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Corporate Environmental Governance Performance Evaluation and Index System Construction under the Mobile Communication System
Corporate Environmental Governance Performance Evaluation and Index System Construction under the...
Chen, Fujiang;Sun, Cangqian;Chen, Junying;Wen, Chao;Duan, Rongqian;Wu, Haoyu
Hindawi International Transactions on Electrical Energy Systems Volume 2022, Article ID 5519401, 15 pages https://doi.org/10.1155/2022/5519401 Research Article Corporate Environmental Governance Performance Evaluation and Index System Construction under the Mobile Communication System 1 2 3 2 2 Fujiang Chen , Cangqian Sun, Junying Chen, Chao Wen, Rongqian Duan, and Haoyu Wu School of Public Administration, Southwestern University of Finance and Economics, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan, China School of Emergency Management, Xihua University, Chengdu 610039, Sichuan, China China Railway Academy Co., Ltd, Chengdu 610032, Sichuan, China Correspondence should be addressed to Fujiang Chen; email@example.com Received 1 July 2022; Revised 27 July 2022; Accepted 4 August 2022; Published 27 August 2022 Academic Editor: Raghavan Dhanasekaran Copyright © 2022 Fujiang Chen et al. )is is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. As environmental pollution has become more and more serious, in order to alleviate environmental and energy problems, people have begun to ﬁnd new ways of governance in environmental management. Many countries have proposed to incorporate environmental performance into corporate performance for assessment. Under the historical background that the construction of ecological civilization has risen to a national strategy, the research on corporate environmental performance has attracted more and more attention. )is paper constructs an environmental performance evaluation index system, evaluates the environmental performance of the enterprise, ﬁnds out the problems in the environmental performance of the enterprise, and proposes im- provement suggestions. )is is conducive to the change of the environmental policy of the enterprise, the improvement of the environmental performance level of the enterprise, and the protection of the ecological environment. )is article introduces the mobile communication network, constructs the LMS model of the satellite mobile communication system, and analyzes the structure and main functions of the model. )e article explains the role of corporate environmental governance, builds an environmental performance indicator system, selects several companies to evaluate the environmental governance performance of the past two years, and obtains the comprehensive performance index, stress index, state improvement index, and response index of the four companies in 2020. )e four indexes of company A are 1.28, 1.3, 12, and 1.45, and the four indexes of company B are 2.96, 3.1, 8, and 2.9. environmental management results of a company in the past 1. Introduction period of time. It is not only a phased summary of the )e environmental problems of modern society have be- company’s environmental management work but also a come major issues that we must face squarely. In recent guide to the future of the company’s environmental man- years, the deterioration of environmental problems has led agement work. to an increasing number of environmental governance A good environmental management performance projects. Environmental issues have become a diﬃcult evaluation system, on the one hand, can reasonably judge problem that aﬀects the country’s social development. )e the success of environmental management in the past diﬃculty of environmental governance has made environ- period of time, and make it visible to the eﬀectiveness of mental management lagging prominently. As a necessary environmental management, so as to further encourage all part of environmental management, environmental man- parts of the enterprise to actively participate in future agement performance evaluation is an evaluation of the environmental management activities, in order to create 2 International Transactions on Electrical Energy Systems the development of the rule of law on environmental pro- greater beneﬁts for the organization; on the other hand, it can make all parts of the organization clearly recognize the tection may be far greater than its direct impact . Moon et al. believe that the design of environmental institutions strengths and weaknesses of the past work, so that it can establish the direction of the new era. Encouraged by the and the critical analysis of these institutions bear the hall- incentive policies of the performance evaluation system, marks of the early twentieth century’s perception of the actively make eﬀorts for the next stage of environmental superiority of scientiﬁc knowledge and its unique capabil- management work. ities for basic decision-making, albeit indirectly. Moon et al. For environmental governance, relevant scientists have believe that it is necessary to provide a richer and more done the following research. Feris aims to analyze the re- detailed description of the coproduction of ecological in- dicators (such as goals and indicators) and their potential lationship between good environmental governance in South Africa (especially as evidenced by the decision of contributions to ecosystem governance and sustainability. With such a description, scholars and political authorities public authorities) and sustainable development and analyze good governance decisions in the context of the environ- will be able to better solve the very real pitfalls and dangers in computing practice without feeling compelled to give up ment. He critically evaluated recent case law, trying to understand the way local courts evaluate the authorities’ these potentially powerful methods . )e purpose of Zang environmental decisions. In achieving its goals, Feris also and Liu research is to discuss the direct and indirect eﬀects of considered how environmental decisions are made and ﬁscal decentralization on the eﬃciency of environmental asked a question: what is the value choice behind govern- governance (hereinafter referred to as EGE). First, he used ment decisions, and what role does sustainable development the theoretical framework to put forward hypotheses and play in providing information for good environmental then used panel data from 30 provinces in China from 2003 to 2015 to conduct empirical investigations. He used a governance decisions . Based on the hypothesis that the failure of governance of environmental problems in the provincial data set to measure EGE and regressed ﬁscal decentralization with new indicators. )e results show that agricultural food system is signiﬁcantly related to social and cultural aspects, Forney explored the literature in social ﬁscal decentralization