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Gammarus: Important Taxon in Freshwater and Marine Changing Environments

Gammarus: Important Taxon in Freshwater and Marine Changing Environments Hindawi Publishing Corporation International Journal of Zoology Volume 2011, Article ID 524276, 2 pages doi:10.1155/2011/524276 Editorial Gammarus: Important Taxon in Freshwater and Marine Changing Environments 1 2 3 Almut Gerhardt, Michelle Bloor, andChris LloydMills LimCo International GmbH, Technologiezentrum Konstanz, Blarerstrβe 56, 78462 Konstanz, Germany School of Earth and Environmental Science, University of Portsmouth, Burnaby Building, Burnaby Road, Portsmouth PO1 3QL, UK School of Science and Technology, Nottingham Trent University, Clifton Lane, Nottingham NG11 8NS, UK Correspondence should be addressed to Almut Gerhardt, almutg@web.de Received 19 June 2011; Accepted 19 June 2011 Copyright © 2011 Almut Gerhardt et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Gammarus spp. consist of more than 100 freshwater, brack- which might be the basis for future innovative knowledge in ish, and marine species in the Northern hemisphere. They taxonomy and toxicogenomics. represent important keystone species in aquatic ecosystems Despite the taxon’s importance in different fields of biol- and are often present in high abundance. As shredders and ogy (e.g., ecology, evolution, ecotoxicology, taxonomy, bio- detritus feeders, they contribute to the detritus cycle and geography), its application (as test species and bioindicators) the microbial loop. Gammarids are also carnivorous, feeding in scientific research tends to consider isolated questions. The on small invertebrates and carrion. Due to their widespread aim of this special issue on Gammarus spp. is to highlight distribution, significance in the food web, and sensitivity to the importance of this taxon and facilitate interdisciplinary a wide range of pollutants, they are important bioindicators research. The focus of this issue is to present articles that for water quality assessment. Gammarus spp. are ecologically showcase different facets of gammarid research, including highly successful due to the following characteristics: wide methods that demonstrate direct practical approaches. In trophic repertoire and foraging plasticity, migration ability ordertoreach awidespectrumofreaders from different and tendency to drift, which allows them to easily invade and disciplines and geographical regions, we chose this journal colonize ecosystems, high reproductive capacity with several with global open access. broods per female per year, and a high number of offspring Gammarids are known to be important shredders in and relatively longevity (1-2 yrs). the aquatic detritus cycle and the microbial loop. The Gammarus spp. and their American relative Hyalella most recent research within the field of gammarid-microbial azteca are standard test species in ecotoxicity testing in the interactions is summarized and discussed in the first article USA and UK. A new OECD test guideline is currently being by D. Nelson. Gammarids prefer so-called conditioned leaves prepared for gammarids, which will consist of a variety of as food, that is, leaves colonized by a microbial biofilm. in situ and ex situ ecotoxicological studies based on different The role of hyphomycete fungi as a source of secondary measurement parameters. metabolites is stressed in the paper. However, although the The evolution of gammarids is particularly interesting: effects of leaf type and microbial colonization on Gammarus gammarids contain several Ponto-Caspian and Atlantic inva- spp. feeding activity, growth, and survival has been studied, sive species, which have spread throughout Europe. Some the effects of Gammarus spp. on shaping the microbial species are currently being divided into several geographical community still remain unknown. forms. Although the genome of Gammarus pulex has yet Understanding dietary requirements of gammarids is to be sequenced, 12345 expressed sequence tags are known, essential knowledge to describe feeding schemes for a 2 International Journal of Zoology successful laboratory culture. M. Bloor tests unconditioned to their breeding periods and reproductive output. They and conditioned (either naturally conditioned or artificially identified 4 species that might be suitable for warm water fish conditioned) alder leaves as a food source for Gammarus aquaculture. pulex and Asellus aquaticus andconcludes thatbothspecies Almut Gerhardt prefer naturally conditioned leaves compared to artificial Michelle Bloor conditioning. M. Bloor provides a simple method to prepare Chris Lloyd Mills alder leaves for laboratory culturing of both species. Success- ful breeding is an essential requisite for a standard test species in ecotoxicological test procedures. A. Gerhardt presents a simple low-cost test system with Gammarus spp. studying survival, feeding, and behaviour as well as biomarkers, to be used both in and ex situ. This test protocol does not need sophisticated laboratory equipment and hence can be applied worldwide. Compared to the standard test species Daphnia magna, gammarids tend to be as sensitive towards toxicants and are more ecologically relevant test species. We hope to increase the application of gammarids in aquatic ecotoxicology by providing simple methods for breeding, feeding, and test systems. Whilst gammarids can be very sensitive towards pesti- cides, they are also susceptible to natural defence substances released by aquatic plants. M. J. Dixon and P. J. Shaw show that both pulses of wash water from a watercress farm and isolated phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC) can influence the reproductive behaviour of Gammarus pulex. Short-term pulses lead to the interruption of precopula pairs, with recovery occurring in clean water. Such a transient behavioural parameter has the potential to be used as an early warning indicator of pulsed pollution stress. A sound basis for every ecological and ecotoxicological study is species determination. In gammarids several cryptic species have been found based on genetic methods. However, the proof of mechanisms in speciation such as geograph- ical and/or ecological isolation is still lacking. Do genetic differences suffice to describe (sub)species, or do we need a combination of genetic, morphological, and ecological methods? Haug et al. present the most recent methods for imaging gammarids from whole animals to tiny structures using both high- and low-cost techniques. Modern imaging methods in combination with sophisticated software are very powerful tools which facilitate taxonomic determination. In this paper, different techniques are presented, from simple light microscopy with staining techniques, autofluorescence, and polarized light applications to focused ion beam scan- ning electron microscopy, confocal laser microscopy, and microtomography. Although most gammarids represent freshwater Gam- marus species, brackish and marine gammarids have recently been studied in more detail. L. Delgado et al. show that both adult and juvenile Gammarus aequicauda have a wide salinity tolerance range and that juvenile growth rate is only affected towards the extremes of the salinity tolerance range. Ecological plasticity is a prerequisite to spread to different habitats and geographical locations. Gammarids are highly successful in this aspect. A. Mirzajani et al. describe selection of gammarid species for potential use as a natural food source for warm water fish farming in Iran. In this interesting approach the reproductive traits of 7 amphipod species have been studied with respect International Journal of Peptides Advances in International Journal of BioMed Stem Cells Virolog y Research International International Genomics Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 Journal of Nucleic Acids International Journal of Zoology Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 Submit your manuscripts at http://www.hindawi.com The Scientific Journal of Signal Transduction World Journal Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 International Journal of Advances in Genetics Anatomy Biochemistry Research International Research International Microbiology Research International Bioinformatics Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 Enzyme Journal of International Journal of Molecular Biology Archaea Research Evolutionary Biology International Marine Biology Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png International Journal of Zoology Hindawi Publishing Corporation

