Access the full text.
Sign up today, get DeepDyve free for 14 days.
Hindawi International Journal of Zoology Volume 2022, Article ID 5616692, 5 pages https://doi.org/10.1155/2022/5616692 Research Article Effect of Feed Form on Body Conformation Traits of Different Hybrids of Broiler Chickens 1 2 3 Oluwabukola Olayemi Lawrence Azua, Gelaye Gebisa , and Oda Gizaw Federal College of Animal Health and Production Technology, Ibadan, Nigeria School of Animal and Range Sciences, Hawassa University, Hawassa, Ethiopia Department of Animal Science, Mettu University Bedele Campus, Bedele, Ethiopia Correspondence should be addressed to Oda Gizaw; email@example.com Received 6 December 2021; Revised 3 March 2022; Accepted 11 March 2022; Published 29 March 2022 Academic Editor: Joao Pedro Barreiros Copyright © 2022 Oluwabukola Olayemi Lawrence Azua et al. .is is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. .is research was conducted to measure the exterior characteristics in four hybrids of broilers fed pelleted and commercial mash feed. A total of 112 one-day-old chicks from four broiler hybrids, namely, Arbor Acre, Cobb 500, Marshall, and Ross 308 were used for this experimentation and allocated into four treatments with 28 birds of each hybrid and were replicated four times with 7 birds per replicate in a 2 × 4 factorial experiment. Pelleted and milled (mash) commercial feed was used for this experiment. .e feeding trial lasted at the age of 59 days old, and data on the conformation trait were recorded. .e results of the conformation traits showed no signiﬁcant diﬀerence (P> 0.05) in any of the parameters measured. Most of the conformation traits examined were positive and strongly correlated with one another. Finally as a suggestion, further deep study needed to be conducted by considering diﬀerent factors including an interaction eﬀect of the main factors. protein metabolism . Nowadays, diﬀerent commercial feed 1. Introduction mills manufacture diﬀerent forms of broiler feed for diﬀerent Broilers are domesticated chickens that are specially bred age groups of birds. .e physical form of the feed (pellets and and raised for meat production . Broilers are in the group mash) is a determining factor, although diet is ground and of chickens that could be slaughtered within 7-8 weeks if mixed so ﬁnely that birds cannot easily separate the ingre- provided with adequate feed, water, hygiene, vaccination, dient. .e mash diet leads to greater standardization. and other routine daily measures . Ojedapo et al.  However, ground feed is not as tasty and does not retain its stressed that poultry in Nigeria made a tremendous con- nutritional values as well as unground feed . Feed pellet- tribution to the main source of animal protein for human ization is really a modiﬁcation of the mash into hand-dried consumption, as it accounted for about 10% of the total pellets or artiﬁcial grain. It is generally accepted that the national livestock production. .e expansion and im- feeding pellets, when compared to mash, improve the growth provement of the Nigerian poultry industry is prioritized by rate of broilers with increased feed intake. Pelleting is a the federal government in order to improve the con- processing technique used by feed manufacturers to improve sumption of animal protein for citizens . As a result, the livestock performance. .e pellet feed is extruded to ap- Nigerian poultry industry has been inundated with various proximately 1/8 inch in diameter and 1/4 inch in length . exotic hybrids of broilers over the years. Poultry breeders have tried to establish the relationship In poultry production, the two main nutrients taken into that exist between body conformation in diﬀerent breeds of consideration in the diet are energy and protein. Energy is broiler chicken such as shank length, breast width, head needed for growth, vital activities, and maintaining body length, neck length, back length, and thigh length, as these temperature; this is provided by the carbohydrate, lipid, and indices reﬂect the performance of the broiler birds. Besides, 2 International Journal of Zoology this will help to organize the breeding program in order to other test materials were disinfected. After drying, the test achieve an optimum and good conformation for maximum pen was divided into sixteen (16) separate pens of equal size using wire mesh. .e wall of the brooder house was economic return . A study by Udeh et al.  observed that many breeds of broiler have been imported into Nigeria. .e covered with polythene sheath. Two days before the ar- performance of these birds is aﬀected by their feeding rival of the birds, the ﬂoor of the