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Contribution to the Study of Diversity, Distribution, and Abundance of Insect Fauna in Salt Wetlands of Setif Region, Algeria

Contribution to the Study of Diversity, Distribution, and Abundance of Insect Fauna in Salt... Hindawi International Journal of Zoology Volume 2019, Article ID 2128418, 11 pages https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/2128418 Research Article Contribution to the Study of Diversity, Distribution, and Abundance of Insect Fauna in Salt Wetlands of Setif Region, Algeria 1 2 3 Djamila Mouhoubi , Re ´ dha Djenidi, and Mustapha Bounechada Department of Basic Sciences, Faculty of Life and Natural Science, Lab Rescue (LADPVA), University of Setif 1, S´ etif, Algeria Faculty of Life and Natural Science and Universe and Earth Science, University of Bordj Bou-Arreridj, ´ ¨ Algeria Laboratory of Applied Biochemistry, University of Bejaia, Bejaıa 06000, Algeria Department of Biology and Animal Physiology, Faculty of Life and Natural Science, Lab Rescue (LADPVA), University of Setif 1, S´ etif, Algeria Correspondence should be addressed to Djamila Mouhoubi; mouhoubi_djamila@yahoo.com Received 21 August 2019; Revised 5 October 2019; Accepted 2 November 2019; Published 22 November 2019 Academic Editor: Marco Cucco Copyright © 2019 Djamila Mouhoubi et al. (is is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (e present study aims to assess entomofauna biodiversity at three saline wetlands, located in Setif region, Northeastern Algeria. To determine the predominant environmental factors in the distribution of entomofauna, six different stations and three transects in each station were chosen according to the distribution of plant and soil salinity in each transect. Results were analysed, and different ecological indexes and analytical methods were applied, from 2016 to 2017. (e total of individual insects belonging to 9 orders, 71 families, and 131 species were collected from the three sites. (e highest abundance was in Coleoptera (38.17%) while the lowest abundance was found in Ephemeroptera (1.53%). (e highest number of individuals (11438) was found in Bazer site in 2016, while the lowest number of individuals (4921) was in site Chott Frain in 2017. (e highest abundance of insects (109) was recorded in transect BS1T16, and the lowest abundance of species was recorded in transect HS1T36. Diversity and equitability indices showed highest values in HS1T16 (H � 4,356) and HS1T37 (E � 0.7282). Some ecological parameters showed a significant relationship between the insects occurrence, distribution of plants, and type of soil. water birds that congregate during the dry season and also 1. Introduction rare insect species [3]. (e insects are known to be the most Algeria is known by its unique geographical position and its successful and diverse animals on the earth. (ey have varied areas and climate. In addition to that, it has various adopted for almost every conceivable type of environment types of natural freshwater wetlands and saline wetlands from the equator to the arctic and from sea level to the (Chott and Sebkha) and, in addition, it also contributes to snowfield of highest mountains, on land, in air, in water, and the floral and faunal diversity [1]. Currently 42 out of the 300 almost everywhere. (e insects are considerably estimated to lakes in Algeria are listed under the Ramsar Convention comprise more than 75 percent of the known species of the covering an area of 3 million ha [2]. (e biodiversity values animals [4]. of the saline wetlands in the Sebkha Bazer and Chott Beida (e Sebkha and Chott have various vegetation, animals, have been recognised by their national and international and habitats. (e soil and vegetation diversity and richness significance, as demonstrated through their listing by the indirectly affect insect species diversity and abundance [5, 6]. Ramsar Convention on Wetlands. (at is due to the out- (e structure of vegetation between the different sites and standing diversity of their plant communities and their role different transects in each stations could affect the existing in conserving the large number of animals and migration of insect diversity. 2 International Journal of Zoology (e most important environmental factors usually af- organic matter (%), and gypsum(%) to measure the soil fecting insect communities are temperature (water or air), salinity and soil organic matter, respectively, in each of the vegetation cover, and salinity (soil and water) [6, 7]. (e role studied transect [9, 10]. of soil salinity in distribution of insects is largely unknown. (e insect sampling methods in this study were based on Particular difficulties include absence of surveys or studies of [11, 12]. Six sampling methods were used, that is, collected distribution of insects in saline wetlands (Sebkha and Chott). manually, sweep net, dip net, pitfall trap, catch moth trap, Several studies have shown that macroinvertebrate assem- and beating tray, in each transects. blages begin to be modified when salinity ranges from 1 to After capturing, the specimens were sorted using the 3 g/L with a reduction of diversity and abundance [7]. stereoscopic microscope under the magnifications of ×2 to (e insect diversity and abundance in three saline ×4. Identification was done on the basis of the principal wetlands, namely, Sebkha Bazer, Chott Beida, and Chott morphological characteristics of each insects taxa (order level, Frain in Setif, were studied. family genera, and species), for example, thoracic pattern, (e aims of our study were to characterize the distri- wings (wing venation features and wing venation), pattern bution of insects along a salinity gradient to determine the abdomen, legs, genitalia, antennae length, coloration, and diversity and abundance of the insects and to compare the number of stripes, as described by [13–17]. Large and hard composition and abundance of insect morphospecies in the insects were pinned and dried (for 15 days), and relatively wet and dry seasons in the three saline wetlands. small insects were mounted on paper triangles. Dry preserved samples were stored in well-sealed wooden insect boxes with naphthalene balls. Other insects were preserved in 70% 2. Materials and Methods ethanol + glycerin solution. Soft-bodied insects (Diptera and some species of Hymenoptera) were slide mounted using 2.1. Study Area. (is study was carried out in the eco- Hoyer’s solution. (e specimens were then extracted, dried, complex of saline wetlands of the high plains of Setif in card mounted, and labeled. (e collected specimens were kept Northeastern Algeria (Figure 1). (e altitude in this eco- in the Zoological Museum of the Institute for future reference. complex varies between 800 and 1200m, and the region is characterized by semiarid Mediterranean climate, hot-dry ° ° summer (30–35 C) followed by cool-wet winter (− 2–5 C) 2.3. Statistical Analysis. (e species diversity indices com- [8]. (e majority of these wetlands run dry during the dry posed as the abundance, richness index (S), Simpson’s di- season. (e dominant substrate soil is rich in magnesium versity index (1-D) [18], Shannon–Wiener diversity index chlorides, and it only allows the development of salt-tolerant (H′) [19], and equitability index (E) [20] were calculated for flora highly adapted, composed mainly of Chenopodiaceae each transect on each stations and sites. In addition, to (Atriplex halimus, Atriplex patula, Salsola fruticosa, and computation of Jaccard similarity coefficient (J) using cluster Salicornia fruticosa) and Brassicaceae (Mauricaundia analysis was carried out using the following equation: arvensis, Matthiola fruticulosa, and Diplotaxis muralis) [3]. (e Jaccard similarity index J was calculated according to Among the three selected sites that were selected, within this [21] eco-complex of saline wetlands, two of these wetlands are ° ° Ramsar sites: Sebkha Bazer (36 05′N, 05 41′E; 4,379 ha) and J � + b + c × 100, (1) 􏼒 􏼓 ° ° Chott Beidha (35 55′N, 05 45′E; 12,223 ha) excepted of ° ° Chott Frain (35 55′N, 05 40′E; 1,500 ha) [3]. where a � number of species of insects present at transects 1 and 2, b � number of species of insects present at transect 2 and not present at transect 1, and c � number of species of 2.2. Sample Collection. In the three saline wetlands, six Insects present at transect 1 and not found at transect 2. stations were selected, with three transects on each station, (e changes in insect communities along the vegetation and the insects were collected each month from February and salinity gradient were investigated using a factorial 2016 to November 2017 (except for December 2016 and correspondence analysis (FCA). January 2017), within halophytic plant belts surrounding All data were calculated using statistical software of directed from the periphery to the lake centre. (ey were Microsoft excel 2013 and Past3 (version 2013) to count selected along three transects along soil salinity gradient and ecological indices. Quantitative data, collected using ques- vegetation cover gradient. According to [2], the soil sam- tionnaire, were analysed using Statistica (Version 12) to pling was carried out during spring season that has tran- determine FCA. sitional climate characteristics between the cold-wet season (is leads to comparing the presence (abundance, etc.) of and the hot-dry season. Within halophytic plant belts sur- insect taxa between sites and, between stations or between rounding the Sebkha, were chosen according to the distri- transects, in order to detect, for example, differences in insect bution of vegetation a total of 36 soil samples. Soil samples taxa composition between communities (presence/absence) were collected at depths ranging between 0 cm and 20 cm. and changes in the abundance of one or more insect taxa. Prior to physicochemical analysis, soil samples were crushed and dried in ambient air and then sieved to 2 mm in di- 3. Results ameter. (e physicochemical parameters analysed were pH, EC: electronic conductivity (decisiemens per metre (ds/m)), 3.1. Environmental Parameters. Soil characteristics among Tm: temperature ( C), CaCo : calcium carbonate (%), OM: sites were similar throughout the study period, based on 3 Agricultural area Lake International Journal of Zoology 3 Map of distribution of insects