albifrons) Muscicapidae Yes — — 95. Yellow-billed stork (Mycteria ibis) Ciconiidae — — Yes 96. Yellow-fronted parrot (Poicephalus flavifrons)-E Psittacidae — — Yes E = Endemic to only Ethiopia, EE � Endemic to Ethiopia and Eritrea. Table 3: Species diversity of birds during the wet season. Habitat Species richness Abundance H’ Hmax H’/Hmax D � 1 − 􏽐 Pi Forest 30 318 2.9 3.4 0.85 0.926 Lakeshore 22 396 2.6 3.1 0.84 0.910 Shrub 23 209 2.7 3.1 0.87 0.914 Wetland 44 802 3.3 3.8 0.86 0.954 Table 4: Species diversity of birds during the dry season. Habitat Species richness Abundance H’ Hmax H’/Hmax D � 1 − 􏽐 Pi Forest 20 172 2.44 2.99 0.81 0.874 Lakeshore 22 333 2.58 3.09 0.83 0.904 Shrub 13 46 2.16 2.56 0.84 0.86 Wetland 20 386 2.51 2.99 0.84 0.903 International Journal of Zoology 7 Table 5: Species diversity of birds during both seasons. Habitat Species richness Abundance H’ Hmax H’/Hmax D � 1 − 􏽐 Pi Forest 17 126 2.2 2.8 0.79 0.833 Lakeshore 15 228 2.1 2.7 0.79 0.85 Shrub 9 72 1.5 2.2 0.68 0.64 Wetland 19 357 2.4 2.9 0.82 0.89 Note: H’ � Shannon-Wiener Index; H/H’max � Evenness; D � Diversity Index; H’max � ln(S). (SI � 0.39) (Table 6). 'e least similarity of species was observed between shrub and wetland habitats (SI � 0.08). During the dry season, the highest similarity was recorded between forest and shrub (SI � 0.6), and the least species similarity was recorded between lakeshore and shrub habitats (SI � 0.057) (Table 7). Species similarity was higher between bird species of forest and shrubs when considering both the wet and dry seasons together (SI � 0.58) (Table 8). 'e lowest species similarity was seen between shrub and wetland habitats (SI � 0.07). Within the same habitat, the percentage comparison of species similarity during the wet and dry seasons showed the highest species similarity in the lakeshore habitat (68.2%). 'e least similarity was obtained in the shrub habitat (50%) (Table 9). Forest Lakeshore Shrub Wetland Habitats 3.5. Habitat Association. Chi-squared test showed that the Wet season distribution of bird species in different habitats was sig- Dry season nificantly different (χ �11.89, df � 3, p< 0.05) (Table 10). Both Among the observed bird species, 34 (25.2%) of them Figure 2: Species richness of birds in the four different habitats. were recorded from the forest, 32 (23.7%) of them were recorded from the lakeshore, 29 (21.5%) of them recorded from the shrub, and 40 (29.6%) of them were recorded from Table 6: Simpson’s similarity index (SI) during the wet season. wetland habitats. Habitat Forest Lakeshore Shrub Wetland Bird species abundance varied among the habitats. Forest — 8 (0.31) 10 (0.37) 5 (0.13) During the wet season, the numbers of individuals recorded Lakeshore — — 6 (0.26) 13 (0.39) were 802, 396, 318, and 209 in the wetland, lakeshore, forest, Shrub — — — 3 (0.09) and shrub habitats, respectively. During the dry season, Wetland — — — — there were 386, 333, 172, and 46 individuals in the wetland, lakeshore, forest, and shrub habitats, respectively (Figure 3). 'e mean number of individuals per habitat was sta- Table 7: Simpson’s similarity index (SI) during the dry season. tistically significant (p< 0.05, df � 3). 'is indicates that Habitat Forest Lakeshore Shrub Wetland habitat differences had a significant effect on the abundance Forest — 4 (0.10) 10 (0.60) 2 (0.10) of birds. However, there was not a statistically significant Lakeshore — — 1 (0.06) 6 (0.28) difference in the abundance of birds within the same habitat Shrub — — — 1 (0.06) between seasons (p> 0.05, df � 2). Wetland — — — — 'e relative abundance score and rank of each avian species in different habitats and seasons were determined by using encounter rate data. Encounter rate showed that, during the wet and dry seasons, 32 (33.33%) of the species Table 8: Simpson’s similarity index (SI) during both seasons. were frequent and 64 (66.67%) of the species were Habitat Forest Lakeshore Shrub Wetland uncommon. Forest — 3 (0.18) 7 (0.58) 0 Lakeshore — — 0 6 (0.35) 4. Discussion Shrub — — — 1 (0.07) Wetland — — — — A total of 96 species of birds were recorded from the study Note: Simpson’s similarity index (SI) � 2C/A + B where A is the number of area. Compared to the size of the study area, this result species in habitat A, B is the number of species in habitat B, and C is the number of common species for both habitats. indicates that the area is moderately rich in avian diversity. Species richness (S) 8 International Journal of Zoology Table 9: Seasonal species similarity within the same habitats. Habitats Wet season Dry season Common species Similarity index (SI) Species similarity between seasons (%) Forest 30 20 17 0.68 68 Lakeshore 22 22 15 0.682 68.2 Shrub 23 13 9 0.5 50 Wetland 44 20 19 0.594 59.3 Note: Similarity Index (SI) � 2C/A + B Table 10: Multiple pairwise comparisons of mean difference in species abundance in different habitats using LSD. (I) habitat (J) habitat Mean difference (I-J) Std. error Sig.