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Hindawi International Journal of Zoology Volume 2022, Article ID 4927041, 9 pages https://doi.org/10.1155/2022/4927041 Research Article Diversity, Abundance, and Habitat Association of Medium and Large-Sized Mammals in Tiski Waterfall, Awi Zone, Ethiopia Binega Derebe , Yonas Derebe , and Melkamu Kassaye Injibara University, College of Agriculture, Food and Climate Science, Injibara, Ethiopia Correspondence should be addressed to Binega Derebe; firstname.lastname@example.org Received 8 February 2022; Revised 1 May 2022; Accepted 11 May 2022; Published 9 June 2022 Academic Editor: Joao Pedro Barreiros Copyright © 2022 Binega Derebe et al. �is is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. �e reliable data on faunal diversity, abundance, and habitat preference are essential for proposing and establishing relevant conservation interventions. A survey was done from September 2019 to March 2021 to investigate the diversity, relative abundance, and habitat association of large and medium mammals in Tiski Waterfall, Ethiopia. Data were collected using the line transect survey method in both habitat types. In cliˆ sites, the point transect was also used. �e habitats were populated by large and medium animal species that favor dense forest and shrubland habitats near water sources. During the research, three diˆerent habitat categories were evaluated (dense forest, shrubland, and cliˆ sites). Ten mammalian species were discovered. During the wet season, there were 243 ± 6.6 populations recorded, while during the dry season, there were 204 ± 6.8. Seasonal diˆerences in species abundance were statistically signi’cant (p ≤ 0.001). �e total populations of the three habitat types were 198.2 ± 7.39, 135 ± 5.35, and 114 ± 5.16 for dense forest, shrubland, and cliˆ site, respectively. All three habitat categories had a great diˆerence in species abundance (p ≤ 0.001). �e olive baboon (Papio anubis) was the most common, accounting for 38 percent of the population, followed by the vervet monkey (Cercopithecus aethiops), which accounted for 23 percent. Leopard (Panthera pardus) and common bushbuck (Tragelaphus scriptus) contributed the least to the total, accounting for only 2% each of the total. �e highest diversity of mammalian species was found in dense forest (H′ 0.98), followed by shrubland (H′ 0.90), and the cliˆ location has the lowest diversity (H′ 0.57). �e maximum uniformity of the species was found in dense forests (J 0.51), followed by a shrub region (J 0.43), and the remaining of the habitat (J 0.35). Dense forest and shrubland had the highest species similarity (Sl 0.67), followed by shrubland and cliˆ site (SI 0.61). In dense forests with cliˆ sites, the similarity was lowest (SI 0.31) in each. To limit the impact of agricultural growth on big and medium mammals, good habitat management is required. factors of biodiversity loss is the shift from natural habitat to 1. Introduction agricultural land usage . In reality, losses in habitat di- Mammalian species are one of the greatest resources found versity (e.g., degradation of microhabitats) may have an even on the Earth . In terrestrial ecosystems, mammals provide higher impact on assemblages of diversity . Forests a variety of roles; ecological bene’ts, economic, cultural, provide a variety of habitats for animals, which is one of the educational, and scienti’c qualities are all provided by most signi’cant ecosystem functions . To ful’ll their mammals [2, 3]. Large- and medium-sized mammals play a foraging, housing, and escape needs, various mammals seek fundamental role in ecosystems functions . Prey pop- diˆerent settings . Large, endangered species were hurt by ulation management and seed dissemination are some human development and activity, while smaller, commensal important functions of large- and medium-sized mammals species were not unaˆected or even bene’ted . Forest in forest ecosystems . “Large-sized mammals weigh more overuse for commercial agriculture has hurt wildlife species than 7 kg and medium-sized mammals weigh between 2 and all over the world . Hunting is another crucial element to 7 kg” . Even though large- and medium-sized mammals consider, as it has the potential to aˆect the elimination of have diˆerent functions, they are threatened by various local animal species, particularly large ones . Human- factors induced by human beings . One of the