Get 20M+ Full-Text Papers For Less Than $1.50/day. Start a 14-Day Trial for You or Your Team.

Learn More →

Hereditary Pancreatic and Hepatobiliary Cancers

Hereditary Pancreatic and Hepatobiliary Cancers Hindawi Publishing Corporation International Journal of Surgical Oncology Volume 2011, Article ID 154673, 10 pages doi:10.1155/2011/154673 Review Article 1 1 2 1 Ashraf Haddad, Gopal C. Kowdley, Timothy M. Pawlik, and Steven C. Cunningham Department of Surgery, Saint Agnes Hospital, Baltimore, MD 21229, USA Department of Surgery, The Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, MD 21231, USA Correspondence should be addressed to Steven C. Cunningham, steven.cunningham@stagnes.org Received 4 April 2011; Accepted 28 April 2011 Academic Editor: Benedito Mauro Rossi Copyright © 2011 Ashraf Haddad et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Hereditary etiologies of pancreatic and hepatobiliary cancers are increasingly recognized. An estimated >10% of pancreatic and increasing number of hepatobiliary cancers are hereditary. The cumulative risk of hereditary pancreatic cancer ranges from measurable but negligible in cystic fibrosis to a sobering 70% in cases of hereditary pancreatitis. Candidates for pancreatic cancer surveillance are those with a risk pancreatic cancer estimated to be >10-fold that of the normal population. Screening for pancreatic cancer in high-risk individuals is typically performed by endoscopic ultrasound and should begin at least 10 years prior to the age of the youngest affected relative. Disease states known to be associated with increased risk of hepatocellular cancer include hereditary hemochromatosis, autoimmune hepatitis, porphyria, and α1-antitrypsin deficiency, with relative risks as high as 36-fold. Although much less is known about hereditary bile-duct cancers, Muir-Torre syndrome and bile salt export pump deficiency are diseases whose association with hereditary carcinogenesis is under investigation. 1. Introduction PC (HPC), the vast majority of which is pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), is generally accepted to be defined Hereditary etiologies of carcinogenesis have been increas- as PC occurring in families with ≥2 first-degree relatives ingly recognized over the past century. In 1889, Billroth was (FDRs) [6]. one of the first to recognize the occurrence of multiple Six years after the landmark 1967 publication by Lynch primary malignant neoplasms [1] and Lynch et al. in 1967 et al. on the role of hereditary factors in the occurrence of one of the first to draw attention to the etiologic role of multiple primary malignant neoplasms [2], a kindred of four hereditary factors in their occurrence [2]. Since then, at least siblings with pancreas adenocarcinoma was described [7]. 78 identified genetic syndromes of hereditary cancer have Over the next two decades, several more publications high- been described [3] and many more syndromes undoubtedly lighted the importance of the hereditary form of pancreatic remain to be identified. adenocarcinoma, not only within a single generation but also Recent molecular and genetic advancements have across multiple generations and families [8, 9](Table 1). brought international attention to pancreatic cancer (PC), Population-based case-control studies have quantified with an estimated >10% of cases being hereditary in etiology. the increase in risk for individuals from families with con- Although less common then hereditary PC, hereditary vincing family histories of PDAC. For example, a study in hepatobiliary cancers are also increasingly recognized. 1990 from the Hereditary Cancer Institute at Creighton University identified familial clustering among 47 cases of pancreatic cancer in 18 nuclear families with two or more 2. Pancreas Cancer first-degree relatives affected [10]. In this study, while only PC is a lethal disease, with 277,000 new cases diagnosed per 0.7% of controls had positive family histories of the disease, year globally [4]; in the USA, it was estimated to be 43,140 6.7% of PDAC cases had positive family histories. Ghadirian new cases of pancreatic cancer and 36,800 deaths from the et al. [11] conducted a similar study on 179 French-speaking disease in 2010 [5]. The definition of familial, or hereditary patients in Montreal ´ and found that 7.8% of the patients 2 International Journal of Surgical Oncology Table 1: Epidemiological studies of HPC. Study, Type Location No. of patients Findings year [ref ] Falk, Case control Louisiana, USA 363 OR 5.25 if FH 1988 [9] Lynch, 10-fold increased occurrence of PC if FH of Descriptive Nebraska, USA 47 1990 [10] PC (7.8% versus 0.6%) Ghadirian, 13-fold increased occurrence of PC if FH of Case control Montreal, ´ Canada 179 1991 [11] PC (6.7% versus 0.7%) Fernandez, 4-fold increased occurrence of PC if FH of Case control Italy 362 1994 [12] PC (3.9% versus 1.1%); RR 3 if FH Dergham, Case series Detroit, USA 81 9%occurrenceofPCifFHofPC. 1997 [13] Coughlin, Cohort USA 3751 RR 1.5 (men)–1.7 (women) if FH 2000 [14] Hemminki, Cohort Sweden 21,000 SIR 2.4 if FH (parent) 2003 [15] Klein, SIR32if3FDRwithPCSIR 6.4if2FDR Registry Baltimore, USA 5179 2004 [16] with PCSIR 4.5 if 1 FDR with PC Permuth- USA, Italy, Wey, Meta-analysis 6568 RR 3.4 if FH of PC Canada, Japan 2008 [17] OR: odds ratio; RR: relative risk; SIR: standardized incidence ratio; FH: family history; FDR: first-degree relative. who had PDAC had a family history of the disease compared from chronic alcoholic pancreatitis by the equal gender ratio, with only 0.6% of the control population representing a 13- but is otherwise largely similar to nonhereditary pancreatitis fold increase. Dergham et al. [13] reported a similar figure of (Table 3)[34]. 9% of pancreatic cancer patients having a family history. In Any difficulty differentiating HP from the nonhereditary a Northern Italy study including >300 patients with PDAC, form on the basis of biochemical and laboratory differences a family history of pancreatic cancer was associated with an was mitigated by the discovery of a genetic difference: a 1996 increased relative risk of 3 for the development of pancreatic study of five kindreds with hereditary pancreatitis revealed cancer (RR = 3) [12]. that an arginine-histamine substitution at residue 117 of the Larger, national studies [14, 15] and a meta-analysis of cationic trypsinogen gene, PRSS1, was associated with the studies [17] of thousands to tens of thousands of patients phenotypic expression of acute pancreatitis due to failure with PC similarly have revealed an increased relative risk of the affected trypsinogen, leading to autodigestion of the ranging from 1.5 to 3.4 based on family history of PC. The pancreas [35]. A second mutation was later described—a risk of PC in family members of those who have PC is likely single A to T mutation—to be associated with a less severe best estimated by analysis of the National Familial Pancreas form of hereditary pancreatitis [36]. Tumor Registry at Johns Hopkins Hospital [16]: among 5179 Hereditary pancreatitis is associated with a markedly in- individuals in 838 kindreds, the risk (standardized incidence creased risk (53-fold) for developing PC (Table 2), which ratios) of persons with 1, 2, or 3 FDRs with PC was 4.6, 6.4, usually develops after several decades of pancreatitis espe- and 32, respectively (Table 1). cially in those with paternal mode of inheritance [18]. In addition to familial PC, among other genetic defect(s) Smoking, a known risk factor for PC, was found to have which remain to be discovered, there are at least five well- an even more pronounced detrimental effect on those with described inherited profiles with known genetic defects that hereditary pancreatitis: in a cohort of 497 patients, smoking substantially increase the carrier’s cumulative lifetime risk for was found to double the risk for PC and to be associated with developing HPC (Table 2). a 2-decade-earlier onset of PC compared with nonsmoking status [37]. 2.1. Specific Diseases with Inherited Predisposition for Pancreatic Cancer 2.1.2. Familial Atypical Multiple Mole Melanoma Syndrome. 2.1.1. Hereditary Pancreatitis. Hereditary pancreatitis (HP) The familial atypical multiple mole melanoma syndrome is an autosomal dominant disease that presents with episodes (FAMMM) is an autosomal dominant syndrome associated of acute pancreatitis in early childhood, as early as 5 years of with an increased risk of cutaneous melanoma, dysplastic age. As a result of such early onset of acute pancreatitis, most nevi, and PC, among other neoplasms. The association of of these patients develop chronic pancreatitis in their second the FAMMM syndrome with PC was described in 1990 decade of life, unlike chronic alcoholic pancreatitis which by Bergman et al. [21], who studied nine families (200 presents later in life. Chronic HP is further distinguished individuals) with FAMMM in the Netherlands, reporting International Journal of Surgical Oncology 3 Table 2: Known inherited syndromes associated with increased risk of HPC. Rate of PC in Syndrome Genes Gene function O/E → risk of PC Cumulative risk of PC References syndrome 8/246 = 3.2% 8/0.15 → 53 PRSS1; Trypsinogen; HP 10/200 = 5.0% 10/0.115 → 87 25–70% [18–20] SPINK1 Protease Inhibitor 26/418 = 6.2% 26/NR → 67 9/200 = 4.5% 6/0.16 → 38 FAMMM CDKN2/P16 Tumor suppressor 66/466 = 14% 2/0.03 → 65 13–17% [21–23] 15/656 = 2.3% 8/0.6 → 13 BRCA1; 14/4.4 → 5.9 HBOC BRCA2; Tumor suppressor 14/1181 = 1.2% 1.2–6.9% [24–26] 7/1.3 → 8.9 (PALB2) 6/240 = 2.5% PJ STK11/LKB1 Tumor suppressor NR/NR → 132 5–36% [27–29] 4/31 = 13% MLH1; MSH2; DNA mismatch HNPCC 47 cases in 31 families O/E→ 8.6 3.7% [30] MSH6; repair PMS2 Transmembrane 1/0.4 → 2.6 CF CFTR conductance 1/28, 842 = 0.0035% “Negligible” [31, 32] 7/1.7 → 5.3 regulator 2/1253 = 0.16% 2/0.44 → 4.5 FPC Unk. Unk. 4/634 = 0.63% 4/0.62 → 6.4 NR [33] 5/106 = 4.7% 5/0.16 → 32 NR: not reported; HP: hereditary pancreatitis; FAMMM: familial atypical multiple mole melanoma; HBOC: hereditary breast and ovarian cancer; PJ: Peutz- Jeghers; HNPCC: hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer; FPC: familial pancreas cancer; CF: cystic fibrosis. Females ≥56 years old. Females <55 years old. If outside the ovarian cancer cluster region. A total of nine patients have subsequently been identified by Maisonneuve et al. [31, 32]. Families, not individuals. Table 3: Comparison of chronic alcoholic and chronic hereditary pancreatitis. Pancreatitis type Chronic alcoholic pancreatitis Chronic hereditary pancreatitis P Male to female ratio 12.5 : 1 1 : 1 Age of onset (years) 40 10.5 <.05 Delay in diagnosis (years) 3 14.3 <.05 Presence of pseudocysts 10% 33% <.05 Presence of pancreatic calcifications 57% 58% NS Endocrine insufficiency 70% 50% NS Exocrine insufficiency 42% 38% NS Need for surgery 41% 50% NS Modified from [34]. nine cases of PC, which has a 13.4-fold increased risk predispose carriers to developing breast, ovarian, and a vari- compared with the general population. ety of other cancers including PC. Sequencing of BRCA2 in The CDKN2A gene, also known as P16,isatumor-sup- individuals with HPC from North American [39]and Euro- pressor gene with various mutations implicated in the devel- pean [40] HPC registries have revealed deleterious mutations opment of FAMMM as well as other systemic cancers. Studies in nearly one-fifth of these individuals, making BRCA2 the of FAMMM individuals whose P16/CDKN2A was rendered most common genetic defect in HPC. Loss of BRCA2 in dysfunctional by mutations have noted that the risk of PC HPC has been observed to confer an increased risk of PC was increased 15- to 38-fold [22, 38]. as high as nearly 9-fold [24]. The role of BRCA1 seems to be less pronounced, but still measureable at a 2- to 3- fold increased risk of PC in carriers of BRCA1 mutations 2.1.3. Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer Syndrome and [25, 26]. Goggins et al. at Johns Hopkins University [41] PALB2 Loss. Mutations of BRCA1 and BRCA2, common in studied 41 unselected adenocarcinomas of the pancreas, 15 hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC) syndrome, of which had allelic loss at the BRCA2 locus and 4 of those 4 International Journal of Surgical Oncology (9.8% overall) had a second-allele abnormality. Three of is less than 20 months and the 5-year survival is only 20% these four cancers (7.3% overall) were considered germ-line [47]. However, when very small, very favorable cases of PC mutations (with confirmation in normal tissue) suggesting are selected, long-term survival is possible, with 4- and 5- that the rate of germ-line BRCA2 mutations in apparently year survivals of 78% and 59% reported [48, 49]. Usually, sporadic pancreatic cancer may be as high as in breast or such cases are incidentally and fortuitously discovered at an ovarian cancer [41]. early stage. While screening the low-risk general population The recently recognized partner and localizer of BRCA2, for PC would be associated with an unfavorable risk/benefit PALB2, is also frequently lost in HPC, at a rate of approx- ratio (due the low overall incidence of PC and to the lack of imately 3% in recent North American [42]and European a screening test that is readily available, noninvasive, and [43] sequencing studies of HPC kindreds, making it the accurate), screening a population at very high (>10-fold second most commonly lost gene in HPC. Knowledge of such [50]) risk may offer an opportunity to cure an otherwise un- mutations as BRCA2 and PALB2 has major therapeutic curable cancer if discovered early. implications; PC in this group of patients has been shown Investigators at the University of Washington were to be exquisitely sensitive to DNA cross-linking agents such among the first to describe the use of prospective screening as mitomycin C (MMC) [44]. and surveillance for high-risk individuals [51]: 7 of 14 individuals from 3 high-risk families who were screened with 2.1.4. Peutz-Jeghers Syndrome. Peutz-Jeghers syndrome endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS), endoscopic retrograde (PJS) is an autosomal dominant syndrome associated with cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), computed tomography loss of STK11/LKB1 gene function and is characterized by (CT), and serum CEA and CA19-9 were found to have high- hamartomatous polyps in the gastrointestinal tract and risk lesions based on concerning features on EUS and ERCP pigmented skin lesions on the lips, oral mucosa, and digits. features. Pancreatectomy was therefore recommended and In a large retrospective cohort study of 34 PJS patients performed in all 7 patients, and all 7 patients had widespread identified over 50 years of Mayo Clinic records, the overall dysplasia (PanINs), but no cancer or normal pancreas risk for developing cancer in affected individuals was 9.9. parenchyma was found in any of the specimens [51]. In The relative risk of developing gastrointestinal cancers was a follow-up study at the same institution, Kimmey et al. 50.5, and the risk was 5-fold higher in women (RR 151) screened 46 high-risk patients with EUS [52]: 13 patients had than men (RR 30) [45]. The risk for developing PC was abnormal findings, 12 of whom underwent pancreatectomy reported to be 5% at the age of 40 and 8% at the age of 60 with all 12 specimens showing widespread dysplasia (PanIN). in a study of 240 international PJS patients possessing the Canto et al. [53] at Johns Hopkins similarly reported on STK11 mutation [27]. Of note, all pancreatic cancers in that 38 high-risk (most with ≥3 relatives with PC) individuals study were diagnosed between the age of 34 and 49 years who underwent screening with EUS and, if abnormal, [27]. That multi-institutional effort was recently extended to then biopsy, ERCP, and CT. Resection was offered to and include 419 PJS patients, 297 with an identified STK11/LKB1 performed on 6 patients with a mass seen on EUS. On final germ-line mutation [46], with similar results in the risk of pathology, 4 patients had a benign lesion, one patient had PC (3- and 7-fold risk at 40 and 60 years of age, respectively. an IPMN, and one patient had PDAC [53]. Other centers around the world, including Germany, the Netherlands, and 2.1.5. Lynch Syndrome. Lynch syndrome, also known as he- the US [54–56] have similarly begun screening programs. reditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC), is an au- Recommendations regarding screening and surveillance tosomal dominant condition associated with mutations in are in evolution. The University of Washington currently DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes including MLH1, recommends surveillance to the following: (1) individuals MSH2, MSH6, PMS2, and others. The resulting compromise with 2 or more first-degree relatives with PC, (2) individuals of DNA maintenance and repair leads to the accumulation of with one first-degree relative with PC diagnosed under errors in the genome manifested in microsatellite instability the age of 50, (3) individuals with 2 or more relatives and loss of normal tumor-suppressor function. Whereas with pancreatic cancer, one of whom had PC at an early Lynch I syndrome is comprised only of colorectal cancers, age, and (4) individuals with a genetic disorders, such as Lynch II has been characterized to include a number of PJS and FAMMM [57]. Screening recommendations of the extracolonic cancers including PC. Fourth International Symposium of Inherited Diseases of Kastrinos et al. [30] analyzed the data on 6,342 individ- the Pancreas [50], including both University of Washington uals from 147 families with MMR gene mutations from two and Johns Hopkins investigators, are slightly more stringent major US cancer centers and found that 21.1% of the families (Table 4) and include anyone deemed to have a risk of PC reported a case of pancreatic cancer. The cumulative risk of ≥10-fold the general population. As such, candidates for pancreatic cancer in these individuals was 1.3% at age 50 and screening and surveillance include those with FAMMM, PJS, 3.7% at age 70, which corresponds to a an 8.6-fold increase HP, or ≥3 first-degree relatives with PC, individuals with compared to the general population [30]. ≥3 first-, second-, or third-degree relatives with PC (at least one of whom is a first-degree relative), any member of a 2.2. Surveillance and Screening for PC. PC, specifically PDAC, PJS family, those carrying mutations of BRCA1, BRCA2,or is generally a lethal disease, and even at high-volume insti- an MMR gene, and with at least one first- or second-degree tutions, the median survival following resection of PDAC relative with PC, and candidates with 2 relatives with PC in International Journal of Surgical Oncology 5 Table 4: Candidates for pancreatic cancer surveillance. Candidates for PC surveillance (with >10-fold increased risk of PC) Anyone with ≥3 first-degree relatives with PC Individuals with ≥3 first-, second-, or third-degree relatives with PC, at least one of whom is a first-degree relative Anyone with FAMMM, PJS, or HP Any member of a PJS family Carriers of mutations of BRCA1, BRCA2, or an MMR gene and with at least one first- or second-degree relative with PC A person with 2 relatives in the same lineage (directly connected) with PC, at least one of whom is a first-degree relative of the candidate Some people with two first-degree relatives with PC and favorable expert opinion Modified from [50]. the same lineage (directly connected), at least one of whom ≥10x risk, ≥10 years earlier is a first-degree relative of the candidate [50]. than earliest affected relative After deciding which patients to screen, the questions of how and when to screen remain. In addition to EUS and Pancreas-protocol CT or MRI/MRCP ERCP, magnetic resonance imaging with cholangiopancre- CEA, Ca19-9, liver and pancreas labs, atography (MRI/MRCP) has more recently gained increasing genetic testing? interest as a screening modality. Vasen et al. [58] used MRI/MRCP to screen high-risk individuals with P16-leiden mutations. After a 4-year median follow-up period, out of Recent alcohol No recent alcohol 79 individuals screened, pancreatic cancer was diagnosed in 9% and precursor lesions in 11% [58]. Whichever screening Abstain ≥1 month EUS tool is employed, a screening program should take place only in the setting of a high-volume center and with full informed consent. Patients who are not willing to undergo pancreatectomy for suspicious lesions identified on screening Normal Abnormal should not undergo screening. Care must also be taken to exclude patients with a recent history of pancreatitis or Repeat EUS 1–3 y ERCP heavy alcohol intake, since EUS findings are similar in that population [59]. Normal Abnormal Normal EUS findings include homogenous parenchyma and a thin-walled, anechoic main pancreatic duct. Abnormal EUS features that are considered to warrant ERCP followup Consider resection (Figure 1) include hypoechoic nodules and cysts, echogenic foci, parenchymal heterogeneity, narrowing or dilation of Figure 1: Flow chart for pancreatic cancer screening in high-risk the pancreatic duct, and duct-wall echogenicity [52, 53, 59– individuals. 61]. Unfortunately, many of these changes are also present in chronic pancreatitis and in recent heavy alcohol intake, The treatment of patients who are deemed to have high- as such patients must be stratified accordingly. Concerning risk forcanceroraprecancerlesionand whoare foundto ERCP features include saccular deformities or other irregu- have an abnormality by screening is pancreatectomy. Some larities of the pancreatic ducts [60, 61]. recommend routine total pancretectomy, citing multifocality When to start screening is similarly not universally of the disease [59], whereas others recommended partial defined [50]. Applying the screening principles of colorectal pancreatectomy [53]. Inadequate data exist to determine cancer by beginning screening for pancreatic cancer 10 years which option is associated with the most favorable risk/ earlier than the youngest affected member in the family is benefit ratio, but each patient’s ability to manage the severe a reasonable starting point. Taking into account, however, diabetes following total pancreatectomy must be weighed the long time between initiation of a PDAC tumor cell and carefully on a case-by-case basis with the risk of leaving the presence of a PDAC tumor beginning to have metastatic behind at-risk pancreas. capability (11.7 ± 3.1 years [62]), and taking into account evidence that consecutive generations with FPC die of PC a median of 10 years sooner each subsequent generation 3. Hepatobiliary Cancers [63], and finally taking into account that smokers with FPC develop cancer a decade before nonsmokers, it is reasonable 3.1. Hepatocellular Carcinoma. Compared with PC, much to use judgment in screening selected individuals much less is known about hereditary hepatobiliary cancers. Al- earlier. A reasonable screening algorithm is presented in though the great majority of hepatocellular carcinoma Figure 1. (HCC) cases are sporadic, some data exist to suggest 6 International Journal of Surgical Oncology Table 5: Inherited diseases of the liver associated with HCC. Other hereditary liver diseases have been associated with increased risk of HCC development, such as autoimmune Inherited diseases of the liver associated with HCC hepatitis (RR 23) [69], porphyria (RR 5–36) [70, 71], Disease RR References α1-antitrypsin deficiency (RR 5) [72], progressive familial Hereditary hemochromatosis 2–20 [66–68] intrahepatic cholestasis (RR 3.7) [73, 74], glycogen storage Autoimmune hepatitis 23 [69] disease type 1 (von Gierke disease) (RR unk.) [75], hereditary Porphyria 5–36 [70, 71] tyrosinemia type I (RR unk.) [76–78], Wilson’s disease (RR unk.) [79], Niemann-Pick disease (RR unk.) [80], Gaucher α1-antitrypsin deficiency 5 [72] disease (RR unk.) [81], and hereditary telangieatasias (RR Progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis Unk. [73, 74] unk.) [82, 83], but these associations are poorly studied due Glycogen storage disease type 1 Unk. [75] to the rarity of the disease processes. (von Gierke disease) Hereditary tyrosinemia type I Unk. [76–78] 3.2. Bile-Duct and Gallbladder Cancer. In alarge,coopera- Wilson’s disease Unk. [79] tive, case-control series from Milan, Fernandez et al. [12] Niemann-Pick disease Unk. [80] prospectively followed 740 patients with pancreatic and Gaucher disease Unk [81] hepatobiliary cancers compared with 1408 matched control Hereditary telangiectasias Unk. [82, 83] patients and found a family history of gallbladder cancer in 1 of 58 patients with gallbladder cancer and in 2 of 1408 controls, yielding a relative risk of 13.9 but with a wide an inherited component of risk. In a study of nearly 5000 confidence interval (95% CI 1.2–163.9). Interestingly, a fam- HBV carriers from the Liver Unit of Chang-Gung Memorial ily history of stomach cancer was associated with a nearly 2- Hospital and the Government Employee Central Clinics in fold relative risk of gallbladder cancer [12]. Taipei, those who had a family history of HCC had a 2.4- Analysis of the >10-million-person-large Swedish Cancer fold risk of HCC compared with HBV carriers without Registry revealed a 5.2-fold increased risk of gallbladder can- a family history of HCC and this risk increased to 5.6- cer in the offspring of patients with gallbladder cancer [65]. fold if two or more relatives were affected [64]. Similarly, There was a similar (3.8-fold), but only borderline signif- analysis of the Swedish Cancer Registry [65], covering >10 icant, risk of extrahepatic bile-duct cancer when a family million individuals, revealed a 4.7-fold increased risk of HCC history of maternal ovarian cancer was present [65]. in offspring of patients with HCC. In addition to general Several studies have reported an association between a familial risk, several specific, known inherited liver diseases family history of gallstones and gallbladder cancer. In a recent have been associated with increased risk for the development study from China’s Shanghai Cancer Institute, Hsing et al. of HCC (Table 