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Research on the Design Method of a Bionic Suspension Workpiece Based on the Wing Structure of an Albatross

Research on the Design Method of a Bionic Suspension Workpiece Based on the Wing Structure of an... Hindawi Applied Bionics and Biomechanics Volume 2019, Article ID 2539410, 11 pages https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/2539410 Research Article Research on the Design Method of a Bionic Suspension Workpiece Based on the Wing Structure of an Albatross Siyang Gao, Bangcheng Zhang , and Jianwei Sun School of Mechatronic Engineering, Changchun University of Technology, Changchun 130012, China Correspondence should be addressed to Bangcheng Zhang; zhangbangcheng@ccut.edu.cn Received 30 October 2018; Revised 18 December 2018; Accepted 20 December 2018; Published 3 February 2019 Academic Editor: Jose Merodio Copyright © 2019 Siyang Gao et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. An air suspension platform uses air pressure to realize the suspension function during the suspension process, and it has the disadvantage of large air pressure and a small suspension force. In this study, an air suspension platform was built using bionic design to reduce the required air pressure and increase the suspension force. A suspension structure mapping model was established according to the physiological structure characteristics of albatross wings. A bionic model was established by using the theoretical calculation formula and structural size parameters of the structural design. A 3D printer was used to manufacture the physical prototype of the suspended workpiece. Based on this, a suspension test rig was built. Six sets of contrast experiments were designed. The experimental results of the suspension test bench were compared with the theoretical calculation results. The results show that the buoyancy of the suspended workpiece with a V-shaped surface at a 15-degree attack angle was optimal for the same air pressure as the other workpieces. The surface structure of the suspended workpiece was applied to the air static pressure guide rail. By comparing the experimental data, the air pressure of the original air suspension guide rail was reduced by 37%, and the validity of the theory and design method was verified. 1. Introduction the need for solid contact control with a smaller airflow device system [8]. Li et al. used gas suspension technology to design a tangential blowing suspension device, which Air suspension technology is a technique that uses the buoyancy provided by flowing airflow to overcome gravity was applied to glass transportation to improve the suspen- to suspend an object. This produces a gas film between sion lift of the glass while ensuring stability during the two objects in contact, separating the objects and thereby transportation of the glass [9]. Grinchuk based on the reducing the friction between the two objects. Air suspen- characteristics of small gas flow suspension technology to design a suspended solid particle device to save gas flow sion technology is widely used in bearings, guide rails, compressors, trains, blowers, glass transport equipment, and improve the combustion efficiency of the particles metal smelting, and other aspects [1–7]. However, air sus- [10]. Lu and Wang used air suspension technology to pension technology needs to provide a large airflow to design an air suspension support system, which reduced complete this movement, and it is now necessary to the required air pressure and improved the carrying capac- reduce the airflow required for the work and at the same ity of the electric platform [11]. Wei et al. proposed time ensure the normal operation of the air suspension multi-air suspension technology, which greatly reduced workpiece. In recent years, scholars around the world the required airflow and ensured that the suspended work- have conducted a large amount of experimental research piece was more stable [12]. on this subject. In references [8–12], from the use of improved designs In the early days of research on this subject, Paivanas of the venting hole or control of the gas flow, under the and Hassan developed an air output device for suspending premise of ensuring the normal operation of the equip- and moving small silicon wafers (57-82 mm in diameter) ment, the required gas pressure was reduced, and the stabil- based on air suspension technology, which greatly reduced ity of the air suspension system was guaranteed. Tian et al. 2 Applied Bionics and Biomechanics (b) (a) (c) Pinna rachis d 2 Pinnacle Pinn overlap region a (d) (e) (f ) Figure 1: Wing surface physiological structure schematic. S1 S1′ S2 S2′ Q2′ Q1 Q1′ Q2 A FB C 3SS Figure 2: Suspended workpiece schematic. designed the airfoil of small wind turbines based on the et al. applied the frontal structure of bionic bird wings to bionic swallow’s extended wing, which improved the aero- the design of an aircraft wing, which improved the upward dynamic performance of the turbine [13]. Cheng-Yu et al. lift of the aircraft [17]. Widhiarini et al. applied a bionic based on bionics principle to design a floating platform bird wing biological model to the design of a flapping- for the growth of the leading edge of the ear wing, changing wing micro air vehicle (FMAV) to enhance the lift of the the aerodynamic performance, improving the suspension aircraft [18]. Tian et al. used the wing structure of a bionic capacity, and reducing the required air pressure [14]. Ren owl, which was applied to the design of a turbine blade, and Li adopted the surface structure of bionic scorpion which was 12% more aerodynamic than the original turbine wings, which was applied to the design of micro-aircraft blade [19]. Huang based on the wing structure of a bionic eagle; a double crank rocker flapping mechanism was to improve the upward lift during flight [15]. Ge et al. extracted biometric models from owl wings, based on bion- designed to improve