taxa along three transects WE Lake T3 T2 T1 Highly saline Coleoptera Moderately saline Dermaptera Diptera Ephemeroptera Slightly saline Hemiptera Hymenoptera Lepidoptera Odonata 1 : 1 500 Coordinate system: GCS WGS 1984 Author: Mouhoubi djamila Datum: WGS 1984 0 20 40 80 120 160 Djenidi Redha Units: degree km Bounechada Mustapha Orthoptera Figure 1: Map of the study area showing distribution of insects taxa points along the three transects of saline wetland in Setif region. different physicochemical parameters (Figure 2). (e species; 12.21% in 15 genera and 10 families dominated by present study reveals the most salty soils, with an electrical the families of Pentatomidae, Lygaeidae, and Miridae. Or- conductivity, organic matter, and pH of both soil of Chott ders of Diptera included 15 species; 11.45% in 15 genera and and Sebkha ranging from 1.67 ds/m (BS2T16) to 118.13 ds/m 14 families dominated by the family of Tachinidae. (e (FS2T27); 0.01 (FS1T27) to 3.01 (HS1T26); and 7.13 Orthoptera included 10 species in 3 families and 9 genera (FS1T36) to 8.18 (BS2T26) respectively. and were dominated by the families of Acrididae and Pamphagidae with 4 species. (e Lepidoptera included 9 species in 8 genera and 7 families, dominated by the family 3.2. Species Composition. (e qualitative study resulted in 9 Pieridae and Geometridae 2 species. Orders of Odonata orders of insects include to 71 families, 114 genera, and 131 included 5 species in 3 genera and 3 families Libellulidae, species. Aeshnidae, and Coenagrionidae. (e Dermaptera included 9 (e results show that Coleoptera with 50 species; 38.17% species in 8 genera and 7 families and finally the order of in 39 genera and 19 families were the most diverse and Ephemeroptera included 2 species in 2 genera and 2 families dominant in three saline wetlands, dominated by the fam- (Figure 3). ilies of Carabidae, Chrysomelidae, Meloidae, and Tene- In Figure 4, the number of insect orders found in all brionidae. (e second largest insect order recorded which three sites shows that the order of Coleoptera had the highest Hymenoptera consisted in 21 species; 16.03% in 20 genera values in all sites and varied from 49 species in site Chott and 11 families dominated by the families of Formicidae and Beida 2016 to 38 species in site Chott Frain 2017, while the Apidae. Hemiptera was the third largest insect order, with 16 lowest number was recorded for Ephemeroptera which 4 International Journal of Zoology 40 160 35 140 30 120 25 100 20 80 15 60 10 40 5 20 0 0 2016 2017 2016 2017 2016 2017 2016 2017 2016 2017 2016 2017 Transects EC (ds/m) CaCo % Salinity % Gypsum % pH OM % Figure 2: Characteristics of chemical soils according to transects in all sites during study period (2016-2017). (B) Sebkha Bazer, (H) Chott Beida, (F) Chott Frain, (T) Transect (T1, T2, and T3), (S) Station (S1 and S2), year: 2016 (6), year: 2017 (7). 8% 4% 7% 38% 16% 12% 2% 11% 2% 0 Coleoptera Hemiptera Dermaptera Hymenoptera Orders Diptera Lepidoptera Ephemeroptera Odonata Sebkha Bazer 2016 Chott Beida 2017 Sebkha Bazer 2017 Chott Frain 2016 Figure 3: Percentage composition order of insects in all col- Chott Beida 2016 Chott Frain 2017 lected studied sites of three saline wetlands during study period (2016-2017). Figure 4: Number of insect taxa in all collected studied sites of three saline wetlands during study period (2016-2017). ranged from 2 species in sites Sebkha Bazer 2016 and Sebkha Bazer 2017 to 0 species in sites Chott Beida 2016 and 2017 3.3. Relative Abundance (Ra). (e Formicidae family was the and Chott Frain 2016 and 2017. most abundant, constituting 61.50% of the total insects During the present study, the insects from three sites and collected from all the three sites during two years of study. six different stations were compared. In the site Sebkha (e maximum number of this family was recorded from site Bazer 2016 (B2016) recorded 126 species; 20% with 11438 Chott Frain 2016 (71.87%) followed by site Chott Beida 2017 individuals followed by site Chott Beida 2016 (H2016) with (68.41%) and site Sebkha Bazer 2016 (49.09%), respectively. (e Carabidae family constituted 11.82% towards the total 110 species; 17% and 10437 individuals and site Chott Frain 2017 (F2017) with 94 species 15% and 4921 individuals number of individuals collected and was the second most relative abundance species. (e maximum individuals of this (Figure 5). In terms of sampling stations, the highest number of individuals was recorded in BS16 (6914 ind), while the family were recorded from site Chott Beida 2016 (15.92%) lowest number of individuals was recorded from at FS37 and followed by site Sebkha Bazer 2016 (15.51%) and site (2379 ind). During the present study, the insects from thirty- Chott Frain (2.90%), respectively. (e less relative abun- six different transects were compared, the highest number of dance (0.09% to 0.03%) species included Anax (family: species and individuals were recorded in transect 1 (BS1T16) Aeshnidae), Iphiclides podalirius (family: Papilionidae), (109 species, 2238 ind), while the lowest number of species Cantharis sp. (family: Cantharidae), Oulema melanopus and and individuals were recorded in transect 3 (HS1T36) (6 Oulema gallaeciana (family: Chrysomelidae), and Dasytes species, 111ind). (family: Dasytidae). Parameters of soil BS1T16 BS1T26 BS1T36 BS1T17 BS1T27 BS1T37 BS2T16 BS2T26 BS2T36 BS2T17 BS2T27 BS2T37 HS1T16 HS1T26 HS1T36 HS1T17 HS1T27 HS1T37 HS2T16 HS2Tr2 HS2T36 Number of species HS2T17 HS2T27 HS2T37 Coleoptera FS1T16 FS1T26 FS1T36 Dermaptera FS1T17 FS1T27 Diptera FS1T37 FS2T16 FS2T26 Ephemeroptera FS2T36 FS2T17 Hemiptera FS2T27 FS2T37 Hymenoptera Salinity and EC Lepidoptera Odonata Orthoptera International Journal of Zoology 5 Species 15% 20% 15% 16% 17% 17% Sebkha Bazer 2016 Chott Beida 2017 Sebkha Bazer 2017 Chott Frain 2016 Chott Beida 2016 Chott Frain 2017 Figure 5: Percent of entomofauna according to their numbers of species in all three studied sites in saline wetlands during study period (2016-2017). On the other hand, the species Messor barbarus had the (e diversity index (H′) of Coleoptera, Hymenoptera, highest relative abundance (22.65%) while the species and Hemiptera was 3,525 bits/ind; 2,778 bits/ind; and 2,554 Oulema gallaeciana gave the lowest relative abundance bits/ind, respectively. (0.02%) of the total number of individuals insects species. (e Equitability index (E) is a measure of the equitability In the present study, the maximum numbers of species with which individuals are divided among the taxa present. and individuals were collected during the spring and In the present study, the value ranges from 0 to 0.9968. (e equitability value of Dermaptera, Coleoptera, and Odonata summer season but no insects were collected during the winter season (December and January). (e highest number was 0.9968, 0.9944, and 0.994, respectively. of insects (114 species, 87.023%) was in spring season of 2016 (e highest dominance index (1-D) of insects was found at BS16, and the lowest number (7 species; 5.344%) was in for the order Coleoptera (0.9657) and least for the orders the winter season (February 2017) at sites HS27 and FS27. Coleoptera, Dermaptera, Diptera, Hemiptera, and Lepi- Messor barbarous was the most abundant species comprising doptera (0). 17.62% of the total numbers followed by Tetramorium sp (14.55%) and Camponotus sp (11.27%). However, For- 3.4.2. Site Level. (e annual species diversity (H′) was 3,245 micidae and Carabidae were the dominant families bits/ind and 2,981 bits/ind for the first year and the second throughout two years. year of the study period, respectively. (e highest insect In general, Coleoptera order had the highest occurrence diversity was found in site Sebkha Bazer 2016, which has a percentage at all seasons giving a range of (32.06%) in spring Shannon–Wiener diversity index of (3,615 bits/ind), while followed by Hymenoptera. However, the lowest existence the lowest diversity was observed in Chott Beida 2017 (2,826 percentage was recorded for Ephemeroptera which had bits/ind). (1.52%) in spring while undetected (0%) in the three remaining seasons (Figure 6). 3.4.3. Station Level. (e highest diversity (H′ � 3,725 bits/ ind) was observed at the second station of site Sebkha Bazer 3.4. Biological Indices. During the present study, the insect (BS26) during the first year, while the lowest diversity index diversity between the three sites was compared and was found at the first station of site Chott Beida (HS27) Shannon–Wiener diversity indexes, equitability index, and (H′ � 2,685 bits/ind) during second year. Similarly, the Simpson index were calculated as a measure of diversity highest value of Simpson (1-D � 0.95) was observed at the within the sites and stations and transects. (e biological BS26 as compared to that of HS27 (1-D � 0.8616) during indices of different study sites are presented during two years 2016 and 2017. On the other hand, the first station of site in Figure 7. Chott Frain (FS16) showed the lowest value of the equita- During the first year, diversity indices were high at all bility index (E � 0.5997) while reaching the highest value at sites and stations but a decrease was observed at the end of the second station of site Sebkha Bazer (BS26) (E � 0.7823) the second year. during the first year. 3.4.1. Order Level. (e diversity and value less than 1 bit are 3.4.4. Transect Level. (e highest diversity index (H′ � 4,356 characterized as few biodiversity. In the present study, bits/ind) was observed at transect 1 (HS1T16). (e lowest Shannon–Wiener diversity index (H′) ranges from 0 bits/ind diversity index was found at transect 3 (HS2T36) (H′ � 1,619 to 3,525 bits/ind. bits/ind). Similarly, the HS2T36 showed a low value of 6 International Journal of Zoology BS16 BS26 BS17 BS27 HS16 HS26 HS17 HS27 FS16 FS26 FS17 FS27 Seasons Coleoptera Ephemeroptera Lepidoptera Dermaptera Hemiptera Odonata Diptera Hymenoptera Orthoptera Figure 6: Seasonal variation of insect fauna recorded from stations during the study period (2016-2017). 