has a signiﬁcant negative impact on EGE, and government environmental preferences play an sciences to seek explanations. )e ﬁrst statement is that research on agricultural environmental governance (AEG) intermediary role in the relationship between ﬁscal decen- issues is still divided into two subgroups on a global scale; tralization and EGE. When using diﬀerent methods, the one focuses on public policy, and the other focuses on civil results obtained are reliable. Further investigation of the society or the market for environmental certiﬁcation, with heterogeneous response to cross-regional policy changes little exchange or horizontal analysis between the two. shows that the impact of ﬁscal decentralization on EGE Forney calls for the development of AEG research to pro- shows obvious regional heterogeneity . Wang M con- ducted a series of regression analyses on the empirical data duce a theoretical framework that transcends preexisting categories to allow new conceptualization of governance set of 282 prefecture-level cities from 2010 to 2018. )e result determined the eﬀective implementation mechanism of practices in complex or mixed systems . Shen and Tai analyzed an environmental governance case from the per- CEPI from the perspective of sports governance. Wang M’s spective of social networks and explored how social net- research also shows the heterogeneity of local oﬃcials’ works that support and oppose environmental laws and campaign-style environmental governance behavior, in- regulations were formed and developed and how these social cluding the type of position and cultural background. networks promote or hinder environmental laws and reg- Second, the research shows that the campaign-style gover- ulations in diﬀerent periods. )e results show that as the key nance behavior of local oﬃcials has a moderating eﬀect on node of the social network, government leaders with political the relationship between environmental pollution and the power can connect a speciﬁc network with its value ori- promotion of local oﬃcials. Finally, Wang suggested that the higher-level government should adopt eﬀective incentive entation, thereby aﬀecting the structure and development of the network, thereby signiﬁcantly aﬀecting the subsequent policies to resolve the gap between environmental policy and implementation . )ese methods have provided some policy formation and governance results. )e social network inﬂuences the process and results of environmental gov- references for our research, but due to the short time and ernance and is aﬀected by it . Chen established an small sample size of the relevant research, the research has equation system to clarify the interaction between the rule of not been recognized by the public. law, economic development, and environmental policy )e innovation of this paper is to introduce a satellite stringency and used sensitivity and weak instrumental mobile communication system and PSR model to study the variable tests to test the robustness of variables. He studied performance evaluation and index system construction of corporate environmental governance. In satellite mobile the nine determinants of the rule of law, including the existence of a parliamentary system, coup d’etat, and the communications, the magnitude of the frequency shift caused by the signal is called the Doppler shift, and a degree of social division. Chen found that economic de- velopment, the rule of law, and their interaction have direct schematic diagram of the Doppler shift is obtained, selecting 23 representative quantitative indicators to construct an and indirect eﬀects on a country’s environmental policy. At the same time, he further discovered that political coups had indicator system for governance performance evaluation a major impact on compliance with the rule of law. Non- and evaluating corporate environmental governance parametric simulations show that the long-term impact of performance. International Transactions on Electrical Energy Systems 3 put forward higher requirements for mobile communica- 2. Corporate Environmental Governance tion, also encouraging many scientiﬁc researchers to con- Performance Evaluation Method tinuously study new communication technologies, explore 2.1. Mobile Communications. Mobile communication is a new transmission theories, and build faster transmission networks [13–15]. For example, Figure 2 shows the growth way of communicating between mobile users and ﬁxed- point users or between mobile users. )ere is communi- trend of mobile communication data traﬃc and the number of devices. cation in which one or both parties are in motion, including land, sea, and air mobile communications. )e frequency )e characteristics of mobile communication include the following: bands are used to cover low frequency, intermediate fre- quency, high frequency, VHF, and UHF. )e mobile (1) Mobility. It is to maintain the communication of the communication system is composed of a mobile station, a object in the moving state, so it must be wireless base station, and a mobile switching oﬃce. To communicate communication or a combination of wireless com- with a mobile station, the mobile switching oﬃce sends a call munication and wired communication. to the entire network through each base station, the called (2) )e radio wave propagation conditions are com- station sends a response signal after receiving it, and the plicated. Because moving objects may move in mobile switching oﬃce allocates a channel to the mobile various environments, electromagnetic waves will station after receiving the response, and then the voice produce reﬂection, refraction, diﬀraction, Doppler channel sends a signal to make it ring. eﬀect, and other phenomena when they propagate, Mobile Internet and Internet of )ings are the two resulting in eﬀects such as multipath interference, driving forces of future mobile communications [8–10]. )e signal propagation delay, and broadening. mobile Internet has changed the traditional way of providing mobile services and can provide users with interesting (3) )e noise and interference are serious. In the urban business and extreme opportunities such as ultrahigh-def- environment, automobile spark noise, various in- inition (3D) video, augmented reality, virtual reality, and dustrial noises, intermodulation interference be- mobile cloud. At the same time, it has also promoted a wide tween mobile users, adjacent channel interference, range of innovations in communication modes and pro- cofrequency interference, etc. moted the rapid development of wireless technology and (4) )e system and network structure are complex. It is a industry . For example, Figure 1 shows the 5G appli- multiuser communication system and network, and cation prospects. users must not interfere with each other and work in In the past half century, the development of mobile a coordinated