(p) Lakeshore −7.04 2.69 .009 Forest Shrub 1.91 2.90 .511 Wetland −9.43 2.47 .000 Forest 7.04 2.69 .009 Lakeshore Shrub 8.95 2.98 .003 Wetland −2.38 2.56 .353 Forest −1.91 2.9 .511 Shrub Lakeshore −8.95 2.98 .003 Wetland −11.34 2.79 .000 Forest 9.43 2.47 .000 Wetland Lakeshore 2.38 2.56 .353 Shrub 1.13 2.79 .000 'e mean difference is significant at the 0.05 level. Forest Lakeshore Shrub Wetland Habitats Wet Dry Both Figure 3: Abundance of the bird during wet, dry, and both seasons from all habitats. From these recorded avian species, two species, namely, Aynalem. 'is could indicate that diversity is declining blue-winged goose (Cyanochen cyanoptera) and Yellow- because of various anthropogenic activities such as defor- fronted parrot (Poicephalus flavifrons), are endemic to only estation of trees for timber and cutting trees for firewood. Ethiopia and black-winged lovebird (Agapornis taranta) and 'e forest coverage in the area is declining, which could also Wattled Ibis (Bostrychia carunculata) are endemic to affect avian diversity [30, 31]. Ethiopia and Eritrea. Even though bird species richness and relative abundance A previous study in the same area by Aynalem and are influenced by local resource availability and vegetation Bekele [8] showed that the area harbored 129 bird species. composition, a study by Hansson [32] indicated that the Currently, we have recorded fewer species than Shimelis number of plant species is not clearly correlated with the Abundance International Journal of Zoology 9 indigenous trees and they have changed the area to agri- number of bird species. However, according to Aynalem and Bekele [9], the distribution and abundance of many bird species cultural land for coffee plantation, and this could affect the bird’s niche. 'is finding is in line with Rana [46], who are determined by the composition of the vegetation that forms a major element of their habitats. Differences in habitat reported that in natural habitats where the intervention of characteristics and feeding habits of bird species in the study humans is lower, the diversity of species is higher than area are likely responsible for the variation in species diversity habitats where intensive farming is apparent. and the number of individuals of bird species among different As the number of vegetation layers increases, the number habitats [33]. Wetlands, forests, lakeshore, and shrubs are the of available niches for birds also increases and so does the most dominant habitats in our study area. diversity of avian species [47]. 'e fluctuation of species diversity in different habitats and seasons might be due to Wetlands provide a home for a considerable diversity of wildlife including birds, mammals, fish, frogs, and various the local migration of birds from one habitat to the other in search of food [48, 49]. Natural seasonal fluctuations and invertebrate species [34]. 'is is partly because wetland habitats contain different food sources for these organisms, anthropogenic activities are driven in the shrub habitat; as a result, birds migrate to nearby habitats. including water plants and planktons [35]. Wetland birds are heterogeneous in their feeding habits [36]. In the study area, During the wet season, the highest species richness was this habitat is enclosed with papyrus vegetation (Cyperus recorded in the wetland, followed by the forest habitat. 'is papyrus) and Typha plants. 'ese are important for feeding, might be due to the high availability of resources in the nesting, and breeding sites [9]; for instance, black-headed wetlands for wetland birds [50] and the high structural weaver (Ploceus melanocephalus), which was the most complexity of vegetation in the forest [51]. 'e difference in dominant bird species in the area, uses papyrus vegetation species richness between habitats might be due to variations such as topography and vertical and horizontal vegetation (Cyperus papyrus) and Typha for nesting. Also, the wetland habitat is close to forest habitat, which could provide an structure [52]. 