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Composition and Diversity Variation of Avifauna, along Different Vegetative Habitat Types in a Human-Modified Area, University of Kelaniya, Sri Lanka

Composition and Diversity Variation of Avifauna, along Different Vegetative Habitat Types in a... Hindawi International Journal of Zoology Volume 2019, Article ID 9727609, 16 pages https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/9727609 Research Article Composition and Diversity Variation of Avifauna, along Different Vegetative Habitat Types in a Human-Modified Area, University of Kelaniya, Sri Lanka B. K. A. Bellanthudawa ,N. M.S.K.Nawalage, S. Subanky, P.A.B.G. Panagoda, H. W. G. A. S. Weerasinghe, L. K. D. N. Tharaka, H. M. A. K. Handapangoda, H. K. A. D. Silva, D. M. S. N. Dissanayake, and M. S. J. Abeywickrama Department of Zoology and Environmental Management, Faculty of Science, University of Kelaniya, Sri Lanka Correspondence should be addressed to B. K. A. Bellanthudawa; aravindabellanthudawa@gmail.com Received 23 February 2019; Accepted 16 May 2019; Published 10 July 2019 Academic Editor: Marco Cucco Copyright © 2019 B. K. A. Bellanthudawa et al. is Th is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Role of conservation of birds has been least considered during modification of vegetative habitats, in studies conducted on birds in protected areas and urban landscapes in Sri Lanka. eTh present study was intended to assess the relationship between landscape and the composition and distribution of avifauna in University of Kelaniya, a human-modified area. eTh study was conducted selecting 8 habitats including open ground, low, moderately, and highly wooded habitats. A survey was conducted from 0530 to 0730 hr in the morning and 1630-1830 hr in the evening from August to December 2016 ensuring eight sampling events at each habitat. Point counting method (15 m radius) was used along a 100 m line transect. Species diversity parameters were analyzed. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was performed to characterize the habitats with bird species. A total of 40 species were recorded. Species richness (r = 27) and species heterogeneity (H = 3.09) were the highest in Mee amba sevana habitat while species evenness (J = 0.977) was the highest in medical center area habitat. Total abundance (n = 135) was recorded in Saiba ground. Asian brown yfl catcher (Saiba ground, medical center area, Mee amba sevana, Girls’ Hostel complex, and English language unit habitats) and white-bellied drongo (Saiba ground, medical center area, Girls’ Hostel complex, English language unit, and Thal weta premises) were widely distributed (z> 0, Kruskal-Wallis, Minitab 14). eTh second largest distribution was recorded by black-hooded oriole, blue- tailed bee-eater, cattle egret, feral pigeon, brown-headed barbet, red-vented bulbul, and rose-ringed parakeet within four habitats (z> 0, Kruskal-Wallis). According to the PCA, Saiba ground habitat was categorized by open ground dwelling birds, and Mee amba sevana was characterized by frugivorous birds, while Girls’ Hostel complex habitat was characterized by carnivorous birds. Comparatively, medical center area habitat contributes to the highest species diversity with many flowering and fruiting trees while providing sufficient food resources and high floral structural complexity. Recorded avifaunal community composition ensures considerable conservation value to university premises of Kelaniya. Awareness and monitoring programs are recommended for sustainable conservation of bird species in Kelaniya. 1. Introduction dispersal [2]. Furthermore, birds are relatively easy to observe and monitor. The concept of “using birds as indicators for Avifaunal assemblages have contributed significantly to the recognizing land ecosystems rich in biological diversity” has advancement of science in the eld fi of community ecology. now gained a wide global acceptance [3–6]. As ecosystems are Comparative avifaunal diversity is an excellent indicator of degraded by anthropogenic activities, the need to monitor, ecosystem stability because birds respond quickly to changes evaluate, manage, and remediate ecological change will grow in their environments [1]. Among all other species, birds immensely. Because of the complexity of ecosystems, it is play a major role in attracting human attention. In ecology, likely that the use of biological indicators may also similarly birds are of significance as pollinators and help in seed increase [7]. Avifaunal species community in an environment 2 International Journal of Zoology is subject to regular and irregular fluctuations, and bird Since there is a positive correlation between availability of populations respond to these changes in predictable ways. vegetation cover and birds’ biodiversity [23], continuous Their responding ability varies with scale of magnitude monitoring of the landscape changes is an ideal tool to predict community structure