5). [85]confirmedearlier reports[86] that simply a family his- tory of gallstones conferred an increased risk of gallbladder 3.1.1. Specific Diseases with Inherited Predisposition for HCC. cancer (2.1-fold [85]to3.6-fold[86]), even after adjustment Hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) is an autosomal recessive for age, gender, marital status, education, smoking, alcohol disease associated with various mutations in the HFE gene drinking body mass index, and importantly, the presence of resulting in progressive iron overload in the liver and else- gallstones, which themselves further increase the risk. where and is associated with an increased risk of HCC. To study whether HH, per se, and not chronic liver disease, is responsible for the increased cancer risk, Fracanzani et al. 3.2.1. Specific Diseases with Inherited Predisposition for Bile- [66] analyzed the rate HCC in 230 patients with HH and Duct Cancer. In a cohort of 472 patients from 15 different 230 others with noniron-related chronic liver disease, finding families with HNPCC, cancer of the biliopancreatic tract was a 1.9-fold increased risk of HCC in HH patients after seen in 18 patients, 11 (79%) of which were confirmed as arising in the biliary tree or ampulla of Vater [87]. Despite controlling for alcohol abuse, smoking, and family history of cancer. In a modeling study using published life tables, a >9-fold increased risk of bile-duct cancer in patients with age-specific cancer rates, and DNA studies of archived liver HNPCC [88], routine screening for bile-duct cancer has not biopsy specimens, Haddow et al. [67] calculated the lifetime been recommended [89], owing in large part to the difficulty risk of HCC in a cohort of 5000 men with the common in detecting these cancers and their rarity. homozygous C282Y mutation in the HFE gene to be 23- Muir-Torre syndrome (MTS) is an autosomal dominant fold compared with 1,000,000 normal men. Elmberg et al. syndrome described in the 1960s [90, 91] that predisposes [68] studied 1847 Swedish patients with HH and 5973 of to sebaceous skin lesions or keratoacanthomas and visceral their first-degree relatives. Patients with HH had a 20-fold tumors. MTS is a variant of HNPCC with the majority increased risk of HCC, but their first-degree relatives had of germ-line mutations occurring in the MSH2 gene [92]. no increased risk of overall cancers and an only 1.5-fold Several cases of bile-duct and ampullary cancers have been increased risk of hepatobiliary cancers such as HCC [68]. reported in association with MTS [93–95], including a report A recent meta-analysis of 9 studies including 1102 HCC of a novel missense mutation in the MSH2 gene [93]. Al- cases and 3766 controls in Europe revealed that the C282Y though screening for biliary cancers is not currently practical, mutation but not the H63D mutation was associated with it has been suggested that screening for ampullary cancers in HCC in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis [84]. MTS patients would have a favorable risk/benefit ratio [95]. International Journal of Surgical Oncology 7 Bile salt export pump deficiency (BSEP), caused by muta- [11] P. Ghadirian, P. Boyle, A. Simard, J. Baillargeon, P. Maison- neuve, and C. Perret, “Reported family aggregation of pan- tions in ABCB11 [96], has been associated with bile-duct creatic cancer within a population-based case-control study in cancer [97]. In a study of 82 different ABCB11 mutations the Francophone Community in Montreal, Canada,” Interna- in 109 families [74], 19 of 128 patients (15%) with BSEP tional JournalofPancreatology, vol. 10, no. 3-4, pp. 183–196, mutations developed hepatobiliary mutations, but only 2 of the 19 were bile-duct cancers, the remaining being HCC. [12] E. Fernandez, C. La Vecchia, B. D’Avanzo, E. Negri, and S. Franceschi, “Family history and the risk of liver, gallbladder, and pancreatic cancer,” Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and 4. Summary Prevention, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 209–212, 1994. [13] S. T. Dergham, M. C. Dugan, P. Arlauskas et al., “Relationship Among all hereditary cancers of the pancreas, liver, and of family cancer history to the expression of p53, p21WAF- biliary tree, only those of the pancreas have been studied well 1, HER-2/neu, and K-ras mutation in pancreatic adenocarci- enough to allow for recommendations regarding screening noma ,” International Journal of Pancreatology, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 225–234, 1997. and surveillance. While several known but rare forms of her- [14] S. S. Coughlin, E. E. Calle, A. V. Patel, and M. J. Thun, “Pre- editary hepatobiliary cancer exist, screening recommenda- dictors of pancreatic cancer mortality among a large cohort of tion cannot be made at this time due to the scarcity of United States adults,” Cancer Causes and Control, vol. 11, no. available data. In contrast, any individual with a risk of PC 10, pp. 915–923, 2000. estimated to be ≥10-fold should be screened with EUS by [15] K. Hemminki and X. Li, “Familial and second primary pancre- an experienced endoscopist in an experienced center after atic cancers: a nationwide epidemiologic study from Sweden,” genetic counseling and informed consent, provided that the International Journal of Cancer, vol. 103, no. 4, pp. 525–530, individual is willing to undergo pancreatectomy. Screening should begin at least 10 years prior to the age of the youngest [16] A. P. Klein, K. A. Brune, G. M. Petersen et al., “Prospective risk of pancreatic cancer in familial pancreatic cancer kindreds,” affected relative and perhaps even earlier for select patients, Cancer Research, vol. 64, no. 7, pp. 2634–2638, 2004. such as smokers. [17] J. Permuth-Wey and K. M. Egan, “Family history is a signifi- cant risk factor for pancreatic cancer: results from a systematic review and meta-analysis,” Familial Cancer, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. References 109–117, 2009. [18] A. B. Lowenfels, P. Maisonneuve, E. P. DiMagno et al., “Hered- [1] H. Billroth, Die Allgemeine Chirurgie, Pathologie, und Thera- itary pancreatitis and the risk of pancreatic cancer. Interna- pie, Georg Reimer, 1889. tional Hereditary Pancreatitis Study Group,” Journal of the [2] H. T. Lynch, A. J. Krush, and A. L. Larsen, “Heredity and mul- National Cancer Institute, vol. 89, no. 6, pp. 442–446, 1997. [19] V. Rebours, M. C. Boutron-Ruault, M. Schnee et al., “Risk of tiple primary malignant neoplasms: six cancer families,” The pancreatic adenocarcinoma in patients with hereditary pan- American Journal of the Medical Sciences, vol. 254, no. 3, pp. creatitis: a national exhaustive series,” The American Journal of 322–329, 1967. Gastroenterology, vol. 103, no. 1, pp. 111–119, 2008. [3] J. E. Garber and K. Offit, “Hereditary cancer predisposition [20] N. Howes, M. M. Lerch, W. Greenhalf et al., “Clinical and syndromes,” Journal of Clinical Oncology,vol. 23, no.2,pp. genetic characteristics of hereditary pancreatitis in Europe,” 276–292, 2005. Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. [4] J. Ferlay, H. R. Shin, F. Bray et al., “Estimates of worldwide bur- 252–261, 2004. den of cancer in 2008: GLOBOCAN 2008,” International Jour- [21] W. Bergman, P. Watson, J. de Jong, H. T. Lynch, and R. M. nal of Cancer, vol. 127, no. 12, pp. 2893–2917, 2010. Fusaro, “Systemic cancer and the FAMMM syndrome,” The [5] A. Jemal, R. Siegel, J. Xu et al., “Cancer statistics, 2010,” CA British Journal of Cancer, vol. 61, no. 6, pp. 932–936, 1990. Cancer Journal for Clinicians, vol. 60, no. 5, pp. 277–300, 2010. [22] A. Borg, T. Sandberg, K. Nilsson et al., “High frequency of [6] R.H.Hruban, G. M. Petersen,P.K.Ha, andS.E.Kern, “Genet- multiple melanomas and breast and pancreas carcinomas in CDKN2A mutation-positive melanoma families,” Journal of ics of pancreatic cancer: from genes to families,” Surgical Oncology Clinics of North America, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 1–23, 1998. the National Cancer Institute, vol. 92, no. 15, pp. 1260–1266, [7] R. P. MacDermott and P. Kramer, “Adenocarcinoma of the [23] H. F. Vasen, N. A. Gruis, R. R. Frants, P. A. Van Der Velden, E. pancreas in four siblings,” Gastroenterology,vol. 65, no.1,pp. T. Hille, and W. Bergman, “Risk of developing pancreatic can- 137–139, 1973. cer in families with familial atypical multiple mole melanoma [8] D.Ehrenthal,L.Haeger, T. Griffin, andC.Compton,“Familial associated with a specific 19 deletion of p16 (p16-Leiden),” pancreatic adenocarcinoma in three generations. A case report International Journal of Cancer, vol. 87, no. 6, pp. 809–811, and a review of the literature,” Cancer, vol. 59, no. 9, pp. 1661– 1664, 1987. [24] C. J. van Asperen, R. M. Brohet, E. J. Meijers-Heijboer et al., [9] R. T. Falk, L. W. Pickle, E. T. Fontham, P. Correa, and J. “Cancer risks in BRCA2 families: estimates for sites other than F. Fraumeni, “Life-style risk factors for pancreatic cancer in breast and ovary,” Journal of Medical Genetics, vol. 42, no. 9, Louisiana: a case-control study,” The American Journal of pp. 711–719, 2005. Epidemiology, vol. 128, no. 2, pp. 324–336, 1988. [25] M. S. Brose, T. R. Rebbeck, K. A. Calzone, J. E. Stopfer, K. L. [10] H. T. Lynch, M. L. Fitzsimmons, T. C. Smyrk et al., “Familial Nathanson, and B. L. Weber, “Cancer risk estimates for BCRA1 pancreatic cancer: clinicopathologic study of 18 nuclear fami- mutation carriers identified in a risk evaluation program,” Journal of the National Cancer Institute, vol. 94, no. 18, pp. lies,” The American Journal of Gastroenterology,vol. 85, no.1, pp. 54–60, 1990. 1365–1372, 2002. 8 International Journal of Surgical Oncology [26] D. Thompson and D. F. Easton, “Cancer incidence in BRCA1 [44] M. C. Villarroel, N. V. Rajeshkumar, I. Garrido-Laguna et al., mutation carriers,” Journal of the National Cancer Institute, vol. “Personalizing cancer treatment in the age of global genomic 94, no. 18, pp. 1358–1365, 2002. analyses: PALB2 gene mutations and the response to DNA [27] W. Lim, S. Olschwang, J. J. Keller et al., “Relative frequency damaging agents in pancreatic cancer,” Molecular Cancer and morphology of cancers in STK11 mutation carriers,” Therapeutics, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 3–8, 2011. Gastroenterology, vol. 126, no. 7, pp. 1788–1794, 2004. [45] L. A. Boardman, S. N. Thibodeau, D. J. Schaid et al., “Increased [28] F. M. Giardiello, S. B. Welsh, S. R. Hamilton et al., “Increased risk for cancer in patients with the Peutz-Jeghers syndrome,” risk of cancer in the Peutz-Jeghers syndrome,” The New Eng- Annals of Internal Medicine, vol. 128, no. 11, pp. 896–899, land Journal of Medicine, vol. 316, no. 24, pp. 1511–1514, 1987. 1998. [29] F. M. Giardiello, J. D. Brensinger, A. C. Tersmette et al., [46] N. Hearle, V. Schumacher, F. H. Menko et al., “Frequency and “Very high risk of cancer in familial Peutz-Jeghers syndrome,” spectrum of cancers in the Peutz-Jeghers syndrome,” Clinical Gastroenterology, vol. 119, no. 6, pp. 1447–1453, 2000. Cancer Research, vol. 12, no. 10, pp. 3209–3215, 2006. [30] F. Kastrinos, B. Mukherjee, N. Tayob et al., “Risk of pancreatic [47] J. M. Winter, J. L. Cameron, K. A. Campbell et al., “1423 pan- cancer in families with Lynch syndrome,” Journal of the Ameri- creaticoduodenectomies for pancreatic cancer: a single-insti- can Medical Association, vol. 302, no. 16, pp. 1790–1795, 2009. tution experience,” Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery, vol. 10, [31] P. Maisonneuve, S. C. FitzSimmons, J. P. Neglia, P. W. Camp- no. 9, pp. 1199–1210, 2006. bell, and A. B. Lowenfels, “Cancer risk in nontransplanted and [48] H. Furukawa, S. Okada, H. Saisho et al., “Clinicopathologic transplanted cystic fibrosis patients: a 10-year study,” Journal features of small pancreatic adenocarcinoma: a collective of the National Cancer Institute, vol. 95, no. 5, pp. 381–387, study,” Cancer, vol. 78, no. 5, pp. 986–990, 1996. 