the flight lift of an eagle wing [20]. ics, and applied the models to the design of aircraft wings In references [13–20], domestic and foreign researchers to improve the upward lift of the aircraft [16]. Meseguer applied the principle of bionics to the design of suspension Applied Bionics and Biomechanics 3 (a) Workpiece with V-shaped surface (b) Workpiece with trapezoidal surface (c) Workpiece with circular arc surface (d) Workpiece with triangular surface (e) Workpiece with rectangular surface Figure 3: Bionic optimization structure diagram schematics. (a) Workpiece with (b) Workpiece with V-shaped surface trapezoidal surface (c) Workpiece with (d) Workpiece with circular arc surface oblique triangular surface (e) Workpiece with rectangular surface Figure 4: Bionic model. devices, effectively improving the lift of air suspension, but and sinking when flying [21–24]. Researchers such as Richardson have introduced the unique role of the albatross these designs were all used in aircraft and rotating blades, and they were not used in ordinary suspended workpieces. in the flight mechanism and the idea that feathers are an To sum up, the main purpose of this paper is to design a important part of the wings of an albatross. Different suspended workpiece according to the flying principle and feather shapes play different roles during flight. The morphological structure of bionic albatross wings. The air feathers growing on the phalanx are called the primary fly- ing feathers, which are arranged in a triangle to form the suspension technology is used to increase the suspension force of the air suspension platform and to realize the suspen- outer portion of the wing. Under the driving of the pha- sion function. lanx, a primary flying feather can have more free and com- Albatross wings have a special movement and flight plex movements and it is one of the main sources of the mechanism that allows them to adapt to complex environ- aerodynamic force [25]. The feathers growing on the fore- arms are called secondary feathers, and the ulnas on the ments and fly far away. The body of the albatross is stream- lined. During the flying process, the front end of the wing inside of the wings are closely arranged into a curved sur- and the middle end of the wing are opened at a specific face in order to provide effective lift for flight. The feathers angle. The airflow around the wings is used to follow a boat at the innermost layer of the root of the wing and the joint for several hours without flapping the wings. Because alba- of the body are called three-stage flying feathers. These tross wings have a special surface structure, the tendons of feathers form a smooth transitional aerodynamic surface, the wings can be straightened when their wings are opened, allowing the air to flow smoothly and effectively reducing resulting in a low probability of dynamic soaring forward the air resistance. The cover feathers on the outside of the 4 Applied Bionics and Biomechanics Figure 5: Suspended workpiece. 0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40 Barometric value (MPa) Workpiece with V-shaped surface Workpiece with trapezoidal surface Workpiece with circular arc surface Workpiece with oblique traingular surface Workpiece with rectangular surface Workpiece with smooth surface Figure 6: Floating workpiece data comparison chart. body and on the upper surface of the wings are divided into the albatross are mainly tightly buckled and arranged in an orderly manner with grooves on the surface. An albatross the main cover feathers, the mid-covered feathers, and the small cover feathers, which can make the birds streamlined can lift upwards with its wings using the air to achieve and increase the upward force. Each flying feather consists dynamic soaring in the sky [26, 27]. Its excellent aerody- of a tough and elastic vane from the feather shaft and the namic performance is related with the special structure of feather piece. The upper surface of the entire wing is a its wing surface. Many internal and external scholars had car- ried out a large number of experiments and research on the streamlined curved surface. When the air flows through the upper and lower surfaces, it can produce a pressure flight principle of the albatross, which solved many engineer- difference between the vertical wing and the upper surface, ing problems. Gottfried Sachs based on the albatross flight which provides lift for the flight of the albatross. The wings of principle to propose a new mathematical approach, which Quality (g) Applied Bionics and Biomechanics 5 As shown in Figure 2, the fixed coordinate system is deals with the complex flight manoeuvre of dynamic soaring [28]. Richardson designed the dynamic soaring drone based O xy. The intersection of the surface structure of the sus- on the principle of the albatross dynamic soaring, which pended workpiece and the X axis is represented by A, B, increases the dynamic soaring distance of the dynamic soar- and C, and the intersection with the Z axis is represented ing drone [29]. Based on the albatross flight principle, by D. Taking points E, F, and G, where EF is the midline Renaud Barate designed a controller to improve the robust- ′ ′ of the triangle AEB, and taking Q , Q , Q , and Q as the 1 2 1 2 ness of the controller [30]. Vincent Bonnin based on the midpoints of AD, AE, BE, and GC, respectively, the dis- flight technology principle of albatrosses to solve the problem tance from the projection of Q on the X axis to point A that small UAVs face serious limitations in energy storage is 1/4s, the distance from the projection of Q on the X axis choice [31]. to point A is 3/4s, the distance from the projection of Q on The first section of this paper introduces the current the X axis to point B is 1/4s, and the distance from the research status. The second section introduces the bionic projection of Q on the X axis to point C is 1/4s, AB = s, model of the albatross wing structure. The