'e highest evenness value was in shrub habitat, which also had the lowest species richness. 'is opportunity for lakeshore birds as a waiting area to detect their prey in the nearby Lake Tana. agrees with the idea of Krebs [48], which describes that evenness is independent of species richness. Most bird species, particularly large tree users like woodpecker species, occur in forest habitats. 'is is because 'e analysis of bird species similarity among the four trees provide nest sites for cavity-nesting birds [37] and they habitat types showed the highest similarity of bird species may also support abundant food resources for birds such as was observed between the wetland and lakeshore habitats arthropods in bark and dead woody tissues [38]. during the wet season and between forest and shrub habitats During the dry season, the bird species of the lakeshore during the dry season. 'is similarity might be due to the habitat were more diverse than other habitats. 'is might be presence of stable bird niches and the similarity in vegetation composition in the two habitats. 'is result coincides with due to the presence of diversified vegetation cover in the area that provides various functions for different avian species the results of Karr [53], which state that faunas under similar ecological conditions are more similar to each other in and the availability of food that attracts birds that feed on aquatic animals like fish and crustaceans at the edge of the species richness and topographic structure than faunas lake. According to Baker and Baker [39], large numbers of under different ecological conditions. In contrast, the least species are expected to occur along the edges of different avian species similarity was observed between shrub and habitats. Most species of the family Alcedinidae including wetland habitats (SI � 0.08). 'is might be due to the dif- (African pygmy kingfisher (Ispidina picta), blue-breasted ference in resources and breeding site requirements among kingfisher (Halcyon malimbica), and giant kingfisher the different bird species. (Megaceryle maximus)) are concentrated in lakeshore hab- 'e distribution of birds within the four habitats varied. itats as they prey on fish that inhabit the lake. 'is idea is also 'is variation might be due to the variation in the foraging strategy of birds. Some groups of birds feed on insects, some supposed by Terborgh et al. [40]. Edge effects may have a great contribution to the increase in the number of species. on flowers, some on seeds, and others feed on aquatic an- imals. 'e distribution and abundance of many bird species 'e lowest avian diversity was recorded in the shrub habitat. 'is might be because birds move to the adjacent area that are determined by the composition of the vegetation that has an abundant supply of food and a stable source of food comprises a major element of their habitats [52, 54]. and cover [41]. 'e highest number of individuals was observed in the In addition to this, the low number of species recorded at wetland habitat (40), followed by forest habitat (34). 'is each habitat type might be due to different reasons including might be due to the availability of aquatic animals that are the less conspicuous nature of some avian species and the used as a food source for birds in wetlands. And also, there is higher vegetation complexity in the forest than in other lower detectability of small cryptic birds in the area [42, 43]. 'is idea is supported by Tassie and Bekele [44]. Generally, it habitats. As a result, the high number of individual species of birds was concentrated on specific trees. 'is might be the is difficult to list all species available in a natural community [45]. suitability and the availability of a high amount of fruits. For example, Bruce’s Green-Pigeon (Treron waalia) was con- 'e study showed that lower avian species diversity was recorded during the wet season in the shrub habitat com- centrated on Ficus vasta trees during the dry season. pared to the other habitat types. 'is might be because of 'e difference in the relative abundance of birds anthropogenic activities. 'e local people clear the recorded at the present study areas might be due to the 10 International Journal of Zoology availability of food, habitat condition, and breeding Data Availability nature of the species. 