2003. [49] Y. Shimizu, K. Yasui, K. Matsueda, A. Yanagisawa, and K. [32] P. Maisonneuve, B. C. Marshall, and A. B. Lowenfels, “Risk of Yamao, “Small carcinoma of the pancreas is curable: new com- pancreatic cancer in patients with cystic fibrosis,” Gut, vol. 56, puted tomography finding, pathological study and postopera- no. 9, pp. 1327–1328, 2007. tive results from a single institute,” Journal of Gastroenterology [33] G. M. Petersen, M. de Andrade, M. Goggins et al., “Pancreatic and Hepatology, vol. 20, no. 10, pp. 1591–1594, 2005. cancer genetic epidemiology consortium,” Cancer Epidemiol- [50] R. E. Brand, M. M. Lerch, W. S. Rubinstein et al., “Advances in ogy Biomarkers and Prevention, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 704–710, counselling and surveillance of patients at risk for pancreatic 2006. cancer,” Gut, vol. 56, no. 10, pp. 1460–1469, 2007. [34] O. Paolini, P. Hastier, M. Buckley et al., “The natural history of [51] T. A. Brentnall, M. P. Bronner, D. R. Byrd, R. C. Haggitt, and hereditary chronic pancreatitis: a study of 12 cases compared M. B. Kimmey, “Early diagnosis and treatment of pancreatic to chronic alcoholic pancreatitis,” Pancreas,vol. 17, no.3,pp. dysplasia in patients with a family history of pancreatic 266–271, 1998. cancer,” Annals of Internal Medicine, vol. 131, no. 4, pp. 247– [35] D. C. Whitcomb, M. C. Gorry, R. A. Preston et al., “Hereditary 255, 1999. pancreatitis is caused by a mutation in the cationic trypsino- [52] M. B. Kimmey, M. P. Bronner, D. R. Byrd, and T. A. Brentnall, gen gene,” Nature Genetics, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 141–145, 1996. “Screening and surveillance for hereditary pancreatic cancer,” [36] M. C. Gorry, D. Gabbaizedeh, W. Furey et al., “Mutations in Gastrointestinal Endoscopy, vol. 56, no. 4, pp. S82–S86, 2002. the cationic trypsinogen gene are associated with recurrent [53] M. I. Canto, M. Goggins, C. J. Yeo et al., “Screening for acute and chronic pancreatitis,” Gastroenterology, vol. 113, no. pancreatic neoplasia in high-risk individuals: an EUS-based 4, pp. 1063–1068, 1997. approach,” Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology, vol. 2, [37] A. B. Lowenfels, P. Maisonneuve, D. C. Whitcomb, M. M. no. 7, pp. 606–621, 2004. Lerch, and E. P. DiMagno, “Cigarette smoking as a risk factor [54] P. Langer, P. H. Kann, V. Fendrich et al., “Five years of for pancreatic cancer in patients with hereditary pancreatitis,” prospective screening of high-risk individuals from families Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 286, no. 2, pp. with familial pancreatic cancer,” Gut, vol. 58, no. 10, pp. 1410– 169–170, 2001. 1418, 2009. [38] A. M. Goldstein, M. C. Fraser, J. P. Struewing et al., “Increased [55] J. W. Poley, I. Kluijt, D. J. Gouma et al., “The yield of first-time risk of pancreatic cancer in melanoma-prone kindreds with endoscopic ultrasonography in screening individuals at a high p16INK4 mutations,” The New England Journal of Medicine, risk of developing pancreatic cancer,” The American Journal of vol. 333, no. 15, pp. 970–974, 1995. Gastroenterology, vol. 104, no. 9, pp. 2175–2181, 2009. [39] K. M. Murphy,K.A.Brune,C.Griffin et al., “Evaluation of [56] E. C. Verna, C. Hwang, P. D. Stevens et al., “Pancreatic candidate genes MAP2K4, MADH4, ACVR1B, and BRCA2 in cancer screening in a prospective cohort of high-risk patients: familial pancreatic cancer: deleterious BRCA2 mutations in a comprehensive strategy of imaging and genetics,” Clinical 17%,” Cancer Research, vol. 62, no. 13, pp. 3789–3793, 2002. Cancer Research, vol. 16, no. 20, pp. 5028–5037, 2010. [40] S. A. Hahn, B. Greenhalf, I. Ellis et al., “BRCA2 germline [57] UWSOMDOG, “Pancreatic Cancer Care, Families with Pan- mutations in familial pancreatic carcinoma,” Journal of the creatic Cancer, Who is at Risk?” 2011, http://www.uwgi.org/ National Cancer Institute, vol. 95, no. 3, pp. 214–221, 2003. pancreaticcancer/Family.Risk.aspx?i=4. [41] M. Goggins, M. Sehutte, J. Lu et al., “Germline BRCA2 gene [58] H. F. Vasen, M. Wasser, A. van Mil et al., “Magnetic resonance mutations in patients with apparently sporadic pancreatic imaging surveillance detects early-stage pancreatic cancer in carcinomas,” Cancer Research, vol. 56, no. 23, pp. 5360–5364, carriers of a p16-Leiden mutation,” Gastroenterology, vol. 140, 1996. no. 3, pp. 850–856, 2011. [42] S. Jones, R. H. Hruban, M. Kamiyama et al., “Exomic sequenc- [59] T. A. Brentnall, “Cancer surveillance of patients from familial ing identifies PALB2 as a pancreatic cancer susceptibility gene,” pancreatic cancer kindreds,” Medical Clinics of North America, Science, vol. 324, no. 5924, p. 217, 2009. vol. 84, no. 3, pp. 707–718, 2000. [43] E. P. Slater, P. Langer, E. Niemczyk et al., “PALB2 mutations [60] M. I. Canto, “Screening and surveillance approaches in famil- in European familial pancreatic cancer families,” Clinical ial pancreatic cancer,” Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Clinics of Genetics, vol. 78, no. 5, pp. 490–494, 2010. North America, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 535–553, 2008. International Journal of Surgical Oncology 9 [61] T. A. Brentnall, “Management strategies for patients with [77] R. O. Fisch, E. R. McCabe, and D. Doeden, “Homotransplan- hereditary pancreatic cancer,” Current Treatment Options in tation of the liver in a patient with hepatoma and hereditary Oncology, vol. 6, no. 5, pp. 437–445, 2005. tyrosinemia,” Journal of Pediatrics, vol. 93, no. 4, pp. 592–596, [62] S. Yachida, S. Jones, I. Bozic et al., “Distant metastasis occurs 1978. late during the genetic evolution of pancreatic cancer,” Nature, [78] C. R. Scott, “The genetic tyrosinemias,” The American Journal vol. 467, no. 7319, pp. 1114–1117, 2010. of Medical Genetics Part C, vol. 142, no. 2, pp. 121–126, 2006. [63] C. D. McFaul, W. Greenhalf, J. Earl et al., “Anticipation in [79] H. Iwadate, H. Ohira, T. Suzuki et al., “Hepatocellular carci- familial pancreatic cancer,” Gut, vol. 55, no. 2, pp. 252–258, noma associated with Wilson’s disease,” Internal Medicine, vol. 43, no. 11, pp. 1042–1045, 2004. [64] M. W. Yu, H. C. Chang, Y. F. Liaw et al., “Familial risk of [80] N. C. Birch, S. Radio, and S. Horslen, “Metastatic hepatocellu- hepatocellular carcinoma among chronic hepatitis B carriers lar carcinoma in a patient with niemann-pick disease, type C,” and their relatives,” Journal of the National Cancer Institute, Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, vol. 37, no. vol. 92, no. 14, pp. 1159–1164, 2000. 5, pp. 624–626, 2003. [65] K. Hemminki and X. Li, “Familial liver and gall bladder can- [81] R. Xu, P. Mistry, G. Mckenna et al., “Hepatocellular carcinoma cer: a nationwide epidemiological study from Sweden,” Gut, in type 1 Gaucher disease: a case report with review of the vol. 52, no. 4, pp. 592–596, 2003. literature,” Seminars in Liver Disease, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 226– [66] A. L. Fracanzani, D. Conte, M. Fraquelli et al., “Increased can- 229, 2005. cer risk in a cohort of 230 patients with hereditary hemochro- [82] C. F. Jameson, “Primary hepatocellular carcinoma in heredi- matosis in comparison to matched control patients with non- tary haemorrhagic telangiectasia: a case report and literature iron-related chronic liver disease,” Hepatology, vol. 33, no. 3, review,” Histopathology, vol. 15, no. 5, pp. 550–552, 1989. pp. 647–651, 2001. [83] E. B. Sussman and S. S. Sternberg, “Hereditary hemorrhagic [67] J. E. Haddow, G. E. Palomaki, M. McClain, and W. Craig, telangiectasia. A case with hepatocellular carcinoma and “Hereditary haemochromatosis and hepatocellular carcinoma acquired hepatocerebral degeneration,” Archives of Pathology in males: a strategy for estimating the potential for primary and Laboratory Medicine, vol. 99, no. 2, pp. 95–100, 1975. prevention,” Journal of Medical Screening,vol. 10, no.1,pp. [84] F. Jin, L. S. Qu, and X. Z. Shen, “Association between C282Y 11–13, 2003. and H63D mutations of the HFE gene with hepatocellular [68] M. Elmberg, R. Hultcrantz, A. Ekbom et al., “Cancer risk in carcinoma in European populations: a meta-analysis,” Journal patients with hereditary hemochromatosis and in their first- of Experimental and Clinical Cancer Research, vol. 29, no. 18, degree relatives,” Gastroenterology, vol. 125, no. 6, pp. 1733– 1741, 2003. [69] M. Werner, S. Almer, H. Prytz et al., “Hepatic and extrahepatic [85] A. W. Hsing, Y. Bai, G. Andreotti et al., “Family history of malignancies in autoimmune hepatitis. A long-term follow-up gallstones and the risk of biliary tract cancer and gallstones: in 473 Swedish patients,” Journal of Hepatology, vol. 50, no. 2, a population-based study in Shanghai, China,” International pp. 388–393, 2009. Journal of Cancer, vol. 121, no. 4, pp. 832–838, 2007. [70] C. Andant, H. Puy, C. Bogard et al., “Hepatocellular carcinoma [86] B. L. Strom, R. D. Soloway, J. L. Rios-Dalenz et al., “Risk factors in patients with acute hepatic porphyria: frequency of occur- for gallbladder cancer. An international collaborative case- rence and related factors,” Journal of Hepatology, vol. 32, no. 6, control study,” Cancer, vol. 76, no. 10, pp. 1747–1756, 1995. pp. 933–939, 2000. [87] J. P. Mecklin, H. J. Jarvinen, and M. Virolainen, “The associ- [71] A. L. Fracanzani, E. Taioli, M. Sampietro et al., “Liver cancer ation between cholangiocarcinoma and hereditary nonpoly- risk is increased in patients with porphyria cutanea tarda in posis colorectal carcinoma,” Cancer, vol. 69, no. 5, pp. 1112– comparison to matched control patients with chronic liver 1114, 1992. disease,” Journal of Hepatology, vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 498–503, [88] M. Aarnio, R. Sankila, E. Pukkala et al., “Cancer risk in muta- tion carriers of DNA-mismatch-repair genes,” International [72] A. N. Elzouki and S. Eriksson, “Risk of hepatobiliary disease Journal of Cancer, vol. 81, no. 2, pp. 214–218, 1999. in adults with severe alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency (PiZZ): [89] J. J. Koornstra, M. J. Mourits, R. H. Sijmons, A. M. Leliveld, H. is chronic viral hepatitis B or C an additional risk factor Hollema, and J. H. Kleibeuker, “Management of extracolonic for cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma?” The European tumours in patients with Lynch syndrome,” The Lancet Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, vol. 8, no. 10, pp. Oncology, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 400–408, 2009. 989–994, 1996. [90] E. G. Muir,A.J.Bell, andK.A.Barlow, “Multipleprimary [73] A. S. Knisely, S. S. Strautnieks, Y. Meier et al., “Hepatocellular carcinomata of the colon, duodenum, and larynx associated carcinoma in ten children under five years of age with bile salt with kerato-acanthomata of the face,” The British Journal of export pump deficiency,” Hepatology, vol. 44, no. 2, pp. 478– Surgery, vol. 54, no. 3, pp. 191–195, 1967. 486, 2006. [91] D. Torre, “Multiple sebaceous tumors,” Archives of Dermatol- [74] S. S. Strautnieks, J. A. Byrne, L. Pawlikowska et al., “Severe bile ogy, vol. 98, no. 5, pp. 549–551, 1968. salt export pump deficiency: 82 different ABCB11 mutations [92] E. Mangold, C. Pagenstecher, M. Leister et al., “A genotype- in 109 families,” Gastroenterology, vol. 134, no. 4, pp. 1203– phenotype correlation in HNPCC: strong predominance of 1214, 2008. msh2 mutations in 41 patients with Muir-Torre syndrome,” [75] T. Taddei, P. Mistry, and M. L. Schilsky, “Inherited metabolic Journal of Medical Genetics, vol. 41, no. 7, pp. 567–572, 2004. disease of the liver,” Current Opinion in Gastroenterology, vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 278–286, 2008. [93] M. Vernez,P.Hutter, C. Monnerat, N. Halkic,O.Gugerli,and [76] A. G. Weinberg, C. E. Mize, and H. G. Worthen, “The H. Bouzourene, “A case of Muir-Torre syndrome associated occurence of hepatoma in the chronic form of hereditary with mucinous hepatic cholangiocarcinoma and a novel germ- tyrosinemia,” Journal of Pediatrics, vol. 88, no. 3, pp. 434–438, line mutation of the MSH2 gene,” Familial Cancer, vol. 6, no. 1976. 1, pp. 141–145, 2007. 10 International Journal of Surgical Oncology [94] S. Akhtar, K. K. Oza, S. A. Khan, and J. Wright, “Muir-Torre syndrome: case report of a patient with concurrent jejunal and ureteral cancer and a review of the literature,” Journalofthe American Academy of Dermatology, vol. 41, no. 5, pp. 681–686, [95] J. J. Matthews, R. Roberts, D. A. O’Reilly, S. Schick, and A. N. Kingsnorth, “Muir-Torre syndrome: a case for surveillance of the ampulla of Vater,” Digestive Surgery, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 65– 66, 2002. [96] S. S. Strautnieks, L. N. Bull, A. S. Knisely et al., “A gene encod- ing a liver-specific ABC transporter is mutated in progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis,” Nature Genetics, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 233–238, 1998. [97] A. O. Scheimann, S. S. Strautnieks, A. S. Knisely, J. A. Byrne, R. J. Thompson, and M. J. Finegold, “Mutations in bile salt export pump (ABCB11) in two children with progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis and cholangiocarcinoma,” Journal of Pediatrics, vol. 150, no. 5, pp. 556–559, 2007. MEDIATORS of INFLAMMATION The Scientific Gastroenterology Journal of World Journal Research and Practice Diabetes Research Disease Markers Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 International Journal of Journal of Immunology Research Endocrinology Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 Submit your manuscripts at http://www.hindawi.com BioMed PPAR Research Research International Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 Journal of Obesity Evidence-Based Journal of Journal of Stem Cells Complementary and Ophthalmology International Alternative Medicine Oncology Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 Parkinson’s Disease Computational and Behavioural Mathematical Methods AIDS Oxidative Medicine and in Medicine Research and Treatment Cellular Longevity Neurology Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png International Journal of Surgical Oncology Hindawi Publishing Corporation

Loading next page...
