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Hindawi Publishing Corporation International Journal of Zoology Volume 2013, Article ID 782638, 15 pages http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/782638 Research Article Description of the Postlarval Stages of Dactylochelifer gracilis Beier, Pseudoscorpiones: Cheliferidae 1 2,3,4,5 Mahrad Nassirkhani and Mark S. Harvey Department of Entomology, Islamic Azad University, Arak 3836119131, Iran Department of Terrestrial Zoology, Western Australian Museum, Locked Bag 49, Welshpool DC, WA 6986, Australia Division of Invertebrate Zoology, American Museum of Natural History, 79th Street, Central Park West, New York, NY 10024-5192, USA Department of Entomology, California Academy of Sciences,GoldenGatePark, SanFrancisco,CA94103-3009, USA School of Animal Biology, University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA 6009, Australia Correspondence should be addressed to Mahrad Nassirkhani; firstname.lastname@example.org Received 19 June 2013; Accepted 14 August 2013 Academic Editor: Michael Thompson Copyright © 2013 M. Nassirkhani and M. S. Harvey. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. A study of the free-living developmental stages of Dactylochelifer gracilis Beier, 1951, is presented based on 68 specimens of all nymphal and adult stages, collected from two locations in Iran. Basic differences of all stages are characterized by size, pedipalpal ratios, and the addition of trichobothria and setae during development. 1. Introduction be recognized by the following combination of features: presence of coxal sacs situated within the coxae of the fourth Pseudoscorpions are small arachnids usually 2–8 mm in pair of legs of males, each sac with a well-developed atrium length (e.g., ). eTh y are generally confined to habitats such (Figure 7(a)); tarsus with simple subterminal seta (Figures as leaf litter, under stones, under trees or log barks, bird’s 7(c) and 7(d)); presence of a median seta on each half tergite; nests, and mammal’s lairs (e.g., ). eir Th life cycle is ovo- tarsal claws not divided; and female with one cribriform plate viviparous and consists of four phases (e.g., ): (1) eggs (Figure 11(e)) . which are attached to the female’s abdomen and carried by her eTh rfi st pseudoscorpion reported from Iran, Chelifer in a brood sac, (2) two larval instars that also remain in the spinipalpis Redikorezev, 1918, now placed in the genus Stro- brood sac, (3) three nymphal instars, and (4) adults. Nymphs bilochelifer, was described from Bazman, Southeastern Iran are very similar to adults but are smaller (Figures 8, 9,and 10) . The most substantial contributions were by Beier [ 11, 12]. and lack genital organs (Figure 11). The three nymphal instars There are currently nine families, 21 genera, and 39 species are termed protonymph, deutonymph, and tritonymph and known from the country . can be easily recognized by the unique number of tricho- eTh re are currently 44 species belonging to the genus bothria of each stage . In addition to the differences in the Dactylochelifer of which 28 are represented in the Middle East sexual organs, adult females are generally slightly larger than and Central Asia . Although many Asian species are poorly males. known with brief published descriptions and few illust- The present study is focused on the external morphology rations, recent revisionary work on the Central Asian fauna of the postlarval stages of a species of Dactylochelifer Beier (e.g., [9, 13]) hashelpedclarify thestatusand distribution of from Iran.This genusisamember of thefamilyCheliferi- several species. eTh present study was designed to comple- dae [5, 6], which belongs to the Cheliferoidea along with ment previous work by providing detailed descriptions of all postembryonic life stages of a species of Dactylochelifer found Atemnidae, Chernetidae, and Withiidae [7, 8]. Dactylochelifer is widely distributed in the Holarctic region and can in Kerman Province, Iran. 2 International Journal of Zoology 2. Material and Methods 1.6 The 68 specimens utilized in this study were collected from three sites in Kerman Province, Iran. Specimens were sepa- 1.2 rated from dry leaf litter using a sieve. They were preserved in 70% ethanol and prepared for study as follows. eTh pedipalps 0.8 and chelicera, rfi st and fourth legs were dissected, cleared with 60% lactic acid, and mounted on glass microscope 0.4 slides in Hoyer’s medium (a mixture of distilled water, chloral hydrate, Arabic gum, and glycerin). eTh duration of the clear- 0 0.15 0.3 0.45 ing phase was dependent on the degree of sclerotization. The specimens were examined and illustrated with an Olympus Protonymph Female BH-2 compound microscope and drawing tube attachment. Male Deutonymph Allspecimens arelodgedincollectionofthe AcarologyLab- Tritonymph oratory, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman (SBUK), Iran. Figure 1: Chelal growth of all postlarval stages of Dactylochelifer Morphological terminology follows Chamberlin , gracilis. Harvey , andJudson. The following trichobothria abbreviations are employed (Figure 9): eb: external basal; esb: external subbasal; ib: internal basal; isb: internal subbasal; whereasthe malesusedinthisstudy are0.85–1.06/0.20–0.23 ist: internal subterminal; est: external subterminal; it: internal (male) and 0.92–1.18/0.22–0.26 mm (female). terminal; et: external terminal; t: terminal; sb: subbasal; st: subterminal. In addition, the following abbreviations are Family Cheliferidae. used: mm: millimeter; L: length; W: width; and H: height. Genus Dactylochelifer Beier . Dactylochelifer gracilis Beier . 