'e distinct seasonality of rainfall 'e data used and analyzed during the current study are and seasonal variation in the abundance of food resources available from the corresponding author upon request. result in seasonal changes in the species abundance of birds [52]. It is complicated to estimate the absolute density of Conflicts of Interest species from count data in a multispecies study with dense vegetation. Instead, the encounter rate can be more 'e authors declare no conflicts of interest regarding the appropriate. 'e data provided by the encounter rates do publication of this paper. not provide an accurate indication of abundance and are not a substitute for the density estimate. In addition, the Authors’ Contributions relative abundance of species may have little relation with IUCN species category criteria; rather, it is useful to MM, DE, and YY proposed the research idea and collected know the abundance of the species in a particular area the data from the respondents. MM organized the data in a [8]. computer; did the analysis, interpretation, and identifica- 'e presence of more uncommon species of birds in the tion; and wrote the manuscript. DE and YY revised the present study area might be due to the relatively large home manuscript for scientific content and did the language check. range and large niche requirement of the species. Ryan and All authors read and approved the final manuscript. Owino [55] suggested that the presence of large numbers of uncommon species in a certain area could be related to the Acknowledgments breeding nature and the large home range of the species. In addition, degradation of the habitat might be a reason for the 'e authors are thankful to the local community of Zegie species to be uncommon. Aynalem and Bekele [8] suggested Peninsula for their hospitality and kind response for sharing that cutting trees and clearing vegetation for coffee plan- their accumulative indigenous knowledge with our inquir- tations and firewood production to sell to the nearest town ing data. Moreover, the authors would like to extend their were common in the area, and this affects the relative appreciation to the College of Science, Bahir Dar University, abundance of birds. which supplied the required materials like GPS and Bird guide book. 5. Conclusion Zegie Peninsula forest patches and associated wetlands References support diverse avian species including endemic species of [1] Ethiopian Wildlife and Natural History Society (EWNHS), birds in different habitats. During the survey, a total of 96 Important Bird Areas of Ethiopia: A First Inventory, p. 300, species of birds belonging to 38 families were identified from Ethiopian Wildlife and Natural History Society, Addis Ababa, the study area. 'e highest number of bird species were Ethiopia, 1996. recorded from the family Alcedinidae. Species diversity and [2] L. J. Viveropol, A Guide to Endemic Birds of Ethiopia and richness were higher in both the wetland and forest habitats, Eritrea, Shama Books, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2001. and this might be associated with the presence of a sufficient [3] S. Tedla, “Protected areas management crisis in Ethiopia,” amount of food, habitat conditions, and the breeding nature Walia, vol. 16, pp. 17–30, 1995. of species. [4] D. W. Yalden and M. J. Largen, “'e endemic mammals of 'ere was significant variation in species across habitats. Ethiopia,” Mammal Review, vol. 22, no. 3-4, pp. 115–150, 'e variation in the habitat depends on the types of vege- tation in the area. During the wet season, the diversity of [5] A. Bekele and D. W. Yalden, Mammals of Ethiopia and avian species was the highest in wetland habitat and the Eritrea, Addis Ababa University Press, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, lowest in shrub habitat. During the dry season, the highest [6] WCMC, Endangered Birds, p. 60, World Conservation diversity of birds was observed in lakeshore habitats, perhaps Monitoring Centre, Chicago, IL, USA, 1995. because it is an intermediate between aquatic and terrestrial [7] J. C. Hillman, Ethiopia: Compendium of Wildlife Conservation habitats. 'is habitat plays a great role for opportunistic Information, Ethiopian Wildlife Conservation Organization, birds, especially for kingfisher species. vol. 1, p. 454, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 1993. 'e results of the present study showed that the [8] S. Aynalem and A. Bekele, “Species composition, relative majority of avian species in the area were known as abundance, and habitat association of the bird Fauna of the uncommon and frequent. 