manner. In addition, the mobile communications has had a profound impact on people’s communication system should also be inter- lives, production, work, entertainment, politics, economy, connected with the local telephone network, satellite and culture. )e unmanned aerial vehicles, smart homes, communication network, data network, etc. )e online video, online shopping, and so on in the fantasy 30 entire network structure is very complicated. years ago have all been realized. Mobile communication (5) High frequency band utilization and good equip- technology has gone through ﬁve development stages: an- ment performance are required. alog transmission, digital voice transmission, Internet communication, personal communication, and new gen- For cellular communication, the channel gain between eration wireless mobile communication. In the process of the base station BS and communication receiver D is as governance of the ecological environment, the model of follows: environmental governance has undergone three generations − L ,Cell BS M (1) � 10 . BS,Cell of changes: the ﬁrst generation: the traditional “command and control” environmental management model; the second )e signal-to-noise ratio at the receiver D of the cellular generation: the market-incentive environmental governance communication is as follows: model; the third generation: environmental cooperative P · G governance model. BS BS,Cell SNR � . (2) Cell Since diﬀerent application scenarios have their own N performance requirements, user experience rate, connection )e signal-to-noise ratio of cellular communication at density, end-to-end delay, traﬃc density, energy eﬃciency, the base station BS is as follows: etc., may all become the most critical demand indicators. )erefore, 5G will face the need for diﬀerentiated perfor- P · G Cells BS,Cells mance indicators in diﬀerent application scenarios, research, SNR � . (3) Cell and provide corresponding solutions . )e main per- 0 formance indicators of 5G are shown in Table 1. For D2D communication, a single-slope path loss model From the simple voice communication that ﬁrst is proposed, namely: appeared in mobile communication, through the develop- ment of the mobile Internet, to the current big data, artiﬁcial − β Q (d) � λ · Q · d , (4) D S intelligence, virtual reality, and cloud computing, all have 4 International Transactions on Electrical Energy Systems Agriculture: smart animal husbandry Industry: industrial robots, remote farming, smart tourism, smart rural operation, industrial AR, automation management Consumption: remote Medical treatment: remote shopping and management testing and treatment 5G application vision Safety: disaster warning Environment: remote and rescue detection and intervention Transportation: safe navigation, Compared to: distance unmanned driving, car networking, learning, deep learning, traffic accident handling virtual experience Figure 1: 5G application vision. Table 1: )e main performance indicators of 5G. Heading Deﬁnition User experience rate (bps) )e lowest transfer rate available to users in a real network environment Connection density )e total number of online devices supported per unit area (/Km ) )e time when the data packet is transmitted from the source node to the correct reception by the destination End-to-end delay (ms) node When meeting certain performance requirements, the maximum relative moving speed between the sender Mobility (Km/h) and receiver Flow density (bps/Km ) Total ﬂow per unit area Peak user rate (bps) )e highest transmission rate available for a single user 60 13 0 6 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 Year Year Figure 2: )e growth trend of mobile communication data traﬃc and the number of devices. Communication data (EB monthly) Number of devices (billions per year) International Transactions on Electrical Energy Systems 5 Q (d)-Signal power received by receiver D. β-Single oblique D f R � Z · log 1 + minSNR , SNR , S,D i 2 R D path loss exponential constant. λ-Single oblique path loss normalized constant. −β −β P · λ · d P · λ · d S S,R R R ,D ⎢ i i i ⎥ ⎡ ⎢ ⎛ ⎝ ⎞ ⎠⎤ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ −β f R � Z · log 1 + min , , S,D i 2 (5) G � λ · d , (10) S,D N N S,D 0 0 S,D -D2D communication distance between S and D. f R S,D i Since it is assumed that the dedicated mode of wireless f R � . S,D i p R spectrum is used for communication, the signal-to-noise i ratio SNR of D2D communication for S and D at the receiver When users S and D use cellular communication, the D is as follows: information transmission rate is as follows: P · G f (A) � Z · log 1 + min SNR , SNR , S S,D S,D 2 BS Cell SNR � , P · G P · G Cell BS,Cell BS BS,Cell (6) f (A) � Z · log 1 + min , , S,D 2 −β (11) N N 0 0 P · λ · d S S,D SNR � . f � f (Θ) + f (C) + f R , sum S,D S,D S,D i SeC SeL SeMD )e channel gain of the D2D communication user to the sender S and the relay user R can be expressed as follows: A-A collection of users who use cellular communication. L-A collection of user pairs using direct D2D communi- −β G � λ · d . (7) cation. N -Number of cellular users. S,R S,R 0 i i )erefore, the signal-to-noise ratio at the two-hop D2D communication relay R is as follows: 2.2. Environmental Governance. )e use of the word gov- ernance in English originates from ancient Greek and Latin P · G S S,R SNR � , and was originally meant to control and guide. In current applications, governance is mainly used to manage the −β political activities of public aﬀairs and is often confused or P · λ · d (8) S S,R even confused with the term rule. )e various deﬁnitions of SNR � , governance in academia refer to the use of state power by the government or nongovernmental organizations to regulate RCS � R |1< i< N, maxl , l < l . S,D i S,R R ,D max and guide various activities of citizens, maintain public i i order, and maximize public interests. Environmental gov- When users S and D use direct D2D communication, the ernance is a comprehensive analysis of air, water, soil, and information transmission rate is as follows: other environmental conditions, combining environmental quality assessment, standardization, design prevention and f (Θ) � Z · log 1 + SNR , S,D 2 D monitoring, and manual control to protect the environment from pollution, and then get the results of environmental −β policy reforms . As shown in Figure 3, the left picture P · λ · d S,D ⎛ ⎝ ⎞ ⎠ f (Θ) � Z · log 1 + , (9) shows the cumulative number of days of severe pollution S,D 2 and heavy pollution in cities across the country, and the right picture shows the concentration comparison of six pollutants. RCS � R |1< i< N, minG , G > G , S,D i S,R R ,D min i i With the rapid development of the social economy, environmental problems have become increasingly serious. Z-Transmission bandwidth. d -D2D communication S,D )e contradiction between man and nature has become