of fauna associated with the and degree to which they face that impact. The eeff cts of environmental changes on bird populations are more oeft n habitat. influenced by several intermediate factors, or the popula- The geographical location of Sri Lanka encounters high degree of biodiversity. Sri Lanka is a tropical island in tion changes are caused by numerous interacting eeff cts [8]. The effective and direct responses are behavioral and the Indian Ocean, at the southern point of the Indian physiological involving changes of individuals. These impacts subcontinent, with a main island and several small islands. influence the birth rate, death rate, and rate of distribution. Furthermore, Sri Lanka is placed among the 36 biodiversity Thereby these changes cause impacts on density, abundance, hotspots in the world [25]. Therefore, Sri Lanka is considered as the highest in Asia with respect to ‘biodiversity per unit occurrence, size, geographic range, habitat occupancy, age structure, sex ratios, or the proportion of birds that breed area’ [26]. Study conducted by [27] stated that currently Sri [8]. Therefore, along with some parameters, abundance and Lanka is enriched with 453 avifaunal species including 240 species of breeding residents, of which 27 are endemics. diversity of avifaunal species serve as ecological health indi- cators. According to [28], there are different six avifaunal zones, Birds remaining in relatively natural fragmented habitats based on the distribution patterns of the resident bird species, namely, northern or Indian zone, low country wet zone, are affected by those communities and human activities associated with urbanization [9]. Rapid and unplanned mid-country wet zone, hill country wet zone, dry zone, and urbanization often results in homogenous, dense, articfi ial Uva zone. Among all zones, hill country wet zone holds environments which are dominated by many exotic commu- higher percentage of the endemic and threatened species nities of fauna [10]. However, the massive and vast conversion [28, 29]. In Sri Lanka context, avifaunal species are facing severe threats due to deforestation, urban developments, and of forests into agricultural lands and urban lands has rapidly increased as a result of “development” [11, 12]. Some recent highway improvements. As a result, the forest area coverage studies showed that heavy and wide spread of deforestation in Sri Lanka (33.0% in 2015) is rapidly declining [30]. Even though several studies have been conducted on birds in and has led to declining and narrowing the birds’ populations and diversity over range of landscapes [13, 14]. Besides, urban around protected areas in Sri Lanka, the role of human- development scenarios such as roads and highways have modified land uses in conservation of birds has been greatly caused a significant impact on the bird assemblages [15]. neglected. In some birds’ surveys, studies have shown that abundance, Hence, the objective of the present study was to cre- occurrence, and species richness of breeding birds are heavily ate a baseline species checklist of birds in the university impacted near roads, with larger declines near high-traffic premises for ensuring the sustainable avifaunal conservation roads than near lower traffic roads [16–18]. Noise pollution and management efforts. Further, this birds survey aimed to focus on the dispersal of habitat specific birds species along is one of critical factor that contributes to reduction in bird diversity and abundance especially in human-modified various human-modified land uses. Additionally, this study land uses. Even though sounds are closely linked with focused on assessing the variation of species composition and diversity parameters with change of vegetation cover human- avian communities because these comprise a contribution towards species that rely on acoustic signals for mating, modified habitats. predator evasion, and other activities, limited numbers of studies have been conducted to assess its correlation. Find- 2. Materials and Methods ings of [19] stated that male Willow Warblers experienced difficulties in females’ attraction along with highways, as 2.1. Study Area and Site Selection. The study area is located it masks male song by noise as a possible mechanism. in University of Kelaniya, Dalugama, Gampaha district, com- Nevertheless, some studies claim that disturbance of vocal prised of 18.7 ha in wet zone of Sri Lanka (Figure 1). The bird communication does not cause reduced densities of birds. survey was conducted within university premises of Kelaniya Presently, correlation between bird communities and the by selecting eight habitats using purposive/judgmental sam- habitat variables has become a theme in ecological studies pling covering whole study area while representing different [20]. Conversely, those studies were conducted in tropics habitats types such as open grounds, low wooded, moderately confined to examine the effect on birds in urban-rural