third section BE = l. The distance from point E to the X axis is h. S mainly introduces the structure bionic model of the represents the area on the right side of the first lap, S rep- albatross wing angle of attack. In the fourth section, the sur- resents the area on the left side of the first lap, S represents face structure of the bionic albatross wings was experimen- the area on the right side of the second lap, S represents tally compared by setting up a suspension test rig, and the the area on the left side of the second lap, and n is the bionic wing surface structure was applied to the air static number of triangular threads. pressure guide to prove the feasibility of the theory. In the According to the geometric relationship of Figure 2, fifth section, the design theory and the experimental results of the bionic design suspended workpiece are summarized. l = , cos θ/2 2. Albatross Wing Structure Bionic Model S =2πr l =2π l, 1 1 2.1. Wing Surface Biometric Extraction and Mapping. The albatross wings are shown in Figure 1(a) [29]. During the S =2πr l =2π + s l, 3 flight of an albatross, there is a specific angle between the 2 2 wings and the wind. This angle is called the angle of attack. The angle of attack can provide lift for the albatross during s πsl S =2πr l =2π + n +1 s l = +2πsl n − 1 , n n flight. A schematic diagram of the wing section is shown in 4 2 Figure 1(b). The surface structure of the albatross wings is shown in Figure 1(c) [32]. The wing surface structure is a S = s + s + ⋅⋯⋅ +s = πsl n − n 5 k1 1 2 n very complex structure that provides lift and thrust to fly- ing creatures. The sliding of the bionic wings requires a From Equations (1) and (5), detailed study of their surface structure and their motion characteristics. The wing surface structure includes the πsh 1 feather shaft and the feather piece. The surface structure S = n − n 6 k1 of a wing has an important role during the flight of an alba- cos θ/2 2 tross. Its wing surface structure is a special physiological structure, and the surface feather area presents a radial Using the same principle, nonsmooth shape, which is mainly formed by the mutual flying feathers interlocking with each other and showing a 3s ′ ′ 7 S =2πr l =2π l, 1 1 concave-convex groove. The physiological structure dia- gram is shown in Figure 1(d). The symbol 1 indicates the feather shaft, the symbol 2 indicates the feather piece, and 3s ′ ′ S =2πr l =2π + s l, 8 the symbol d indicates the overlapping area of the feather 2 2 piece. Based on the surface characteristics of the wing struc- ture, this study simplifies its structure and extracts features. 3s 3πsl ′ ′ S =2πr l =2π + n − 1 s l = +2πsl n − 1 , 9 As shown in Figure 1(e), the structure diagram is shown in n n 4 2 Figure 1(f). As shown in Figure 1(f), the surface structure of the alba- ′ ′ ′ tross wings is a concave-convex groove structure. According S = s + s + ⋅⋯⋅ +s = πsl n − n 10 k2 1 2 n to the unique physiological structure of the wing shaft and the feather piece of the albatross wings, a design method From Equations (1) and (10), was provided for the theoretical study of the bionic suspen- sion workpiece. A schematic diagram of the surface structure πsh 1 of the suspended workpiece was then designed, as shown in S = n − n 11 k2 cos θ/2 2 Figure 2. 6 Applied Bionics and Biomechanics Velocity streamline 1 5.34E – 001 4.058E – 001 2.722E – 001 1.386E – 001 4.952E – 001 -1 (m s ) 0 0.050 0.100 (m) 0.025 0.075 Figure 7: Suspended workpiece flow diagram with an angle of attack. 1.6 1.4 1.2 1.0 0.8 0.6 02468 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 Attack of angle (º) Suspended workpiece with attack angle Figure 8: Relationship between angle of attack and lift coefficient. From Equations (6) and (11), 2πsl S = s + s = n 12 k1 k2 cos θ/2 For the condition when the upward air pressure is P, introducing the buoyancy coefficient k =1 5, the receiving Figure 9: Ordinary suspension workpiece and suspended upward buoyancy F is obtained. workpiece with angles of attack. F = PS 13 Coefficient of lift Applied Bionics and Biomechanics 7 0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40 Barometric value (MPa) Workpiece with 15° attack angle Workpiece with 5° attack angle Workpiece with no attack angle Figure 10: Suspended workpiece data comparison chart. 12 (a) 12 (b) 12 (c) 12 (d) Figure 11: Air static pressure rail. From Equations (12) and (13), According to the surface structure of the albatross wings, five kinds of bionic structures were designed. The structure diagrams are shown in Figure 3. 2Pπsh 2 For the workpieces with V-shaped, trapezoidal, circular, F = k n 14 cos θ/2 triangular, and rectangular surfaces, the depth (h), width Quality (g) 8 Applied Bionics and Biomechanics (s), and aspect ratio (h/s) are 0 25 ± 0 02 mm, 2±0 02 mm, and 0.25, respectively. The surface structures of the five bionic wings were designed to be circular and modeled by three-dimensional software, as shown in Figure 4. 2.2. Experimental Test. A filter regulator is a device that adjusts the air pressure value. An air suspension test stand is a device used for experimental testing. A multimeter is a device that detects the current. A balancing weight is a device for testing the mass of suspended workpieces. The trachea is used to transport gases. The battery provides electrical energy to the experimental test set. Figure 12: Air static pressure rail suspension device. A 3D printer was used to print six kinds of suspended workpieces with V-shaped, trapezoidal, circular arc, rectan- rather decreases with the increase of the angle of attack after gular, smooth plane, and oblique triangle surfaces. When reaching a maximum value. The calculation equation of the doing the suspension test, the trachea is connected at the left lift is shown below: end of the filter regulator to the air pump and the multimeter switch is turned on. The suspended workpiece is placed on the ′ 15 F = ρν s c , 2 L suspension test bench, the