distance between S and D. more acute, revealing the conﬂict between the economic When users S and D use multi-hop D2D communica- growth brought about by the traditional industrialization tion, assuming that the relay used is R , the information road and the continuous destruction of natural resources transmission rate is as follows: 6 International Transactions on Electrical Energy Systems 1800 160 0 0 2018 2019 2020 Year Severely polluted days Pollutants Severely polluted days Figure 3: Pollution survey data. the inﬂuencing factors closely related to the results of these and the environment. It reveals that the traditional economic development model advocated by the Industrial Revolution works include the organization’s strategic goals, customer is actually an unsustainable development path. Problems satisfaction, and capital injection. (2) )ey believe that such as overpopulation, severe resource depletion, and performance is behavior. )ey believe that performance is environmental pollution have become widespread envi- the behavior itself, independent of the result, is actually ronmental resource problems worldwide . )erefore, done, is related to the organization’s task and can be ob- environmental management has gradually become an im- served action or behavior, and emphasizes the behavioral portant tool for countries to solve environmental problems process in achieving organizational goals, which is produced and improve environmental conditions [18, 19]. Methods of to make up for the lack of result performance. (3) )ey believe that performance refers to the combination of results interagency, interregional, and international cooperation have been developed around the world to manage the en- and behaviors. Behavior is one of the necessary conditions vironment and protect resources. for achieving results. It is not only the means and tools to )e term “environmental protection” usually refers to achieve results but also the results themselves, which can be measures or general measures aimed at reducing or pre- judged separately from the results. It is generally recognized venting pollution and threats to the environment . It can by the domestic academic community . )is article be concluded that the national environmental obligations believes that the third point of view is more comprehensive mainly include the following three aspects: (1) Reducing and scientiﬁc, covering performance considerations in the current and future environmental damage; (2) Eliminating three aspects of behavior, implementation process, and results. Under certain conditions, behavior and results are or reducing potential or existing hazards to the environ- ment; (3) Taking preventive measures to prevent future mutually causal, which meets the requirements of perfor- mance evaluation. environmental hazards. Table 2 is China’s modern ecological development index. In the process of the government’s eﬀorts to build an ecological civilization, performance as a predicted result has the following three characteristics: 2.3. Performance Evaluation. Performance, literally, is a combination of performance and eﬀectiveness. Achievement (1) Long-term. Performance is the result of the gov- ernment’s inﬂuence on pollution protection issues. is performance, and eﬀect is eﬃciency, beneﬁt, behavior, etc. )e deﬁnition of performance by domestic and foreign )is process takes a long time, and environmental protection issues are likely to continue in the fore- scholars is very broad and can be roughly divided into the following three viewpoints. (1) )ey believe that perfor- seeable future. )erefore, to a certain extent, it de- mance is the result or goal to be achieved by the work. termines that performance has long-term Performance should be deﬁned as the result of work because characteristics, which is mainly reﬂected in the eﬀect Day mg (m ) PM2.5 PM10 Ozone Sulfur dioxide Nidrogen Dioxide Carbon monoxide International Transactions on Electrical Energy Systems 7 Table 2: China modern ecological development index. First-level evaluation index Weights 2021 year Evaluation of the surrounding environment 25 63.5 Evaluation of China’s ecological and environmental protection policies, laws, and regulations system 15 68.7 Government investment, implementation, and eﬃciency recognition of environmental protection 30 67.1 Self-evaluation of environmental awareness and participation 20 67.4 Prospects of ecological environment protection 10 75.2 Modern ecological development index 100 67.3 As a new, eﬀective, and quantiﬁable tool and method of government governance issues and the degree of governance goals achieved. used in government governance, performance evaluation has the following characteristics in practice: (2) Multidimensionality. Performance prediction needs to include various indicators corresponding to it. (1) Diagnostic. Performance evaluation is a consider- Indicators are a prerequisite for achieving perfor- ation of the eﬀectiveness of protection and pollution mance predictions and the results of environmental problems. )e diagnostic characteristics are mainly protection and pollution control. When selecting reﬂected in two aspects. One is the prediction before performance indicators, try to describe and express the implementation of the performance evaluation, all aspects of the environmental governance process which is a prerequisite for eﬀective governance; so that the content of the indicators is relatively rich. second, in the process of performance evaluation )erefore, this reﬂects the multidimensionality of implementation, it is possible to timely discover the performance, and its performance itself has the problems that arise in the governance of various characteristics of comprehensive performance. levels of government. )is feature provides a reliable (3) Complexity. As environmental protection and pol- basis for the municipal governments to adopt per- formance evaluations in accordance with time lution control issues involve a wide range of issues, the performance of environmental governance is conditions. particularly complex in content and expression, (2) Flexibility. Governance and pollution problems are which is more complex than other types of perfor- not static. As pollution sources increase or decrease, mance, such as economic performance. )e mea- performance evaluation indicators will increase or sures implemented by the government in the process decrease, and the governance content it represents of environmental protection have a certain contri- will also change, so performance evaluation results bution to the improvement of ecology, but at the will also change accordingly. )erefore, in the same time it will also aﬀect the development of other process of implementing performance evaluation, aspects of building an ecological civilization, and the evaluation indicators should be adjusted in time even