wooded, and highly wooded with more or less human distur- gradients [13, 21, 22] and agricultural ecosystems [23, 24]. In bances (Table 1: habitat classification). Digitizing technique in the available literature, the contribution and extent of focus Arc GIS 10.2 version was used for calculation of percentage of on avifaunal distribution patterns in natural ecosystems are canopy cover in each habitat [31]. limited. The insufficiency of proper studies prior to phases of the destruction and threats exerted on natural forest habitats 𝑒𝑔𝑟𝑐𝑒𝑛𝑎𝑒𝑡𝑃𝑦𝑝𝑐𝑎𝑛𝑜𝑐𝑜 V changes the focus of the attention of conservation planners from natural forest patches in early phases of destruction 𝐴𝑟𝑓𝑜𝑖𝑠ℎ𝑐𝑟𝑜𝑤𝑖𝑡ℎ𝑖𝑛𝑡ℎ𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑖 = (1) to severely destructed habitats and their regeneration. Veg- 𝑜𝑇𝑎𝑓𝑜𝑡ℎ𝑒𝑆𝑒𝑠𝑖 etation cover and availability of open space of the habitat are rapidly changing with the anthropogenic disturbance. ×100% 𝑡𝑒𝑙𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑒𝑑 𝑟𝑒𝑎𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝑡𝑒𝑒𝑙𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑒𝑑 𝑙𝑜 𝑔𝑟𝑒𝑒𝑛 𝑒𝑎 𝑒𝑟 International Journal of Zoology 3 Meters 0 45 90 180 270 360 Figure 1: eTh study area of University of Kelaniya. Table 1: Habitat categorization depending on the nature and percentage of tree cover of the environment. Percentage of cover of the wooded Habitat Number (H) Common name of the habitat Type of the habitat vegetation (%) H 1 Saiba ground (SG) 1.7 open ground H 2 Gym canteen premises (GCP) 21.7 Low wooded H 3 Medical centre area (MCA) 63.9 Highly wooded H 4 Mee amba sevana (MAS) 91.4 Highly wooded H 5 Girls’ hostel complex (GHC) 27.3 Low wooded Management and IT department H6 36.4 Moderately wooded premises (MIT) English language training unit premises H7 55.3 Moderately wooded (ELTU) H 8 Thal weta premises (TWP) 26.8 Low wooded Note: eTh percentage of wood cover was calculated, area of canopy cover of habitat with reference to total area of the habitat. Site categorization was based on the percentage cover of the A few number of palm trees (Arecaceae spp.) and Temple trees vegetation of the habitats. Habitat 1/H 1/Saiba ground (SG) is (Plumeria spp.) were present. These areas are comprised of the one open ground with short grass species. some built-up and open spacious locations with a smaller Grass species such as u Th ththiri ( Chrysopogon acicu- number of trees. In the category of moderately wooded type latus), Bala thana (Eleusine indica), Mottu thana (Cyperus habitats, Management and IT department premises (MIT) and English language training unit premises (ELTU) were kyllingia),and Nidikumba (Mimosa pudica) were dominated in the open ground habitat. A large part of the Saiba ground the habitats denoted as H 6 and H 7, respectively. The habitat is composed of open area with dead leaves and soil, wooded plantation cover ranges from 36% to 56% hosting and east to southwest margin of the habitat is surrounded by Neem (Azadirachta spp.), Mango (Mangifera indica), Cashew wooded line. The level of disturbance in Saiba ground is high (Anacardium occidentale), Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyl- as it is used as a playground by undergraduates of the Univer- lus), and Kottamba (Terminalia catappa). Habitat 3 (H 3) and sity of Kelaniya. Habitats 2, 5, and 8, respectively, standing for Habitat 4 (H 4), namely, medical center area (MCA) and Mee gym canteen premises (GCP), Girls’ Hostel complex (GHC), amba sevana (MAS), were grouped under the highly wooded and Thal weta premises (TWP), are grouped under the low habitats. The H 3 and H 4 cover 63.9% and 91.4% of the wooded habitats covering 21.7% to 27.3% of vegetation cover. wooded vegetation with reference to the area of the habitat 4 International Journal of Zoology 2.50% correspondingly. Mango (Mangifera indica), Kottamba (Ter- minalia catappa), Mara (Samanea saman), Avocado (Persea 17.50% americana), Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus), Mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla), and Asoka (Saraca asoca)dominate in those two habitats with high percentage of fruiting plants. 2.2. Sampling Procedure. The efi ld survey was conducted dur- ing the period of 0530 hr-0730 hr in the morning and 1630 hr- 1830 hr in the evening time of August 2016 to December 2016. Eight sampling events (n = 8) were conducted at each habitat covering 64 sampling events throughout the study period. Point counting method (15 m radius) was used for sampling 80% technique [10, 32] along a 100 m line transect. In a single habitat, 3 points were selected along a 100 m line transect Resident Birds in a sampling event. 20 minutes were spent at each point Migratory Birds along 100 m line transect for observations. 