3. Taxonomic Results Dactylochelifer gracilis Beier : 100-101, Figure 1(f). eTh specimensusedinthisstudy were compared with pub- 4. Material Examined lished descriptions of all species of Dactylochelifer.They com- pare very favorably with several Asian species of Dactyloche- The materials collected for examination from Iran: Kerman lifer.However,theyare most similarto D. gracilis Beier, 1951, Province were as follows: 11 males, 5 females, 4 protonymphs, which was described from a single male collected from an ∘ 9 deutonymphs, and 10 tritonymphs, Rayen (29 35 29 N, unspecified locality in Kerman Province, Iran, as part of the ∘ 57 26 06 E; altitude 2800 m), May 2011, M. Nassirkhani Osterreichischen Iran-Expedition 1949/1950 . Although (SBUK); 4 males, 4 females, and 8 tritonymphs, Lale-zar the expedition collected at multiple sites within Kerman ∘ ∘ (29 30 55 N, 56 49 22 E; altitude 3000 m), June 2011, M. Province (e.g., [11, 16]), there is, regrettably, no precise collec- Nassirkhani (SBUK); 5 male, 1 female, 3 protonymphs, and tion site other than the name of the province. The specimens ∘ ∘ 4 deutonymphs, Dalfard (28 59 38 N, 57 36 30 E; and alti- used in this studyalsocomefromKermanProvince. tude 2060 m), June 2011, M. Nassirkhani (SBUK). This species was later reported from Turkey [ 17, 18], but no further morphological records or descriptions have been 5. Diagnosis published. eTh morphology of the male tarsus I and tarsal claws is similar to that of some other Asian species of the Dactylochelifer gracilis can be readily identified by the shape genus, including D. brachialis Beier, 1952, originally described of male genital organ (Figure 11(d)), the ratio of male tarsus from Afghanistan , but later recorded throughout Cen- I (2.00–2.30), and the shape of male tarsus I (Figure 7(c)), tral Asia (e.g., [9, 13, 20]). Dactylochelifer changaiensis was that is, robust and highly modified with a distinct dorsal described by Krumpal ´ and Kiefer frommaleand female indentation and subdistal concavity. specimens collected in Arkhangai Province, Mongolia, and treated as a junior synonym of D. brachialis by Dashdamirov 6. Description and Schawaller , who noted similarities in the shape of the male tarsus I. While the published descriptions of D. gracilis, 6.1. Protonymph: Figure 3;Tables 1, 2,and 3 D. brachialis,and D. changaiensis suggestthattheyare allvery similar to each other, we refrain from making any further Carapace. It is present as follows: light brown to dark yellow; taxonomic changes until a more detailed study of variation darker than abdomen; lateral margins (around eyes) darker; across a wide range of samples can be undertaken. So, we, wider than long; with 2 small eyes; setae short with terminal therefore, attribute the Iranian material to D. gracilis with denticulations; surface usually not granulate, region around reference to geographical characters of previous reports . eyes granulate; anterior transverse furrow shallow, narrow, eTh specimensreportedinthisstudy areslightlylarger and slightly curved posteriorly; and posterior furrow absent. than the dimensions reported for the holotype of D. gracilis by Beier . For example, the pedipalpal femur of the male Tergites. eTh y are present as follows: not sclerotized, lighter in holotype of D. gracilis was reported to be 0.66/0.16 mm , color than carapace, dark yellow, most tergal setae short with International Journal of Zoology 3 Table 1: Morphological measurements (mm), numbers, and setation in Dactylochelifer gracilis. Characters Male(𝑛=20) Female(𝑛=10) Tritonymph(𝑛=18) Deutonymph(𝑛=13) Protonymph(𝑛=7) Body length 2.52–3.15 3.30–3.82 2.00–2.72 1.57–1.92 1.15–1.55 Carapace L. 0.82–0.97 0.94–1.07 0.67–0.77 0.50–0.59 0.40–0.47 Carapace W. 0.60–0.82 0.68–0.95 0.58–0.73 0.45–0.55 0.38–0.45 Pedipalp Trochanter L. 0.42–0.52 0.44–0.55 0.29–0.36 0.21–0.27 0.16–0.17 Trochanter W. 0.22–0.27 0.23–0.28 0.16–0.24 0.12–0.16 0.10–0.12 Femur L. 0.85–1.06 0.92–1.18 0.57–0.72 0.39–0.47 0.30–0.32 Femur W. 0.20–0.23 0.22–0.26 0.16–0.23 0.12–0.15 0.10–0.15 Patella L. 0.79–0.95 0.85–1.00 0.52–0.63 0.35–0.40 0.23–0.28 Patella W. 0.25–0.27 0.25–0.28 0.19–0.26 0.14–0.19 0.12–0.16 Chela with pedicel L. 1.22–1.50 1.40–1.65 0.97–1.10 0.66–0.79 0.53–0.58 Chela without pedicel L. 1.17–1.40 1.27–1.65 0.90–1.05 0.62–0.73 0.50–0.55 Hand with pedicel L. 0.69–0.84 0.78–0.94 0.51–0.62 0.36–0.43 0.28–0.30 Chela W. 0.30–0.34 0.33–0.41 0.24–0.31 0.16–0.22 0.14–0.19 Movable finger L. 0.60–0.71 0.68–0.78 0.42–0.59 0.32–0.38 0.26–0.29 Fixed finger teeth 43–50 46–50 36–42 32–35 29–31 Movable finger teeth 45–50 47–50 38–44 34–36 32-33 Chelicera Movable finger L. 0.16–0.20 0.19–0.22 0.14–0.17 0.11–0.13 0.10–0.11 Rami N. 1–3 5-6 3–5 3-4 3-4 Rallum blades N. 16–19 17–21 14–17 13–15 11-12 Leg I Trochanter L. 0.14–0.17 0.18–0.21 0.11–0.15 0.08–0.10 0.06–0.07 Trochanter W. 0.14–0.17 0.14–0.16 0.10–0.13 0.07–0.09 0.05–0.06 Femur L. 0.27–0.33 0.27–0.33 0.19–0.23 0.13–0.15 0.10–0.13 Femur W. 0.14–0.17 0.15–0.17 0.11–0.14 0.07–0.09 0.07–0.08 Patella L. 0.36–0.43 0.35–0.47 0.25–0.31 0.16–0.20 0.14–0.15 Patella W. 0.13–0.16 0.11–0.13 0.10–0.12 0.06–0.08 0.06–0.07 Tibia L. 0.33–0.39 