to a certain extent, have a counterproductive according to the feedback information so that it can eﬀect on the improvement of quality. be eﬀectively developed in the continuous changes of governance, and the governance performance eval- Performance is essentially a category of performance, uation results obtained in this way are more time- and its connotation is essentially the same as performance. eﬀective and accurate. Correctly deﬁning the connotation of performance is the logical starting point for performance evaluation. Because it is a system concept that integrates various inﬂuencing 3. Corporate Environmental Governance factors, it will aﬀect human behavior in any state and then Performance Evaluation Experiment produce corresponding results. )e performance referred to in this article refers to the achievements and results achieved )e construction of an environmental management per- by the government in implementing environmental pro- formance evaluation system is a necessary part of a com- tection and pollution control for the realization of ecological pany’s environmental management activities. civilization. Environmental management performance evaluation is an Evaluation is a part that should be included in the evaluation of the company’s environmental management concept of performance. Based on the research results of results over a period of time. It is not only a staged summary performance evaluation by domestic scholars, it is believed of the environmental management work of the enterprise that performance evaluation is the application of certain but also a mirror for the future environmental management evaluation standards and evaluation indicators by the work of the enterprise. Building a system is a complicated evaluation subject, using scientiﬁc evaluation methods to process. We must ﬁrst clarify what kind of goals we want to comprehensively evaluate the completion progress of the set achieve when building the system. Under the guidance of goals and the results achieved . this goal, select an appropriate evaluation angle, and 8 International Transactions on Electrical Energy Systems establish the evaluation content of the system according to Δl � d cos θ � vΔt cos θ, (12) the selected angle. )at is, after the evaluation objects of the Here, t is the time required for the mobile terminal to move system have been clariﬁed, we need to consider which in- dicators to use to evaluate the environmental management d, and θ is the angle between the direction of movement and performance of these objects. the incident wave. Since the signal source and the terminal )e evaluation system constructed in this article is a are far away, the angles before and after the movement can multiangle evaluation system. )erefore, the design of the be considered equal. evaluation content should include the evaluation points that )e LMS model is a three-state channel model based on are observed from three diﬀerent angles. Based on this Markov chain switching. It divides the channel environment consideration, this article positions the constructed envi- into three states: LOS state, medium shadow masking state, ronmental management performance evaluation system as a and deep shadow masking state, which can be applied to diﬀerent environments. In satellite mobile communications, system that combines three dimensions: enterprise pro- duction, social consumption, and government regulation the communication angle varies widely, and the channel environment changes accordingly. )erefore, the use of and control. If we imagine the performance of corporate environmental management as a triangular pyramid, then multistate models to describe channel characteristics is more companies, consumers, and the government are like three comprehensive and close . )e LMS model uses a three- eyes. )ey observe and evaluate corporate environmental state homogeneous chain to describe the channel state, as management performance from diﬀerent angles. shown in Figure 6 for a schematic diagram of conversion. )is text introduces the satellite mobile communication )e LMS model assumes that the received signal is system and uses the satellite mobile communication system composed of two parts, the direct component and the multipath scattered component (caused by the direct to detect the urban environment. General software radio peripherals, which were originally designed as the hardware component), among which the direct component and the multipath component induced by it are dominant . part of the software radio platform, can be used as the radio frequency front end of the computer so that the computer (1) Direct component. )e direct component is divided can also complete the radio work can send and receive radio into very slow change and slow change according to frequency signals, and transmit signals with a bandwidth of the speed of change. Among them, the extremely up to 56 MHz. Each functional module cooperates and slow change is described according to the Markov works together as the digital baseband and radio frequency state, which is mainly caused by the change of the front-end in the communication system. Its working elevation angle of satellite communication, such as principle is shown in Figure 4. operating from a high-elevation open environment )e USRP device ﬁrst receives the radio frequency signal to a low-elevation environment; the slow change through the antenna, sequentially goes through down- characterizes the small-scale changes in shadow conversion, band-pass ﬁlter, A/D conversion, and ﬁnally is occlusion, such as shadow changes caused by moving sampled and converted into a digital baseband signal and in the same forest or building. It obeys the lognormal sent to the computer. When the USRP sends a signal, it is an distribution. inverse process. After sampling, shaping ﬁltering, D/A (2) )e LMS model of multipath components considers conversion, and ﬁnally up-conversion, the signal is sent out that there are two main types of multipath com- through the radio frequency antenna. ponents, the scattering component of the direct In satellite mobile communication, the quality of component near the receiving end and the possible communication is aﬀected by the propagation characteris- image component. tics of the satellite channel . )erefore, to develop communication equipment and improve communication )e channel statistical fading characteristics of the three quality, it is necessary to have a thorough understanding of speciﬁc states of the LMS model can be characterized by Loo the communication environment. When the wireless signal distributions of diﬀerent parameters. In practice, the Loo arrives from the satellite to the receiver on the Earth, it will distribution considers that the received signal is super- be aﬀected by multiple factors. imposed by two parts: the direct signal that obeys the In a wireless