driving modi’ed environments will play a big role in tropical forest N 2 International Journal of Zoology 36°33'30''E 36°34'0''E 36°34'30''E 36°35'30''E 36°35'30''E 36°36'30''E 11°7'30''N 11°7'0''N 11°6'30''N 11°6'0''N 0 0.45 0.9 1.8 2.7 3.6 Kilometers The study area awi zone Dangila-woreda Amhara-region Guangua-woreda Ethio_Regions Figure 1: Map of the study area. biodiversity’s fate . Many additional causes of global between Dangila and Guangua woredas in the Awi Zone. change, such as the conversion of forests to farming, have the 'e study area is found in the Awi Zone, the Amhara Region potential to drastically diminish or alter the number of of Ethiopia. It is geographically located between 11 6′0″ N to ° ° ° mammal species that live in a given area . “'ere is a lack 11 7′ 30″ N to 36 33′ 30″E to 36 36′ 0″E (Figure 1). of information on mammalian faunal resources of remote forests in Ethiopia” . Tiski Waterfall features a one-of-a- 2.2. Methodology kind ecology. 'e location is surrounded by cliﬀs and vegetation. 'is distinctive habitat attracts a variety of wild 2.2.1. Study Design and Data Collection Method. Before the creatures and is also a popular tourist destination. However, actual study, a pilot survey was undertaken to acquire basic anthropogenic causes like crop production and grazing have information on the vegetation cover, accessibility, and an- a signiﬁcant impact. As a result, the ﬁndings of the study on imal type found in the study site via direct observation and the diversity, abundance, and habitat association of medium interview. Knowing a species′ range, abundance, and habitat and large animals in Tiski Waterfall are one step in a larger needs is essential for creating a baseline for long-term eﬀort to document Ethiopian mammals in less accessible monitoring at a given location . Data were collected from places. As mammal inventories are key instruments for September 2019 to March 2021, covering both the wet and directing conservation eﬀorts and management activities dry seasons. According to the rainfall distribution in the successfully, identifying the status and knowledge about area, the dry season is from December to April, and the wet faunal variety, abundance, and habitat preference are vital season is from May to November. 'e study area is very for the application of relevant conservation strategies . attractive and the waterfall is one of the attractions that To strengthen management measures and integrate sus- attract tourists to the Awi Zone (Figure 2). tainable protection of the wildlife resource in Tiski Waterfall, Based on land cover features, satellite pictures, and a information on the species diversity of large and medium preliminary assessment, the area was divided into homo- animal populations and baseline data for better large and geneous habitat types. Dense forests, shrubland, and cliﬀ medium animal management are also needed. areas were the habitat types studied. In each habitat category, line transects were created consistently in typical (uniform 2. Materials and Methods vegetation) sites except cliﬀs. 'e length of the transect varied depending on the habitat type and the landscapes, the 2.1. Study Area Description. Awi is one of the zones in the longest transect was in shrublands, which was 5km in Amhara Region of Ethiopia. 'e administrative center of the length, and the shortest one was in the dense forest, which Awi Zone is Injibara town. It is named for the Awi subgroup accounts for 0.1km in length. Similarly, the line transect of the Agaw people, some of whom live in this zone. Agew survey method was used for large and medium mammal Awi Zone is bordered on the west by Benishangul-Gumuz studies to collect data in the four sampled habitat types . Region, on the north by the Semien Gondar Zone, and on On both sides of the line transect, observations were the east by the Mirab Gojjam Zone. Tiski Waterfall is found International Journal of Zoology 3 Figure 2: Partial view of Tiski Waterfall. . On a prepared datasheet, all observed animal species performed gently up to a distance of 100m (in the dense forest) to 400m (in shrublands). Depending on the coverage were recorded. Field guide books and local people were used of the habitats, the side observations of line transect varied. to identify the species of mammals. Simultaneous counting 'e variation of transect width was determined based on the and thorough observation of animal eating