'e forest is shrinking in size Montane Forest of Zegie Peninsula and Nearby Islands, Lake from all directions due to various anthropogenic activities Tana, Ethiopia,” SINET: Ethiopian Journal of Science, vol. 32, including clear cutting of trees for firewood and con- no. 1, 2009. struction materials (timber production). 'e wetland [9] S. Aynalem and A. Bekele, “Species composition, relative habitat is also exposed to overgrazing by livestock which abundance and distribution of bird Fauna of Riverine and has a negative impact on both birds’ diversity and Wetland Habitats of Infranz and Yiganda at Southern Tip of abundance. It seems likely that the bird species diversity in Lake Tana, Ethiopia,” Tropical Ecology, vol. 49, no. 2, the area will decline. pp. 199–209, 2008. International Journal of Zoology 11 [10] A. Shimelis, Birds of Lake Tana Area, Ethiopia, a Photographic [30] D. Pomeroy, Counting Birds. A Guide to Assessing Numbers, Field Guide, View Graphics and Printers, Addis Ababa Uni- Biomass and Diversity of Afro Tropical Birds, p. 25, African versity Press, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2013. Wild Life Foundation, Nairobi, Kenya, 1992. [11] M. Clouet and J. Joachim, “Variations in bird communities of [31] O. Langrand and L. Wilme, “'e effects of forest fragmen- the Saharan mountains,” Ostrich, vol. 84, no. 3, pp. 205–211, tation on bird species abundance: a case study of the Central High Plateau of Madagascar,” Ostrich, vol. 71, no. 1-2, p. 315, [12] J. S. Kirby, A. J. Stattersfield, S. H. M. Butchart et al., “Key conservation issues for migratory land- and waterbird species [32] L. Hansson, “Environmental determinants of plant and bird on the world’s major flyways,” Bird Conservation Interna- diversity in ancient oak-hazel woodland in Sweden,” Forest tional, vol. 18, no. S1, pp. S49–S73, 2008. Ecology and Management, vol. 91, no. 2-3, pp. 137–143, 1997. [13] M. L. Faliarivola, M. J. Raherilalao, A. Andrianarimisa, and [33] R. Smith, Elements of Ecology, Harper Collins Publishers Ltd, S. M. Goodman, “'e diet of Malagasy dry forest understory London, UK, 3rd edition, 1992. birds based on faecal samples,” Ostrich, vol. 91, no. 1, [34] S. Buckton, “Managing wetlands for sustainable livelihoods at pp. 35–44, 2020. Koshi Tappu,” Danphe, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 12-13, 2007. [14] E. Sande, “Understorey bird species diversity and abundance [35] S. Basavarajappa, “Avifauna of agro-ecosystems of Maidan in three forest types of Semuliki National Park, Uganda,” area of Karnataka,” Zoos Print Journal, vol. 21, no. 4, Ostrich, vol. 71, no. 1-2, pp. 64–68, 2000. pp. 2217–2219, 2004. [15] Y. Getnet and D. Ejigu, “Community composition, relative [36] R. B. Colyn, H. A. Campbell, and A. M. Smit-Robinson, “'e abundance and habitat association of avian species in Apini application of camera trapping to assess Rallidae species and Dikuma forest patches, Awi Administrative Zone, richness within palustrine wetland habitat in South Africa,” Ethiopia,” Ethiopian Journal of Science and Technology, Ostrich, vol. 88, no. 3, pp. 235–245, 2017. vol. 10, no. 1, 2017. [37] I. Newton, “'e role of nest sites in limiting the numbers of [16] D. W. Gibbons, D. A. Hill, and W. J. Sutherland, “Birds,” in hole-nesting birds: a review,” Biological Conservation, vol. 70, Ecological Census Techniques: A Handbook, pp. 81–95, no. 3, pp. 265–276, 1994. Cambridge University Press, New York, NY, USA, 1996. [38] T. S. Sillett, “Foraging ecology of epiphyte-searching insec- [17] A. M. Abrah, S. A. Zelelew, H. K. Nigus, and A. Alelign, tivorous birds in Costa Rica,” 8e Condor, vol. 96, no. 4, “Diurnal activity patterns of Harwood’s Spurfowl Pternistis pp. 863–877, 1994. Harwoodi in relation to habitat types and climatic conditions [39] M. C. Baker and A. E. M. Baker, “Niche relationships among in the Central Highlands of Ethiopia,” Ostrich, vol. 89, no. 2, six species of Shorebirds on their wintering and breeding pp. 195–201, 2018. ranges,” Ecological Monographs, vol. 43, no. 2, pp. 193–212, [18] G. Gebeyehu and A. Bekele, “Human-wildlife conflict in Zegie Peninsula (Ethiopia) with emphasis on Grivet Monkey 2002. [40] J. Terborgh, S. K. Robinson, T. A. Parker III, C. A. Munn, and (Cercopithecus aethiops aethiops),” SINET: Ethiopian Journal N. Pierpont, “Structure and Organization of an Amazonian of Science, vol. 32, no. 2, 2009. [19] W. J. Sutherland, Ecological Census Techniques: A Hand