communication system, when there is lognormal distribution aﬀected by shadow occlusion and the relative movement between the sending end and the re- multipath signal that obeys the Rayleigh distribution that is ceiving end, due to the change of the transmission path, the not aﬀected by shadow occlusion. )e structure of the LMS phase of the received signal is changed, and the frequency of model in a certain state is shown in Figure 7. the received signal is shifted. )is phenomenon is called the )e main function of the LMS model is to add fading Doppler eﬀect, and the resulting signal frequency shift is eﬀects to the transmission signal, including shadow fading called the Doppler shift. Figure 5 is a schematic diagram of and multipath fading. When the scheduling module calls the the Doppler frequency shift. LMS model module with the current communication angle When the mobile terminal moves at a speed on the path, as a parameter, ﬁrst, select the corresponding state proba- it receives the signal from the signal source when the dis- bility matrix and state transition matrix according to the tance is moved. )e path diﬀerence of the radio wave is as communication angle, and combine the current state to follows: determine the next state of the Markov chain, and ﬁnd the International Transactions on Electrical Energy Systems 9 A/D Downconversion Sampling BPF conversion PC Shaping D/A Upconversion Sampling filter conversion Figure 4: Schematic diagram of general software radio peripherals. maximization of economic beneﬁts in the traditional economy in the past. We have now realized that only by carrying out economic cycles can we achieve sustainable social development and maximize the beneﬁts of the whole society. )erefore, under the new economic environment, our enterprises must strive to achieve the coordinated de- velopment of economic, environmental, and social beneﬁts. An enterprise environmental management activity is an activity that attracts the attention of all stakeholders in the society, is jointly participated by all parties, and is speciﬁcally implemented by the enterprise. )erefore, the evaluation of corporate environmental management performance will receive attention from many parties. Of course, the con- struction of the evaluation system cannot be carried out Figure 5: Schematic diagram of doppler shift. from a single perspective but must be evaluated in a multi- faceted and three-dimensional manner. An enterprise’s ultrahigh environmental performance often implies that the enterprise has strong competitiveness. When decentralized to a speciﬁc industry, the environ- mental investment is much higher than the general level in P the industry. Especially, for some top industrial chains, the environmental impact far exceeds the additional eﬀects of S1 S2 S3 production . In the past, when dealing with the issue of pollution reduction, an enterprise is always expected to P 32 maintain operations at the lowest cost. )e technology often used was also low-end technical means, and the cost was extremely low. )ey believe that too much investment in Figure 6: )ree-state Markov chain state transition diagram. environmental governance will inevitably aﬀect their own income, but now they have a new understanding that the more environmental investment they make, the higher their corresponding distribution parameters. )en according to income will be in the future. )ey realized more clearly that the found distribution parameters, corresponding multipath good environmental conditions saved a lot of pollution channels and lognormal channels are generated, respectively control in the later stage, and the latter required a much . Finally, the signals are, respectively, passed through the higher cost than the initial environmental investment. )ere generated channels, and ﬁnally superimposed to obtain the are three speciﬁc explanations: data after the channel simulation. For example, the upper (1) )e initial investment in environmental pollution ﬁgure in Figure 8 is the parameter ﬂow chart, and the ﬁgure control requires a very low cost, which will cause a below is the state determination ﬂow chart. large number of ﬁnancial resources to be spent in the )e environmental management performance evalua- later period to control the pollution problem. )is tion system should be a comprehensive evaluation system cost investment far exceeds the cost of stiﬂing the based on the idea of sustainable development. It should be pollution at the source. )is forces companies to designed to provide relevant and veriﬁable information to continuously innovate, develop new environmental the management in a continuous manner to assist them in protection technologies, reduce pollution from the making business decisions so that the enterprise can achieve source, and use new technologies to increase re- coordinated development of economic, environmental, and source utilization and increase unit output. social beneﬁts. Under the current new environmental (2) )e stronger the innovation capability of an enter- conditions, the performance evaluation system of corporate prise, the more obvious its external advantages. management accounting can no longer be limited to the Δ1 10 International Transactions on Electrical Energy Systems Multipath average Rayleigh probability power distribution function C. Loo channel Channel model model status changes Mean Lognormal probability distribution function Variance Figure 7: LMS model channel structure in a speciﬁc state. Lognormal mean and variance General faith Find the State Rayleigh average multipath power corner Find distribution Determine Markov corresponding state status parameters matrix (a) No No Generate random X<P X<P +P State 3 i1 i1 i2 numbers X Yes Yes State 1 State 2 (b) Figure 8: Parameter ﬂow chart. (3) )e concept of low-carbon has been deeply rooted in )e selection of indicators should be operable. Opera- the hearts of the people, and people are willing to bility is the basic requirement for the design of corporate contribute to low-carbon emission reduction. environmental performance evaluation indicators. )e choice of indicators should be based on reality, and try to use )e objective and comprehensive principle is one of indicators that are easy to collect data and have clear the important principles for the construction of corporate concepts, so that the indicator evaluation system has strong environmental performance evaluation indicators. )e practicability, just like a “fool camera,” which can be op- selection of indicators should be compatible with the erated by hand. When constructing corporate environ- current level of corporate environmental performance in mental performance evaluation indicators, this article China. It is necessary to avoid the indicator design from screens the indicators according to this principle and selects being too advanced and prevent