and sleeping type of vegetation cover of each of the census zones [17, 18]. areas, particularly on the cliﬀ, were used to prevent counting To reduce animal distraction from odors, the transect was the same species or individual animals again. To acquire run in the opposite direction of the wind. In this study, correct data, well-experienced researchers with wild animal twenty-two transected and one hundred ﬁve points were expertise were involved. Bodyweight was utilized to cate- taken. Of the total transects, 16 transects were in the dense gorize mammals into medium and large sizes during the research. Mammals weighing between 2 and 7kg were forest and 6 transects were in the shrubland, depending on the area coverage and landscape types. 'e number of points classiﬁed as medium, while those weighing more than 7kg on the transects varies based on the habitat size and types: 69 were classiﬁed as large . points in dense forest and 36 points in shrubs. At the cliﬀ site, there is no line transect, but a point count was applied in 2.2.2. Calculation of Species Diversity. 'e Shannon–Wiener caves under the cliﬀ. Depending on the vegetation type and diversity index was calculated using the following formula: geography of the area, diﬀerent lengths of transect lines were used . Similarly, in , “forty-three transect lines were ∗ H � −pi ln(pi ), (1) established, being 18 for wetland, 12 for woodland, 7 for the riverine, and 6 for grassland habitats depending on the area where H′ is the Shannon–Wiener index, pi is estimated as ni/ cover of each habitat.” GPS was used to record the starting N, where ni is the proportion of the total population of the and ﬁnishing sites of each transect. Direct observations with ith species, and N � − ni. 'is uses proportions rather than binoculars and mammal guide books were used to identify absolute abundance values to reduce the eﬀects of order of the animals and count the number of individuals [3, 18]. In magnitude diﬀerence in mammal numbers between species. addition to direct observation, indirect evidence such as 'is index provides a measure of “evenness” in the feces, feed markings, tracks, calls, and other types of evi- proportion of each species occurring within squares: dence was recorded . Species discovered from indirect evidence, on the other hand, were subsets of the species (2) J � , observed during the regular survey and hence were not Hmax included in the data analysis . where H′ max �ln (s) and s is the number of species in the Each point was counted six times, three times during wet particular habitat type. Evenness ranges between 1 (com- seasons and three times during dry seasons. At the time of plete evenness) and 0 (complete unevenness). ﬁeld observation, the creatures’ English, local, and scientiﬁc 'e similarity among and between the habitats con- names were recorded. 'e following information was cerning the composition of species was computed using recorded: date, time, habitat type, species name, species Sorenson’s similarity index (SI): number, and GPS location. Two individuals were assigned to each transect, and the transect was visited twice a day. 'e C2 (SI) � , (3) surveys were conducted early in the morning, between 6:00 S1 + S2 and 10:00 a.m., and late in the afternoon, between 3:00 and 6: 00 p.m., when most animals are assumed to be more active where C is the number of species the two habitats have in . To minimize rivalry, the activity patterns indicate a common, S1 is the total number of species found in habitat 1, temporal partition of species cohabiting in the same area and S2 is the total number of species found in habitat 2. 4 International Journal of Zoology Table 1: Mammalian species identiﬁed in Tiski Waterfall in Awi Zone, Ethiopia. Order Family Common name Sc. name Local name Leopard Panthera pardus Neber Felidae Serval cat Felis serval Awurie dimet Carnivora Spotted hyena Crocuta crocuta Jib Hyaenidae Comment jackal Canis aureus Qebero Bovidae Bush back Tragelaphus scriptus Dikula Artiodactyla Suidae Wild pig Sus scrofa Yedur asama Vervet monkey Cercopithecus aethiops Tota Primate Cercopithecidae Colobus monkey Colobus guereza Gureza Olive baboon Papio anubis Jinjero Rodentia Hystricidae Porcupine Cercopithecus Jart Number of individuals in each famillys population numbers among other families) had the most mammalian population, followed by Hyaenidae (two species, 49 individuals), Felidae (two species, 42 individuals), and Hystricidae (one species, 15 individuals) (Figure 3). 