0.37–0.43 0.23–0.26 0.15–0.20 0.12–0.13 Tibia W. 0.12–0.14 0.08–0.11 0.07–0.10 0.06–0.08 0.05–0.07 Tarsus L 0.31–0.36 0.38–0.45 0.27–0.37 0.19–0.22 0.15–0.16 Tarsus W 0.14–0.15 0.07–0.08 0.07–0.09 0.05–0.06 0.04–0.06 Leg IV Trochanter L. 0.24–0.32 0.26–0.40 0.15–0.24 0.15–0.16 0.11–0.13 Trochanter W. 0.12–0.15 0.13–0.17 0.11–0.14 0.07–0.09 0.07–0.08 Femur L. 0.18–0.28 0.25–0.31 0.16–0.21 0.13–0.16 0.11–0.12 Femur W. 0.12–0.14 0.13–0.16 0.11–0.15 0.08–0.13 0.07–0.09 Patella L. 0.54–0.68 0.63–0.73 0.38–0.48 0.26–0.30 0.19–0.23 Patella W. 0.16–0.18 0.17–0.20 0.13–0.20 0.09–0.13 0.08–0.12 Tibia L. 0.55–0.70 0.63–0.73 0.38–0.45 0.25–0.29 0.19–0.23 Tibia W. 0.09–0.11 0.10–0.11 0.08–0.11 0.06–0.09 0.07–0.08 Tarsus L. 0.38–0.48 0.46–0.52 0.31–0.35 0.22–0.25 0.17–0.20 Tarsus W. 0.07–0.08 0.07–0.08 0.07–0.11 0.05–0.07 0.05–0.07 Setation Trichobothria of fixed finger 8 8 7 6 3 Trichobothria of movable finger 4 4 3 2 1 Galeal seta Present Present Present Present Absent Carapace, anterior margin 6(2)–8(1) 6(1)–8(2) 4–8 6 4 4 International Journal of Zoology Table 1: Continued. Characters Male(𝑛=20) Female(𝑛=10) Tritonymph(𝑛=18) Deutonymph(𝑛=13) Protonymph(𝑛=7) Carapace posterior margin 9–12 8–11 7–9 6 4 Coxa I 5–12 6–8 4–7 4-5 2 Coxa II 7–14 8–11 5–7 4-5 2 Coxa III 10–18 13–18 6–10 4–6 2 Coxa IV 30–40< 38–45 10–18 4–7 2 Table 2: eTh ratios of morphological characters in Dactylochelifer gracilis. Appendages ratios (L/W) Male(𝑛=20) Female(𝑛=10) Tritonymph(𝑛=18) Deutonymph(𝑛=13) Protonymph(𝑛=7) Carapace 1.03–1.63 1.09–1.42 1.00–1.18 1.03–1.18 1.00–1.28 Pedipalp Trochanter 1.68–2.00 1.83–2.07 1.48–1.84 1.44–1.83 1.41–1.60 Femur 4.09–4.81 4.12–4.66 3.13–3.87 2.61–3.41 2.06–3.00 Patella 3.07–3.51 3.17–3.60 2.28–2.74 2.05–2.50 1.75–2.25 Chela with pedicel 3.90–4.50 3.95–4.43 3.19–4.12 3.36–4.17 3.11–4.07 Chela without pedicel 3.65–4.16 3.65–4.20 3.03–3.83 3.18–3.88 2.89–3.86 Hand with pedicel 2.29–2.53 2.23–2.48 1.77–2.29 1.81–2.35 0.28–0.30 Leg I Trochanter 1.00–1.21 1.28–1.42 1.07–1.27 1.00–1.12 1.00–1.16 Femur 1.81–2.14 1.80–2.06 1.37–1.83 1.66–1.87 1.25–1.71 Patella 2.35–3.07 3.18–3.66 2.36–2.81 2.37–2.86 2.00–2.50 Tibia 2.61–3.00 3.63–4.33 2.40–3.57 2.43–2.83 1.71–2.60 Tarsus 2.20–2.57 5.00–6.28 3.00–4.62 3.30–4.00 2.50–3.20 Leg IV Trochanter 1.71–2.33 1.86–2.53 1.61–2.00 1.66–2.00 1.42–1.62 Femur 1.46–1.84 1.66–2.00 1.28–1.75 1.33–1.75 1.22–1.71 Patella 3.16–3.77 3.52–4.05 2.20–3.00 2.31–2.88 1.75–2.22 Tibia 5.50–6.44 5.81–6.70 4.00–4.87 3.22–4.16 2.71–3.25 Tarsus 5.37–6.43 5.87–6.57 3.00–4.86 3.57–4.80 2.83–3.80 Table 3: Tergal and sternal chaetotaxy of postlarval stages of Dactylochelifer gracilis. (a) Tergites chaetotaxy I II III IV V VI VII VIII IX X XI XII Male 9–16 11–15 10–16 11–18 16–20 17–21 15–21 16–20 14–20 13–19 9–16 2 Female 10–14 12–17 12–18 17–20 16–19 17–21 16–21 16–22 14–21 16–18 8–16 2 Tritonymph 7–10 8–10 9–11 9–11 11–13 10–14 10–14 11–13 11–14 7–14 6–11 2 Deutonymph 6 6 6 6 6 6-7 6 6–8 6 6-7 5–7 2 Protonymph 4 4 4 4 44 44 4 4 2 2 (b) Sternites II Anterior spiracles III Posterior spiracles IV V VI VII VIII IX X XI XII (0)-(0) Male 42–56 10–18 (1)-(1) 7–14 12–17 12–17 13–17 12–17 12–17 10–14 8–14 2 (1)-(1) Female 16–22 (0)-(0) 6-7 (1)-(1) 7–9 12–17 13–18 14–17 13–17 12–17 11–14 8–12 2 Tritonymph 2–4 (0)-(0) 5–8 (1)-(1) 4–8 9–13 10–13 9–12 9–13 9–12 9–11 6–9 2 Deutonymph — (0)-(0) 3-4 (1)-(1) 4 5–8 6–8 6–8 6–8 6–8 7-8 6–8 2 Protonymph — (0)-(0) 2 (1)-(1) 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 3-4 2 International Journal of Zoology 5 terminal denticulations, tergite XI with 2 long and simple II divided with narrow median line; tergites X and XI not setae, tergites incompletely divided with narrow median line; divided; and tergal chaetotaxy is shown in Table 3. tergite XI not divided, and tergal chaetotaxy is shown in Sternites.They arepresent as follows: pale brown; notgran- Table 3. ulate; sternites X and XI with 2 long median tactile setae; Sternites. eTh y are present as follows: sternite II without setae sternal setae simple and longer than tergal setae; and sternal or lyrifissures; sternite X and IX with 2 long medial setae and 2 chaetotaxy is shown in Table 3. short lateral setae; sternal setae simple and longer than tergal Pleurite.Itispresent as follows: striated;spiracles equalin setae; sternites not divided; and sternal chaetotaxy is shown size; and anus situated between last tergite and last sternite. in Table 3. Chelicera. It present as follows: light brown, darker in color Pleurite. It is present as follows: striated and spiracle equal in than legs; hand with 5 setae; galeal seta present; galea with 3 size. or 4 distal rami; rallum with 3 blades; serrula exterior with Chelicera. It is present as follows: light brown; hand with 4 13–15 blades; and fixed finger with 5 teeth, 2 terminal teeth setae; galea with 3 or 4 distal rami; rallum with 3 blades; small and acute, and 3 basal teeth are large and blunt, these serrula exterior with 11-12 blades; movable finger without teeth larger than teeth of protonymph. galeal seta; and fixed finger with 5 teeth, 2 small and acute Pedipalps. eTh y are present as follows: larger and stouter than terminal teeth, and 3 large and blunt basal teeth. protonymph; brown; darker than carapace; trochanter, femur, Pedipalps. eTh y are present as follows: brown; darker than patella, and chelal hand slightly granulate; most pedipalpal carapace; femur, patella, and chela not