the indicator design from scientiﬁc, practical, and operable indicators for analysis. becoming too obsolete. On the basis of fully under- Enterprise environmental performance evaluation standing the actual situation of the company, combined involves all aspects of enterprise production and opera- with international standards and consensus, objectively tion activities. In order to be able to accurately and ef- and comprehensively select indicators so that it can ob- fectively evaluate enterprise environmental performance, jectively and fully reﬂect the company’s environmental the principle of combining qualitative indicators and performance and ensure the integrity of the company’s quantitative indicators should be followed when design- environmental performance evaluation and the accuracy ing indicators. Quantitative indicators have speciﬁc and of the evaluation results. For example, the selection of clear characteristics and can be more objective and ac- indicators should be tailored to local conditions, com- curate when evaluating environmental performance. bined with industry characteristics, enterprise size, en- However, due to the complexity of environmental per- terprise nature, and current national development level. formance evaluation, the indicators that reﬂect corporate Multiple relevant indicators can be established at the environmental performance evaluation are mainly non- sublevel indicator level to fully reﬂect the company’s quantitative indicators. Under such circumstances, the environmental performance. International Transactions on Electrical Energy Systems 11 Table 3: Quality and ecological protection indicators. First level indicator Secondary indicators )ree-level indicators Annual average concentration of sulfur dioxide Air Annual average concentration of nitrogen dioxide Proportion of days with air quality reaching level 2 or higher Urban water penetration rate Water Rural water reform rate of return Quality Discharge equivalent of harmful substances in industrial wastewater Toxic chemicals Safe disposal rate of industrial hazardous waste Industrial solid waste discharge intensity Waste management and sanitation Harmless treatment rate of urban domestic garbage Wastewater discharge intensity )e proportion of nature reserves in the area of jurisdiction Biodiversity Vegetation cover index Ecological protection Biological abundance index Urban greening Park green area per capita Climate change CO emissions per unit of GDP Table 4: Sustainable resource utilization and governance indicators. Total energy consumption per unit of GDP Energy use Energy consumption per unit of industrial added value Fresh water consumption per unit GDP Sustainable use of resources Fresh water consumption per unit of industrial added value Resource utilization Industrial water reuse rate Comprehensive utilization rate of industrial solid waste Governance investment as a percentage of GDP Manage Accident occurrence index Letters and visits ratio Exhaust emission intensity Governance Pollution control Discharge intensity of nitrogen and ammonia in wastewater Solid waste emission intensity Industrial S0 emission compliance rate Pollution governance Industrial wastewater discharge compliance rate Urban sewage treatment rate guiding ideology of the design of this article is to quantify quality; the second is the evaluation of the environmental the quantiﬁable indicators as much as possible and to governance process, and then the comprehensive perfor- deﬁne the indicators that cannot be quantiﬁed reasonably mance of all elements in the comprehensive environmental governance process . )is paper uses the PSR model to and accurately to clarify their scope of application. Combine qualitative indicators and quantitative indica- construct an environmental governance performance indi- cator system. Figure 9 is a schematic diagram of the model. tors through relatively objective and scientiﬁc methods and comprehensively calculate its environmental per- )e PSR (pressure-state-response) three indicators have formance score. an interactive relationship, and the logical quantity rela- Domestic research on ecological performance evaluation tionship diagram is shown in Figure 10. )e Pressure— started late and the research scope is relatively targeted. In State—Response model is referred to as PSR for short, and the the process of evaluating the performance of China’s pro- model is divided into three types of indicators. )e ﬁrst vincial regions, the DPSIR model is used to construct a category is pressure indicators, which characterize the damage provincial performance evaluation index system. )is in- and potential threats to the ecology caused by unreasonable dicator system is mainly to construct an evaluation indicator human social and economic activities and form pressure on the ecology; the second category is the status indicator, which system from four aspects of quality, ecological protection, sustainable use of resources, and governance, covering al- refers to the improvement of environmental quality and the degree of status change; the third category is response in- most all indicators for evaluating performance, which is more comprehensive and speciﬁc . As shown in Tables 3 dicators, which respond to the decline in environmental and 4, it can be used as an environmental governance quality through conscious environmental protection activities performance evaluation indicator. and policy measures, so as to minimize the negative impact on A set of reasonable and eﬀective environmental gover- the environment and maximize repair and improvement. nance performance evaluation index systems should include Building an environmental governance performance two aspects. One is the evaluation of environmental gov- evaluation indicator system around the pressure-state-re- ernance results, that is, the improvement of environmental sponse model (PSR), the performance evaluation indicators Increase Increase 12 International Transactions on Electrical Energy Systems Pressure P State S Response R Information Information Pressure Related agencies Environment and resources Human activity Management Department Biology Industry Public Improvements LF Water Agriculture Enterprise Land Transportation International organizations Response Figure 9: Schematic diagram of the model. S S Deterioration Figure 10: P-S-R interaction mechanism. should include three aspects: resource utilization eﬃciency, 4. Discussion output and discharge of nonproduct pollutants, corre- )e LEO satellite mobile communication system has the sponding capital investment for governance, and trace- characteristics of short transmission delay and low path loss, ability. )e utilization rate of resources is mainly manifested and the transmitted and received radio waves are less aﬀected by the emission of SO , NO , smoke (dust), wastewater, solid 2 2 by