brooder was covered with program as well as the rearing environment. Body weight wood shavings to a depth of about 5 cm, and the wood and conformation traits such as breast width, shank length, shavings were kept dry during the entire test period by and thigh length are known to be good estimators of body regularly changing the litter. On the day of arrival, the growth and market value of broiler . Edward  re- drinking troughs in the brooder were ﬁlled with water, ported that selection program is mainly focused on these and each hybrid of broiler was carefully unpacked and economic traits. allocated into their pens. .e birds were brooded and .e diﬀerent hybrids Arbor Acre, Cobb 500, Marshall, reared on deep litter systems. All chicks were fed a broiler and Ross 308 diﬀer greatly in their body conformation, and starter feed (pelleted or pureed) ad libitum up to 28 days of age. .e birds were then given broiler ﬁnisher feed this must be taken into account before venturing into broiler rearing . Genetically enhanced poultry breeds have made (pelletized or mashed) for up to 59 days of age. .e birds a signiﬁcant contribution to the success of the poultry in- were vaccinated against Newcastle, Marek’s, and Gum- dustry, which is an important source of animal protein for boro diseases. Occasionally, vitamin supplements were the human population in most countries of the world . given to increase productivity, and other routine medi- According to Ewart , the proportion of poultry raised for cations and managements were practiced in due progress, meat production has increased dramatically, and this is the and proper records were kept. case in all countries where broilers are raised for human consumption. .erefore, it is necessary to consider the 2.4. Data Collection and Management physical characteristics of the body before venturing into broiler rearing and which breed of broiler is best suited for 2.4.1. Conformation Traits. Back length (BKL) was mea- meat production among existing feeding forms and systems. sured from the base of the neck to the uropygial gland at the .e aim of this study was therefore to evaluate the eﬀect of base of the tail. Body length (BDL) was measured from the pelleted and mash feeds on the conformation traits of top of the head to the cloaca. Circumference of the chest various hybrids of broiler chicken raised at the Bora of (CCC) was measured around the chest region. Shank length Federal College of Animal Health and Production Tech- (SHL) was obtained by measuring from the hock, joint to the nology, Oyo State, Nigeria. base of the three toes. Wing span length (WSL) was mea- sured from the tip of one wing to the tip of the other wing via 2. Materials and Methods the back part of the bird. .igh length (THL) was taken from the hock joint to the hinge joint. Head length (HDL) was 2.1. Description of the Study Area. .e study was conducted taken from the fore head to the beginning of the neck. To at experimental site of Bora of Federal College of Animal ensure accuracy, each the trait was measured twice, and all Health and Production Technology, Apata, Ibadan, Oyo ° ° the measurements were taken by using tape rule calibrated in State of Nigeria. It is situated at 8 0’ 0″ North, 3 11’ 0″ East centimeters (cm). .ese conformation traits were measured . every week up to 8 weeks. .e anatomical reference points were considered as previously described [16, 17]. Collections 2.2.SourcesofExperimentalBirdsandDurationofExperiment. of the entire data were done using the guideline of the ethical All experimental broilers were obtained from various local procedure approved by Ethical Approval Committee of hatcheries in Nigeria. Arbor Acre plus hybrid of broiler was Federal College of Animal Health and Production Tech- obtained from the Federal College of Animal Health and nology, Ibadan, Nigeria. Production Technology Hatchery Ibadan, Oyo State; Ross 308 hybrid was obtained from Agrited Nigeria Limited, Ibadan, Oyo State; Marshall and Cobb 500 hybrids were obtained 2.4.2. Statistical Analysis. .e collected data were analyzed from Zartech Hatchery Ibadan, Oyo State. A total of one using SPSS v.20 . Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was hundred twelve (112) day-old chicks comprised of the Arbor employed to test the eﬀect of feed forms and hybrids of Acre, Cobb 500. Marshall and Ross 308 hybrids were used to chicken on conformation traits. .e Duncan multiple range compare their conformation characteristics. .e birds were test was used to detect the diﬀerences between means. acclimated for 10 days with broiler starter feed (pelleted or Phenotypic correlation was assessed to quantify the degree pureed) and randomly assigned to four treatments of 28 birds of association between the traits. each and replicated four times with 7 birds per pen in a 2 × 4 factorial experiment. .e feeding trial lasted in 49 days. 3. Result 3.1. Proximate Analysis of Feed Samples for Both Starter and 2.3. Routine Management. .e broiler house was cleaned, Finisher Phase. .e proximate analysis of starter and ﬁn- washed, and fumigated two weeks before the day-old isher diet of diﬀerent feed forms is given in Table 1. chicks arrived. .e drinking troughs, feed troughs, and International Journal of Zoology 3 Table 1: Proximate analysis of feed samples for both starter and ﬁnisher phase. Parameters (%) Starter pelletized Starter mash Finisher pelletized Finisher mash Dry matter 95.90 93.87 95.00 94.86 Crude protein 20.00 23.69 19.20 21.20 Crude ﬁbre 9.90 4.87 8.40 6.14 Ash 6.90 7.86 5.80 7.88 Ether extract 16.30 6.04 20.20 5.31 Nitrogen-free extract 46.9 57.84 46.40 59.41 Table 2: Eﬀect of feed forms on body conformation traits of broiler 3.2. Eﬀect of Feed Forms on Body Conformation Traits of chicken. Broiler Chickens. Result showed that there were no signif- icant eﬀects (P> 0.05) of feed forms on conformation traits Parameters (cm) Mash Pelletized SEM (±) P value of broiler chicken (Table 2). a a Back length 22.69 22.97 0.22 0.528 a a Body length 37.36 37.45 0.38 0.912 a a Circumference of the chest 31.17 31.48 0.34 0.642 3.3. Eﬀect of Genotype on Body Conformation Traits of Broiler a a Shank length 8.68 8.97 0.08 0.083 a a Chicken. Table 3 provides the eﬀect of genotype on con- Wing span 42.41 42.90 0.38 0.520 a a formation traits of broiler chicken. .e result showed that .igh length 13.23 13.49 0.17 0.440 a a there was no signiﬁcant eﬀect (P> 0.05) of genotype on Head length 8.42 8.58 0.06 0.176 conformation traits of broiler chicken. Means in the same row with the same superscript are not statistically diﬀerent (P> 0.05). SEM, standard error of mean. 3.4. Phenotypic Correlation of Body Conformation Traits of Hybrids of Broiler Chickens Fed Pelletized and Mash Feeds. signiﬁcant (P< 0.01) positive association was observed for Table 4 provides phenotype correlation of conformation body length and wing span (r � 0.96), and likewise, strong traits of broiler chicken fed pelletized and mash feeds. .e positive relationships were recorded between wing span with overall result showed that there were strong and positive that of the circumference of the chest and back length correlations across all parameters. Results showed that there (r � 0.96) in Ross 308 hybrid of chicken. were strong and positive correlations between back length and body length (r � 0.92), circumference of the chest and 4. Discussion back length (r � 0.95), circumference of the chest and body length (r � 0.93), shank length and back length (r � 0.77), .e eﬀect of genotype on conformation traits of broiler shank length and body length (r � 0.84), shank length and chicken showed no signiﬁcant variation. Some of the circumference of the chest (r � 0.78), wing span and back results of this study do not agree with previous ﬁndings length (r � 0.95), wing span and body length (r � 0.93), wing  that reported signiﬁcant diﬀerences among the body span and circumference of the chest (r � 0.95), wing span conformation traits, namely, body length, wing span, and and shank length (r � 0.80), thigh length and back length thigh length between Arbor Acre, Marshall, and Ross 308 (r � 0.89), thigh length and body length (r � 0.92), thigh hybrids of broiler chicken. .ese discrepancies in con- length and circumference of the chest (r � 0.87), thigh length formation traits could be due to hybrids diﬀerences, and shank length (r � 0.79), thigh length and wing span management, and environmental factors. However, the (r � 0.91), head length and back length (r � 0.75), head length observed result of shank length across all hybrids (Arbor and body length (r � 0.79), head length and circumference of Acre, Marshall, and Ross 308 broiler) was not statistically the chest (r � 0.73), head length and shank length (r � 0.74), diﬀerent, and it is in line with the ﬁndings of  who head length and wing span (r � 0.74), and head length and observed insigniﬁcant diﬀerences in shank length among thigh length (r � 0.73). all the above listed hybrids of broiler chicken. .e result of overall phenotypic correlation of body conformation 3.5. Correlations between Conformation Traits of Each Hybrid traits of broiler chicken fed pelletized and mash feed of Broiler Chickens. .e result given in Tables 5 and 6 shows shows that there was a strong and positive correlation the coeﬃcient of correlations