'e remaining families, Suidae (one species, 12 individuals) and Bovidae (one species, 11 individuals, the family with the fewest populations), were each represented by a single species. Mammalian species richness varied seasonally across diﬀerent habitat types (Table 2). During the wet season, most mam- malian species were more abundant than during the dry season (Figure 4). During the study, a total of 243±6.6 populations were observed during the wet seasons and 204±6.8 populations during the dry seasons. Seasonal dif- ferences in species abundance were statistically signiﬁcant (df �1, p≤0.001) (Table 3). Moreover, there was a statically signiﬁcant diﬀerence among the mean number of mammalian populations (df �1, p≤0.001) (Table 4). 'e average pop- Felidae Suidae ulations of the three habitat types were as follows:198.2±7.39 Hyaenidae Cercopitheci for the dense forest, 135±5.35 for shrubland, and 114±5.16 Bovidae Hystricidae for cliﬀ sites. Between the three habitat categories, there was a Figure 3: Number of individuals in each family. signiﬁcant diﬀerence in species abundance (df �2, p≤0.001) (Table 5). In both seasons, the shrubland habitat had the highest number of species (n �8), followed by the dense forest Relative abundance (RA) (%) � n/N ×100, where n is the (n �7). 'e cliﬀ site (n �5) contained a considerably smaller number of individuals of particular species recorded and N is number of species during both the dry and wet seasons the total number of individuals of the species. (Table 6). 'e total Sorensen species similarity index of mammalian species across three habitat categories was 1 (Table 7). 'e highest similarity index (SI �0.67) was found 2.2.3. Data Analysis. All data collected during the study between dense forests and shrubland (Table 7). period were presented in a table by season and habitat type. 'e Shannon–Wiener Diversity Index was used to calculate the distribution, abundance, and evenness of species be- tween the wet and dry seasons and within habitat types, and 3.2. Relative Abundance of Species. 'e olive baboon (Papio SPSS version 20 software was used to analyze the data. Excel anubis) was the most numerous of the ten mammals, ac- version 2016 was also used to generate the relative abun- counting for 38% of the total with 168 individuals, followed dance and species diversity indexes using formatted by the vervet monkey (Cercopithecus aethiops), which formulas. accounted for 23% with 101 individuals, and the colobus monkey (Colobus guereza), which accounted for 11% with 49 individuals (Table 2). Spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta) had 3. Results 7% of the population with 33 individuals, and serval cat (Felis serval) had 7% of the population with 31 individuals. 3.1. Species Composition. During the research, 447 individ- On the other hand, leopard (Panthera pardus) and common uals and 10 animal species were identiﬁed. 'ere are four bushbuck (Tragelaphus scriptus) contributed the least of the orders and six families of mammals in this group (Table 1). total documented individuals, accounting for only 2% of the Carnivora and Artiodactyla both had two families, with four total with 11 individuals each (Table 4). During both the dry Carnivora species and two Artiodactyla species. Cercopithecus and wet seasons, Papio anubis was the most abundant, (three species, 318 individuals, which counts the highest International Journal of Zoology 5 Table 2: Mean abundance of wild mammals among diﬀerent habitat types with seasons in Tiski waterfalls. Dense forest habitat Shrubland habitat Cliﬀ site habitat Species Total No. RA (%) Dry season Wet season Dry season Wet season Dry season Wet season Panthera pardus 2 2 0 0 3 4 11±2.28 2 Felis serval 0 0 12 13 3 3 31 ± 3.84 7 Crocuta crocuta 4 3 14 12 0 0 33 ± 4.24 7 Canis aureus 2 2 6 6 0 0 16 ± 3.79 4 Tragelaphus scriptus 2 4 2 3 0 0 11 ± 2.00 2 Sus scrofa 0 0 2 6 2 2 12 ± 2.82 3 Cercopithecus aethiops 38 53 4 6 0 0 101 ± 6.51 23 Colobus guereza 22 27 0 0 0 0 49 ± 6.51 11 Papio anubis 15 22 22 23 33 53 168 ± 8.10 38 Cercopithecus 0 0 2 2 4 7 15 ± 3.4 3 Total number 85±3 113±4 64±2 71±2.5 45±2.5 69±3 447 ± 49 100 RA �relative abundance. Mammal Species Wet Dry Figure 4: Seasonal variation in species composition and abundance of large and medium wild mammals in Tiski Waterfall, Ethiopia. Table 3: 'e statistical analysis of wild mammals’ population in the wet and dry season in Tisiki waterfall. Seasons Mean Std. deviation Std. error Min Max df F Sig. Wet 243.00 6.60 2.69 233.00 253.00 Dry 204.00 6.81 2.78 194.00 214.00 1 101.4 0.000 Total 223.50 21.35 6.16 194.00 253.00 followed by Cercopithecus aethiops (Figure 5). A total of three habitat types. Dense forest (J �0.51) also had the 447±49.35 individuals were observed, comprising 243±6.6 highest species evenness, followed by shrubland (J �0.43) (54%) during the wet season and 204±6.8 (46%) during the and the remaining habitats (J �0.35) (Table 6). dry season. 