pressure value of the filter regulator is adjusted, and weights of different masses to the suspended workpiece are continuously added until the current reading ′ 16 S =2πrn, on the multimeter proves that the suspended workpiece stops floating and records the mass of the weight. Six kinds of sus- F = n ρν 2πrc 2 L pended workpieces were subjected to comparative experi- ments according to the above experimental steps, and From Equations (14) and (17), the buoyancy formula of a experimental data were recorded. The experimental bench circular workpiece with a V-shaped surface with an angle of and the suspended workpieces are shown in Figure 5. attack is The comparison experiments were carried out on the built suspension test device using the above six kinds of suspended 2πshpn 1 ′ ′ workpieces. The experimental results are shown in Figure 6. F = k + nρν s c 18 cos θ/2 2 For the above comparative experiments, eight sets had the same air pressure. The suspended workpiece with a V-shaped F is the buoyancy of a circular workpiece with a surface had a larger suspension force than a circular-shaped V-shaped surface with an angle of attack, F is the lift of surface suspended workpiece, a trapezoidal surface sus- the edge of a circular workpiece with an angle of attack, ρ is pended workpiece, a rectangular surface suspended work- the air density, ν is the dynamic pressure, s is the reference piece, an inclined triangular surface suspended workpiece, area, and c is the lift coefficient. or a smooth surface suspended workpiece. 3.2. Experiment Analysis. A 3D printer was used to print a 3. Structural Bionic Model of the Albatross suspended workpiece with no angle of attack and a sus- pended workpiece with an angle of attack in the built test Wing Angle of Attack bench (Figure 5) for experimental comparison. The sus- 3.1. Wing Angle Feature Extraction and Mapping. The air- pended workpiece is shown in Figure 9. flow blows on a circular workpiece from the bottom to the The suspended workpiece with no angle of attack and the top. When the airflow is blown on the lower surface of the suspended workpiece with a 15-degree angle of attack were suspended workpiece, the airflow overflows to both sides. compared on the built suspension experimental device The structure of the suspended workpiece is designed with (Figure 5). The experimental results are shown in Figure 10. an angle of attack to improve the upward buoyancy of the As shown in Figure 11, for eight sets with the same air suspended workpiece. The FLUENT simulation software pressure, the suspended workpiece with a 15 angle of attack program is used to simulate the effect of the airflow on the has a larger suspension lift than a suspended workpiece with suspended workpieces, as shown in Figure 7. a5 angle of attack and a suspended workpiece with no angle According to the characteristic of the angle of attack of attack. with lift coefficient, the (CFD) method of computational fluid dynamics is used to simulate the suspension work- 4. Air Suspension Guide Bionic Manufacturing piece with the angle of attack. The relation between the angle of attack and the lift coefficient is obtained, as shown The air suspension guide rail is mainly composed of a in Figure 8. guide rail and a slider matched with the structure. The It can be concluded from Figure 8 that the lift coefficient working principle is that the airflow is sprayed through does not increase with the increase of the angle of attack, but the air outlet hole on the guide rail or the slider, and a Design bionic model Design of attack angle for bionic wings Applied Bionics and Biomechanics 9 0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40 Barometric value (MPa) Aerostatic guide rail with V-shaped surface Aerostatic guide rail with circular arc surface Aerostatic guide rail Figure 13: Air static pressure rail data comparison chart. Design of the Feature extraction surface structure of attack angle of of bionic wings wings Feature extraction of wing surface structure Flight principle analysis Wing flight principle Figure 14: Technical route. Experimental test Bionic structure mapping Simplified wing surface structure Quality (g) 10 Applied Bionics and Biomechanics stable air film is formed between the guide rail and the Data Availability surface of the slider to suspend the slider on the guide rail, The data used to support the findings of this study are thereby reducing or eliminating contact friction between available from the corresponding author upon request. the slider and the guide rail. The motion of the slider is close to an ideal frictionless motion, a smooth movement without friction and vibration is achieved, and the advan- Conflicts of Interest tages are high motion precision and clean and pollution- free action. The authors declare no potential conflicts of interest with Based on the surface structure of the bionic albatross respect to the research, authorship, and/or publication of wings, the surface of the guide rail was designed into different this article. structures for experimental testing. The slider structure is shown in Figure 11(a), and the ordinary air static pressure guide rail is shown in Figure 11(b). The guide rail surface Acknowledgments designed as the arc-shaped structure of the 15 angle of attack is shown in Figure 11(c), and the guide rail surface designed This work is supported by the National Natural Science Fund as the V-shaped structure of 15 angle of attack is shown in (NSFC) under Grant 61751304, Jilin Scientific and Techno- Figure 11(d). logical Development Program 2018C037-1, 20180201058G A comparison of the suspension experiments of two X, and Jilin Province Education Department Project JJKH kinds of aerostatic guide rails on the built air static pressure 20181010KJ. We thank LetPut WebShop for its linguistic rail suspension device was completed (Figure 12). 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Research on the Design Method of a Bionic Suspension Workpiece Based on the Wing Structure of an Albatross