granulate; trochanter, setae short with terminal denticulations; chelal n fi gers and femur, and patella with short setae with terminal denticula- base of hand with simple setae; trochanter with a dorsal tions; chelal fingers and terminal base of hand with simple projections; femur with short pedicel; retrolateral margin of setae; trochanter with one dorsal projection; surface of pro- femur semiswollen; prolateral margin of femur more gran- jection granulate; femur without pedicel; retrolateral margin ulate than retrolateral margin; patella shorter and somewhat of femur projected; patella shorter and somewhat wider than wider than femur; prolateral margin of patella slightly swollen femur; femur 1.11–1.30 longer than patella; prolateral margin and more granulate than retrolateral margin; femur 1.10– of patella convex; movable n fi ger as long as hand with pedicel; 1.17 longer than patella; chela weakly granulate; chela less fixed finger with 3 trichobothria and movable n fi ger with 1 granulate than femur; movable finger as long as or slightly trichobothrium; xfi ed n fi ger with 29–31 and movable n fi ger shorterthanhandwithpedicel;hand1.02–1.17 longer than with 32-33 teeth; and nodus ramosus present in both n fi gers, movable nge fi r; xe fi d nge fi r wi th 6 and movable nger fi with slightly longer in movable n fi ger than fixed finger, situated 2trichobothria;fixedfinger with 32–35and movablefinger medially in movable n fi ger and posterior to et in fixed finger. with 34–36 teeth; and nodus ramosus present in both n fi gers, longer in movable n fi ger than fixed finger, situated posterior Legs.They arepresent as follows: legI:trochanternot of t in movable finger, and between et and est in fixed finger. granulated,with1seta;femur,patella,tibia,and tarsus not granulate; setae arranged same as adults; femur joined widely Legs.They arepresent as follows: legI:stouter than proto- with patella; and patella 1.15–1.40 longer than femur. Leg IV: nymph; not granulate; setae arranged same as adults setae; trochanter not granulated, with 0-1 seta; patella, tibia, and patella 1.20–1.36 longer than femur; and femur joined widely tarsus not granulate; setae arranged same as adults; tibia as with patella. Leg IV: stouter than protonymph; not granulate; long as patella; and patella 1.66–1.75 longer than femur. setae arranged same as adults setae; and patella 1.88–2.15 longer than femur. 6.2. Deutonymph: Figure 4,Tables 1, 2,and 3 6.3. Tritonymph: Figure 5;Tables 1, 2,and 3 Carapace. It present as follows: light brown; lighter in color than deutonymph, darker than abdomen; lateral margins Carapace. It present as follows: brown, darker than abdomen, darker and granulate with small granules; longer than wide; anterior margin darker than posterior margin; lateral and with 2 distinct eyes situated very close to anterior margin, anterior margins more granulate than other areas; longer than completely swell; setae short with terminal denticulations; wide; with 2 obvious eyes; setae short with terminal denti- anterior margin narrower than posterior margin; 2 transverse culations; 2 transverse furrows present; anterior furrow sit- furrows present; anterior furrow situated medially, narrow, uated medially, narrow, U-shaped, and extending to lateral and extending to lateral margins; and posterior furrow margins; and posterior furrow slightly curved posteriorly, shorter, wider, and slightly V-shaped medially. wide medially, and narrow laterally. Tergites. eTh y are present as follows: more sclerotized than Tergites. eTh y are present as follows: more sclerotized and protonymph; lighter in color than carapace, mostly cream granulate than deutonymph; lighter in color than carapace, with dark spots; most setae short with terminal denticula- dark cream with 2 brown spots; most tergal setae short with tions; tergites VIItoXIwithlongermediansetae;tergite terminal denticulations; tergites IX to XI with longer median XI with 2 very long and simple tactile setae; tergites I and setae; and tergite XI with 2 very long and simple tactile setae; 6 International Journal of Zoology tergal setae situated irregularly, tergites I to III with serial stouterthaninmale; with 2welldeveloped eyes,larger, setae (in one row), each half-tergite of segments IV to X with wider, and less swollen than those of male; setae short, 1 median seta, tergite XI with dispersed setae; tergites I–IX with terminal denticulations; anterior margin with 10 setae divided by narrow median line; tergites X and XI not divided; and posterior margin with 8 setae; anterior margin with 2 and tergal chaetotaxy is shown in Table 3. very short setae in front of each eye and 8 long setae on border; 2 transverse furrows present; anterior furrow nar- Sternite. It is present as follows: sternites III to X are row, U-shaped, and situated medially, extending to lateral divided by narrow median line; sternites IX to XI are not margins; and posterior furrow slightly curved posteriorly, divided; sternites X and XI with 2 long median tactile setae; wider medially, and narrow laterally. sternal setae simple and longer than tergal setae; and sternal Tergites.Theyarepresentasfollows:lighterincolorthancara- chaetotaxy is shown in Table 3. pace, brown with 2 dark brown and extensive stripes, each Pleurite. It is present as follows: striated; spiracles equal in half-tergite with a darker and larger area than tritonymph; size; anus