Book, forest bird community,” Ecological Monographs, vol. 60, no. 2, p. 336, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 1996. pp. 213–238, 1990. [20] C. Bibby and B. Jones, Bird Census Techniques, pp. 239–241, [41] C. Werema, “Seasonal abundance and distribution of red- Academic Press, London, UK, 1999. capped robin chat cossypha natalensis in the eastern arc [21] C. J. Bibby, N. D. Burgess, and H. David, Bird Census mountains, Tanzania,” Ostrich, vol. 91, no. 2, pp. 129–133, Techniques, Academic Press, London, UK, 1992. [22] A. Rodr´ıguez-ferraro and J. G. Blake, “Diversity patterns of [42] B. J. Halstead, J. P. Rose, and P. M. Kleeman, “Time-to-de- bird assemblages in arid zones of Northern Venezuela,” 8e tection occupancy methods: performance and utility for Condor, vol. 110, no. 3, pp. 405–420, 2008. improving efficiency of surveys,” Ecological Applications, [23] G. E. Centerbury, T. E. Martin, D. R. Petit, L. J. Petit, and vol. 31, no. 3, p. 3, 2021. D. F. Bradford, “Bird communities and habitats are ecological [43] G. Woldegeorgis and T. Wube, “A survey on mammals of the indicators of forest condition in regional monitoring,” Con- yayu forest in Southwest Ethiopia,” SINET: Ethiopian Journal servation Biology, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 544–558, 2000. of Sciences, vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 135–138, 2012. [24] M. E. Hosteler and M. B. Martin, Florida Monitoring Program: [44] Nega T. and A. Bekele (2007). 'e Impact of Habitat Types on Transect and Point Count Method for Surveying Birds, Uni- the Diversity of Birds in the Dembia Plain Wetland of Lake versity of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA, 2001. Tana, Ethiopia. [25] I. Sinclari and P. Ryan, Comprehensive Illustrated Filled Guide. [45] C. J. Krebs, Ecological Methodologyp. 620, 2nd edition, Birds of Africa South of the Sahara, p. 759, Struik Publishers, Addison Welsey Longman, CA, USA, 1999. Cape Town, South Africa, 2003. [46] S. V. S. Rana, Essentials of Ecology and Environmental Science, [26] C. Redman, M. Johnes, and S. Marsden, Expedition Field Prentice-Hall of India Private Ltd., New Delhi, India, 2nd Techniques: Bird Surveys, pp. 134–137, Royal Geographical edition, 2005. Society, London, UK, 2009. [47] V. R. Cueto and J. L. Casenave, “Determinants of bird species [27] T. Stevenson and J. Fanshawe, A Field Guide to the Birds of richness: role of climate and vegetation structure at a regional East Africa, Bloomsbury Publishing, London, UK, 2001. scale,” Journal of Biogeography, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 487–492, [28] C. E. Shannon and W. Weaver, 8e Mathematical 8eory of Communication, University of Illinois press, Urbana, IL, USA, [48] A. I. Adeyemo and I. A. Ayodele, “Food and feeding ecology of the rock fowl picatthartes oreas in old Oyo National Park, [29] C. J. Bibby, M. Jones, and S. Marsden, Expedition Field Techniques: Bird Surveys, pp. 134–137, 'e Expedition Ad- Nigeria,” African Journal of Ecology, vol. 43, no. 1, pp. 1–6, visory Center Royal Geographic Society, London, UK, 1998. 2005. 12 International Journal of Zoology [49] T. G. Martin and H. P. Possingham, “Predicting the impact of livestock grazing on birds using foraging height data,” Journal of Applied Ecology, vol. 42, no. 2, pp. 400–408, 2005. [50] R. M. Erwin and R. A. Beck, “Restoration of water bird habitats in Chesapeake Bay: great expectations or Sisyphus revisited?” Water Birds, vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 163–176, 2007. [51] B. O. Oindo, R. A. De By, and A. K. Skidmore, “Environ- mental factors influencing bird species diversity in Kenya,” African Journal of Ecology, vol. 39, no. 3, pp. 295–302, 2001. [52] J. R. Karr, “Birds,” in Tropical Rain Forest Ecosystems, C. Redman and Johnes, Eds., vol. 24, pp. 401–416, Elsevier, Amsterdam, Netherlands, 1989. [53] J. R. Karr, “Geographical variation in avifauna’s of tropical forest under growth,” 8e Auk, vol. 97, pp. 283–298, 1980. [54] P.-Y. Lee and J. T. Rotenberry, “Relationships between bird species and tree species assemblages in forested habitats of eastern North America,” Journal of Biogeography, vol. 32, no. 7, pp. 1139–1150, 2005. [55] P. G. Ryan and A. O. Owino, Habitat Association of Papyrus Specialist Birds at 8ree Papyrus Swamps in Western Kenya, Blackwell Publishing. Ltd, Nairobi, Kenya, 2006.

Journal

International Journal of ZoologyHindawi Publishing Corporation

Published: Jul 10, 2021

References