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Copyright © 2019 Siyang Gao et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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10.1155/2019/2539410
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Hindawi Applied Bionics and Biomechanics Volume 2019, Article ID 2539410, 11 pages https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/2539410 Research Article Research on the Design Method of a Bionic Suspension Workpiece Based on the Wing Structure of an Albatross Siyang Gao, Bangcheng Zhang , and Jianwei Sun School of Mechatronic Engineering, Changchun University of Technology, Changchun 130012, China Correspondence should be addressed to Bangcheng Zhang; zhangbangcheng@ccut.edu.cn Received 30 October 2018; Revised 18 December 2018; Accepted 20 December 2018; Published 3 February 2019 Academic Editor: Jose Merodio Copyright © 2019 Siyang Gao et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. An air suspension platform uses air pressure to realize the suspension function during the suspension process, and it has the disadvantage of large air pressure and a small suspension force. In this study, an air suspension platform was built using bionic design to reduce the required air pressure and increase the suspension force. A suspension structure mapping model was established according to the physiological structure characteristics of albatross wings. A bionic model was established by using the theoretical calculation formula and structural size parameters of the structural design. A 3D printer was used to manufacture the physical prototype of the suspended workpiece. Based on this, a suspension test rig was built. Six sets of contrast experiments were designed. The experimental results of the suspension test bench were compared with the theoretical calculation results. The results show that the buoyancy of the suspended workpiece with a V-shaped surface at a 15-degree attack angle was optimal for the same air pressure as the other workpieces. The surface structure of the suspended workpiece was applied to the air static pressure guide rail. By comparing the experimental data, the air pressure of the original air suspension guide rail was reduced by 37%, and the validity of the theory and design method was verified. 1. Introduction the need for solid contact control with a smaller airflow device system [8]. Li et al. used gas suspension technology to design a tangential blowing suspension device, which Air suspension technology is a technique that uses the buoyancy provided by flowing airflow to overcome gravity was applied to glass transportation to improve the suspen- to suspend an object. This produces a gas film between sion lift of the glass while ensuring stability during the two objects in contact, separating the objects and thereby transportation of the glass [9]. Grinchuk based on the reducing the friction between the two objects. Air suspen- characteristics of small gas flow suspension technology to design a suspended solid particle device to save gas flow sion technology is widely used in bearings, guide rails, compressors, trains, blowers, glass transport equipment, and improve the combustion efficiency of the particles metal smelting, and other aspects [1–7]. However, air sus- [10]. Lu and Wang used air suspension technology to pension technology needs to provide a large airflow to design an air suspension support system, which reduced complete this movement, and it is now necessary to the required air pressure and improved the carrying capac- reduce the airflow required for the work and at the same ity of the electric platform [11]. Wei et al. proposed time ensure the normal operation of the air suspension multi-air suspension technology, which greatly reduced workpiece. In recent years, scholars around the world the required airflow and ensured that the suspended work- have conducted a large amount of experimental research piece was more stable [12]. on this subject. In references [8–12], from the use of improved designs In the early days of research on this subject, Paivanas of the venting hole or control of the gas flow, under the and Hassan developed an air output device for suspending premise of ensuring the normal operation of the equip- and moving small silicon wafers (57-82 mm in diameter) ment, the required gas pressure was reduced, and the stabil- based on air suspension technology, which greatly reduced ity of the air suspension system was guaranteed. Tian et al. 2 Applied Bionics and Biomechanics (b) (a) (c) Pinna rachis d 2 Pinnacle Pinn overlap region a (d) (e) (f ) Figure 1: Wing surface physiological structure schematic. S1 S1′ S2 S2′ Q2′ Q1 Q1′ Q2 A FB C 3SS Figure 2: Suspended workpiece schematic. designed the airfoil of small wind turbines based on the et al. applied the frontal structure of bionic bird wings to bionic swallow’s extended wing, which improved the aero- the design of an aircraft wing, which improved the upward dynamic performance of the turbine [13]. Cheng-Yu et al. lift of the aircraft [17]. Widhiarini et al. applied a bionic based on bionics principle to design a floating platform bird wing biological model to the design of a flapping- for the growth of the leading edge of the ear wing, changing wing micro air vehicle (FMAV) to enhance the lift of the the aerodynamic performance, improving the suspension aircraft [18]. Tian et al. used the wing structure of a bionic capacity, and reducing the required air pressure [14]. Ren owl, which was applied to the design of a turbine blade, and Li adopted the surface structure of bionic scorpion which was 12% more aerodynamic than the original turbine wings, which was applied to the design of micro-aircraft blade [19]. Huang based on the wing structure of a bionic eagle; a double crank rocker flapping mechanism was to improve the upward lift during flight [15]. Ge et al. extracted biometric