5 4.5 4.5 3.5 3.5 2.5 2.5 1.5 1.5 0.5 0.5 0 0 Transects Transects Simpson_1-D Simpson_1-D Shannon_H Shannon_H Equitability_E Equitability_E Figure 7: Diversity and dominance of insects in the studied transects in all sites of three saline wetlands during the study period (2016-2017). Simpson index (1-D � 0.7884) as compared to HS1T16 (1- BS1T37, BS2T37, HS1T36, HS2T36, HS1T37, HS2T37, D � 0.983); on the other hand, the HS1T37 showed the FS1T27, and FS1T37 and transect BS2T36 and transects highest value of the equitability index (E � 0.965), while BS2T17, HS1T16, HS2T16, HS1T17, HS2T17, and FS2T17, reaching the lowest value at FS1T26 (E � 0.5688). while the highest similarity (1%) was shown between transects HS1T37 and HS2T37 and transects HS1T37 and HS2T37. 3.5. Similarity Jaccard Index. Results showed similarities in Figure 8 shows the spatial distribution of insect species the presence of the species between the thirty-six transects according to the Jaccard similarity index among them. In studied using the Jaccard similarity index. general, cluster analysis for similarity degree showed three However, the lowest similarity (0%) was observed be- different main groups, where the first main group (I) in- tween transect FS2T37 and transects BS2T16, BS2T36, cludes five subgroups, the first subgroup formed by FS1T16 Indices Nunber of species BS1T16 Win,16 BS1T26 Spr,16 BS1T36 Sum,16 BS2T16 Aut,16 BS2T26 Win,16 Spr,16 BS2T36 Sum,16 HS1T16 Aut,16 HS1T26 Win,17 HS1T36 Spr,17 Sum,17 HS2T16 Aut,17 HS2T26 Win,17 HS2T36 Spr,17 FS1T16 Sum,17 Aut,17 FS1T26 Win,16 FS1T36 Spr,16 FS2T16 Sum,16 Aut,16 FS2T26 Win,16 FS2T36 Spr,16 Sum,16 Aut,16 Indices Win,17 Spr,17 Sum,17 Aut,17 BS1T17 Win,17 BS1T27 Spr,17 BS1T37 Sum,17 Aut,17 BS2T17 Win,16 BS2T27 Spr,16 BS2T37 Sum,16 HS1T17 Aut,16 Win,16 HS1T27 Spr,16 HS1T37 Sum,16 HS2T17 Aut,16 HS2T27 Win,17 Spr,17 HS2T37 Sum,17 FS1T17 Aut,17 FS1T27 Win,17 FS1T37 Spr,17 Sum,17 FS2T17 Aut,17 FS2T27 FS2T37 International Journal of Zoology 7 Similarity Jaccard (single lingage) 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4 0.45 0.5 0.55 0.6 0.65 0.7 0.75 0.8 0.85 0.9 0.95 FS1T26 FS1T27 BS1T27 BS2T27 BS1T26 BS2T26 HS1T26 HS2T26 HS1T27 HS2T27 BS2T16 BS1T16 HS1T16 HS2T16 HS1T17 HS2T17 BS2T17 BS1T17 FS1T16 FS1T17 FS2T16 FS2T17 FS2T26 FS2T27 BS1T37 BS2T37 HS1T36 HS1T37 HS2T37 HS2T36 FS1T36 FS1T37 BS1T36 BS2T36 FS2T36 FS2T37 Figure 8: Dendrogram derived from the cluster analysis (Jaccard similarity index) during the study periods (2016-2017). Numbers T1, T2, and T3 attached to the transects represent the sampling stations. and FS1T26 at the level of similarity 85.71% and the second F1 plane, axis 1: this means that the axis1 shows a subgroup included BS1T26, BS2T26; BS1T27, BS2T27 at the gradient of soil salinity with vegetation cover, showing level of similarity 65.79% and the third subgroup included negative values for tolerant species and positive values HS1T26, HS2T26; HS1T27, HS2T27 at the level of similarity for intolerant species. 68.88%. While the second main group (II) formed of three F2 plane, axis 2: this represents mainly a gradient of soil subgroups, the first subgroup includes BS2T16, BS1T16; moisture (presence/absence of water) with a vegetation HS1T16, HS2T16; HS1T17, HS2T17; BS2T17, and BS1T17 at gradient, showing negative values for tolerant species the level of similarity 77.520% and the second includes and positive values for intolerant species. FS1T16, FS1T17; FS2T17, FS2T16) at the level of similarity Considering the taxa assemblage, the diagram derived 73%, while the three subgroups included FS2T27 and from the cluster analysis allowed three main groups to be FS2T26 at the level of similarity 88.235%. Whilst the third distinguished and statistically identified by the Jaccard main group (III) also includes three of the subgroups, the similarity index procedure. According to Figures 8 and 9, the first subgroup formed of FS2T36 and FS2T37 at the level of main gradient in a transect as revealed by the axes 1 and 2 in similarity 88.88%, the second subgroup included BS2T36 Factorial Correspondence Analysis (FCA) ordination span- and BS1T36 at the level of similarity 57.14%, and the third ned of three groups situated near to themselves. A first group subgroup included FS1T36 and FS1T37; HS2T36, HS2T37; (1) including transect 3 (T3) was characterized by tolerant HS1T36, HS1T37; BS1T37, BS2T37 at the level of similarity insect taxa like Amara, Calomera, Nebria, Aphaenogaster, 67.86% (Figure 8). Cataglyphis, Camponotus, Tetramorium sp, and Messor, and (e analysis of the FCA was realised on 131 species, five that related to the higher soil salinity, low organic matter, environmental variables (soil salinity, vegetation cover, and absence of vegetation, that is situated on the right side of organic matter, soil moisture, and pH), and 36 transects the axis. While the second group (2), situated in the centre of (Figure 9), representing the spatial distribution of the species according to the environmental variable features considered. the axis marked as transect 2 (T2), is characterized by a few tolerant insect taxa such as Anthicus, Broscus, Bledius, (e study of insect taxa assemblage using multivariate statistical methods FCA showed different taxa groups on the Corixidae, Ocypus, and Calomera, it is related to the vege- tation type (Halophytes) and to the soil moisture, whereas F1 and F2 axes plane. (e first axis F1 represents 24.61%, and axis F2 represents 17.76% from the total inertia. (e dis- the third main third group (3) including transect 1 (T1) consisted of intolerant insect taxa such as Cordylepherus, tribution of the 36 transects, at the level of both F1 and F2 axes, shows the following: Malachius, Berberomeloe, Meloe, Mylabris, Lytta, Bruchus, 8 International Journal of Zoology 2D plot of column coordinates; dimension: 1 × 2 Input table (rows × columns): 131 × 36 Standardization: row and column profiles BS1T16 Vegetation cover BS2T16 FS2T36 FS2T37 HS1T17 Group 2 HS2T17 2 BS2T36 HS1T16 FS2T27 BS2T26 BS1T26 FS2T26 1 Group 3 HS2T16 BS2T27 BS1T36 BS1T27 BS2T17 0 BS1T17 HS1T27 Soil salinity FS2T17 HS2T27 BS2T37 FS2T16 –1 FS1T27 FS1T16 FS1T26 BS1T37 HS1T26 HS2T26 FS1T36 HS1T36 FS1T17 FS1T37 –2 HS2T37 Group 1 HS2T36 –3 HS1T37 –4 –1.0 –0.5 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 Dimension 1; eigenvalue: 40315 (24.63% of inertia) Figure 9: Factorial correspondence analysis (FCA) considering the abundance and distribution of the insect taxa at sites along the transect according to environmental variables. Hemiptera, Ephemeroptera, and Acrididae; it is related to 4.1. Species Composition. (e inventory of entomofauna let the less salinity of the soil and presence of vegetation cover us count 131 species of the total number of all species of that is situated on the left side of the axis. insects distributed on 9 orders, belong to 114 genus and (e distribution of transects along the 1-axis corre- follow 71 families. (ese results agree in general with some sponds to salinity of soil, whereas the transect is distributed other studies that were conducted in different places in the along the 2-axis according to the abundance of vegetation Algeria and other parts of the world about the biodiversity in cover. saline wetlands, and these studies include [24–28]. (e results of the recent study shows the predominance of Coleoptera order, with a percentage of 38% of the total of 4. Discussion the insect species; this is due to the diversity of species in order Coleoptera because they adapted in all terrestrial and In the present study, a large variability was observed in EC values, OM, Tm, pH, CaCo , and gypsum, within each aquatic environments or because of their morphological transects and between stations, revealing that most soils in characteristics [29]. Many studies showed the predominance the selected locations were sandy to loamy sandy or loam of order Coleoptera [1, 26, 30]. Also, the recent studies show soil, and soils of the study sites were moderately calcareous the predominance of the following families (Chrysomelidae with CaCO � 20.40% and gypsum � 15.40% and the soils in and Carabidae), 8% of the total of species order Coleoptera; the study area might be considered as slightly alkaline in all however, this percentage was less compared with other the selected locations; generally, the organic matter was low studies carried out about the entomological biodiversity of in the samples of soil analysed and showed three different salt wetlands such as in study [27], where thay have been found to have generally higher or at least similar species transect parts (T1, T2, and T3) with values averaged to be EC � 4.26 ds/m that included transect 1; in addition, soils of numbers as on our study. In addition to other species related to order Hymenoptera (Formicidae), this enrolled 5% of the these sites were salty to very salty, and they are followed by transect 2, where EC values averaged to 38.43 ds/m; soils of total of order Hymenoptera in the results of our study, and this transect were very salty to extremely salty, while the they agree in general with other results of other studies about transect 3 recorded the highest EC values averaging to the diversity of order Hymenoptera in the saline wetlands 44.72 ds/m that correspond to extremely salty soils. [1, 27]. In the light of the results obtained after the analysis of Our results showed that some species of Hemiptera, three transects in each station, these results agree in general Diptera, and Lepidoptera such as Vanessa cardui, Pieris rapae, with some other studies although it significantly varies from Pieris brassicae, and Culex pipiens were recorded in different one sites to another and from one transect to another [22, 23]. transects. According to [31–34], Hymenoptera, Coleoptera, Dimension 2; eigenvalue: 29072 (17.76% of inertia) International Journal of Zoology 9 of Chott Beida 2017 (comprised 22.65%), but its abundance and Diptera are reported as ecologically tolerant and has an extensive geographical range in all types of environments, in Chott Frain 2016 was 20.75% and in Sebkha Bazer 2017 it was 18.17%. But, other species in Chott Frain 2017 and Chott whereas those species of insects which were rare in abundance at transect 3 such as Halictus sp, Chrysis sp (Hymenoptera), Beida 2017 appeared in low abundance, such as Oulema Pamphagus sp (Orthoptera), and Ephemeroptera may have melanopus, Oulema gallaeciana, Lixus algirus, Dasytes sp, narrow range of tolerance to these environmental conditions Tabanus sp, and Carpocoris purpureipennis. (salinity and lack of vegetation) [35]. 