with 4 circum-anal setae; and anus situated between most tergal setae short with terminal denticulations; tergite last sternite and last tergite. XI with 2 long tactile setae; tergites I, II, and XI are not divided, tergites III to XIII divided by narrow and obvious Chelicera. It is present as follows: light brown, darker in color median line, tergite IX incompletely divided; and tergal than legs; dorsal side of movable n fi ger darker than hand; chaetotaxy is shown in Table 3. galeal seta present; hand with 5 simple setae; external seta longer than fixed finger; galea with 3 to 5 distal rami; rallum Sternites. eTh y are present as follows: sternites III to X are divided by narrow median line; sternite XI not divided; stern- with 3 blades; serrula exterior with 14–17 blades; and fixed ites II and III are deformed and made anterior operculum and finger with 6 teeth, 3 terminal teeth small and acute, and 3 basal teeth large and blunt, these teeth are as large as those of posterior operculum; cribriform plate single, brown in color with darker borders, bean-like in shape; sternal setae simple deutonymph. and longer than tergal setae; and sternal chaetotaxy is shown Pedipalps. eTh y are present as follows: larger and stouter than in Table 3. deutonymph; brown, darker than carapace; lateral margins Pleurite.Itispresent as follows: striated;spiracles equalin dark brown; trochanter, femur and patella granulate; chelal size; and anus between last tergite and last sternite, with 4 hand weakly granulate; most setae short with terminal den- circum-anal setae. ticulations; chelal n fi gers and distal base of hand with simple and long setae; trochanter with 2 small dorsal projections; Chelicera. It is present as follows: darker in color than male; femurwithdistinctpedicel;bothsides of femurstraightand movable n fi ger longer than male; galea with 5-6 distal rami; granulate; patella shorter and somewhat wider than femur; galeal seta present; hand with 5 simple setae; rallum with femur 1.09–1.19 longer than patella; patella with distinct 3 blades, distal blade longest, with lateral denticulations; curved and short pedicel; chelal hand granulate; chelal hand serrula exterior with 18–20 blades; and fixed finger with 6 less granulate than femur; chela with distinct short pedicel; teeth, 3 terminal acute teeth and 3 basal teeth large and blunt, movable nger fi slightly shorter than hand with pedicel; hand these teeth are larger and stouter than teeth of tritonymph. 1.04–1.28 longer than movable finger; fixed finger with 7 and movable nge fi r with 3 trichobothria; xe fi d nge fi r with 36– Pedipalps. eTh y are present as follows: distinctly larger and 42 and movable finger with 49–46 same teeth; and nodus stouter than tritonymph and male; dark brown, darker than ramosus present in both fingers, clearly longer in movable carapace; lateral margins darker and more granulate than finger than xfi ed n fi ger, situated anterior of t or rarely st in others; trochanter, femur, and patella completely granulate; movable n fi ger (Figures 5(e) and 10(b)), and between et and dorsal and ventral margin of chelal hand not granulate; it in fixed finger. pedipalp less granulated than male; most pedipalpal setae short with 1 lateral and few terminal denticulations; chelal Legs. eTh y are present as follows: leg I: stouter and larger than nfi gers andbaseofhandwithsimpleand long setae; troch- deutonymph; lighter in color than body; setae arranged same anter with 2 dorsal projections; femur with distinct pedicel; as adults setae; femur, patella, tibia, and tarsus not granulate; retrolateral margin of femur slightly curved basally and pro- femur joined widely with patella; patella 1.27–1.40 longer than lateral margin straight; patella shorter and somewhat wider femur. Leg IV: stouter and larger than deutonymph; setae than femur; femur 1.05–1.23 longer than patella; patella with arranged same as adults setae; trochanter,patella,tibia,and obvious curved and short pedicel; retrolateral margin of tarsus not granulate; femur joined widely with patella; patella patella distinctly curved basally and prolateral margin slightly 1.95–2.55 longer than femur; and tibia slightly shorter or curved distally; femur more granulate than chelal hand; chela slightly longer than patella (0.93–1.02). with distinct and moderate pedicel; movable finger shorter than hand with pedicel; hand 1.14–1.27 longer than movable finger; fixed finger with 8 trichobothrium and movable fin- 6.4. Female: Figure 6;Tables 1, 2,and 3 ger with 4 trichobothrium setae or xfi ed n fi ger with 8 and movable n fi ger with 4 trichobothrial setae; xfi ed n fi ger with Carapace. It is present as follows: dark brown, darker than trichobothrium et situated distal to it, ist situated posterior, other stages; less granulate than male; distinctly longer and International Journal of Zoology 7 and it anterior to est, eb-esb-ib-isb aggregated basally; 0.5 movable n fi ger with trichobothrium st situated between t 0.4 and sb, sb situated close to b; xfi ed n fi ger with 44–50 and movable nger fi with 45–54 similar-shaped teeth; and nodus 0.3 ramosus present in both fingers, clearly longer in movable n fi ger than xe fi d nge fi r, situated slightly posterior to st and st 0.2 in movable nger fi , and between est and ist in fixed finger. 