 
/lp/hindawi-publishing-corporation/hereditary-pancreatic-and-hepatobiliary-cancers-J0VXRIGfwx
Publisher
Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Copyright
Copyright © 2011 Ashraf Haddad et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
ISSN
2090-1402
eISSN
2090-1410
DOI
10.1155/2011/154673
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Hindawi Publishing Corporation International Journal of Surgical Oncology Volume 2011, Article ID 154673, 10 pages doi:10.1155/2011/154673 Review Article 1 1 2 1 Ashraf Haddad, Gopal C. Kowdley, Timothy M. Pawlik, and Steven C. Cunningham Department of Surgery, Saint Agnes Hospital, Baltimore, MD 21229, USA Department of Surgery, The Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, MD 21231, USA Correspondence should be addressed to Steven C. Cunningham, steven.cunningham@stagnes.org Received 4 April 2011; Accepted 28 April 2011 Academic Editor: Benedito Mauro Rossi Copyright © 2011 Ashraf Haddad et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Hereditary etiologies of pancreatic and hepatobiliary cancers are increasingly recognized. An estimated >10% of pancreatic and increasing number of hepatobiliary cancers are hereditary. The cumulative risk of hereditary pancreatic cancer ranges from measurable but negligible in cystic fibrosis to a sobering 70% in cases of hereditary pancreatitis. Candidates for pancreatic cancer surveillance are those with a risk pancreatic cancer estimated to be >10-fold that of the normal population. Screening for pancreatic cancer in high-risk individuals is typically performed by endoscopic ultrasound and should begin at least 10 years prior to the age of the youngest affected relative. Disease states known to be associated with increased risk of hepatocellular cancer include hereditary hemochromatosis, autoimmune hepatitis, porphyria, and α1-antitrypsin deficiency, with relative risks as high as 36-fold. Although much less is known about hereditary bile-duct cancers, Muir-Torre syndrome and bile salt export pump deficiency are diseases whose association with hereditary carcinogenesis is under investigation. 1. Introduction PC (HPC), the vast majority of which is pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), is generally accepted to be defined Hereditary etiologies of carcinogenesis have been increas- as PC occurring in families with ≥2 first-degree relatives ingly recognized over the past century. In 1889, Billroth was (FDRs) [6]. one of the first to recognize the occurrence of multiple Six years after the landmark 1967 publication by Lynch primary malignant neoplasms [1] and Lynch et al. in 1967 et al. on the role of hereditary factors in the occurrence of one of the first to draw attention to the etiologic role of multiple primary malignant neoplasms [2], a kindred of four hereditary factors in their occurrence [2]. Since then, at least siblings with pancreas adenocarcinoma was described [7]. 78 identified genetic syndromes of hereditary cancer have Over the next two decades, several more publications high- been described [3] and many more syndromes undoubtedly lighted the importance of the hereditary form of pancreatic remain to be identified. adenocarcinoma, not only within a single generation but also Recent molecular and genetic advancements have across multiple generations and families [8, 9](Table 1). brought international attention to pancreatic cancer (PC), Population-based case-control studies have quantified with an estimated >10% of cases being hereditary in etiology. the increase in risk for individuals from families with con- Although less common then hereditary PC, hereditary vincing family histories of PDAC. For example, a study in hepatobiliary cancers are also increasingly recognized. 1990 from the Hereditary Cancer Institute at Creighton University identified familial clustering among 47 cases of pancreatic cancer in 18 nuclear families with two or more 2. Pancreas Cancer first-degree relatives affected [10]. In this study, while only PC is a lethal disease, with 277,000 new cases diagnosed per 0.7% of controls had positive family histories of the disease, year globally [4]; in the USA, it was estimated to be 43,140 6.7% of PDAC cases had positive family histories. Ghadirian new cases of pancreatic cancer and 36,800 deaths from the et al. [11] conducted a similar study on 179 French-speaking disease in 2010 [5]. The definition of familial, or hereditary patients in Montreal ´ and found that 7.8% of the patients 2 International Journal of Surgical Oncology Table 1: Epidemiological studies of HPC. Study, Type Location No. of patients Findings year [ref ] Falk, Case control Louisiana, USA 363 OR 5.25 if FH 1988 [9] Lynch, 10-fold increased occurrence of PC if FH of Descriptive Nebraska, USA 47 1990 [10] PC (7.8% versus 0.6%) Ghadirian, 13-fold increased occurrence of PC if FH of Case control Montreal, ´ Canada 179 1991 [11] PC (6.7% versus 0.7%) Fernandez, 4-fold increased occurrence of PC if FH of Case control Italy 362 1994 [12] PC (3.9% versus 1.1%); RR 3 if FH Dergham, Case series Detroit, USA 81 9%occurrenceofPCifFHofPC. 1997 [13] Coughlin, Cohort USA 3751 RR 1.5 (men)–1.7 (women) if FH 2000 [14] Hemminki, Cohort Sweden 21,000 SIR 2.4 if FH (parent) 2003 [15] Klein, SIR32if3FDRwithPCSIR 6.4if2FDR Registry Baltimore, USA 5179 2004 [16] with PCSIR 4.5 if 1 FDR with PC Permuth- USA, Italy, Wey, Meta-analysis 6568 RR 3.4 if FH of PC Canada, Japan 2008 [17] OR: odds ratio; RR: relative risk; SIR: standardized incidence ratio; FH: family history; FDR: first-degree relative. who had PDAC had a family history of the disease compared from chronic alcoholic pancreatitis by the equal gender ratio, with only 0.6% of the control population representing a 13- but is otherwise largely similar to nonhereditary pancreatitis fold increase. Dergham et al. [13] reported a similar figure of (Table 3)[34]. 9% of pancreatic cancer patients having a family history. In Any difficulty differentiating HP from the nonhereditary a Northern Italy study including >300 patients with PDAC, form on the basis of biochemical and laboratory differences a family history of pancreatic cancer was associated with an was mitigated by the discovery of a genetic difference: a 1996 increased relative risk of 3 for the development of pancreatic study of five kindreds with hereditary pancreatitis revealed cancer (RR = 3) [12]. that an arginine-histamine substitution at residue 117 of the Larger, national studies [14, 15] and a meta-analysis of cationic trypsinogen gene, PRSS1, was associated with the studies [17] of thousands to tens of thousands of patients phenotypic expression of acute pancreatitis due to failure with PC similarly have revealed an increased relative risk of the affected trypsinogen, leading to autodigestion of the ranging from 1.5 to 3.4 based on family history of PC. The pancreas [35]. A second mutation was later described—a risk of PC in family members of those who have PC is likely single A to T mutation—to be associated with a less severe best estimated by analysis of the National Familial Pancreas form of hereditary pancreatitis [36]. Tumor Registry at Johns Hopkins Hospital [16]: among 5179 Hereditary pancreatitis is associated with a markedly in- individuals in 838 kindreds, the risk (standardized incidence creased risk (53-fold) for developing PC (Table 2), which ratios) of persons with 1, 2, or 3 FDRs with PC was 4.6, 6.4, usually develops after several decades of pancreatitis espe- and 32, respectively (Table 1). cially in those with paternal mode of inheritance [18]. In addition to familial PC, among other genetic defect(s) Smoking, a known risk factor for PC, was found to have which remain to be discovered, there are at least five well- an even more pronounced detrimental effect on those with described inherited profiles with known genetic defects that hereditary pancreatitis: in a cohort of 497 patients, smoking substantially increase the carrier’s cumulative lifetime risk for was found to double the risk for PC and to be associated with developing HPC (Table 2). a 2-decade-earlier onset of PC compared with nonsmoking status [37]. 2.1. Specific Diseases with Inherited Predisposition for Pancreatic Cancer 2.1.2. Familial Atypical Multiple Mole Melanoma Syndrome. 2.1.1. Hereditary Pancreatitis. Hereditary pancreatitis (HP) The familial atypical multiple mole melanoma syndrome is an autosomal dominant disease that presents with episodes (FAMMM) is an autosomal dominant syndrome associated of acute pancreatitis in early childhood, as early as 5 years of with an increased risk of cutaneous melanoma, dysplastic age. As a result of such early onset of acute pancreatitis, most nevi, and PC, among other neoplasms. The association of of these patients develop chronic pancreatitis in their second the FAMMM syndrome with PC was described in 1990 decade of life, unlike chronic alcoholic pancreatitis which by Bergman et al. [21], who studied nine families (200 presents later in life. Chronic HP is further distinguished individuals) with FAMMM in the Netherlands, reporting International Journal of Surgical Oncology 3 Table 2: Known inherited syndromes associated with increased risk of HPC. Rate of PC in Syndrome Genes Gene function O/E → risk of PC Cumulative risk of PC References syndrome 8/246 = 3.2% 8/0.15 → 53 PRSS1; Trypsinogen; HP 10/200 = 5.0% 10/0.115 → 87 25–70% [18–20] SPINK1 Protease Inhibitor 26/418 = 6.2% 26/NR → 67 9/200 = 4.5% 6/0.16 → 38 FAMMM CDKN2/P16 Tumor suppressor 66/466 = 14% 2/0.03 → 65 13–17% [21–23] 15/656 = 2.3% 8/0.6 → 13 BRCA1; 14/4.4 → 5.9 HBOC BRCA2; Tumor suppressor 14/1181 = 1.2% 1.2–6.9% [24–26] 7/1.3 → 8.9 (PALB2) 6/240 = 2.5% PJ STK11/LKB1 Tumor suppressor NR/NR → 132 5–36% [27–29] 4/31 = 13% MLH1; MSH2; DNA mismatch HNPCC 47 cases in 31 families O/E→ 8.6 3.7% [30] MSH6; repair PMS2 Transmembrane 1/0.4 → 2.6 CF CFTR conductance 1/28, 842 = 0.0035% “Negligible” [31, 32] 7/1.7 → 5.3 regulator 2/1253 = 0.16% 2/0.44 → 4.5 FPC Unk. Unk. 4/634 = 0.63% 4/0.62 → 6.4 NR [33] 5/106 = 4.7% 5/0.16 → 32 NR: not reported; HP: hereditary pancreatitis; FAMMM: familial atypical multiple mole melanoma; HBOC: hereditary breast and ovarian cancer; PJ: Peutz- Jeghers; HNPCC: hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer; FPC: familial pancreas cancer; CF: cystic fibrosis. Females ≥56 years old. Females <55 years old. If outside the ovarian cancer cluster region. A total of nine patients have subsequently been identified by Maisonneuve et al. [31, 32]. Families, not individuals. Table 3: Comparison of chronic alcoholic and chronic hereditary pancreatitis. Pancreatitis type Chronic alcoholic pancreatitis Chronic hereditary pancreatitis P Male to female ratio 12.5 : 1 1 : 1 Age of onset (years) 40 10.5 <.05 Delay in diagnosis (years) 3 14.3 <.05 Presence of pseudocysts 10% 33% <.05 Presence of pancreatic calcifications 57% 58% NS Endocrine insufficiency 70% 50% NS Exocrine insufficiency 42% 38% NS Need for surgery 41% 50% NS Modified from [34]. nine cases of PC, which has a 13.4-fold increased risk predispose carriers to developing breast, ovarian, and a vari- compared with the general population. ety of other cancers including PC. Sequencing of BRCA2 in The CDKN2A gene, also known as P16,isatumor-sup- individuals with HPC from North American [39]and Euro- pressor gene with various mutations implicated in the devel- pean [40] HPC registries have revealed deleterious mutations opment of FAMMM as well as other systemic cancers. Studies in nearly one-fifth of these individuals, making BRCA2 the of FAMMM individuals whose P16/CDKN2A was rendered most common genetic defect in HPC. Loss of BRCA2 in dysfunctional by mutations have noted that the risk of PC HPC has been observed to confer an increased risk of PC was increased 15- to 38-fold [22, 38]. as high as nearly 9-fold [24]. The role of BRCA1 seems to be less pronounced, but still measureable at a 2- to 3- fold increased risk of PC in carriers of BRCA1 mutations 2.1.3. Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer Syndrome and [25, 26]. Goggins et al. at Johns Hopkins University [41] PALB2 Loss. Mutations of BRCA1 and BRCA2, common in studied 41 unselected adenocarcinomas of the pancreas, 15 hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC) syndrome, of which had allelic loss at the BRCA2 locus and 4 of those 4 International Journal of Surgical Oncology (9.8% overall) had a second-allele abnormality. Three of is less than 20 months and the 5-year survival is only 20% these four cancers (7.3% overall) were considered germ-line [47]. However, when very small, very favorable cases of PC mutations (with confirmation in normal tissue) suggesting are selected, long-term survival is possible, with 4- and 5- that the rate of germ-line BRCA2 mutations in apparently year survivals of 78% and 59% reported [48, 49]. Usually, sporadic pancreatic cancer may be as high as in breast or such cases are incidentally and fortuitously discovered at an ovarian cancer [41]. early stage. While screening the low-risk general population The recently recognized partner and localizer of BRCA2, for PC would be associated with an unfavorable risk/benefit PALB2, is also frequently lost in HPC, at a rate of approx- ratio (due the low overall incidence of PC and to the lack of imately 3% in recent North American [42]and European a screening test that is readily available, noninvasive, and [43] sequencing studies of HPC kindreds, making it the accurate), screening a population at very high (>10-fold second most commonly lost gene in HPC. Knowledge of such [50]) risk may offer an opportunity to cure an otherwise un- mutations as BRCA2 and PALB2 has major therapeutic curable cancer if discovered early. implications; PC in this group of patients has been shown Investigators at the University of Washington were to be exquisitely sensitive to DNA cross-linking agents such among the first to describe the use of prospective screening as mitomycin C (MMC) [44]. and surveillance for high-risk individuals [51]: 7 of 14 individuals from 3 high-risk families who were screened with 2.1.4. Peutz-Jeghers Syndrome. Peutz-Jeghers syndrome endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS), endoscopic retrograde (PJS) is an autosomal dominant syndrome associated with cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), computed tomography loss of STK11/LKB1 gene function and is characterized by (CT), and serum CEA and CA19-9 were found to have high- hamartomatous polyps in the gastrointestinal tract and risk lesions based on concerning features on EUS and ERCP pigmented skin lesions on the lips, oral mucosa, and digits. features. Pancreatectomy was therefore recommended and In a large retrospective cohort study of 34 PJS patients performed in all 7 patients, and all 7 patients had widespread identified over 50 years of Mayo Clinic records, the overall dysplasia (PanINs), but no cancer or normal pancreas risk for developing cancer in affected individuals was 9.9. parenchyma was found in any of the specimens [51]. In The relative risk of developing gastrointestinal cancers was a follow-up study at the same institution, Kimmey et al. 50.5, and the risk was 5-fold higher in women (RR 151) screened 46 high-risk patients with EUS [52]: 13 patients had than men (RR 30) [45]. The risk for developing PC was abnormal findings, 12 of whom underwent pancreatectomy reported to be 5% at the age of 40 and 8% at the age of 60 with all 12 specimens showing widespread dysplasia (PanIN). in a study of 240 international PJS patients possessing the Canto et al. [53] at Johns Hopkins similarly reported on STK11 mutation [27]. Of note, all pancreatic cancers in that 38 high-risk (most with ≥3 relatives with PC) individuals study were diagnosed between the age of 34 and 49 years who underwent screening with EUS and, if abnormal, [27]. That multi-institutional effort was recently extended to then biopsy, ERCP, and CT. Resection was offered to and include 419 PJS patients, 297 with an identified STK11/LKB1 performed on 6 patients with a mass seen on EUS. On final germ-line mutation [46], with similar results in the risk of pathology, 4 patients had a benign lesion, one patient had PC (3- and 7-fold risk at 40 and 60 years of age, respectively. an IPMN, and one patient had PDAC [53]. Other centers around the world, including Germany, the Netherlands, and 2.1.5. Lynch Syndrome. Lynch syndrome, also known as he- the US [54–56] have similarly begun screening programs. reditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC), is an au- Recommendations regarding screening and surveillance tosomal dominant condition associated with mutations in are in evolution. The University of Washington currently DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes including MLH1, recommends surveillance to the following: (1) individuals MSH2, MSH6, PMS2, and others. The resulting compromise with 2 or more first-degree relatives with PC, (2) individuals of DNA maintenance and repair leads to the accumulation of with one first-degree relative with PC diagnosed under errors in the genome manifested in microsatellite instability the age of 50, (3) individuals with 2 or more relatives and loss of normal tumor-suppressor function. Whereas with pancreatic cancer, one of whom had PC at an early Lynch I syndrome is comprised only of colorectal cancers, age, and (4) individuals with a genetic disorders, such as Lynch II has been characterized to include a number of PJS and FAMMM [57]. Screening recommendations of the extracolonic cancers including PC. Fourth International Symposium of Inherited Diseases of Kastrinos et al. [30] analyzed the data on 6,342 individ- the Pancreas [50], including both University of Washington uals from 147 families with MMR gene mutations from two and Johns Hopkins investigators, are slightly more stringent major US cancer centers and found that 21.1% of the families (Table 4) and include anyone deemed to have a risk of PC reported a case of pancreatic cancer. The cumulative risk of ≥10-fold the general population. As such, candidates for pancreatic cancer in these individuals was 1.3% at age 50 and screening and surveillance include those with FAMMM, PJS, 3.7% at age 70, which corresponds to a an 8.6-fold increase HP, or ≥3 first-degree relatives with PC, individuals with compared to the general population [30]. ≥3 first-, second-, or third-degree relatives with PC (at least one of whom is a first-degree relative), any member of a 2.2. Surveillance and Screening for PC. PC, specifically PDAC, PJS family, those carrying mutations of BRCA1, BRCA2,or is generally a lethal disease, and even at high-volume insti- an MMR gene, and with at least one first- or second-degree tutions, the median survival following resection of PDAC relative with PC, and candidates with 2 relatives with PC in International Journal of Surgical Oncology 5 Table 4: Candidates for pancreatic cancer surveillance. Candidates for PC surveillance (with >10-fold increased risk of PC) Anyone with ≥3 first-degree relatives with PC Individuals with ≥3 first-, second-, or third-degree relatives with PC, at least one of whom is a first-degree relative Anyone with FAMMM, PJS, or HP Any member of a PJS family Carriers of mutations of BRCA1, BRCA2, or an MMR gene and with at least one first- or second-degree relative with PC A person with 2 relatives in the same lineage (directly connected) with PC, at least one of whom is a first-degree relative of the candidate Some people with two first-degree relatives with PC and favorable expert opinion Modified from [50]. the same lineage (directly connected), at least one of whom ≥10x risk, ≥10 years earlier is a first-degree relative of the candidate [50]. than earliest affected relative After deciding which patients to screen, the questions of how and when to screen remain. In addition to EUS and Pancreas-protocol CT or MRI/MRCP ERCP, magnetic resonance imaging with cholangiopancre- CEA, Ca19-9, liver and pancreas labs, atography (MRI/MRCP) has more recently gained increasing genetic testing? interest as a screening modality. Vasen et al. [58] used MRI/MRCP to screen high-risk individuals with P16-leiden mutations. After a 4-year median follow-up period, out of Recent alcohol No recent alcohol 79 individuals screened, pancreatic cancer was diagnosed in 9% and precursor lesions in 11% [58]. Whichever screening Abstain ≥1 month EUS tool is employed, a screening program should take place only in the setting of a high-volume center and with full informed consent. Patients who are not willing to undergo pancreatectomy for suspicious lesions identified on screening Normal Abnormal should not undergo screening. Care must also be taken to exclude patients with a recent history of pancreatitis or Repeat EUS 1–3 y ERCP heavy alcohol intake, since EUS findings are similar in that population [59]. Normal Abnormal Normal EUS findings include homogenous parenchyma and a thin-walled, anechoic main pancreatic duct. Abnormal EUS features that are considered to warrant ERCP followup Consider resection (Figure 1) include hypoechoic nodules and cysts, echogenic foci, parenchymal heterogeneity, narrowing or dilation of Figure 1: Flow chart for pancreatic cancer screening in high-risk the pancreatic duct, and duct-wall echogenicity [52, 53, 59– individuals. 61]. Unfortunately, many of these changes are also present in chronic pancreatitis and in recent heavy alcohol intake, The treatment of patients who are deemed to have high- as such patients must be stratified accordingly. Concerning risk forcanceroraprecancerlesionand whoare foundto ERCP features include saccular deformities or other irregu- have an abnormality by screening is pancreatectomy. Some larities of the pancreatic ducts [60, 61]. recommend routine total pancretectomy, citing multifocality When to start screening is similarly not universally of the disease [59], whereas others recommended partial defined [50]. Applying the screening principles of colorectal pancreatectomy [53]. Inadequate data exist to determine cancer by beginning screening for pancreatic cancer 10 years which option is associated with the most favorable risk/ earlier than the youngest affected member in the family is benefit ratio, but each patient’s ability to manage the severe a reasonable starting point. Taking into account, however, diabetes following total pancreatectomy must be weighed the long time between initiation of a PDAC tumor cell and carefully on a case-by-case basis with the risk of leaving the presence of a PDAC tumor beginning to have metastatic behind at-risk pancreas. capability (11.7 ± 3.1 years [62]), and taking into account evidence that consecutive generations with FPC die of PC a median of 10 years sooner each subsequent generation 3. Hepatobiliary Cancers [63], and finally taking into account that smokers with FPC develop cancer a decade before nonsmokers, it is reasonable 3.1. Hepatocellular Carcinoma. Compared with PC, much to use judgment in screening selected individuals much less is known about hereditary hepatobiliary cancers. Al- earlier. A reasonable screening algorithm is presented in though the great majority of hepatocellular carcinoma Figure 1. (HCC) cases are sporadic, some data exist to suggest 6 International Journal of Surgical Oncology Table 5: Inherited diseases of the liver associated with HCC. Other hereditary liver diseases have been associated with increased risk of HCC development, such as autoimmune Inherited diseases of the liver associated with HCC hepatitis (RR 23) [69], porphyria (RR 5–36) [70, 71], Disease RR References α1-antitrypsin deficiency (RR 5) [72], progressive familial Hereditary hemochromatosis 2–20 [66–68] intrahepatic cholestasis (RR 3.7) [73, 74], glycogen storage Autoimmune hepatitis 23 [69] disease type 1 (von Gierke disease) (RR unk.) [75], hereditary Porphyria 5–36 [70, 71] tyrosinemia type I (RR unk.) [76–78], Wilson’s disease (RR unk.) [79], Niemann-Pick disease (RR unk.) [80], Gaucher α1-antitrypsin deficiency 5 [72] disease (RR unk.) [81], and hereditary telangieatasias (RR Progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis Unk. [73, 74] unk.) [82, 83], but these associations are poorly studied due Glycogen storage disease type 1 Unk. [75] to the rarity of the disease processes. (von Gierke disease) Hereditary tyrosinemia type I Unk. [76–78] 3.2. Bile-Duct and Gallbladder Cancer. In alarge,coopera- Wilson’s disease Unk. [79] tive, case-control series from Milan, Fernandez et al. [12] Niemann-Pick disease Unk. [80] prospectively followed 740 patients with pancreatic and Gaucher disease Unk [81] hepatobiliary cancers compared with 1408 matched control Hereditary telangiectasias Unk. [82, 83] patients and found a family history of gallbladder cancer in 1 of 58 patients with gallbladder cancer and in 2 of 1408 controls, yielding a relative risk of 13.9 but with a wide an inherited component of risk. In a study of nearly 5000 confidence interval (95% CI 1.2–163.9). Interestingly, a fam- HBV carriers from the Liver Unit of Chang-Gung Memorial ily history of stomach cancer was associated with a nearly 2- Hospital and the Government Employee Central Clinics in fold relative risk of gallbladder cancer [12]. Taipei, those who had a family history of HCC had a 2.4- Analysis of the >10-million-person-large Swedish Cancer fold risk of HCC compared with HBV carriers without Registry revealed a 5.2-fold increased risk of gallbladder can- a family history of HCC and this risk increased to 5.6- cer in the offspring of patients with gallbladder cancer [65]. fold if two or more relatives were affected [64]. Similarly, There was a similar (3.8-fold), but only borderline signif- analysis of the Swedish Cancer Registry [65], covering >10 icant, risk of extrahepatic bile-duct cancer when a family million individuals, revealed a 4.7-fold increased risk of HCC history of maternal ovarian cancer was present [65]. in offspring of patients with HCC. In addition to general Several studies have reported an association between a familial risk, several specific, known inherited liver diseases family history of gallstones and gallbladder cancer. In a recent have been associated with increased risk for the development study