of body conformation traits of across all the parameters. .is was in line with the ﬁndings the four hybrids of broiler chicken. .e relationship between of  who indicated strong and positive correlations, all the body conformation traits were strong and positively while insigniﬁcant correlations between shank length and related to each other and signiﬁcant at (P< 0.01) in each of body length were also recorded. Likewise, the coeﬃcient the hybrids of broiler chicken. .e coeﬃcient of correlation of correlations of body conformation traits of all hybrids ranges from 0.72 to 0.97, 0.65 to 0.96, 0.71 to 0.97, and 0.72 to of broilers was strongly and positively associated with 0.96 in Arbor Acre, Cobb 500, Marshall, and Ross 308. .e each other. .e result of this study is in agreement with highest signiﬁcant (P< 0.01) positive correlations were the ﬁnding of  who observed strong positive associ- recorded for back length and wing span (r � 0.97) in Arbor ations of traits between chest width with that of shank Acre and Marshall Broiler. In Cobb 500, the strongest length and wing length from Arbor Acre broiler and also 4 International Journal of Zoology Table 3: Eﬀect of genotype on body conformation traits of broiler chicken. Parameters (cm) Arbor Acre Cobb 500 Marshall Ross 308 SEM (±) P value a a a a Back length 23.18 22.56 22.55 23.03 0.22 0.656 a a a a Body length 36.96 37.00 37.81 37.85 0.38 0.736 a a a a Circumference of the chest 31.42 30.79 31.44 31.67 0.34 0.818 a a a a Shank length 8.81 8.86 8.84 8.68 0.08 0.824 a a a a Wing span 43.08 42.13 42.49 42.92 0.38 0.814 a a a a .igh length 13.56 13.28 13.05 13.55 0.16 0.651 a a a a Head length 8.67 8.55 8.41 8.38 0.06 0.249 Means in the same row with the same superscript are not statistically diﬀerent (P> 0.05). SEM, standard error of mean. Table 4: Overall phenotypic correlation of body conformation traits of broiler chickens fed pelletized and mash feeds. Parameters BKL BDL CFC SHL WGS THL HDL ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ Back length 0.92 0.95 0.77 0.95 0.89 0.75 ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ Body length 0.93 0.84 0.93 0.92 0.79 ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ Circumference of the chest 0.78 0.95 0.87 0.73 ∗ ∗ ∗ Shank length 0.80 0.79 0.74 ∗ ∗ Wing span 0.91 0.74 .igh length 0.73 Head length BKL, back length; BDL, body length; CFC, circumference of the chest; WGS, wing span; THL, thigh length; HDL, head length; SHL, shank length. Signiﬁcant at P< 0.01. Table 5: Coeﬃcient of correlations between conformation traits of each hybrid of broiler chickens (above diagonal for Arbor Acre and below diagonal for Cobb 500). Traits BKL BDL CFC SHL WGS THL HDL ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ BKL 1 0.93 0.94 0.74 0.97 0.89 0.72 ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ BDL 0.91 1 0.93 0.83 0.93 0.92 0.78 ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ CFC 0.94 0.94 1 0.73 0.94 0.83 0.73 ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ SHL 0.65 0.78 0.72 1 0.75 0.78 0.74 ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ WGS 0.93 0.96 0.96 0.73 1 0.89 0.72 ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ THL 0.83 0.94 0.86 0.71 0.91 1 0.72 ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ HDL 0.72 0.77 0.73 0.73 0.74 0.74 1 Correlation is signiﬁcant at the P< 0.01 level. BKL, back length; BDL, body length; CFC, circumference of the chest; WGS, wing span; THL, thigh length; HDL, head length; SHL, shank length. Table 6: Coeﬃcient of correlations between conformation traits of each hybrid of broiler chickens (above diagonal for Marshall and below diagonal for Ross 308). Traits BKL BDL CFC SHL WGS THL HDL ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ BKL 1 0.93 0.95 0.85 0.97 0.94 0.73 ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ BDL 0.93 1 0.92 0.89 0.94 0.94 0.80 ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ CFC 0.96 0.94 1 0.85 0.96 0.90 0.71 ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ SHL 0.87 0.89 0.88 1 0.86 0.86 0.74 ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ WGS 0.96 0.93 0.96 0.90 1 0.92 0.72 ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ THL 0.92 0.90 0.91 0.86 0.92 1 0.76 ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ HDL 0.81 0.83 0.77 0.78 0.81 0.72 1 Correlation is signiﬁcant at the P< 0.01 level. BKL, back length; BDL, body length; CFC, circumference of the chest; WGS, wing span; THL, thigh length; HDL, head length; SHL, shank length. recorded strong associations between wing length and broiler chicken. .e study showed that feed forms (pel- thigh length too from the same