4.4. Ecological Indices. (e spatial variation for ecological 4.2. Spatial Distribution. In our study, the results show that indices for insect community in saline wetlands showed that the diversity of insect community structure changed in re- the annual overall value of diversity index was 3,723 bits/ind sponse to environmental gradients (biotic and abiotic), and which was calculated from 131 species in all three sites. according to our study of transects in each stations of Sebkha (e values that were nearly between (H′ � 4.35–1,919 and Chott, high interspecific association existed in species that bits/ind), (1-D � 0.95 − 0.78), and (E � 0.965 − 0.568) calcu- had co-occurrence in a number of individuals and rare species lated from different sites and stations, and our study in- that were found in transect 2 or transect 3. Fifteen genera, dicates the existence of species richness and this represents Carabidae (Amara, Bembidion, Broscus, Calomera, and diverse and well-distributed community in these sites. (ese Nebria), Chrysomelidae (Labidostomis, Lachnaia, and Lon- results agree in general with some other studies [1, 27]. gitarsus), Staphylinidae (Bledius and Ocypus), and Formicidae (e ecological indices vary between (H′ � 3.52 − 0 bits/ (Aphaenogaster, Cataglyphis, Camponotus, Tetramorium sp, ind), (1-D � 0–0.96), and (E � 0–0.996). (ese wide differ- and Messor) occurred in the transect 2 and transect 3, ences of values coupled with their spatial and temporal reflecting their robust adaptability to saline habitats (soil type variations reflect the heterogeneity of insect communities. and water). Although five common genera, Aphaenogaster, And, according to the study of diversity of order species Cataglyphis, Camponotus, Tetramorium sp., and Messor, were between the sites, stations, and transects, the result was limited to the Sebkha edge and the Sebkha interior, they found to be very low at transect 3 in all stations as compared occurred in most abundance of the transect 2, indicating that to the transects 1 and 2 (T1 and T2). (is could be attributed the vegetation and soil type might act as an environmental to disturbances occurring in the transect 3 (T3) and may be a factor for their distribution. (e fifteen insect taxa detected as loss of diversity which has a special type of halophyte plant rare species with unique occurrence in the transect 2 or 3 species such as Atriplex, Salsola, Juncus, and Suaeda. An- demonstrated high habitat specificity according to [35, 36]. other reason could be explained by the high level of soil (is pattern in distribution of species abundances is ac- salinity gradient and low organic matter (OM) content companied on a larger-scale level by the tendency of wide- causing loss of some of species of insects, in addition to spread species to also occur in higher densities compared to climatic factors and disturbances such as droughts. (at is species restricted to their geographic distribution. what we see in sites Chott Beida (2017) and Chott Frain On the other hand, the transect 1 shows high diversity (2016 and 2017). mainly due to the low soil salinity and high-density plants, which constitute one of the most restricting factors for the 4.5. Similarity Jaccard Index and Factorial Correspondence insect fauna, leading to highest abundances and richness Analysis (FCA). According to the results of similarity Jac- species, which is composed of more than one species and card analysis and FCA, three major groups were delineated, other insect taxa and dominated by Coleoptera and Hem- which were mainly segregated based on the abundance and iptera families [36]. diversity towards environmental parameters (Figures 7 and 8). (e criterion spatial distribution of insect taxa can be 4.3. Seasonal Variations. As for seasonal variation, some interpreted as the difference in environmental gradients (soil insect taxa such as Amara, Nebria, Bledius, Ocypus, Cam- salinity and vegetation cover). (e FCA plot shows gradients ponotus, Messor, Aphaenogaster, Vanessa, Pieris, Halictus, of intolerant insect taxa in the transect 1 to tolerant species. Malachius, Meloe, Mylabris, and Lytta clearly vary among Group 1 consisted of increased diversity, richness, and seasons, in relation to the abundance of all the taxa observed abundance of insect taxa observed in the transect 1. (is is at each study site. Values of number of species and abun- may be due to its location near the edge of the Sebkha and dance of insect taxa increase the values of insect diversity Chott of cereal crops, sparse vegetation, and low soil salinity. and richness indices in Sebkha Bazer compared to Chott While the reason behind the low richness and diversity of Beida and Chott Frain, assuming that the same inventory insect taxa in the transect 3 may be due to the absence of effort was applied at the three saline wetlands. However, the vegetation and increased soil salinity. (e difference in seasonal analysis showed a predominance of insect taxa environmental gradients is in accordance with the findings during spring season that may due to the effect of several of other authors such as in [1]. factors on diversity of species, which include environmental factors like moderation in temperature, salinity, and 5. Conclusion moisture. (ese results agreed with [37, 38]. On the other hand, a higher abundance of Hymenoptera and some species According to the results, abundances of insect fauna show a of Coleoptera family was observed in these seasons, in each decreasing gradient of the transect 1 to transect 3, and the 10 International Journal of Zoology [6] A. Bennett, “(e role of soil community biodiversity in insect results showed the influence of the vegetation cover and biodiversity,” Insect Conservation and Diversity, vol. 3, salinity gradient on the composition of the insect fauna pp. 157–171, 2010. community. [7] C. Piscart, J.-C. Moreteau, and J.-N. Beisel, “Biodiversity and From this study, the saline wetlands of the high plain structure of macro invertebrate communities along a small region in Setif are still considered to have a diverse and permanent salinity gradient (Meurthe river, France),” numerous insect fauna in this area. However, the results Hydrobiologia, vol. 551, no. 1, pp. 227–236, 2005. which were being presented in this paper might be the first [8] ONM, Relev´ es m´ et´ eorologiques de l’ann´ ee 2017, Office Na- comprehensive list of insects in the saline wetlands in Setif ´ ´ tional de Meteorologie, SFIHA, Setif, Algeria, 2017. region. Hopefully, there will be a further research study on [9] D. Baize, Guide of Pedological Analyses: Choice, Expression, the insect biodiversity and taxonomy in this area, in order to Presentation, Interpretation, INRA, Paris, France, 2nd edition, get better and comprehensive information on those aspects to be documented for future reference. [10] M. Pansu and J. Gautheyrou, Handbook of Soil Analysis: Mineralogical Organic and Inorganic Methods, Springer, Berlin, Germany, 2006. Data Availability [11] J. E. H. Martin, Collecting, Preparing and Preserving Insects, Mites, and Spiders. De Insects and Arachnids of Canada, Data used to support the findings of this study are available Canada Department of Agriculture, Ottawa, ON, USA, 1977. from the corresponding author upon request. [12] M. L. Benkhelil, Les Techniques de R´ ecolte et de Pi´ egeage Utilis´ ees en Entomologie Terrestre, University of Algiers, Disclosure Algiers, Algeria, 1991. [13] A. Hoffmann, Faune de France: Col´ eopt` eres Curculionides, (is study is a part of PhD thesis by Mouhoubi Djamila 3` eme partie, Lechevalier, Paris, France, 1958. (2014–2019) supported by research supervisors Prof. Djenidi [14] M. Roth, Initiation a la morphologie, la systgmatique et la Redha and Prof. Bounechada Mustapha. In addition, the biologie des insectes, ORSTOM, Paris, France, 1980. abstract was presented as poster presentation in the 3rd [15] J. C. Pihan, Les Insectes, Masson, Paris, France, 1986. International Symposium on EuroAsian Biodiversity (as [16] W. Stichmann, Faune d’Europe, Vigot, Paris, France, 1999. part of the PhD thesis). [17] G. Laplanche, Papillons de M´ editerran´ ee, Edisud, Aix-en- Provence, France, 2008. [18] E. H. Simpson, “Measurement of diversity,” Nature, vol. 163, Conflicts of Interest no. 4148, p. 688, 1949. [19] C. E. Shannon and W. Weaver, De Mathematical Deory of (e authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest. Communication, Urbana, University of Illinois Press, Champaign, IL, USA, 1949. Acknowledgments [20] E. C. Pielou, “(e measurement of diversity in different types of biological collections,” Journal of Deoretical Biology, (e authors thank Prof. Djenidi Redha who participated in vol. 13, pp. 131–144, 1966. the sampling site selection and revising this manuscript. (e [21] P. Jaccard, “Nouvelles recherches sur la distribution florale,” authors thank Prof. Mustapha Bounechada for species de- Bulletin de la Soci´ et´ e vaudoise des Sciences Naturelles, vol. 44, termination and valuable comments on the faunistic parts of pp. 223–270, 1908. the manuscript. (e authors would also like to thank the [22] S. Neffar, H. Chenchouni, and A. Si Bachir, “Floristic com- Chief Conservator and Director of Forest, Setif, for allowing position and analysis of spontaneous vegetation of Sabkha us to conduct this study. And also, they wish to thank Tahar Djendli in North-East Algeria,” Plant Biosystems-An In- Chenni, Chief Conservator of Forest, el Eulma, for his help ternational Journal Dealing with All Aspects of Plant Biology, vol. 150, no. 3, pp. 396–403, 2016. with the field work. [23] H. Chenchouni, “Edaphic factors controlling the distribution of inland halophytes in an ephemeral salt lake “Sabkha References ecosystem” at North African semi-arid lands,” Science of the Total Environment, vol. 575, pp. 660–671, 2017. [1] D. Mouhoubi, R. Djenidi, and M. Bounechada, “Contribution [24] A. Si Bachir, “Etude bioecologique ´ de la faune du lac de to the study of entomofauna of the saline wetland of Chott boulhilet ou petit ank djamel (Oum el Bouaghi),” (esis, Setif Beida in Algeria,” Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies, 1 University, Setif, ´ Algeria, 1991. vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 317–323, 2018. [25] G. Aydin, “Vulnerability of Megacephala (grammognatha) [2] M. Khaznadar, I. N. Vogiatzakis, and G. H. Griffiths, “Land euphratica euphratica latreille & dejean, 1822 (Coleoptera: degradation and vegetation distribution in Chott El Beida cicindelidae) in natural and disturbed salt marsh and salt Wetland, Algeria,” Journal of Arid Environments, vol. 7, meadow habitats in Turkey,” African Journal of Biotechnology, no. 33, pp. 369–377, 2009. vol. 10, no. 29, pp. 5692–5696, 2011. [3] MADR-DGF, Minist` ere de l’Agriculture et du D´ eveloppement Rural-Direction G´ en´ erale des Forˆ ets: ATLAS [IV] des Zones [26] S. Boukli-Hacene, K. Hassaine, and P. Ponel, “Les peuple- ments des coleopt ´ eres ` du marais sale´ de l’embouchure de la Humides Alg´ eriennes d’importance Internationale, 2004. [4] M. J. Westfall, Jr. and K. J. Tennessen, “Odonata,” An In- Tafna (Algerie),” ´ Review of Ecology-Earth and Life, vol. 66, troduction to the Aquatic Insects of North America, vol. 3, pp. 164–211, 1996. [27] H. Chenchouni, T. Menasria, S. Neffar et al., “Spatiotemporal diversity, structure and trophic guilds of insect assemblages in [5] M. Pouget, Les Relations Sol-V´ eg´ etation dans les Steppes Sud- Alg´ eroises, ORSTOM, Paris, France, 1980. a semi-arid Sabkha ecosystem,” PeerJ, vol. 3, p. e860, 2015. International Journal of Zoology 11 [28] P. Maity, S. Roy, U. Chakraborti et al., “Insect faunal diversity of Salt Lake City–an urbanized area adjacent to Kolkata, India,” Bioscience Discovery, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 101–112, 2016. [29] R. Dajoz, Pr´ ecis d’´ ecologie: Cours et Questions de R´ eflexions, Dunod, Hachette Livre, France, 8eme ` edition, 2006. [30] R. Matallah, K. Abdellaoui-Hassaine, P. Ponel, and S. Bouklihacene, “Diversity of ground beetles (Coleoptera carabidae) in the ramsar wetland: dayet el ferd, Tlemcen, Algeria,” Biodiversity Journal, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 301–310, 2016. [31] A. D. Padhye, N. Dahanukar, M. Paingankar, M. Deshpande, and D. 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Contribution to the Study of Diversity, Distribution, and Abundance of Insect Fauna in Salt Wetlands of Setif Region, Algeria

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Hindawi International Journal of Zoology Volume 2019, Article ID 2128418, 11 pages https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/2128418 Research Article Contribution to the Study of Diversity, Distribution, and Abundance of Insect Fauna in Salt Wetlands of Setif Region, Algeria 1 2 3 Djamila Mouhoubi , Re ´ dha Djenidi, and Mustapha Bounechada Department of Basic Sciences, Faculty of Life and Natural Science, Lab Rescue (LADPVA), University of Setif 1, S´ etif, Algeria Faculty of Life and Natural Science and Universe and Earth Science, University of Bordj Bou-Arreridj, ´ ¨ Algeria Laboratory of Applied Biochemistry, University of Bejaia, Bejaıa 06000, Algeria Department of Biology and Animal Physiology, Faculty of Life and Natural Science, Lab Rescue (LADPVA), University of Setif 1, S´ etif, Algeria Correspondence should be addressed to Djamila Mouhoubi; mouhoubi_djamila@yahoo.com Received 21 August 2019; Revised 5 October 2019; Accepted 2 November 2019; Published 22 November 2019 Academic Editor: Marco Cucco Copyright © 2019 Djamila Mouhoubi et al. (is is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (e present study aims to assess entomofauna biodiversity at three saline wetlands, located in Setif region, Northeastern Algeria. To determine the predominant environmental factors in the distribution of entomofauna, six different stations and three transects in each station were chosen according to the distribution of plant and soil salinity in each transect. Results were analysed, and different ecological indexes and analytical methods were applied, from 2016 to 2017. (e total of individual insects belonging to 9 orders, 71 families, and 131 species were collected from the three sites. (e highest abundance was in Coleoptera (38.17%) while the lowest abundance was found in Ephemeroptera (1.53%). (e highest number of individuals (11438) was found in Bazer site in 2016, while the lowest number of individuals (4921) was in site Chott Frain in 2017. (e highest abundance of insects (109) was recorded in transect BS1T16, and the lowest abundance of species was recorded in transect HS1T36. Diversity and equitability indices showed highest values in HS1T16 (H � 4,356) and HS1T37 (E � 0.7282). Some ecological parameters showed a significant relationship between the insects occurrence, distribution of plants, and type of soil. water birds that congregate during the dry season and also 1. Introduction rare insect species [3]. (e insects are known to be the most Algeria is known by its unique geographical position and its successful and diverse animals on the earth. (ey have varied areas and climate. In addition to that, it has various adopted for almost every conceivable type of environment types of natural freshwater wetlands and saline wetlands from the equator to the arctic and from sea level to the (Chott and Sebkha) and, in addition, it also contributes to snowfield of highest mountains, on land, in air, in water, and the floral and faunal diversity [1]. Currently 42 out of the 300 almost everywhere. (e insects are considerably estimated to lakes in Algeria are listed under the Ramsar Convention comprise more than 75 percent of the known species of the covering an area of 3 million ha [2]. (e biodiversity values animals [4]. of the saline wetlands in the Sebkha Bazer and Chott Beida (e Sebkha and Chott have various vegetation, animals, have been recognised by their national and international and habitats. (e soil and vegetation diversity and richness significance, as demonstrated through their listing by the indirectly affect insect species diversity and abundance [5, 6]. Ramsar Convention on Wetlands. (at is due to the out- (e structure of vegetation between the different sites and standing diversity of their plant communities and their role different transects in each stations could affect the existing in conserving the large number of animals and migration of insect diversity. 2 International Journal of Zoology (e most important environmental factors usually af- organic matter (%), and gypsum(%) to measure the soil fecting insect communities are temperature (water or air), salinity and soil organic matter, respectively, in each of the vegetation cover, and salinity (soil and water) [6, 7]. (e role studied transect [9, 10]. of soil salinity in distribution of insects is largely unknown. (e insect sampling methods in this study were based on Particular difficulties include absence of surveys or studies of [11, 12]. Six sampling methods were used, that is, collected distribution of insects in saline wetlands (Sebkha and Chott). manually, sweep net, dip net, pitfall trap, catch moth trap, Several studies have shown that macroinvertebrate assem- and beating tray, in each transects. blages begin to be modified when salinity ranges from 1 to After capturing, the specimens were sorted using the 3 g/L with a reduction of diversity and abundance [7]. stereoscopic microscope under the magnifications of ×2 to (e insect diversity and abundance in three saline ×4. Identification was done on the basis of the principal wetlands, namely, Sebkha Bazer, Chott Beida, and Chott morphological characteristics of each insects taxa (order level, Frain in Setif, were studied. family genera, and species), for example, thoracic pattern, (e aims of our study were to characterize the distri- wings (wing venation features and wing venation), pattern bution of insects along a salinity gradient to determine the abdomen, legs, genitalia, antennae length, coloration, and diversity and abundance of the insects and to compare the number of stripes, as described by [13–17]. Large and hard composition and abundance of insect morphospecies in the insects were pinned and dried (for 15 days), and relatively wet and dry seasons in the three saline wetlands. small insects were mounted on paper triangles. Dry preserved samples were stored in well-sealed wooden insect boxes with naphthalene balls. Other insects were preserved in 70% 2. Materials and Methods ethanol + glycerin solution. Soft-bodied insects (Diptera and some species of Hymenoptera) were slide mounted using 2.1. Study Area. (is study was carried out in the eco- Hoyer’s solution. (e specimens were then extracted, dried, complex of saline wetlands of the high plains of Setif in card mounted, and labeled. (e collected specimens were kept Northeastern Algeria (Figure 1). (e altitude in this eco- in the Zoological Museum of the Institute for future reference. complex varies between 800 and 1200m, and the region is characterized by semiarid Mediterranean climate, hot-dry ° ° summer (30–35 C) followed by cool-wet winter (− 2–5 C) 2.3. Statistical Analysis. (e species diversity indices com- [8]. (e majority of these wetlands run dry during the dry posed as the abundance, richness index (S), Simpson’s di- season. (e dominant substrate soil is rich in magnesium versity index (1-D) [18], Shannon–Wiener diversity index chlorides, and it only allows the development of salt-tolerant (H′) [19], and equitability index (E) [20] were calculated for flora highly adapted, composed mainly of Chenopodiaceae each transect on each stations and sites. In addition, to (Atriplex halimus, Atriplex patula, Salsola fruticosa, and computation of Jaccard similarity coefficient (J) using cluster Salicornia fruticosa) and Brassicaceae (Mauricaundia analysis was carried out using the following equation: arvensis, Matthiola fruticulosa, and Diplotaxis muralis) [3]. (e Jaccard similarity index J was calculated according to Among the three selected sites that were selected, within this [21] eco-complex of saline wetlands, two of these wetlands are ° ° Ramsar sites: Sebkha Bazer (36 05′N, 05 41′E; 4,379 ha) and J � + b + c × 100, (1) 􏼒 􏼓 ° ° Chott Beidha (35 55′N, 05 45′E; 12,223 ha) excepted of ° ° Chott Frain (35 55′N, 05 40′E; 1,500 ha) [3]. where a � number of species of insects present at transects 1 and 2, b � number of species of insects present at transect 2 and not present at transect 1, and c � number of species of 2.2. Sample Collection. In the three saline wetlands, six Insects present at transect 1 and not found at transect 2. stations were selected, with three transects on each station, (e changes in insect communities along the