Gammarus: Important Taxon in Freshwater and Marine Changing Environments

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Publisher
Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Copyright
Copyright © 2011 Almut Gerhardt et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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1687-8477
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1687-8485
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10.1155/2011/524276
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Abstract

Hindawi Publishing Corporation International Journal of Zoology Volume 2011, Article ID 524276, 2 pages doi:10.1155/2011/524276 Editorial Gammarus: Important Taxon in Freshwater and Marine Changing Environments 1 2 3 Almut Gerhardt, Michelle Bloor, andChris LloydMills LimCo International GmbH, Technologiezentrum Konstanz, Blarerstrβe 56, 78462 Konstanz, Germany School of Earth and Environmental Science, University of Portsmouth, Burnaby Building, Burnaby Road, Portsmouth PO1 3QL, UK School of Science and Technology, Nottingham Trent University, Clifton Lane, Nottingham NG11 8NS, UK Correspondence should be addressed to Almut Gerhardt, almutg@web.de Received 19 June 2011; Accepted 19 June 2011 Copyright © 2011 Almut Gerhardt et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Gammarus spp. consist of more than 100 freshwater, brack- which might be the basis for future innovative knowledge in ish, and marine species in the Northern hemisphere. They taxonomy and toxicogenomics. represent important keystone species in aquatic ecosystems Despite the taxon’s importance in different fields of biol- and are often present in high abundance. As shredders and ogy (e.g., ecology, evolution, ecotoxicology, taxonomy, bio- detritus feeders, they contribute to the detritus cycle and geography), its application (as test species and bioindicators) the microbial loop. Gammarids are also carnivorous, feeding in scientific research tends to consider isolated questions. The on small invertebrates and carrion. Due to their widespread aim of this special issue on Gammarus spp. is to highlight distribution, significance in the food web, and sensitivity to the importance of this taxon and facilitate interdisciplinary a wide range of pollutants, they are important bioindicators research. The focus of this issue is to present articles that for water quality assessment. Gammarus spp. are ecologically showcase different facets of gammarid research, including highly successful due to the following characteristics: wide methods that demonstrate direct practical approaches. In trophic repertoire and foraging plasticity, migration ability ordertoreach awidespectrumofreaders from different and tendency to drift, which allows them to easily invade and disciplines and geographical regions, we chose this journal colonize ecosystems, high reproductive capacity with several with global open access. broods per female per year, and a high number of offspring Gammarids are known to be important shredders in and relatively longevity (1-2 yrs). the aquatic detritus cycle and the microbial loop. The Gammarus spp. and their American relative Hyalella most recent research within the field of gammarid-microbial azteca are standard test species in ecotoxicity testing in the interactions is summarized and discussed in the first article USA and UK. A new OECD test guideline is currently being by D. Nelson. Gammarids prefer so-called conditioned leaves prepared for gammarids, which will consist of a variety of as food, that is, leaves colonized by a microbial biofilm. in situ and ex situ ecotoxicological studies based on different The role of hyphomycete fungi as a source of secondary measurement parameters. metabolites is stressed in the paper. However, although the The evolution of gammarids is particularly interesting: effects of leaf type and microbial colonization on Gammarus gammarids contain several Ponto-Caspian and Atlantic inva- spp. feeding activity, growth, and survival has been studied, sive species, which have spread throughout Europe. Some the effects of Gammarus spp. on shaping the microbial species are currently being divided into several geographical community still remain unknown. forms. Although the genome of Gammarus pulex has yet Understanding dietary requirements of gammarids is to be sequenced, 12345 expressed sequence tags are known, essential knowledge to describe feeding schemes for a 2 International Journal of Zoology successful laboratory