from China’s Shanghai Cancer Institute, Hsing et al. of HCC (Table 5). [85]confirmedearlier reports[86] that simply a family his- tory of gallstones conferred an increased risk of gallbladder 3.1.1. Specific Diseases with Inherited Predisposition for HCC. cancer (2.1-fold [85]to3.6-fold[86]), even after adjustment Hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) is an autosomal recessive for age, gender, marital status, education, smoking, alcohol disease associated with various mutations in the HFE gene drinking body mass index, and importantly, the presence of resulting in progressive iron overload in the liver and else- gallstones, which themselves further increase the risk. where and is associated with an increased risk of HCC. To study whether HH, per se, and not chronic liver disease, is responsible for the increased cancer risk, Fracanzani et al. 3.2.1. Specific Diseases with Inherited Predisposition for Bile- [66] analyzed the rate HCC in 230 patients with HH and Duct Cancer. In a cohort of 472 patients from 15 different 230 others with noniron-related chronic liver disease, finding families with HNPCC, cancer of the biliopancreatic tract was a 1.9-fold increased risk of HCC in HH patients after seen in 18 patients, 11 (79%) of which were confirmed as arising in the biliary tree or ampulla of Vater [87]. Despite controlling for alcohol abuse, smoking, and family history of cancer. In a modeling study using published life tables, a >9-fold increased risk of bile-duct cancer in patients with age-specific cancer rates, and DNA studies of archived liver HNPCC [88], routine screening for bile-duct cancer has not biopsy specimens, Haddow et al. [67] calculated the lifetime been recommended [89], owing in large part to the difficulty risk of HCC in a cohort of 5000 men with the common in detecting these cancers and their rarity. homozygous C282Y mutation in the HFE gene to be 23- Muir-Torre syndrome (MTS) is an autosomal dominant fold compared with 1,000,000 normal men. Elmberg et al. syndrome described in the 1960s [90, 91] that predisposes [68] studied 1847 Swedish patients with HH and 5973 of to sebaceous skin lesions or keratoacanthomas and visceral their first-degree relatives. Patients with HH had a 20-fold tumors. MTS is a variant of HNPCC with the majority increased risk of HCC, but their first-degree relatives had of germ-line mutations occurring in the MSH2 gene [92]. no increased risk of overall cancers and an only 1.5-fold Several cases of bile-duct and ampullary cancers have been increased risk of hepatobiliary cancers such as HCC [68]. reported in association with MTS [93–95], including a report A recent meta-analysis of 9 studies including 1102 HCC of a novel missense mutation in the MSH2 gene [93]. Al- cases and 3766 controls in Europe revealed that the C282Y though screening for biliary cancers is not currently practical, mutation but not the H63D mutation was associated with it has been suggested that screening for ampullary cancers in HCC in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis [84]. MTS patients would have a favorable risk/benefit ratio [95]. International Journal of Surgical Oncology 7 Bile salt export pump deficiency (BSEP), caused by muta- [11] P. Ghadirian, P. Boyle, A. Simard, J. Baillargeon, P. Maison- neuve, and C. Perret, “Reported family aggregation of pan- tions in ABCB11 [96], has been associated with bile-duct creatic cancer within a population-based case-control study in cancer [97]. In a study of 82 different ABCB11 mutations the Francophone Community in Montreal, Canada,” Interna- in 109 families [74], 19 of 128 patients (15%) with BSEP tional JournalofPancreatology, vol. 10, no. 3-4, pp. 183–196, mutations developed hepatobiliary mutations, but only 2 of the 19 were bile-duct cancers, the remaining being HCC. [12] E. Fernandez, C. La Vecchia, B. D’Avanzo, E. Negri, and S. Franceschi, “Family history and the risk of liver, gallbladder, and pancreatic cancer,” Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and 4. Summary Prevention, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 209–212, 1994. [13] S. T. Dergham, M. C. Dugan, P. Arlauskas et al., “Relationship Among all hereditary cancers of the pancreas, liver, and of family cancer history to the expression of p53, p21WAF- biliary tree, only those of the pancreas have been studied well 1, HER-2/neu, and K-ras mutation in pancreatic adenocarci- enough to allow for recommendations regarding screening noma ,” International Journal of Pancreatology, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 225–234, 1997. and surveillance. While several known but rare forms of her- [14] S. S. Coughlin, E. E. Calle, A. V. Patel, and M. J. Thun, “Pre- editary hepatobiliary cancer exist, screening recommenda- dictors of pancreatic cancer mortality among a large cohort of tion cannot be made at this time due to the scarcity of United States adults,” Cancer Causes and Control, vol. 11, no. available data. In contrast, any individual with a risk of PC 10, pp. 915–923, 2000. estimated to be ≥10-fold should be screened with EUS by [15] K. Hemminki and X. Li, “Familial and second primary pancre- an experienced endoscopist in an experienced center after atic cancers: a nationwide epidemiologic study from Sweden,” genetic counseling and informed consent, provided that the International Journal of Cancer, vol. 103, no. 4, pp. 525–530, individual is willing to undergo pancreatectomy. Screening should begin at least 10 years prior to the age of the youngest [16] A. P. Klein, K. A. Brune, G. M. Petersen et al., “Prospective risk of pancreatic cancer in familial pancreatic cancer kindreds,” affected relative and perhaps even earlier for select patients, Cancer Research, vol. 64, no. 7, pp. 2634–2638, 2004. such as smokers. [17] J. Permuth-Wey and K. M. Egan, “Family history is a signifi- cant risk factor for pancreatic cancer: results from a systematic review and meta-analysis,” Familial Cancer, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. References 109–117, 2009. [18] A. B. Lowenfels, P. Maisonneuve, E. P. DiMagno et al., “Hered- [1] H. Billroth, Die Allgemeine Chirurgie, Pathologie, und Thera- itary pancreatitis and the risk of pancreatic cancer. Interna- pie, Georg Reimer, 1889. tional Hereditary Pancreatitis Study Group,” Journal of the [2] H. T. Lynch, A. J. Krush, and A. L. Larsen, “Heredity and mul- National Cancer Institute, vol. 89, no. 6, pp. 442–446, 1997. [19] V. Rebours, M. C. Boutron-Ruault, M. Schnee et al., “Risk of tiple primary malignant neoplasms: six cancer families,” The pancreatic adenocarcinoma in patients with hereditary pan- American Journal of the Medical Sciences, vol. 254, no. 3, pp. creatitis: a national exhaustive series,” The American Journal of 322–329, 1967. Gastroenterology, vol. 103, no. 1, pp. 111–119, 2008. [3] J. E. Garber and K. Offit, “Hereditary cancer predisposition [20] N. Howes, M. M. Lerch, W. Greenhalf et al., “Clinical and syndromes,” Journal of Clinical Oncology,vol. 23, no.2,pp. genetic characteristics of hereditary pancreatitis in Europe,” 276–292, 2005. Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. [4] J. Ferlay, H. R. Shin, F. Bray et al., “Estimates of worldwide bur- 252–261, 2004. den of cancer in 2008: GLOBOCAN 2008,” International Jour- [21] W. Bergman, P. Watson, J. de Jong, H. T. Lynch, and R. M. nal of Cancer, vol. 127, no. 12, pp. 2893–2917, 2010. Fusaro, “Systemic cancer and the FAMMM syndrome,” The [5] A. Jemal, R. Siegel, J. Xu et al., “Cancer statistics, 2010,” CA British Journal of Cancer, vol. 61, no. 6, pp. 932–936, 1990. Cancer Journal for Clinicians, vol. 60, no. 5, pp. 277–300, 2010. [22] A. Borg, T. Sandberg, K. Nilsson et al., “High frequency of [6] R.H.Hruban, G. M. Petersen,P.K.Ha, andS.E.Kern, “Genet- multiple melanomas and breast and pancreas carcinomas in CDKN2A mutation-positive melanoma families,” Journal of ics of pancreatic cancer: from genes to families,” Surgical Oncology Clinics of North America, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 1–23, 1998. the National Cancer Institute, vol. 92, no. 15, pp. 1260–1266, [7] R. P. MacDermott and P. Kramer, “Adenocarcinoma of the [23] H. F. Vasen, N. A. Gruis, R. R. Frants, P. A. Van Der Velden, E. pancreas in four siblings,” Gastroenterology,vol. 65, no.1,pp. T. Hille, and W. Bergman, “Risk of developing pancreatic can- 137–139, 1973. cer in families with familial atypical multiple mole melanoma [8] D.Ehrenthal,L.Haeger, T. Griffin, andC.Compton,“Familial associated with a specific 19 deletion of p16 (p16-Leiden),” pancreatic adenocarcinoma in three generations. A case report International Journal of Cancer, vol. 87, no. 6, pp. 809–811, and a review of the literature,” Cancer, vol. 59, no. 9, pp. 1661– 1664, 1987. [24] C. J. van Asperen, R. M. Brohet, E. J. Meijers-Heijboer et al., [9] R. T. Falk, L. W. Pickle, E. T. Fontham, P. Correa, and J. “Cancer risks in BRCA2 families: estimates for sites other than F. Fraumeni, “Life-style risk factors for pancreatic cancer in breast and ovary,” Journal of Medical Genetics, vol. 42, no. 9, Louisiana: a case-control study,” The American Journal of pp. 711–719, 2005. Epidemiology, vol. 128, no. 2, pp. 324–336, 1988. [25] M. S. Brose, T. R. Rebbeck, K. A. Calzone, J. E. Stopfer, K. L. [10] H. T. Lynch, M. L. Fitzsimmons, T. C. Smyrk et al., “Familial Nathanson, and B. L. Weber, “Cancer risk estimates for BCRA1 pancreatic cancer: clinicopathologic study of 18 nuclear fami- mutation carriers identified in a risk evaluation program,” Journal of the National Cancer Institute, vol. 94, no. 18, pp. lies,” The American Journal of Gastroenterology,vol. 85, no.1, pp. 54–60, 1990. 1365–1372, 2002. 8 International Journal of Surgical Oncology [26] D. Thompson and D. F. Easton, “Cancer incidence in BRCA1 [44] M. C. Villarroel, N. V. Rajeshkumar, I. Garrido-Laguna et al., mutation carriers,” Journal of the National Cancer Institute, vol. “Personalizing cancer treatment in the age of global genomic 94, no. 18, pp. 1358–1365, 2002. analyses: PALB2 gene mutations and the response to DNA [27] W. Lim, S. Olschwang, J. J. Keller et al., “Relative frequency damaging agents in pancreatic cancer,” Molecular Cancer and morphology of cancers in STK11 mutation carriers,” Therapeutics, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 3–8, 2011. Gastroenterology, vol. 126, no. 7, pp. 1788–1794, 2004. [45] L. A. Boardman, S. N. Thibodeau, D. J. Schaid et al., “Increased [28] F. M. Giardiello, S. B. Welsh, S. R. Hamilton et al., “Increased risk for cancer in patients with the Peutz-Jeghers syndrome,” risk of cancer in the Peutz-Jeghers syndrome,” The New Eng- Annals of Internal Medicine, vol. 128, no. 11, pp. 896–899, land Journal of Medicine, vol. 316, no. 24, pp. 1511–1514, 1987. 1998. [29] F. M. Giardiello, J. D. Brensinger, A. C. Tersmette et al., [46] N. Hearle, V. Schumacher, F. H. Menko et al., “Frequency and “Very high risk of cancer in familial Peutz-Jeghers syndrome,” spectrum of cancers in the Peutz-Jeghers syndrome,” Clinical Gastroenterology, vol. 119, no. 6, pp. 1447–1453, 2000. Cancer Research, vol. 12, no. 10, pp. 3209–3215, 2006. [30] F. Kastrinos, B. Mukherjee, N. Tayob et al., “Risk of pancreatic [47] J. M. Winter, J. L. Cameron, K. A. Campbell et al., “1423 pan- cancer in families with Lynch syndrome,” Journal of the Ameri- creaticoduodenectomies for pancreatic cancer: a single-insti- can Medical Association, vol. 302, no. 16, pp. 1790–1795, 2009. tution experience,” Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery, vol. 10, [31] P. Maisonneuve, S. C. FitzSimmons, J. P. Neglia, P. W. Camp- no. 9, pp. 1199–1210, 2006. bell, and A. B. Lowenfels, “Cancer risk in nontransplanted and [48] H. Furukawa, S. Okada, H. Saisho et al., “Clinicopathologic transplanted cystic fibrosis patients: a 10-year study,” Journal features of small pancreatic adenocarcinoma: a collective of the National Cancer Institute, vol. 95, no. 5, pp. 381–387, study,” Cancer, vol. 78, no. 5, pp. 986–990, 1996. 