models from owl wings, based on bion- designed to improve the flight lift of an eagle wing [20]. ics, and applied the models to the design of aircraft wings In references [13–20], domestic and foreign researchers to improve the upward lift of the aircraft [16]. Meseguer applied the principle of bionics to the design of suspension Applied Bionics and Biomechanics 3 (a) Workpiece with V-shaped surface (b) Workpiece with trapezoidal surface (c) Workpiece with circular arc surface (d) Workpiece with triangular surface (e) Workpiece with rectangular surface Figure 3: Bionic optimization structure diagram schematics. (a) Workpiece with (b) Workpiece with V-shaped surface trapezoidal surface (c) Workpiece with (d) Workpiece with circular arc surface oblique triangular surface (e) Workpiece with rectangular surface Figure 4: Bionic model. devices, effectively improving the lift of air suspension, but and sinking when flying [21–24]. Researchers such as Richardson have introduced the unique role of the albatross these designs were all used in aircraft and rotating blades, and they were not used in ordinary suspended workpieces. in the flight mechanism and the idea that feathers are an To sum up, the main purpose of this paper is to design a important part of the wings of an albatross. Different suspended workpiece according to the flying principle and feather shapes play different roles during flight. The morphological structure of bionic albatross wings. The air feathers growing on the phalanx are called the primary fly- ing feathers, which are arranged in a triangle to form the suspension technology is used to increase the suspension force of the air suspension platform and to realize the suspen- outer portion of the wing. Under the driving of the pha- sion function. lanx, a primary flying feather can have more free and com- Albatross wings have a special movement and flight plex movements and it is one of the main sources of the mechanism that allows them to adapt to complex environ- aerodynamic force [25]. The feathers growing on the fore- arms are called secondary feathers, and the ulnas on the ments and fly far away. The body of the albatross is stream- lined. During the flying process, the front end of the wing inside of the wings are closely arranged into a curved sur- and the middle end of the wing are opened at a specific face in order to provide effective lift for flight. The feathers angle. The airflow around the wings is used to follow a boat at the innermost layer of the root of the wing and the joint for several hours without flapping the wings. Because alba- of the body are called three-stage flying feathers. These tross wings have a special surface structure, the tendons of feathers form a smooth transitional aerodynamic surface, the wings can be straightened when their wings are opened, allowing the air to flow smoothly and effectively reducing resulting in a low probability of dynamic soaring forward the air resistance. The cover feathers on the outside of the 4 Applied Bionics and Biomechanics Figure 5: Suspended workpiece. 0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40 Barometric value (MPa) Workpiece with V-shaped surface Workpiece with trapezoidal surface Workpiece with circular arc surface Workpiece with oblique traingular surface Workpiece with rectangular surface Workpiece with smooth surface Figure 6: Floating workpiece data comparison chart. body and on the upper surface of the wings are divided into the albatross are mainly tightly buckled and arranged in an orderly manner with grooves on the surface. An albatross the main cover feathers, the mid-covered feathers, and the small cover feathers, which can make the birds streamlined can lift upwards with its wings using the air to achieve and increase the upward force. Each flying feather consists dynamic soaring in the sky [26, 27]. Its excellent aerody- of a tough and elastic vane from the feather shaft and the namic performance is related with the special structure of feather piece. The upper surface of the entire wing is a its wing surface. Many internal and external scholars had car- ried out a large number of experiments and research on the streamlined curved surface. When the air flows through the upper and lower surfaces, it can produce a pressure flight principle of the albatross, which solved many engineer- difference between the vertical wing and the upper surface, ing problems. Gottfried Sachs based on the albatross flight which provides lift for the flight of the albatross. The wings of principle to propose a new mathematical approach, which Quality (g) Applied Bionics and Biomechanics 5 As shown in Figure 2, the fixed coordinate system is deals with the complex flight manoeuvre of dynamic soaring [28]. Richardson designed the dynamic soaring drone based O xy. The intersection of the surface structure of the sus- on the principle of the albatross dynamic soaring, which pended workpiece and the X axis is represented by A, B, increases the dynamic soaring distance of the dynamic soar- and C, and the intersection with the Z axis is represented ing drone [29]. Based on the albatross flight principle, by D. Taking points E, F, and G, where EF is the midline Renaud Barate designed a controller to improve the robust- ′ ′ of the triangle AEB, and taking Q , Q , Q , and Q as the 1 2 1 2 ness of the controller [30]. Vincent Bonnin based on the midpoints of AD, AE, BE, and GC, respectively, the dis- flight technology principle of albatrosses to solve the problem tance from the projection of Q on the X axis to point A that small UAVs face serious limitations in energy storage is 1/4s, the distance from the projection of Q on the X axis choice [31]. to point A is 3/4s, the distance from the projection of Q on The first section of this paper introduces the current the X axis to point B is 1/4s, and the distance from the research status. The second section introduces the bionic projection of Q on the X axis to point C is 