vegetation and the insects were collected each month from February and salinity gradient were investigated using a factorial 2016 to November 2017 (except for December 2016 and correspondence analysis (FCA). January 2017), within halophytic plant belts surrounding All data were calculated using statistical software of directed from the periphery to the lake centre. (ey were Microsoft excel 2013 and Past3 (version 2013) to count selected along three transects along soil salinity gradient and ecological indices. Quantitative data, collected using ques- vegetation cover gradient. According to [2], the soil sam- tionnaire, were analysed using Statistica (Version 12) to pling was carried out during spring season that has tran- determine FCA. sitional climate characteristics between the cold-wet season (is leads to comparing the presence (abundance, etc.) of and the hot-dry season. Within halophytic plant belts sur- insect taxa between sites and, between stations or between rounding the Sebkha, were chosen according to the distri- transects, in order to detect, for example, differences in insect bution of vegetation a total of 36 soil samples. Soil samples taxa composition between communities (presence/absence) were collected at depths ranging between 0 cm and 20 cm. and changes in the abundance of one or more insect taxa. Prior to physicochemical analysis, soil samples were crushed and dried in ambient air and then sieved to 2 mm in di- 3. Results ameter. (e physicochemical parameters analysed were pH, EC: electronic conductivity (decisiemens per metre (ds/m)), 3.1. Environmental Parameters. Soil characteristics among Tm: temperature ( C), CaCo : calcium carbonate (%), OM: sites were similar throughout the study period, based on 3 Agricultural area Lake International Journal of Zoology 3 Map of distribution of insects taxa along three transects WE Lake T3 T2 T1 Highly saline Coleoptera Moderately saline Dermaptera Diptera Ephemeroptera Slightly saline Hemiptera Hymenoptera Lepidoptera Odonata 1 : 1 500 Coordinate system: GCS WGS 1984 Author: Mouhoubi djamila Datum: WGS 1984 0 20 40 80 120 160 Djenidi Redha Units: degree km Bounechada Mustapha Orthoptera Figure 1: Map of the study area showing distribution of insects taxa points along the three transects of saline wetland in Setif region. different physicochemical parameters (Figure 2). (e species; 12.21% in 15 genera and 10 families dominated by present study reveals the most salty soils, with an electrical the families of Pentatomidae, Lygaeidae, and Miridae. Or- conductivity, organic matter, and pH of both soil of Chott ders of Diptera included 15 species; 11.45% in 15 genera and and Sebkha ranging from 1.67 ds/m (BS2T16) to 118.13 ds/m 14 families dominated by the family of Tachinidae. (e (FS2T27); 0.01 (FS1T27) to 3.01 (HS1T26); and 7.13 Orthoptera included 10 species in 3 families and 9 genera (FS1T36) to 8.18 (BS2T26) respectively. and were dominated by the families of Acrididae and Pamphagidae with 4 species. (e Lepidoptera included 9 species in 8 genera and 7 families, dominated by the family 3.2. Species Composition. (e qualitative study resulted in 9 Pieridae and Geometridae 2 species. Orders of Odonata orders of insects include to 71 families, 114 genera, and 131 included 5 species in 3 genera and 3 families Libellulidae, species. Aeshnidae, and Coenagrionidae. (e Dermaptera included 9 (e results show that Coleoptera with 50 species; 38.17% species in 8 genera and 7 families and finally the order of in 39 genera and 19 families were the most diverse and Ephemeroptera included 2 species in 2 genera and 2 families dominant in three saline wetlands, dominated by the fam- (Figure 3). ilies of Carabidae, Chrysomelidae, Meloidae, and Tene- In Figure 4, the number of insect orders found in all brionidae. (e second largest insect order recorded which three sites shows that the order of Coleoptera had the highest Hymenoptera consisted in 21 species; 16.03% in 20 genera values in all sites and varied from 49 species in site Chott and 11 families dominated by the families of Formicidae and Beida 2016 to 38 species in site Chott Frain 2017, while the Apidae. Hemiptera was the third largest insect order, with 16 lowest number was recorded for Ephemeroptera which 4 International Journal of Zoology 40 160 35 140 30 120 25 100 20 80 15 60 10 40 5 20 0 0 2016 2017 2016 2017 2016 2017 2016 2017 2016 2017 2016 2017 Transects EC (ds/m) CaCo % Salinity % Gypsum % pH OM % Figure 2: Characteristics of chemical soils according to transects in all sites during study period (2016-2017). (B) Sebkha Bazer, (H) Chott Beida, (F) Chott Frain, (T) Transect (T1, T2, and T3), (S) Station (S1 and S2), year: 2016 (6), year: 2017 (7). 8% 4% 7% 38% 16% 12% 2% 11% 2% 0 Coleoptera Hemiptera Dermaptera Hymenoptera Orders Diptera Lepidoptera Ephemeroptera Odonata Sebkha Bazer 2016 Chott Beida 2017 Sebkha Bazer 2017 Chott Frain 2016 Figure 3: Percentage composition order of insects in all col- Chott Beida 2016 Chott Frain 2017 lected studied sites of three saline wetlands during study period (2016-2017). Figure 4: Number of insect taxa in all collected studied sites of three saline wetlands during study period (2016-2017). ranged from 2 species in sites Sebkha Bazer 2016 and Sebkha Bazer 2017 to 0 species in sites Chott Beida 2016 and 2017 3.3. Relative Abundance (Ra). (e Formicidae family was the and Chott Frain 2016 and 2017. most abundant, constituting 61.50% of the total insects During the present study, the insects from three sites and collected from all the three sites during two years of study. six different stations were compared. In the site Sebkha (e maximum number of this family was recorded from site Bazer 2016 (B2016) recorded 126 species; 20% with 11438 Chott Frain 2016 (71.87%) followed by site Chott Beida 2017 individuals followed by site Chott Beida 2016 (H2016) with (68.41%) and site Sebkha Bazer 2016 (49.09%), respectively. (e Carabidae family constituted 11.82% towards the total 110 species; 17% and 10437 individuals and site Chott Frain 2017 (F2017) with 94 species 15% and 4921 individuals number of individuals collected and was the second most relative abundance species. (e maximum individuals of this (Figure 5). In terms of sampling stations, the highest number of individuals was recorded in BS16 (6914 ind), while the family were recorded from site Chott Beida 2016 (15.92%) lowest number of individuals was recorded from at FS37 and followed by site Sebkha Bazer 2016 (15.51%) and site (2379 ind). During the present study, the insects from thirty- Chott Frain (2.90%), respectively. (e less relative abun- six different transects were compared, the highest number of dance (0.09% to 0.03%) species included Anax (family: species and individuals were recorded in transect 1 (BS1T16) Aeshnidae), Iphiclides podalirius (family: Papilionidae), (109 species, 2238 ind), while the lowest number of species Cantharis sp. (family: Cantharidae), Oulema melanopus and and individuals were recorded in transect 3 (HS1T36) (6 Oulema gallaeciana (family: Chrysomelidae), and Dasytes species, 111ind). (family: Dasytidae). Parameters of soil BS1T16 BS1T26 BS1T36 BS1T17 BS1T27 BS1T37 BS2T16 BS2T26 BS2T36 BS2T17 BS2T27 BS2T37 HS1T16 HS1T26 HS1T36 HS1T17 HS1T27 HS1T37 HS2T16 HS2Tr2 HS2T36 Number of species HS2T17 HS2T27 HS2T37 Coleoptera FS1T16 FS1T26 FS1T36 Dermaptera FS1T17 FS1T27 Diptera FS1T37 FS2T16 FS2T26 Ephemeroptera FS2T36 FS2T17 Hemiptera FS2T27 FS2T37 Hymenoptera Salinity and EC Lepidoptera Odonata Orthoptera International Journal of Zoology 5 Species 15% 20% 15% 16% 17% 17% Sebkha Bazer 2016 Chott Beida 2017 Sebkha Bazer 2017 Chott Frain 2016 Chott Beida 2016 Chott Frain 2017 Figure 5: Percent of entomofauna according to their numbers of species in all three studied sites in saline wetlands during study period (2016-2017). On the other hand, the species Messor barbarus had the (e diversity index (H′) of Coleoptera, Hymenoptera, highest relative abundance (22.65%) while the species and Hemiptera was 3,525 bits/ind; 2,778 bits/ind; and 2,554 Oulema gallaeciana gave the lowest relative abundance bits/ind, respectively. (0.02%) of the total number of individuals insects species. (e Equitability index (E) is a measure of the equitability In the present study, the maximum numbers of species with which individuals are divided among the taxa present. and individuals were collected during the spring and In the present study, the value ranges from 0 to 0.9968. (e equitability value of Dermaptera, Coleoptera, and Odonata summer season but no insects were collected during the winter season (December and January). (e highest number was 0.9968, 0.9944, and 0.994, respectively. of insects (114 species, 87.023%) was in spring season of 2016 (e highest dominance index (1-D) of insects was found at BS16, and the lowest number (7 species; 5.344%) was in for the order Coleoptera (0.9657) and least for the orders the winter season (February 2017) at sites HS27 and FS27. Coleoptera, Dermaptera, Diptera, Hemiptera, and Lepi- Messor barbarous was the most abundant species comprising doptera (0). 17.62% of the total numbers followed by Tetramorium sp (14.55%) and Camponotus sp (11.27%). However, For- 3.4.2. Site Level. (e annual species diversity (H′) was 3,245 micidae and Carabidae were the dominant families bits/ind and 2,981 bits/ind for the first year and the second throughout two years. year of the study period, respectively. (e highest insect In general, Coleoptera order had the highest occurrence diversity was found in site Sebkha Bazer 2016, which has a percentage at all seasons giving a range of (32.06%) in spring Shannon–Wiener diversity index of (3,615 bits/ind), while followed by Hymenoptera. However, the lowest existence the lowest diversity was observed in Chott Beida 2017 (2,826 percentage was recorded for Ephemeroptera which had bits/ind). (1.52%) in spring while undetected (0%) in the three remaining seasons (Figure 6). 