hybrid of chicken. letized and mash) and hybrids of broiler chicken (Arbor Acre, Ross 308, Cobb 500, and Marshall) do not have any eﬀect on body conformation traits. All body conformation 5. Conclusions traits of hybrid of broilers chicken are strongly and .is study was conducted to evaluate the eﬀect of feed positively correlated to each other. As a suggestion, forms on body conformation traits of diﬀerent hybrids of further deep study needed to be conducted by considering International Journal of Zoology 5  J. Ewart, “Evaluation of genetic selection techniques and their diﬀerent factors including an interaction eﬀect of main application in the next decade,” Brazilian Poultry Science, factors. vol. 34, pp. 3–10, 2001.  GIIOSN and Geographical Information of Ibadan Oyo State Data Availability of Nigeria: 2020, https://www.maplandia.com/nigeria/oyo/k ajola/apata-ibadan/. .e datasets used for this study are available from the  A. Te´guia, H. M. Ngandjou, H. Defang, and J. Tchoumboue, corresponding author. “Study of the live body weight and body characteristics of the African Muscovy duck (Caraina moschata),” Tropical Animal Conflicts of Interest Health and Production, vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 5–10, 2008.  A. Yakubu, D. Kuje, and M. Okpeku, “Principal components .e authors declare they have no conﬂicts of interest. as measures of size and shape in Nigerian indigenous chickens,” :ai Journal of Agricultural Science, vol. 42, pp. 167–176, 2009. Acknowledgments  IBM SPSS, Statistics for Windows, IBM Corp. IBM Corp., Armonk, NY, USA, 2012. .e authors would like to express their deepest acknowl-  I. Udeh and C. C Ogbu, “Principal component analysis of edgement to Nigerian Federal College of Animal Health and body measurement in three hybrids of broiler chicken,” World Production Technology of Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria, for Journal of Science, vol. 6, pp. 11–14, 2011. ﬁnancial support and other assistants.  A. Yakubu and J. A. Ayoade, “Application of principal compound factor analysis in quantifying size and morpho- References logical indices of domestic rabbits,” International Journal of Morphology, vol. 27, pp. 1013–1017, 2009.  T. Kruchten, US broiler industry saturation, National Agri- cultural Statistics Source (NASS), Agricultural Statistics Board, US Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC, USA, 2002.  J. A. Oluyemi and F. A. Robert, Poultry Production in Warm Climate”, p. 244, Spectrum Books Limited, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria, 2000.  L. O. Ojedapo, T. A. Adebeji, S. A. Ameen, and S. R. Amao, “Interrelationship between body weight and other body linear measurements in Anak hybrids of commercial broiler in Nigeria,” in Proceedings of the 16th Animal Conference of the Animal Science Association of Nigeria, pp. 61–63, Uyo, Nigeria, September 2010.  CBN and Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN), Statistics Bulleting, p. 22, CBN publication, Abuja, Nigeria, 2017.  S. Lesson, L. Caston, and J. D. Summers, “Layer performance of four hybrids of leghorn pellets subjected to various rearing programmes,” Poultry Science, vol. 39, pp. 34-35, 2001.  M. S. Jahan, M. Asaduzzaman, and A. K. Sarkar, “Perfor- mance of broiler fed on mash, pellet and crumble,” Inter- national Journal of Poultry Science, vol. 5, pp. 265–270, 2006.  G. C. Banerjee, Poultry, pp. 120-121, Oxford and IBH pub- lishing co. put Ltd, Calcutta, India, 1998.  B. I. Okon, B. Ogar, and O. O. Mgbee, “Inter-relationships of live body measurement of broiler chicken in a humid tropical environment Nigerian,” Journal of Animal Product, vol. 22, pp. 1–12, 1997.  I. Udeh, P. N. Exebor, and P. O. Akporahuarho, “Growth performance and carcass yield of three commercial hybrids of broiler chicken raised in a tropical environment,” Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare, vol. 5, pp. 62–67, 2015.  H. K. Yahaya, H. Brahim, and S. Abdul-Salam, “Comparative study of the body weight and body conformation of two broiler hybrids under the same dietary conditions,” Inter- national Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances, vol. 4, pp. 195–197, 2012.  J. A. Edward, Tennessee Publishing Co.Knoxville, TN, U.S.A,  B. M. Bourdon, Understanding Animal Breeding, Pentic Hall. Inc Upper, Saddle River, NJ, U.S.A, 2000.  J. C. McKay, “Biology of breeding poultry,” in Proceedings of the 3rd World’s Poultry Congress, vol. 7, pp. 3–9, Brishare, Australia, 2009.
International Journal of Zoology – Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Published: Mar 29, 2022
Access the full text.
Sign up today, get DeepDyve free for 14 days.