1/4s, AB = s, model of the albatross wing structure. The third section BE = l. The distance from point E to the X axis is h. S mainly introduces the structure bionic model of the represents the area on the right side of the first lap, S rep- albatross wing angle of attack. In the fourth section, the sur- resents the area on the left side of the first lap, S represents face structure of the bionic albatross wings was experimen- the area on the right side of the second lap, S represents tally compared by setting up a suspension test rig, and the the area on the left side of the second lap, and n is the bionic wing surface structure was applied to the air static number of triangular threads. pressure guide to prove the feasibility of the theory. In the According to the geometric relationship of Figure 2, fifth section, the design theory and the experimental results of the bionic design suspended workpiece are summarized. l = , cos θ/2 2. Albatross Wing Structure Bionic Model S =2πr l =2π l, 1 1 2.1. Wing Surface Biometric Extraction and Mapping. The albatross wings are shown in Figure 1(a) [29]. During the S =2πr l =2π + s l, 3 flight of an albatross, there is a specific angle between the 2 2 wings and the wind. This angle is called the angle of attack. The angle of attack can provide lift for the albatross during s πsl S =2πr l =2π + n +1 s l = +2πsl n − 1 , n n flight. A schematic diagram of the wing section is shown in 4 2 Figure 1(b). The surface structure of the albatross wings is shown in Figure 1(c) [32]. The wing surface structure is a S = s + s + ⋅⋯⋅ +s = πsl n − n 5 k1 1 2 n very complex structure that provides lift and thrust to fly- ing creatures. The sliding of the bionic wings requires a From Equations (1) and (5), detailed study of their surface structure and their motion characteristics. The wing surface structure includes the πsh 1 feather shaft and the feather piece. The surface structure S = n − n 6 k1 of a wing has an important role during the flight of an alba- cos θ/2 2 tross. Its wing surface structure is a special physiological structure, and the surface feather area presents a radial Using the same principle, nonsmooth shape, which is mainly formed by the mutual flying feathers interlocking with each other and showing a 3s ′ ′ 7 S =2πr l =2π l, 1 1 concave-convex groove. The physiological structure dia- gram is shown in Figure 1(d). The symbol 1 indicates the feather shaft, the symbol 2 indicates the feather piece, and 3s ′ ′ S =2πr l =2π + s l, 8 the symbol d indicates the overlapping area of the feather 2 2 piece. Based on the surface characteristics of the wing struc- ture, this study simplifies its structure and extracts features. 3s 3πsl ′ ′ S =2πr l =2π + n − 1 s l = +2πsl n − 1 , 9 As shown in Figure 1(e), the structure diagram is shown in n n 4 2 Figure 1(f). As shown in Figure 1(f), the surface structure of the alba- ′ ′ ′ tross wings is a concave-convex groove structure. According S = s + s + ⋅⋯⋅ +s = πsl n − n 10 k2 1 2 n to the unique physiological structure of the wing shaft and the feather piece of the albatross wings, a design method From Equations (1) and (10), was provided for the theoretical study of the bionic suspen- sion workpiece. A schematic diagram of the surface structure πsh 1 of the suspended workpiece was then designed, as shown in S = n − n 11 k2 cos θ/2 2 Figure 2. 6 Applied Bionics and Biomechanics Velocity streamline 1 5.34E – 001 4.058E – 001 2.722E – 001 1.386E – 001 4.952E – 001 -1 (m s ) 0 0.050 0.100 (m) 0.025 0.075 Figure 7: Suspended workpiece flow diagram with an angle of attack. 1.6 1.4 1.2 1.0 0.8 0.6 02468 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 Attack of angle (º) Suspended workpiece with attack angle Figure 8: Relationship between angle of attack and lift coefficient. From Equations (6) and (11), 2πsl S = s + s = n 12 k1 k2 cos θ/2 For the condition when the upward air pressure is P, introducing the buoyancy coefficient k =1 5, the receiving Figure 9: Ordinary suspension workpiece and suspended upward buoyancy F is obtained. workpiece with angles of attack. F = PS 13 Coefficient of lift Applied Bionics and Biomechanics 7 0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40 Barometric value (MPa) Workpiece with 15° attack angle Workpiece with 5° attack angle Workpiece with no attack angle Figure 10: Suspended workpiece data comparison chart. 12 (a) 12 (b) 12 (c) 12 (d) Figure 11: Air static pressure rail. From Equations (12) and (13), According to the surface structure of the albatross wings, five kinds of bionic structures were designed. The structure diagrams are shown in Figure 3. 2Pπsh 2 For the workpieces with V-shaped, trapezoidal, circular, F = k n 14 cos θ/2 triangular, and rectangular surfaces, the depth (h), width Quality (g) 8 Applied Bionics and Biomechanics (s), and aspect ratio (h/s) are 0 25 ± 0 02 mm, 2±0 02 mm, and 0.25, respectively. The surface structures of the five bionic wings were designed to be circular and modeled by three-dimensional software, as shown in Figure 4. 2.2. Experimental Test. A filter regulator is a device that adjusts the air pressure value. An air suspension test stand is a device used for experimental testing. A multimeter is a device that detects the current. A balancing weight is a device for testing the mass of suspended workpieces. The trachea is used to transport gases. The battery provides electrical energy to the experimental test set. Figure 12: Air static pressure rail suspension device. A 3D printer was used to print six kinds of suspended workpieces with V-shaped, trapezoidal, circular arc, rectan- rather decreases with the increase of the angle of attack after gular, smooth plane, and oblique triangle surfaces. When reaching a maximum value. The calculation equation of the doing the suspension test, the trachea is connected at the left lift is shown below: end of the filter regulator to the air pump and the multimeter switch is turned on. The suspended workpiece is placed