3.4.3. Station Level. (e highest diversity (H′ � 3,725 bits/ ind) was observed at the second station of site Sebkha Bazer 3.4. Biological Indices. During the present study, the insect (BS26) during the first year, while the lowest diversity index diversity between the three sites was compared and was found at the first station of site Chott Beida (HS27) Shannon–Wiener diversity indexes, equitability index, and (H′ � 2,685 bits/ind) during second year. Similarly, the Simpson index were calculated as a measure of diversity highest value of Simpson (1-D � 0.95) was observed at the within the sites and stations and transects. (e biological BS26 as compared to that of HS27 (1-D � 0.8616) during indices of different study sites are presented during two years 2016 and 2017. On the other hand, the first station of site in Figure 7. Chott Frain (FS16) showed the lowest value of the equita- During the first year, diversity indices were high at all bility index (E � 0.5997) while reaching the highest value at sites and stations but a decrease was observed at the end of the second station of site Sebkha Bazer (BS26) (E � 0.7823) the second year. during the first year. 3.4.1. Order Level. (e diversity and value less than 1 bit are 3.4.4. Transect Level. (e highest diversity index (H′ � 4,356 characterized as few biodiversity. In the present study, bits/ind) was observed at transect 1 (HS1T16). (e lowest Shannon–Wiener diversity index (H′) ranges from 0 bits/ind diversity index was found at transect 3 (HS2T36) (H′ � 1,619 to 3,525 bits/ind. bits/ind). Similarly, the HS2T36 showed a low value of 6 International Journal of Zoology BS16 BS26 BS17 BS27 HS16 HS26 HS17 HS27 FS16 FS26 FS17 FS27 Seasons Coleoptera Ephemeroptera Lepidoptera Dermaptera Hemiptera Odonata Diptera Hymenoptera Orthoptera Figure 6: Seasonal variation of insect fauna recorded from stations during the study period (2016-2017). 5 4.5 4.5 3.5 3.5 2.5 2.5 1.5 1.5 0.5 0.5 0 0 Transects Transects Simpson_1-D Simpson_1-D Shannon_H Shannon_H Equitability_E Equitability_E Figure 7: Diversity and dominance of insects in the studied transects in all sites of three saline wetlands during the study period (2016-2017). Simpson index (1-D � 0.7884) as compared to HS1T16 (1- BS1T37, BS2T37, HS1T36, HS2T36, HS1T37, HS2T37, D � 0.983); on the other hand, the HS1T37 showed the FS1T27, and FS1T37 and transect BS2T36 and transects highest value of the equitability index (E � 0.965), while BS2T17, HS1T16, HS2T16, HS1T17, HS2T17, and FS2T17, reaching the lowest value at FS1T26 (E � 0.5688). while the highest similarity (1%) was shown between transects HS1T37 and HS2T37 and transects HS1T37 and HS2T37. 3.5. Similarity Jaccard Index. Results showed similarities in Figure 8 shows the spatial distribution of insect species the presence of the species between the thirty-six transects according to the Jaccard similarity index among them. In studied using the Jaccard similarity index. general, cluster analysis for similarity degree showed three However, the lowest similarity (0%) was observed be- different main groups, where the first main group (I) in- tween transect FS2T37 and transects BS2T16, BS2T36, cludes five subgroups, the first subgroup formed by FS1T16 Indices Nunber of species BS1T16 Win,16 BS1T26 Spr,16 BS1T36 Sum,16 BS2T16 Aut,16 BS2T26 Win,16 Spr,16 BS2T36 Sum,16 HS1T16 Aut,16 HS1T26 Win,17 HS1T36 Spr,17 Sum,17 HS2T16 Aut,17 HS2T26 Win,17 HS2T36 Spr,17 FS1T16 Sum,17 Aut,17 FS1T26 Win,16 FS1T36 Spr,16 FS2T16 Sum,16 Aut,16 FS2T26 Win,16 FS2T36 Spr,16 Sum,16 Aut,16 Indices Win,17 Spr,17 Sum,17 Aut,17 BS1T17 Win,17 BS1T27 Spr,17 BS1T37 Sum,17 Aut,17 BS2T17 Win,16 BS2T27 Spr,16 BS2T37 Sum,16 HS1T17 Aut,16 Win,16 HS1T27 Spr,16 HS1T37 Sum,16 HS2T17 Aut,16 HS2T27 Win,17 Spr,17 HS2T37 Sum,17 FS1T17 Aut,17 FS1T27 Win,17 FS1T37 Spr,17 Sum,17 FS2T17 Aut,17 FS2T27 FS2T37 International Journal of Zoology 7 Similarity Jaccard (single lingage) 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4 0.45 0.5 0.55 0.6 0.65 0.7 0.75 0.8 0.85 0.9 0.95 FS1T26 FS1T27 BS1T27 BS2T27 BS1T26 BS2T26 HS1T26 HS2T26 HS1T27 HS2T27 BS2T16 BS1T16 HS1T16 HS2T16 HS1T17 HS2T17 BS2T17 BS1T17 FS1T16 FS1T17 FS2T16 FS2T17 FS2T26 FS2T27 BS1T37 BS2T37 HS1T36 HS1T37 HS2T37 HS2T36 FS1T36 FS1T37 BS1T36 BS2T36 FS2T36 FS2T37 Figure 8: Dendrogram derived from the cluster analysis (Jaccard similarity index) during the study periods (2016-2017). Numbers T1, T2, and T3 attached to the transects represent the sampling stations. and FS1T26 at the level of similarity 85.71% and the second F1 plane, axis 1: this means that the axis1 shows a subgroup included BS1T26, BS2T26; BS1T27, BS2T27 at the gradient of soil salinity with vegetation cover, showing level of similarity 65.79% and the third subgroup included negative values for tolerant species and positive values HS1T26, HS2T26; HS1T27, HS2T27 at the level of similarity for intolerant species. 68.88%. While the second main group (II) formed of three F2 plane, axis 2: this represents mainly a gradient of soil subgroups, the first subgroup includes BS2T16, BS1T16; moisture (presence/absence of water) with a vegetation HS1T16, HS2T16; HS1T17, HS2T17; BS2T17, and BS1T17 at gradient, showing negative values for tolerant species the level of similarity 77.520% and the second includes and positive values for intolerant species. FS1T16, FS1T17; FS2T17, FS2T16) at the level of similarity Considering the taxa assemblage, the diagram derived 73%, while the three subgroups included FS2T27 and from the cluster analysis allowed three main groups to be FS2T26 at the level of similarity 88.235%. Whilst the third distinguished and statistically identified by the Jaccard main group (III) also includes three of the subgroups, the similarity index procedure. According to Figures 8 and 9, the first subgroup formed of FS2T36 and FS2T37 at the level of main gradient in a transect as revealed by the axes 1 and 2 in similarity 88.88%, the second subgroup included BS2T36 Factorial Correspondence Analysis (FCA) ordination span- and BS1T36 at the level of similarity 57.14%, and the third ned of three groups situated near to themselves. A first group subgroup included FS1T36 and FS1T37; HS2T36, HS2T37; (1) including transect 3 (T3) was characterized by tolerant HS1T36, HS1T37; BS1T37, BS2T37 at the level of similarity insect taxa like Amara, Calomera, Nebria, Aphaenogaster, 67.86% (Figure 8). Cataglyphis, Camponotus, Tetramorium sp, and Messor, and (e analysis of the FCA was realised on 131 species, five that related to the higher soil salinity, low organic matter, environmental variables (soil salinity, vegetation cover, and absence of vegetation, that is situated on the right side of organic matter, soil moisture, and pH), and 36 transects the axis. While the second group (2), situated in the centre of (Figure 9), representing the spatial distribution of the species according to the environmental variable features considered. the axis marked as transect 2 (T2), is characterized by a few tolerant insect taxa such as Anthicus, Broscus, Bledius, (e study of insect taxa assemblage using multivariate statistical methods FCA showed different taxa groups on the Corixidae, Ocypus, and Calomera, it is related to the vege- tation type (Halophytes) and to the soil moisture, whereas F1 and F2 axes plane. (e first axis F1 represents 24.61%, and axis F2 represents 17.76% from the total inertia. (e dis- the third main third group (3) including transect 1 (T1) consisted of intolerant insect taxa such as Cordylepherus, tribution of the 36 transects, at the level of both F1 and F2 axes, shows the following: Malachius, Berberomeloe, Meloe, Mylabris, Lytta, Bruchus, 8 International Journal of Zoology 2D plot of column coordinates; dimension: 1 × 2 Input table (rows × columns): 131 × 36 Standardization: row and column profiles BS1T16 Vegetation cover BS2T16 FS2T36 FS2T37 HS1T17 Group 2 HS2T17 2 BS2T36 HS1T16 FS2T27 BS2T26 BS1T26 FS2T26 1 Group 3 HS2T16 BS2T27 BS1T36 BS1T27 BS2T17 0 BS1T17 HS1T27 Soil salinity FS2T17 HS2T27 BS2T37 FS2T16 –1 FS1T27 FS1T16 FS1T26 BS1T37 HS1T26 HS2T26 FS1T36 HS1T36 FS1T17 FS1T37 –2 HS2T37 Group 1 HS2T36 –3 HS1T37 –4 –1.0 –0.5 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 Dimension 1; eigenvalue: 40315 (24.63% of inertia) Figure 9: Factorial correspondence analysis (FCA) considering the abundance and distribution of the insect taxa at sites along the transect according to environmental variables. Hemiptera, Ephemeroptera, and Acrididae; it is related to 4.1. Species Composition. (e inventory of entomofauna let the less salinity of the soil and presence of vegetation cover us count 131 species of the total number of all species of that is situated on the left side of the axis. insects distributed on 9 orders, belong to 114 genus and (e distribution of transects along the 1-axis corre- follow 71 families. (ese results agree in general with some sponds to salinity of soil, whereas the transect is distributed other studies that were conducted in different places in the along the 2-axis according to the abundance of vegetation Algeria and other parts of the world about the biodiversity in cover. saline wetlands, and these studies include [24–28]. (e results of the recent study shows the predominance of Coleoptera order, with a percentage of 38% of the total of 4. Discussion the insect species; this is due to the diversity of species in order Coleoptera because they adapted in all terrestrial and In the present study, a large variability was observed in EC values, OM, Tm, pH, CaCo , and gypsum, within each aquatic environments or because of their morphological transects and between stations, revealing that most soils in characteristics [29]. Many studies showed the predominance the selected locations were sandy to loamy sandy or loam of order Coleoptera [1, 26, 30]. Also, the recent studies show soil, and soils of the study sites were moderately calcareous the predominance of the following families (Chrysomelidae with CaCO � 20.40% and gypsum � 15.40% and the soils in and Carabidae), 8% of the total of species order Coleoptera; the study area might be considered as slightly alkaline in all however, this percentage was less compared with other the selected locations; generally, the organic matter was low studies carried out about the entomological biodiversity of in the samples of soil analysed and showed three different salt wetlands such as in study [27], where thay have been found to have generally higher or at least similar species transect parts (T1, T2, and T3) with values averaged to be EC � 4.26 ds/m that included transect 1; in addition, soils of numbers as on our study. In addition to other species related to order Hymenoptera (Formicidae), this enrolled 5% of the these