3.4. Species Similarity Index. Between the three habitat 3.3. Diversity Indices of Mammals in the +ree Habitat Types. categories, dense forest and shrubland (Sl �0.67) had the 'e dense forest supports the largest diversity of mammalian most mammalian species similarity (Sl �0.67), followed by species (H′ �0.98), followed by shrubland (H′ �0.90), while shrubland and cliﬀ sites (SI �0.61). In dense forests with cliﬀ the cliﬀ site was the least diversiﬁed (H �0.57) among the sites (SI �0.31), the similarity was the lowest (Table 7). Number of population Panthera pardus Felisserval Crocuta crocuta Canis aureus Traglaphus scriptus Sus scrosa Cercopithecus aethiops Colobus guereza Papio anubis Cercopithecus 6 International Journal of Zoology Table 4: Population mean of each species. Name of species Mean Std. D Std. error Mini Max df F Sig. Panthera pardus 11.00 2.28 0.93 8.00 14.00 Felis serval 31.00 3.85 1.57 25.00 37.00 Crocuta crocuta 33.00 4.24 1.73 27.00 39.00 Canis aureus 16.00 3.79 1.54 10.00 22.00 Tragelaphus scriptus 11.00 2.00 0.81 8.00 14.00 Sus scrofa 12.00 2.83 1.15 8.00 16.00 9 699.7 0.000 Cercopithecus aethiops 101.00 6.51 2.65 92.00 110.00 Colobus guereza 49.00 6.51 2.65 40.00 58.00 Papio anubis 168.00 8.10 3.30 158.00 178.00 Cercopithecus 15.00 3.40 1.39 10.00 20.00 Total 44.70 49.35 6.37 8.00 178.00 Table 5: Number of mammalian populations among habitat types. Habitat type Population Std. deviation Std. error Min Max df F Sig. Dense forest 198.20 7.39 2.34 188.00 208.00 Shrubland 135.00 5.35 1.69 125.00 145.00 2 524 0.000 Cliﬀ site 114.00 5.16 1.63 104.00 124.00 Total 147.2 36.86 6.73 104.00 208.00 Table 6: 'e mammalian species diversity (H′) and evenness (J) in diﬀerent habitat types in Tiski waterfalls. Habitat types No. of species Populations Diversity (H′) H Evenness (J) max Dense forest 7 198 ± 7.4 0.98 0.946 0.51 Shrubland 8 135 ± 5.3 0.90 2.08 0.43 Cliﬀ site 5 114 ± 5.16 0.57 1.61 0.35 Table 7: Similarity index of wild mammals’ species among the three habitat types of Tiski waterfalls. Habitat types No. of species per habitat Species similarity index Overall similarity 10 1 Dense forest vs. shrubland 7vs8 0.67 Dense forest vs. cliﬀ site 7vs5 0.31 Shrubland vs. cliﬀ site 8vs5 0.61 anthropogenic inﬂuences in the study area could explain 4. Discussion why the number of species was so low. In the study areas, Based on land coverage, the areas were divided into three illegal tree cutting for fuel, building material harvesting, animal grazing, human encroachment, substantial agricul- habitat types (dense forest, shrubland, and cliﬀ areas). A total of 11 large- and medium-sized animal species from four tural expansion, poaching, and charcoal making were all observed [5, 10, 23, 24]. “Hunting aﬀects many threatened orders and six families were found throughout the research. When compared to other investigations, the number of mammal species” . One of the main causes of habitat destruction is the change from natural setting to farmland species was rather low. In diﬀerent parts of Ethiopia, there were mammalian studies with similar objectives and use [6, 26, 27]. Logging licenses that are well-managed can sustain vital populations of large- and medium-sized ani- methodologies of this study; however, the mammalians in Tiski Waterfall were low in numbers. For instance, Adaba mals . An impoverished percentage of the original as- Community Forest, West Arsi Zone, Southeast Ethiopia, semblage of medium and large mammals survived in areas ; Wabe forest fragments, Gurage Zone, Ethiopia ; Dati controlled by intensive agricultural land use, like maize Wolel National Park, Western Ethiopia ; Loka Abaya monoculture . 'e location is bordered by a human- dominated landscape, which has caused a signiﬁcant threat National Park, Ethiopia ; Qinling Mountains, China ; the Karoo  had a relatively higher number of mam- to the species’ survival [1, 19, 30, 31]. A similar study in Wabe forest fragments, Gurage zone, Ethiopia, recorded the malians than that in this study. 