0.1 Legs. eTh y are present as follows: leg I: light brown; lighter in color than body; trochanter weakly granulate; femur and 0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 patella granulate; patella joined with femur widely; patella 1.29–1.46 longer than femur; tibia granulate, prolateral mar- Protonymph Female gin curved distally; tibia slightly shorter and distinctly nar- Male Deutonymph rower than patella; tarsus weakly granulate; most setae with Tritonymph one lateral and few terminal denticulations; tibia with simple Figure 2: Tarsus I L/W of all postlarval stages of Dactylochelifer and long terminal seta; retrolateral margin of tarsus with gracilis. denticulate setae (except terminal and subterminal setae) and prolateral margin with simple setae; claws symmetric and without teeth; and arolium shorter than claws. Leg IV: stouter and larger than tritonymph; trochanter weakly granulate; are modiefi d and made anterior operculum and posterior femur not granulate; lateral margins of patella more granulate operculum; sternites IV to XI are divided by narrow median line; sternal setae simple and longer than tergal setae; sternite than ventral and dorsal margins; patella 2.39–2.70 longer than femur; tibia slightly curved basally, as long as patella or X and XI with 2 long tactile setae; and sternal chaetotaxy is shown in Table 3. slightly shorter than patella (0.97–1.00); tarsus clearly shorter than tibia, with weak granules; most setae with one lateral and Pleurite. It is present as follows: striated; posterior spiracles few terminal denticulations, patella with one simple median larger than anterior pairs; tracheae normal; and anus situated seta, tibia with simple and long terminal setae, tarsus with between last tergite and last sternite, with 4 circum-anal setae. basal denticulate setae. Chelicera. It is present as follows: light brown, lighter in 6.5. Male: Figure 7;Tables 1, 2,and 3 color than legs, base of movable n fi ger darker than hand; hand slightly granulate; hand with 5 simple setae; rallum Carapace. It is present as follows: brown to dark brown, with 3 blades, distal blade longest, with lateral denticulations; slightly lighter in color than female but distinctly darker serrula exterior with 17–21 blades; serrula interior button like than other stages, darker than abdomen, similar to pedipalps; with external ridges; galea with 1–3 distal rami; xfi ed n fi ger completely granulate, lateral and anterior margins more with 6 teeth, 3 terminal acute teeth, and 3 basal teeth large granulate; usually longer than wide, granules of furrows and blunt; and movable n fi ger with galeal seta, these teeth with smaller in diameter; with 2 well-developed corneate are larger and stouter than teeth of tritonymph and slightly eyes, larger, wider, and less swollen than in tritonymph; 2 smaller than teeth of female. transverse furrows present; anterior furrow situated medially, narrow, and extending to the lateral margins; posterior fur- Pedipalps. eTh y are present as follows: larger and stouter row wider than anterior furrow and extending to proximity of than tritonymph, distinctly shorter, and slightly narrower the lateral margins; setae short with terminal denticulations, than female; dark brown, darker than carapace, chela slightly anterior margin with longer setae than posterior margin, 1 or darker than femur and patella; granulate; most pedipalpal 2 small setae situated very close to median zone of anterior setae short with 1 lateral and few terminal denticulations; margin; and anterior margin curved anteriorly and posterior chelal n fi gers and distal base of hand with simple and margin straight. long setae; trochanter with 2 dorsal projections; femur with distinct pedicel; retrolateral margin of femur slightly Tergites. ey Th are present as follows: sclerotized and gran- curved basally and prolateral margin straight; patella shorter ulate; lighter in color than carapace, brown with 2 darker and somewhat wider than femur; femur 1.03–1.11 longer spots, each half-tergite with a darker and larger spots than than patella; patella with short, distinctly curved pedicel; tritonymph and lighter in color than female; most tergal setae retrolateral margin of patella distinctly curved basally and short with terminal denticulations; half-tergites IV to XI with prolateral margin slightly curved distally; chelal hand less lateral and median setae; 2 median setae present, one seta granulatethanpedicel;chela with distinct andmoderate situated on exterior side of half-tergites and one seta situated pedicel; movable n fi ger shorter than hand with pedicel; hand on middle zone of each half-tergite; tergite XI with 2 long 1.05–1.23 longer than movable finger; fixed finger with 8 tri- tactile setae situated laterally; tergites I and XI are not divided; chobothrium and movable nger fi with 4 trichobothrium setae and tergal chaetotaxy is shown in Table 3. or fixed finger with 8 and movable finger with 4 trichobothrial Sternites. eTh y are present as follows: lighter in color than setae; xfi ed n fi ger with trichobothrium et situated distal to it, tergites; less granulate than tergites; sternites II and III ist situated posterior, and it anterior to est, est situated closer 8 International Journal of Zoology 0.02 mm 0.08 mm 0.02 mm (a) (d) (c) 0.08 mm (b) (h) 0.08 mm 0.02 mm 0.08 mm (g) (f) (e) Figure 3: Protonymph: (a) legs and ventral view of carapace, (b) dorsal side of carapace, (c) tarsus of leg I, (d) tarsus of leg