2003. [49] Y. Shimizu, K. Yasui, K. Matsueda, A. Yanagisawa, and K. [32] P. Maisonneuve, B. C. Marshall, and A. B. Lowenfels, “Risk of Yamao, “Small carcinoma of the pancreas is curable: new com- pancreatic cancer in patients with cystic fibrosis,” Gut, vol. 56, puted tomography finding, pathological study and postopera- no. 9, pp. 1327–1328, 2007. tive results from a single institute,” Journal of Gastroenterology [33] G. M. Petersen, M. de Andrade, M. Goggins et al., “Pancreatic and Hepatology, vol. 20, no. 10, pp. 1591–1594, 2005. cancer genetic epidemiology consortium,” Cancer Epidemiol- [50] R. E. Brand, M. M. Lerch, W. S. Rubinstein et al., “Advances in ogy Biomarkers and Prevention, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 704–710, counselling and surveillance of patients at risk for pancreatic 2006. cancer,” Gut, vol. 56, no. 10, pp. 1460–1469, 2007. [34] O. Paolini, P. Hastier, M. Buckley et al., “The natural history of [51] T. A. Brentnall, M. P. Bronner, D. R. Byrd, R. C. Haggitt, and hereditary chronic pancreatitis: a study of 12 cases compared M. B. Kimmey, “Early diagnosis and treatment of pancreatic to chronic alcoholic pancreatitis,” Pancreas,vol. 17, no.3,pp. dysplasia in patients with a family history of pancreatic 266–271, 1998. cancer,” Annals of Internal Medicine, vol. 131, no. 4, pp. 247– [35] D. C. Whitcomb, M. C. Gorry, R. A. Preston et al., “Hereditary 255, 1999. pancreatitis is caused by a mutation in the cationic trypsino- [52] M. B. Kimmey, M. P. Bronner, D. R. Byrd, and T. A. Brentnall, gen gene,” Nature Genetics, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 141–145, 1996. “Screening and surveillance for hereditary pancreatic cancer,” [36] M. C. Gorry, D. Gabbaizedeh, W. Furey et al., “Mutations in Gastrointestinal Endoscopy, vol. 56, no. 4, pp. S82–S86, 2002. the cationic trypsinogen gene are associated with recurrent [53] M. I. Canto, M. Goggins, C. J. Yeo et al., “Screening for acute and chronic pancreatitis,” Gastroenterology, vol. 113, no. pancreatic neoplasia in high-risk individuals: an EUS-based 4, pp. 1063–1068, 1997. approach,” Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology, vol. 2, [37] A. B. Lowenfels, P. Maisonneuve, D. C. Whitcomb, M. M. no. 7, pp. 606–621, 2004. Lerch, and E. P. DiMagno, “Cigarette smoking as a risk factor [54] P. Langer, P. H. Kann, V. Fendrich et al., “Five years of for pancreatic cancer in patients with hereditary pancreatitis,” prospective screening of high-risk individuals from families Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 286, no. 2, pp. with familial pancreatic cancer,” Gut, vol. 58, no. 10, pp. 1410– 169–170, 2001. 1418, 2009. [38] A. M. Goldstein, M. C. Fraser, J. P. Struewing et al., “Increased [55] J. W. Poley, I. Kluijt, D. J. Gouma et al., “The yield of first-time risk of pancreatic cancer in melanoma-prone kindreds with endoscopic ultrasonography in screening individuals at a high p16INK4 mutations,” The New England Journal of Medicine, risk of developing pancreatic cancer,” The American Journal of vol. 333, no. 15, pp. 970–974, 1995. Gastroenterology, vol. 104, no. 9, pp. 2175–2181, 2009. [39] K. M. Murphy,K.A.Brune,C.Griffin et al., “Evaluation of [56] E. C. Verna, C. Hwang, P. D. Stevens et al., “Pancreatic candidate genes MAP2K4, MADH4, ACVR1B, and BRCA2 in cancer screening in a prospective cohort of high-risk patients: familial pancreatic cancer: deleterious BRCA2 mutations in a comprehensive strategy of imaging and genetics,” Clinical 17%,” Cancer Research, vol. 62, no. 13, pp. 3789–3793, 2002. Cancer Research, vol. 16, no. 20, pp. 5028–5037, 2010. [40] S. A. Hahn, B. Greenhalf, I. Ellis et al., “BRCA2 germline [57] UWSOMDOG, “Pancreatic Cancer Care, Families with Pan- mutations in familial pancreatic carcinoma,” Journal of the creatic Cancer, Who is at Risk?” 2011, http://www.uwgi.org/ National Cancer Institute, vol. 95, no. 3, pp. 214–221, 2003. pancreaticcancer/Family.Risk.aspx?i=4. [41] M. Goggins, M. Sehutte, J. Lu et al., “Germline BRCA2 gene [58] H. F. Vasen, M. Wasser, A. van Mil et al., “Magnetic resonance mutations in patients with apparently sporadic pancreatic imaging surveillance detects early-stage pancreatic cancer in carcinomas,” Cancer Research, vol. 56, no. 23, pp. 5360–5364, carriers of a p16-Leiden mutation,” Gastroenterology, vol. 140, 1996. no. 3, pp. 850–856, 2011. [42] S. Jones, R. H. Hruban, M. Kamiyama et al., “Exomic sequenc- [59] T. A. Brentnall, “Cancer surveillance of patients from familial ing identifies PALB2 as a pancreatic cancer susceptibility gene,” pancreatic cancer kindreds,” Medical Clinics of North America, Science, vol. 324, no. 5924, p. 217, 2009. vol. 84, no. 3, pp. 707–718, 2000. [43] E. P. Slater, P. Langer, E. Niemczyk et al., “PALB2 mutations [60] M. I. Canto, “Screening and surveillance approaches in famil- in European familial pancreatic cancer families,” Clinical ial pancreatic cancer,” Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Clinics of Genetics, vol. 78, no. 5, pp. 490–494, 2010. North America, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 535–553, 2008. International Journal of Surgical Oncology 9 [61] T. A. Brentnall, “Management strategies for patients with [77] R. O. Fisch, E. R. McCabe, and D. Doeden, “Homotransplan- hereditary pancreatic cancer,” Current Treatment Options in tation of the liver in a patient with hepatoma and hereditary Oncology, vol. 6, no. 5, pp. 437–445, 2005. tyrosinemia,” Journal of Pediatrics, vol. 93, no. 4, pp. 592–596, [62] S. Yachida, S. Jones, I. Bozic et al., “Distant metastasis occurs 1978. late during the genetic evolution of pancreatic cancer,” Nature, [78] C. R. Scott, “The genetic tyrosinemias,” The American Journal vol. 467, no. 7319, pp. 1114–1117, 2010. of Medical Genetics Part C, vol. 142, no. 2, pp. 121–126, 2006. [63] C. D. McFaul, W. Greenhalf, J. Earl et al., “Anticipation in [79] H. Iwadate, H. Ohira, T. Suzuki et al., “Hepatocellular carci- familial pancreatic cancer,” Gut, vol. 55, no. 2, pp. 252–258, noma associated with Wilson’s disease,” Internal Medicine, vol. 43, no. 11, pp. 1042–1045, 2004. [64] M. W. Yu, H. C. Chang, Y. F. Liaw et al., “Familial risk of [80] N. C. Birch, S. Radio, and S. Horslen, “Metastatic hepatocellu- hepatocellular carcinoma among chronic hepatitis B carriers lar carcinoma in a patient with niemann-pick disease, type C,” and their relatives,” Journal of the National Cancer Institute, Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, vol. 37, no. vol. 92, no. 14, pp. 1159–1164, 2000. 5, pp. 624–626, 2003. [65] K. Hemminki and X. Li, “Familial liver and gall bladder can- [81] R. Xu, P. Mistry, G. Mckenna et al., “Hepatocellular carcinoma cer: a nationwide epidemiological study from Sweden,” Gut, in type 1 Gaucher disease: a case report with review of the vol. 52, no. 4, pp. 592–596, 2003. literature,” Seminars in Liver Disease, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 226– [66] A. L. Fracanzani, D. Conte, M. Fraquelli et al., “Increased can- 229, 2005. cer risk in a cohort of 230 patients with hereditary hemochro- [82] C. F. Jameson, “Primary hepatocellular carcinoma in heredi- matosis in comparison to matched control patients with non- tary haemorrhagic telangiectasia: a case report and literature iron-related chronic liver disease,” Hepatology, vol. 33, no. 3, review,” Histopathology, vol. 15, no. 5, pp. 550–552, 1989. pp. 647–651, 2001. [83] E. B. Sussman and S. S. Sternberg, “Hereditary hemorrhagic [67] J. E. Haddow, G. E. Palomaki, M. McClain, and W. Craig, telangiectasia. A case with hepatocellular carcinoma and “Hereditary haemochromatosis and hepatocellular carcinoma acquired hepatocerebral degeneration,” Archives of Pathology in males: a strategy for estimating the potential for primary and Laboratory Medicine, vol. 99, no. 2, pp. 95–100, 1975. prevention,” Journal of Medical Screening,vol. 10, no.1,pp. [84] F. Jin, L. S. Qu, and X. Z. Shen, “Association between C282Y 11–13, 2003. and H63D mutations of the HFE gene with hepatocellular [68] M. Elmberg, R. Hultcrantz, A. Ekbom et al., “Cancer risk in carcinoma in European populations: a meta-analysis,” Journal patients with hereditary hemochromatosis and in their first- of Experimental and Clinical Cancer Research, vol. 29, no. 18, degree relatives,” Gastroenterology, vol. 125, no. 6, pp. 1733– 1741, 2003. [69] M. Werner, S. Almer, H. Prytz et al., “Hepatic and extrahepatic [85] A. W. Hsing, Y. Bai, G. Andreotti et al., “Family history of malignancies in autoimmune hepatitis. A long-term follow-up gallstones and the risk of biliary tract cancer and gallstones: in 473 Swedish patients,” Journal of Hepatology, vol. 50, no. 2, a population-based study in Shanghai, China,” International pp. 388–393, 2009. Journal of Cancer, vol. 121, no. 4, pp. 832–838, 2007. [70] C. Andant, H. Puy, C. Bogard et al., “Hepatocellular carcinoma [86] B. L. Strom, R. D. Soloway, J. L. Rios-Dalenz et al., “Risk factors in patients with acute hepatic porphyria: frequency of occur- for gallbladder cancer. An international collaborative case- rence and related factors,” Journal of Hepatology, vol. 32, no. 6, control study,” Cancer, vol. 76, no. 10, pp. 1747–1756, 1995. pp. 933–939, 2000. [87] J. P. Mecklin, H. J. Jarvinen, and M. Virolainen, “The associ- [71] A. L. Fracanzani, E. Taioli, M. Sampietro et al., “Liver cancer ation between cholangiocarcinoma and hereditary nonpoly- risk is increased in patients with porphyria cutanea tarda in posis colorectal carcinoma,” Cancer, vol. 69, no. 5, pp. 1112– comparison to matched control patients with chronic liver 1114, 1992. disease,” Journal of Hepatology, vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 498–503, [88] M. Aarnio, R. Sankila, E. Pukkala et al., “Cancer risk in muta- tion carriers of DNA-mismatch-repair genes,” International [72] A. N. Elzouki and S. Eriksson, “Risk of hepatobiliary disease Journal of Cancer, vol. 81, no. 2, pp. 214–218, 1999. in adults with severe alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency (PiZZ): [89] J. J. Koornstra, M. J. Mourits, R. H. Sijmons, A. M. Leliveld, H. is chronic viral hepatitis B or C an additional risk factor Hollema, and J. H. Kleibeuker, “Management of extracolonic for cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma?” The European tumours in patients with Lynch syndrome,” The Lancet Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, vol. 8, no. 10, pp. Oncology, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 400–408, 2009. 989–994, 1996. [90] E. G. Muir,A.J.Bell, andK.A.Barlow, “Multipleprimary [73] A. S. Knisely, S. S. Strautnieks, Y. Meier et al., “Hepatocellular carcinomata of the colon, duodenum, and larynx associated carcinoma in ten children under five years of age with bile salt with kerato-acanthomata of the face,” The British Journal of export pump deficiency,” Hepatology, vol. 44, no. 2, pp. 478– Surgery, vol. 54, no. 3, pp. 191–195, 1967. 486, 2006. [91] D. Torre, “Multiple sebaceous tumors,” Archives of Dermatol- [74] S. S. Strautnieks, J. A. Byrne, L. Pawlikowska et al., “Severe bile ogy, vol. 98, no. 5, pp. 549–551, 1968. salt export pump deficiency: 82 different ABCB11 mutations [92] E. Mangold, C. Pagenstecher, M. Leister et al., “A genotype- in 109 families,” Gastroenterology, vol. 134, no. 4, pp. 1203– phenotype correlation in HNPCC: strong predominance of 1214, 2008. msh2 mutations in 41 patients with Muir-Torre syndrome,” [75] T. Taddei, P. Mistry, and M. L. Schilsky, “Inherited metabolic Journal of Medical Genetics, vol. 41, no. 7, pp. 567–572, 2004. disease of the liver,” Current Opinion in Gastroenterology, vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 278–286, 2008. [93] M. Vernez,P.Hutter, C. Monnerat, N. Halkic,O.Gugerli,and [76] A. G. Weinberg, C. E. Mize, and H. G. Worthen, “The H. Bouzourene, “A case of Muir-Torre syndrome associated occurence of hepatoma in the chronic form of hereditary with mucinous hepatic cholangiocarcinoma and a novel germ- tyrosinemia,” Journal of Pediatrics, vol. 88, no. 3, pp. 434–438, line mutation of the MSH2 gene,” Familial Cancer, vol. 6, no. 1976. 1, pp. 141–145, 2007. 10 International Journal of Surgical Oncology [94] S. Akhtar, K. K. Oza, S. A. Khan, and J. Wright, “Muir-Torre syndrome: case report of a patient with concurrent jejunal and ureteral cancer and a review of the literature,” Journalofthe American Academy of Dermatology, vol. 41, no. 5, pp. 681–686, [95] J. J. Matthews, R. Roberts, D. A. O’Reilly, S. Schick, and A. N. Kingsnorth, “Muir-Torre syndrome: a case for surveillance of the ampulla of Vater,” Digestive Surgery, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 65– 66, 2002. [96] S. S. Strautnieks, L. N. Bull, A. S. Knisely et al., “A gene encod- ing a liver-specific ABC transporter is mutated in progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis,” Nature Genetics, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 233–238, 1998. [97] A. O. Scheimann, S. S. Strautnieks, A. S. Knisely, J. A. Byrne, R. J. Thompson, and M. J. Finegold, “Mutations in bile salt export pump (ABCB11) in two children with progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis and cholangiocarcinoma,” Journal of Pediatrics, vol. 150, no. 5, pp. 556–559, 2007. MEDIATORS of INFLAMMATION The Scientific Gastroenterology Journal of World Journal Research and Practice Diabetes Research Disease Markers Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 International Journal of Journal of Immunology Research Endocrinology Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 Submit your manuscripts at http://www.hindawi.com BioMed PPAR Research Research International Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 Journal of Obesity Evidence-Based Journal of Journal of Stem Cells Complementary and Ophthalmology International Alternative Medicine Oncology Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 Parkinson’s Disease Computational and Behavioural Mathematical Methods AIDS Oxidative Medicine and in Medicine Research and Treatment Cellular Longevity Neurology Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014

Journal

International Journal of Surgical OncologyHindawi Publishing Corporation

Published: Jun 28, 2011

References