interference from outer space. )erefore, the LEO system is waste, etc. )is type of index belongs to the pressure index, considered to be the most promising satellite mobile com- and its measurement method is mainly the ratio of pollutant munication system, and it has attracted more and more at- emissions to GDP. )e lower the index value, the lower the tention. In order to evaluate the performance of mobile pressure caused by human social and economic activities. communications, it is necessary to conduct multiple and long- )erefore, 23 representative quantitative indicators are se- term experiments in the corresponding environment, and lected to construct an indicator system for governance testing in a real environment will consume a lot of time, performance evaluation . )e results are shown in manpower, and material resources. In order to solve these Tables 5–7. problems, shorten the development cycle, and save scientiﬁc According to the proposed environmental performance research costs, the use of analog channels is the best choice . indicators, several companies were selected to evaluate their )e business characteristics of enterprises in diﬀerent in- indexes in the past two years . )e evaluation results are dustries are diﬀerent, so the impact of this type of enterprise on shown in Figure 11. )e left picture shows the 2019 eval- the environment is also diﬀerent, so the focus of the evaluation uation data, and the right picture shows the 2020 evaluation will also be diﬀerent, such as thermal power companies, which data. Alleviate Reduce International Transactions on Electrical Energy Systems 13 Table 5: Stress indicators. Indicator Indicator type Index content Unit Index nature number P1 SO emission fee per unit GDP Tons/100 million yuan ↓ P2 Nitrogen oxide emission fee per unit GDP Tons/100 million yuan ↓ P3 Total smoke (dust) emissions per unit of GDP Tons/100 million yuan ↓ 100 million cubic meters/100 P4 Industrial waste gas emissions per unit GDP ↓ million yuan Stress P5 Industrial wastewater discharge per unit GDP Tons/100 million yuan ↓ indicators P6 Water consumption per unit of GDP Cubic meter/ten thousand yuan ↓ P7 COD emissions per unit GDP Tons/100 million yuan ↓ Amount of industrial solid waste generated per P8 Tons/100 million yuan ↓ unit of GDP Tons of standard coal/ten thousand P9 Energy consumption per unit of GDP ↓ yuan Table 6: State improvement indicators. Indicator Indicator type Index content Unit Index nature number μg/ S1 Decrease in annual average concentration of PM10 per unit space ↑ μg/ S2 )e average concentration of SO decreases ↑ μg/ S3 Decrease in annual average concentration of NO ↑ 2 3 State improvement Increase in the number of days when air quality reaches level 2 or indicators S4 Day ↑ higher S5 Industrial wastewater discharge compliance rate % ↑ S6 Geological compliance rate of centralized drinking water sources % ↑ S7 Comprehensive utilization rate of industrial solid waste % ↑ S8 Centralized treatment rate of urban sewage % ↑ S9 Harmless treatment rate of domestic garbage % ↑ Table 7: Response index. Indicator Indicator type Index content Unit Index nature number Ten thousand R1 Ecological environmental protection management aﬀairs expenditure ↑ yuan Ten thousand R2 Forestry investment amount ↑ yuan Response R3 Total sewage charges collected 100 million yuan ↑ index Number of visits and suggestions on environmental protection issues R4 Frequency ↑ from the general public Ten thousand R5 Environmental monitoring and supervision expenditure ↑ yuan mainly implement environmental pollution through exhaust )erefore, if an enterprise wants to obtain a series of hori- gas emissions, so the exhaust gas load per unit product will be zontally comparable data in the environmental management the focus of evaluation of the environmental management evaluation, it should choose more content that conforms to the performance of this type of enterprise. As for the “waste” business characteristics of the industry and that most com- produced by mining companies’ production will be manifested panies are concerned about as the evaluation point. Only in this in the form of local vegetation destruction, then the company way can the data be comparable among enterprises in the same should set the “vegetation area destroyed per unit of mining industry, and it is also convenient for the government to verify volume” as an evaluation indicator in a timely manner. this part of the data . 14 International Transactions on Electrical Energy Systems 14 16 0 0 AB C D AB C D Enterprise Enterprise Comprehensive Performance Index Comprehensive Performance Index Stress index Stress index Condition improvement index Condition improvement index Response index Response index Figure 11: Index evaluation data. governance performance evaluation method has a great 5. Conclusion relationship with the objectiveness of the evaluation results. While the industrial revolution brought about rapid eco- )erefore, there is still much room for research to focus on nomic growth, it also brought towering black chimneys. )is more eﬀective environmental governance performance huge chimney not only “burned” a large number of non- evaluation methods. renewable resources on the Earth but also reduced energy conversion ineﬃciently. A lot of polluting elements are Data Availability discharged into our living environment. As a necessary part )e data of this paper can be obtained through e-mail to the of environmental management, environmental management authors. performance evaluation is an evaluation of the environ- mental management results of a company in the past period of time. It is not only a phased summary of the company’s Conflicts of Interest environmental management work but also a guide to the )e authors declare that there are no conﬂicts of interest future of the company’s environmental management work. regarding the publication of this work. )is article introduces the concept of a satellite mobile communication system, obtains the working principle of the Acknowledgments software radio platform, and analyzes an inﬂuencing factor in the signal transmission process. )e inﬂuencing factor is )is work was supported by the Research Center for Civ- the frequency deviation of the signal, which is called the ilizations Mutual Learning and “)e Belt and Road” in Doppler shift. )is article starts with a preliminary fore- Chengdu University (Project no. WMHJTF2022B03), casting study. 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International Transactions on Electrical Energy Systems
Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Corporate Environmental Governance Performance Evaluation and Index System Construction under the Mobile Communication System
International Transactions on Electrical Energy Systems
, Volume 2022 –
Aug 27, 2022
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