IV, (e) right chela, (f) pedipalp, (g) chelicera, and (h) rallum. to ist than it, eb-esb-ib-isb aggregated basally; movable finger retrolateral margin curved dorsally and prolateral margin with trichobothrium st situated between t and sb, sb situated slightly curved ventrally, and terminal margin concave; most close to b; xfi ed n fi ger with 43–50 and movable n fi ger with setae with one lateral and few terminal denticulations; retro- 45–52 similar-shaped teeth; and nodus ramosus present in lateral margin of tarsus with denticulate setae, except for both fingers, clearly longer in movable n fi ger than fixed finger, terminal and subterminal setae situated on dorsal terminal situated slightly anterior to st in movable nge fi r, and between ridge, and prolateral margin with denticulate setae except est and it in fixed finger. distally; 2 terminal pseudotactile setae present on retrolateral margin; subterminal setae curved; claws asymmetric, poste- Legs.They arepresent as follows: legI:light brown, lighterin rior claw with 3-4 teeth; and arolium shorter than claws. Leg color than body; trochanter weakly granulate; femur slightly IV: stout and larger than tritonymph, distinctly shorter and granulate, stouter than patella and joint widely; patella narrower than in female; light brown, lighter in color than leg granulate and longer than femur; patella 1.23–1.37 longer I; coxal sac present, with well-developed atrium; trochanter than femur; tibia granulate, slightly shorter and narrower slightly granulate on dorsal side; femur smooth; lateral than patella, prolateral margin curved distally; tarsus much margins of patella more granulate than ventral and dorsal stouter and larger than in tritonymph, clearly shorter and margins; patella 2.62–3.33 longer than femur; tibia slightly stouter than in female; tarsus modified, stout and smooth, curved basally, as long as or slightly longer than patella, tibia International Journal of Zoology 9 0.02 mm 0.02 mm 0.08 mm (a) 0.08 mm (c) (d) (b) 0.08 mm 0.02 mm (h) 0.02 mm (f) (g) (e) Figure 4: Deutonymph: (a) legs and ventral view of carapace, (b) dorsal side of carapace, (c) tarsus of leg I, (d) tarsus of leg IV, (e) left chela, (f) pedipalp, (g) chelicera, and (h) rallum. 1.00–1.04 longer than patella; tarsus clearly shorter than tibia, and 2), density of granules on the pedipalps and tergites, and with small granules; most setae with one lateral and a few the number of trichobothria on the pedipalpal n fi gers. terminal denticulations; tarsus with simple distal setae and 2 The body lengths of deutonymphs are longer than pseudotactile setae; subterminal setae curved; claws symmet- protonymphs and tritonymphs are longer than deutonymphs. ric, without teeth; and arolium simple and shorter than claws. Male body lengths are shorter than females. eTh carapace of protonymphs is slightly longer than wide whereas in the other stages,itisnoticeablylongerthanwide(Figures 3(b), 4(b), 7. Distribution 5(b), 7(b), and 8). Dactylochelifer gracilis has only been recorded from Iran and eTh body and carapace of protonymphs are smooth Turkey [17, 18]. and poorly sclerotized. eTh sclerotization of the body and carapace begins at the deutonymphal stage and increases gradually to adults. Males are more sclerotized and granu- 8. Discussion lated than females (Figure 8). Many differences are apparent between each stage of D. eTh ratios andthe degreeofgranulation of thepedipalps gracilis,including size,pedipalpalratios(Table 2,Figures 1 increase during development. Protonymphs have small and 10 International Journal of Zoology 0.02 mm 0.08 mm 0.02 mm (a) 0.08 mm (d) (c) (b) 0.08 mm 0.08 mm (h) (g) 0.02 mm (e) (f) Figure 5: Tritonymph: (a) legs and ventral view of carapace, (b) dorsal side of carapace, (c) tarsus of leg I, (d) tarsus of leg IV, (e) left chela, (f) pedipalp, (g) rallum, and (h) galea. smooth pedipalps. The pedipalpal femur of protonymphs is England and D. vtorovi Mahnert, 1977 from Kyrgyzstan . without an obvious pedicel and is 1.21–1.56 times shorter The data presented for D. latreillii suggests that the segments than that of deutonymphs. eTh tritonymphs have stouter become progressively more slender; for example, the pedi- and longer pedipalps than deutonymphs, and adults have palpal femur ratios are protonymphs 2.41–2.76, deutonymphs thelongest andwidestpedipalps.Thepedipalps of malesare 2.66–2.99, tritonymphs 2.73–3.21, males 3.24–3.78, and slightly shorter and thinner than females but they are more females 3.06–3.53. The femur ranges of D. vtorovi followed granular and slightly stouter (Figure 9; Table 1). by ratios in parentheses are protonymphs 0.26 mm (2.88), The chela and the leg I gradually become longer (Figures 1 deutonymphs 0.34-0.35/0.11-0.12 mm (2.91–3.09), trito- and 2). The chelae of deutonymphs are 1.24–1.49 times longer nymphs 0.51–0.53/0.14-0.15 mm (3.53–3.64), female 0.66– than those of protonymphs and the chelae tritonymphs are 0.77/0.17–0.20 mm (3.85–3.88), and male 0.66-0.67/0.15– 1.23–1.66 times longer than those of deutonymphs. eTh chelae 0.17 mm (3.94–4.40). The pedipalpal femur ratios for D. of males are 1.23–1.54 times longer than those of tritonymphs gracilis are protonymphs 2.06–3.00, deutonymphs 2.61– but 1.10–1.35 times shorter than those of females (Figures 1 3.41, tritonymphs 3.13–3.87, males 4.09–4.81, and females and 10). 