culture. M. Bloor tests unconditioned to their breeding periods and reproductive output. They and conditioned (either naturally conditioned or artificially identified 4 species that might be suitable for warm water fish conditioned) alder leaves as a food source for Gammarus aquaculture. pulex and Asellus aquaticus andconcludes thatbothspecies Almut Gerhardt prefer naturally conditioned leaves compared to artificial Michelle Bloor conditioning. M. Bloor provides a simple method to prepare Chris Lloyd Mills alder leaves for laboratory culturing of both species. Success- ful breeding is an essential requisite for a standard test species in ecotoxicological test procedures. A. Gerhardt presents a simple low-cost test system with Gammarus spp. studying survival, feeding, and behaviour as well as biomarkers, to be used both in and ex situ. This test protocol does not need sophisticated laboratory equipment and hence can be applied worldwide. Compared to the standard test species Daphnia magna, gammarids tend to be as sensitive towards toxicants and are more ecologically relevant test species. We hope to increase the application of gammarids in aquatic ecotoxicology by providing simple methods for breeding, feeding, and test systems. Whilst gammarids can be very sensitive towards pesti- cides, they are also susceptible to natural defence substances released by aquatic plants. M. J. Dixon and P. J. Shaw show that both pulses of wash water from a watercress farm and isolated phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC) can influence the reproductive behaviour of Gammarus pulex. Short-term pulses lead to the interruption of precopula pairs, with recovery occurring in clean water. Such a transient behavioural parameter has the potential to be used as an early warning indicator of pulsed pollution stress. A sound basis for every ecological and ecotoxicological study is species determination. In gammarids several cryptic species have been found based on genetic methods. However, the proof of mechanisms in speciation such as geograph- ical and/or ecological isolation is still lacking. Do genetic differences suffice to describe (sub)species, or do we need a combination of genetic, morphological, and ecological methods? Haug et al. present the most recent methods for imaging gammarids from whole animals to tiny structures using both high- and low-cost techniques. Modern imaging methods in combination with sophisticated software are very powerful tools which facilitate taxonomic determination. In this paper, different techniques are presented, from simple light microscopy with staining techniques, autofluorescence, and polarized light applications to focused ion beam scan- ning electron microscopy, confocal laser microscopy, and microtomography. Although most gammarids represent freshwater Gam- marus species, brackish and marine gammarids have recently been studied in more detail. L. Delgado et al. show that both adult and juvenile Gammarus aequicauda have a wide salinity tolerance range and that juvenile growth rate is only affected towards the extremes of the salinity tolerance range. Ecological plasticity is a prerequisite to spread to different habitats and geographical locations. Gammarids are highly successful in this aspect. A. Mirzajani et al. describe selection of gammarid species for potential use as a natural food source for warm water fish farming in Iran. In this interesting approach the reproductive traits of 7 amphipod species have been studied with respect International Journal of Peptides Advances in International Journal of BioMed Stem Cells Virolog y Research International International Genomics Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 Journal of Nucleic Acids International Journal of Zoology Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 Submit your manuscripts at http://www.hindawi.com The Scientific Journal of Signal Transduction World Journal Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 International Journal of Advances in Genetics Anatomy Biochemistry Research International Research International Microbiology Research International Bioinformatics Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 Enzyme Journal of International Journal of Molecular Biology Archaea Research Evolutionary Biology International Marine Biology Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014

Journal

International Journal of ZoologyHindawi Publishing Corporation

Published: Aug 25, 2011

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