'e mammalian diversity appears to be less likely because the list may not include all following both medium- and large-sized mammalian: “porcupine (Hystrix cristata), honey badger (Mellivora mammalian species, particularly medium-sized animals, which may be overlooked and for which no diﬀerent capensis), vervet monkey (Chlorocebus aethiops), olive ba- boon (Papio anubis), and colobus monkey (Colobus guereza) technique is used to study . On the other hand, several International Journal of Zoology 7 Mammal Species Numbers of population Abandance (%) Figure 5: Number of population and relative abundance (%). were among the medium-sized mammals and spotted hyena signiﬁcant similarity of vegetation between dense forest and (Crocuta crocuta), aardvark (Orycteropus afer), bohor shrubland may explain the highest record of species simi- reedbuck (Redunca redunca), oribi (Ourebia ourebi), and larity between the two habitats in the research area; common duiker (Sylvicapra grimmia) were the large moreover, livestock and human settlement hurt the dispersal mammals of the study area .” 'ere was a seasonal change of wild animals. 'ere was a distraction that destroyed wild in the species composition of large and medium mammals. animal habitats, particularly in the shrubland. Many addi- 'e wet season had a higher population density than the dry tional causes of global change, such as the conversion of season. 'e possibility of a higher number of people being forests to farming, have the potential to drastically reduce or alter the number of mammal species that live in a given area found during the rainy season might be attributed to various variables, such as the availability of food and other supplies [23, 33]. 'e abundance of mammal species in the dense following the rain. Seasonal diﬀerences in mammals due to forests may be owing to the low impact of many animals the intensity of human interference and the complexity of moving from grazing areas to the dense forest’s interior vegetation structure were observed . Seasonal ﬂuctuation reaches in search of food, as this environment is the most in vegetation structure could have a role in seasonal changes inaccessible for human activities and cattle. 'e Tiski wa- in biodiversity. 'e pattern of anthropogenic eﬀects, like terfalls should be considered in conservation initiatives at all animal grazing and human settlements, may also have an scales. Mammalian diversity is dependent on both a local impact on such variance [3, 32]. Species richness alterations and regional pool of mammals to achieve signiﬁcant bio- geographic scales . through time and space provide a foundation for forecasting and analyzing community responses to management and In the research locations, the olive baboon (Papio anubis) can be found in a variety of habitats. 'e olive natural disruptions . Human and animal encroachment into the area, on the other hand, is higher during the wet baboon’s signiﬁcantly higher abundance in the area could be season since the neighboring lands are ﬁlled with crops due ascribed to their feeding behavior since the species is evolved to the limited availability of grazing. According to some to eat various foods and endure a variety of climatic and researchers, habitat heterogeneity and animal species di- topographic diﬀerences [3, 15]. Similarly, in Loka Abayan versity have a favorable relationship . 'e varied plant National Park, Ethiopia, the olive baboon (Papio anubis) was species assemblage accessible in the dense forest followed by the most abundant . “'e order primates had the highest shrubland in the study area led to the great diversity of relative abundance compared to other orders” . Among animals recorded in these habitats. Mammalian distribution other habitat types, the dense forest habitat type had the most diversity and evenness. “'e preferences of large and and habitat relationships are frequently linked to the availability of water, food, and cover [9, 15]. 'ese variables medium mammals for forest habitat types were consistent throughout the day and night” . 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International Journal of Zoology – Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Published: Jun 9, 2022
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