4.12–4.66. Only two other species of Dactylochelifer have had all of By comparing tergal and sternal chaetotaxy, a fair def- their developmental stages documented, D. latreillii from erence was confirmed between D. gracilis, D. latreilli,and International Journal of Zoology 11 0.08 mm 0.08 mm 0.02 mm (a) 0.02 mm (b) (g) (f) (c) 0.08 mm 0.08 mm (e) (d) Figure 6: Female: (a) ventral side of carapace, (b) tarsus of leg I, (c) tarsus of leg IV, (d) right chela, (e) pedipalp, (f) rallum, and (g) galea. D. vtoromi. eTh most important differences can be distin- of pseudoscorpions has been well documented (e.g., [4, 7]). guishedbyconsiderationofanterioroperculum.Themore The developmental sequence in D. latreillii and D. vtorovi is setaecan be countedonanterioroperculum of D. latreilli identical to the pattern of D. gracilis [24, 25]. which are measured more than 50 for males and more than 25 The chela of D. gracilis is relatively longer than that of for females, the numbers less than what are mentioned before D. latreillii in all developmental stages. eTh length of the will belong to oneofthe threementioned species. Tergal chela with pedicel of D. latreillii is 0.64–0.70 mm (deuto- setae is arranged widely variable, but the most tergal setae nymph), 0.89–0.97 mm (tritonymph), 1.21–1.31 mm (female), (20 setae) may be counted in D. gracilis. Tergal chaetaxy of and 1.10–1.25 mm (males) . The length of chela with nymphal stages are very similar in all three mentioned before pedicel of D. gracilis is 0.53–0.58 mm (protonymph), 0.66– species. It is worth mentioning that there are small differences 0.79 mm (deutonymph), 0.97–1.10 mm (tritonymph), 1.40– confirmed in sternal chaetotaxy of nymphal stages, where the 1.65 mm (female), and 1.22–1.50 mm (male) (Figure 10). The most cleared difference is being recognized in protonymphs protonymphs of both species have short, narrow chelae of D. gracilis which can be identified by presence of 2 setae on with three trichobothria on the xfi ed n fi ger (et, ist, and eb) sternite IV butthere are4setaeonSterniteIVof D. latreili and one trichobothrium (t) on the movable nger fi (Figures and D. vtoromi protonymphs. 3(e) and 10(a)). The deutonymphs of both species carry six The sequence of the appearance of individual trichoboth- trichobothria on the fixed finger and two trichobothria on riaonthe xfi ed andmovable nfi gers during development the movable n fi ger. eTh trichobothria added at this stage are 12 International Journal of Zoology 0.02 mm 0.02 mm 0.08 mm (a) (c) (d) 0.08 mm 0.08 mm 0.08 mm (b) 0.02 mm (h) (g) (f) (e) Figure 7: Male: (a) legs and ventral side of carapace, (b) dorsal side of carapace, (c) tarsus of leg I, (d) tarsus of leg IV, (e) left chela, (f) pedipalp, (g) rallum, and (h) galea. it,ib, andest on thefixedfinger andbon themovable nfi ger measured similar. The male tarsus I of D. gracilis is curved and (Figures 4(e) and 10(b)). Trichobothrium t is situated basally shaped an irregular concaved subdistal margin (Figure 7(c)) in the protonymph but is situated medially aer ft molting to but the male tarsus I of D. latreili is being seen in a convex the deutonymph stage. Tritonymphs have seven trichobothria shape with a smooth subdistal margin . The mentioned on the xfi ed n fi ger and three on the movable n fi ger, with irregular concaved shape (Figure 7(c)) can be used as a trichobothrium esb being added to the fixed finger and st to distinct factor for identification. Gabbutt [ 25]reportedthe the movable finger (Figures 5(e) and 10(c)). Adults have eight following ratios for male of D. latreillii 2.91–3.10 and Mahnert trichobothria on the fixed finger and four trichobothria on  reported the following ratios of D. vtorovi:protonymphs the movable n fi ger; trichobothrium isb is added to the xfi ed 3.66, deutonymphs 3.55–3.71, tritonymphs 3.30–3.48, males finger and sb is added to the movable n fi ger (Figures 6(d), 2.70–3.00, and females 4.99–5.63. eTh tarsus I ratios of D. 7(e), and 10(d)). gracilis are noticeably more slender: protonymphs 2.50–3.20, Significant differences exist between D. latreillii, D. deutonymphs 3.00–4.00, tritonymphs 3.00–4.62, males 2.20– vtorovi,and D. gracilis in the shape of male tarsus I. Rarely, 2.57, and females 5.00–6.28 (Figures 3(c), 4(c), 5(c), 6(b), and theproportionofmaletarsusIof D. gracilis and D. latreili are 7(c)). International Journal of Zoology 13 0.2 mm 0.2 mm 0.2 mm 0.2 mm 0.15 mm (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Figure 8: Ventral view of body: (a) protonymph, (b) deutonymph, (c) tritonymph, (d) female, and (e) male. 0.08 mm 0.08 mm 0.08 mm 0.06 mm 0.08 mm (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Figure 9: Pedipalps of Dactylochelifer gracilis: (a) protonymph, (b) deutonymph, (c) tritonymph, (d) male, and (e) female. 14 International Journal of Zoology st sb st 0.08 mm 0.08 mm 0.08 mm 0.09 mm (a) (b) (c) (d) Figure 10: Right chela of Dactylochelifer gracilis: (a) protonymph, (b) deutonymph, (c) tritonymph, and (d) female. 0.02 mm 0.02 mm 0.02 mm (a) (b) (c) 0.02 mm 0.02 mm (d) (e) Figure 11: The genital organs of Dactylochelifer gracilis: (a) anterior operculum of deutonymph, (b) anterior and posterior operculum of tritonymph, (c) anterior and posterior operculum of female, (d) genital organs of male, and (e) cribriform plate. International Journal of Zoology 15 Acknowledgments  K. B. Kunt, A. Bayram, E. A. 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