sites were salty to very salty, and they are followed by transect 2, where EC values averaged to 38.43 ds/m; soils of total of order Hymenoptera in the results of our study, and this transect were very salty to extremely salty, while the they agree in general with other results of other studies about transect 3 recorded the highest EC values averaging to the diversity of order Hymenoptera in the saline wetlands 44.72 ds/m that correspond to extremely salty soils. [1, 27]. In the light of the results obtained after the analysis of Our results showed that some species of Hemiptera, three transects in each station, these results agree in general Diptera, and Lepidoptera such as Vanessa cardui, Pieris rapae, with some other studies although it significantly varies from Pieris brassicae, and Culex pipiens were recorded in different one sites to another and from one transect to another [22, 23]. transects. According to [31–34], Hymenoptera, Coleoptera, Dimension 2; eigenvalue: 29072 (17.76% of inertia) International Journal of Zoology 9 of Chott Beida 2017 (comprised 22.65%), but its abundance and Diptera are reported as ecologically tolerant and has an extensive geographical range in all types of environments, in Chott Frain 2016 was 20.75% and in Sebkha Bazer 2017 it was 18.17%. But, other species in Chott Frain 2017 and Chott whereas those species of insects which were rare in abundance at transect 3 such as Halictus sp, Chrysis sp (Hymenoptera), Beida 2017 appeared in low abundance, such as Oulema Pamphagus sp (Orthoptera), and Ephemeroptera may have melanopus, Oulema gallaeciana, Lixus algirus, Dasytes sp, narrow range of tolerance to these environmental conditions Tabanus sp, and Carpocoris purpureipennis. (salinity and lack of vegetation) [35]. 4.4. Ecological Indices. (e spatial variation for ecological 4.2. Spatial Distribution. In our study, the results show that indices for insect community in saline wetlands showed that the diversity of insect community structure changed in re- the annual overall value of diversity index was 3,723 bits/ind sponse to environmental gradients (biotic and abiotic), and which was calculated from 131 species in all three sites. according to our study of transects in each stations of Sebkha (e values that were nearly between (H′ � 4.35–1,919 and Chott, high interspecific association existed in species that bits/ind), (1-D � 0.95 − 0.78), and (E � 0.965 − 0.568) calcu- had co-occurrence in a number of individuals and rare species lated from different sites and stations, and our study in- that were found in transect 2 or transect 3. Fifteen genera, dicates the existence of species richness and this represents Carabidae (Amara, Bembidion, Broscus, Calomera, and diverse and well-distributed community in these sites. (ese Nebria), Chrysomelidae (Labidostomis, Lachnaia, and Lon- results agree in general with some other studies [1, 27]. gitarsus), Staphylinidae (Bledius and Ocypus), and Formicidae (e ecological indices vary between (H′ � 3.52 − 0 bits/ (Aphaenogaster, Cataglyphis, Camponotus, Tetramorium sp, ind), (1-D � 0–0.96), and (E � 0–0.996). (ese wide differ- and Messor) occurred in the transect 2 and transect 3, ences of values coupled with their spatial and temporal reflecting their robust adaptability to saline habitats (soil type variations reflect the heterogeneity of insect communities. and water). Although five common genera, Aphaenogaster, And, according to the study of diversity of order species Cataglyphis, Camponotus, Tetramorium sp., and Messor, were between the sites, stations, and transects, the result was limited to the Sebkha edge and the Sebkha interior, they found to be very low at transect 3 in all stations as compared occurred in most abundance of the transect 2, indicating that to the transects 1 and 2 (T1 and T2). (is could be attributed the vegetation and soil type might act as an environmental to disturbances occurring in the transect 3 (T3) and may be a factor for their distribution. (e fifteen insect taxa detected as loss of diversity which has a special type of halophyte plant rare species with unique occurrence in the transect 2 or 3 species such as Atriplex, Salsola, Juncus, and Suaeda. An- demonstrated high habitat specificity according to [35, 36]. other reason could be explained by the high level of soil (is pattern in distribution of species abundances is ac- salinity gradient and low organic matter (OM) content companied on a larger-scale level by the tendency of wide- causing loss of some of species of insects, in addition to spread species to also occur in higher densities compared to climatic factors and disturbances such as droughts. (at is species restricted to their geographic distribution. what we see in sites Chott Beida (2017) and Chott Frain On the other hand, the transect 1 shows high diversity (2016 and 2017). mainly due to the low soil salinity and high-density plants, which constitute one of the most restricting factors for the 4.5. Similarity Jaccard Index and Factorial Correspondence insect fauna, leading to highest abundances and richness Analysis (FCA). According to the results of similarity Jac- species, which is composed of more than one species and card analysis and FCA, three major groups were delineated, other insect taxa and dominated by Coleoptera and Hem- which were mainly segregated based on the abundance and iptera families [36]. diversity towards environmental parameters (Figures 7 and 8). (e criterion spatial distribution of insect taxa can be 4.3. Seasonal Variations. As for seasonal variation, some interpreted as the difference in environmental gradients (soil insect taxa such as Amara, Nebria, Bledius, Ocypus, Cam- salinity and vegetation cover). (e FCA plot shows gradients ponotus, Messor, Aphaenogaster, Vanessa, Pieris, Halictus, of intolerant insect taxa in the transect 1 to tolerant species. Malachius, Meloe, Mylabris, and Lytta clearly vary among Group 1 consisted of increased diversity, richness, and seasons, in relation to the abundance of all the taxa observed abundance of insect taxa observed in the transect 1. (is is at each study site. Values of number of species and abun- may be due to its location near the edge of the Sebkha and dance of insect taxa increase the values of insect diversity Chott of cereal crops, sparse vegetation, and low soil salinity. and richness indices in Sebkha Bazer compared to Chott While the reason behind the low richness and diversity of Beida and Chott Frain, assuming that the same inventory insect taxa in the transect 3 may be due to the absence of effort was applied at the three saline wetlands. However, the vegetation and increased soil salinity. (e difference in seasonal analysis showed a predominance of insect taxa environmental gradients is in accordance with the findings during spring season that may due to the effect of several of other authors such as in [1]. factors on diversity of species, which include environmental factors like moderation in temperature, salinity, and 5. Conclusion moisture. (ese results agreed with [37, 38]. On the other hand, a higher abundance of Hymenoptera and some species According to the results, abundances of insect fauna show a of Coleoptera family was observed in these seasons, in each decreasing gradient of the transect 1 to transect 3, and the 10 International Journal of Zoology [6] A. Bennett, “(e role of soil community biodiversity in insect results showed the influence of the vegetation cover and biodiversity,” Insect Conservation and Diversity, vol. 3, salinity gradient on the composition of the insect fauna pp. 157–171, 2010. community. [7] C. Piscart, J.-C. Moreteau, and J.-N. Beisel, “Biodiversity and From this study, the saline wetlands of the high plain structure of macro invertebrate communities along a small region in Setif are still considered to have a diverse and permanent salinity gradient (Meurthe river, France),” numerous insect fauna in this area. However, the results Hydrobiologia, vol. 551, no. 1, pp. 227–236, 2005. which were being presented in this paper might be the first [8] ONM, Relev´ es m´ et´ eorologiques de l’ann´ ee 2017, Office Na- comprehensive list of insects in the saline wetlands in Setif ´ ´ tional de Meteorologie, SFIHA, Setif, Algeria, 2017. region. Hopefully, there will be a further research study on [9] D. Baize, Guide of Pedological Analyses: Choice, Expression, the insect biodiversity and taxonomy in this area, in order to Presentation, Interpretation, INRA, Paris, France, 2nd edition, get better and comprehensive information on those aspects to be documented for future reference. [10] M. Pansu and J. Gautheyrou, Handbook of Soil Analysis: Mineralogical Organic and Inorganic Methods, Springer, Berlin, Germany, 2006. Data Availability [11] J. E. H. Martin, Collecting, Preparing and Preserving Insects, Mites, and Spiders. De Insects and Arachnids of Canada, Data used to support the findings of this study are available Canada Department of Agriculture, Ottawa, ON, USA, 1977. from the corresponding author upon request. [12] M. L. Benkhelil, Les Techniques de R´ ecolte et de Pi´ egeage Utilis´ ees en Entomologie Terrestre, University of Algiers, Disclosure Algiers, Algeria, 1991. [13] A. Hoffmann, Faune de France: Col´ eopt` eres Curculionides, (is study is a part of PhD thesis by Mouhoubi Djamila 3` eme partie, Lechevalier, Paris, France, 1958. (2014–2019) supported by research supervisors Prof. Djenidi [14] M. Roth, Initiation a la morphologie, la systgmatique et la Redha and Prof. Bounechada Mustapha. In addition, the biologie des insectes, ORSTOM, Paris, France, 1980. abstract was presented as poster presentation in the 3rd [15] J. C. Pihan, Les Insectes, Masson, Paris, France, 1986. International Symposium on EuroAsian Biodiversity (as [16] W. Stichmann, Faune d’Europe, Vigot, Paris, France, 1999. part of the PhD thesis). [17] G. Laplanche, Papillons de M´ editerran´ ee, Edisud, Aix-en- Provence, France, 2008. [18] E. H. Simpson, “Measurement of diversity,” Nature, vol. 163, Conflicts of Interest no. 4148, p. 688, 1949. [19] C. E. Shannon and W. Weaver, De Mathematical Deory of (e authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest. Communication, Urbana, University of Illinois Press, Champaign, IL, USA, 1949. Acknowledgments [20] E. C. 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