on the ′ 15 F = ρν s c , 2 L suspension test bench, the pressure value of the filter regulator is adjusted, and weights of different masses to the suspended workpiece are continuously added until the current reading ′ 16 S =2πrn, on the multimeter proves that the suspended workpiece stops floating and records the mass of the weight. Six kinds of sus- F = n ρν 2πrc 2 L pended workpieces were subjected to comparative experi- ments according to the above experimental steps, and From Equations (14) and (17), the buoyancy formula of a experimental data were recorded. The experimental bench circular workpiece with a V-shaped surface with an angle of and the suspended workpieces are shown in Figure 5. attack is The comparison experiments were carried out on the built suspension test device using the above six kinds of suspended 2πshpn 1 ′ ′ workpieces. The experimental results are shown in Figure 6. F = k + nρν s c 18 cos θ/2 2 For the above comparative experiments, eight sets had the same air pressure. The suspended workpiece with a V-shaped F is the buoyancy of a circular workpiece with a surface had a larger suspension force than a circular-shaped V-shaped surface with an angle of attack, F is the lift of surface suspended workpiece, a trapezoidal surface sus- the edge of a circular workpiece with an angle of attack, ρ is pended workpiece, a rectangular surface suspended work- the air density, ν is the dynamic pressure, s is the reference piece, an inclined triangular surface suspended workpiece, area, and c is the lift coefficient. or a smooth surface suspended workpiece. 3.2. Experiment Analysis. A 3D printer was used to print a 3. Structural Bionic Model of the Albatross suspended workpiece with no angle of attack and a sus- pended workpiece with an angle of attack in the built test Wing Angle of Attack bench (Figure 5) for experimental comparison. The sus- 3.1. Wing Angle Feature Extraction and Mapping. The air- pended workpiece is shown in Figure 9. flow blows on a circular workpiece from the bottom to the The suspended workpiece with no angle of attack and the top. When the airflow is blown on the lower surface of the suspended workpiece with a 15-degree angle of attack were suspended workpiece, the airflow overflows to both sides. compared on the built suspension experimental device The structure of the suspended workpiece is designed with (Figure 5). The experimental results are shown in Figure 10. an angle of attack to improve the upward buoyancy of the As shown in Figure 11, for eight sets with the same air suspended workpiece. The FLUENT simulation software pressure, the suspended workpiece with a 15 angle of attack program is used to simulate the effect of the airflow on the has a larger suspension lift than a suspended workpiece with suspended workpieces, as shown in Figure 7. a5 angle of attack and a suspended workpiece with no angle According to the characteristic of the angle of attack of attack. with lift coefficient, the (CFD) method of computational fluid dynamics is used to simulate the suspension work- 4. Air Suspension Guide Bionic Manufacturing piece with the angle of attack. The relation between the angle of attack and the lift coefficient is obtained, as shown The air suspension guide rail is mainly composed of a in Figure 8. guide rail and a slider matched with the structure. The It can be concluded from Figure 8 that the lift coefficient working principle is that the airflow is sprayed through does not increase with the increase of the angle of attack, but the air outlet hole on the guide rail or the slider, and a Design bionic model Design of attack angle for bionic wings Applied Bionics and Biomechanics 9 0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40 Barometric value (MPa) Aerostatic guide rail with V-shaped surface Aerostatic guide rail with circular arc surface Aerostatic guide rail Figure 13: Air static pressure rail data comparison chart. Design of the Feature extraction surface structure of attack angle of of bionic wings wings Feature extraction of wing surface structure Flight principle analysis Wing flight principle Figure 14: Technical route. Experimental test Bionic structure mapping Simplified wing surface structure Quality (g) 10 Applied Bionics and Biomechanics stable air film is formed between the guide rail and the Data Availability surface of the slider to suspend the slider on the guide rail, The data used to support the findings of this study are thereby reducing or eliminating contact friction between available from the corresponding author upon request. the slider and the guide rail. The motion of the slider is close to an ideal frictionless motion, a smooth movement without friction and vibration is achieved, and the advan- Conflicts of Interest tages are high motion precision and clean and pollution- free action. The authors declare no potential conflicts of interest with Based on the surface structure of the bionic albatross respect to the research, authorship, and/or publication of wings, the surface of the guide rail was designed into different this article. structures for experimental testing. The slider structure is shown in Figure 11(a), and the ordinary air static pressure guide rail is shown in Figure 11(b). The guide rail surface Acknowledgments designed as the arc-shaped structure of the 15 angle of attack is shown in Figure 11(c), and the guide rail surface designed This work is supported by the National Natural Science Fund as the V-shaped structure of 15 angle of attack is shown in (NSFC) under Grant 61751304, Jilin Scientific and Techno- Figure 11(d). logical Development Program 2018C037-1, 20180201058G A comparison of the suspension experiments of two X, and Jilin Province Education Department Project JJKH kinds of aerostatic guide rails on the built air static pressure 20181010KJ. We thank LetPut WebShop for its linguistic rail suspension device was completed (Figure 12). 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