60-minute (20∗3) Endemic Birds sampling duration was observed in a particular sampling habitat along 100m line transect. Survey was not conducted Figure 2: Percentage of resident, migratory, and endemic birds during rainy and windy weather. Visual assessment (seeing) recorded in the survey. and birds’ calls were considered to record number of birds in each species. Opticron 8×30, Super Zenith 8×40, binoculars, and standard guide of [33] were used to identify species. richness and species evenness as two independent character- A baseline of bird database (checklist) was prepared istics of biological communities that together constitute its considering all the recorded species during the study period. diversity [35]. Species diversity parameters such as total abundance, species richness, species heterogeneity using Shannon-Weiner diver- P𝑜𝑢𝑙𝑖𝑒 𝑠 Evenness Index (𝐽 )= (5) sity index (H ), and species evenness using Pielou’s evenness log𝑆 index (J) were calculated using Microsoft Excel 2013. where H is the Shannon-Wiener diversity index and S is the Abundance. Abundance of species in a community of sample number of species in the community. is the number of individuals belonging to that species [34]. Species distribution among habitats was analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis test (Minitab 14 software) after conrfi ming the Abundance normal distribution. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) (2) was followed to characterize the habitats with abundance of = Total number of individuals belong to particular species representative bird species using Minitab 14 software. Species Richness. Species richness is the total number of species in an assemblage or a sample [34]. 3. Results 3.1. Baseline Database (Checklist) of Birds Recorded throughout Species richness the Study of University of Kelaniya. Total species of birds (3) recorded during the birds’ survey is shown in Table 2. As = Total number of species in an assemblage or a sample per Table 2, one species representing order Apodiformes, 󸀠 order Accipitriformes, order Psittaciformes, and order Pele- Shannon-Wiener Diversity Index (H ). Shannon-Wiener caniformes, two species representing order Cuculiformes and diversity index (H) is commonly used to calculate aquatic order Coraciiformes, 3 species representing order Piciformes and terrestrial biodiversity. This index was calculated as and order Columbiformes, and 26 species representing order Passeriformes were observed in the survey. The most dom- inant order was “Passeriformes”. In summary, a total of 40 𝐻 =∑{(𝑃𝑖 )×(ln𝑃𝑖 )} (4) avifaunal species were recorded. The International Union for 𝑖=1 Conservation of Nature (IUCN) conservation status (2012) th of the birds in the study area is encountered and categorized where pi is the proportion of individuals in the “i ”taxon under Least Concern (LC) stage. This implied that most of of the community and s is the total number of taxa in the threatened and endangered bird species are not found in the community. University of Kelaniya at current condition. As the number and distribution of taxa (biotic diversity) within the community increase, so does the value of “H” [34]. 3.2. The Species Composition and Diversity of Bird Species Pielou’s Evenness Index (J). The distribution of individuals of in Habitats. The habitat dispersal status of birds is also a species is the evenness. It makes sense to consider species represented in Figure 2. The percentage of resident birds was International Journal of Zoology 5 fl fl fl Th fl ft Table 2: e checklist of birds recorded during the survey of University of Kelaniya. IUCN Conservation status Common Name Scientific name Order Family status migrant endemic resident Feeding behavior Eudynamys Asian koel Cuculiformes Cuculidae LC ∗ Omnivore scolopaceus Asian-paradise flycatcher Terpsiphone paradise Passeriformes Monarchidae LC ∗ Carnivore (insectivore) Carnivore (Chiey Barn swallow Hirundo rustica Passeriformes Hirundinidae LC ∗ insectivore) Black-hooded oriole Oriolus xanthornus Passeriformes Oriolidae LC ∗ Omnivore Carnivore (Chiey Blue-tailed bee eater Merops philippinus Coraciiformes Meropidae LC ∗ insectivore) Brown shrike Lanius cristatus Passeriformes Laniidae LC ∗ Carnivore Carnivore- (Chiefly Brown breasted ycatcher Muscicapa muttui Passeriformes Muscicapidae LC ∗ insectivore) Omnivore (Chiefly Brown-headed barbet Psilopogon zeylanicus Piciformes Ramphastidae LC ∗ Frugivore) Common myna Acridotheres tristis Passeriformes Sturnidae LC ∗ Omnivore Common tailorbird Orthotomus sutorius Passeriformes Cisticolidae LC ∗ Omnivore Megalaima Omnivore (Chiefly Crimson-fronted barbet Piciformes Ramphastidae LC ∗ rubricapillus Frugivore) Great tit Parus major Passeriformes Paridae LC ∗ Omnivore Greater coucal Centropus sinensis Cuculiformes Cuculidae LC ∗ Carnivore Green imperial pigeon Ducula aenea Columbiformes Columbidae LC ∗ Herbivore Carnivore - (Chiey House swi Apus nipalensis Apodiformes Apodidae ∗ insectivore) Corvus Large-billed crow Passeriformes Corvidae LC ∗ Omnivore macrorhynchos Gracula (religiosa) Lesser hill myna Passeriformes Sturnidae LC ∗ Omnivore indica Omnivore (Chiefly Loten’s sun bird Cinnyris lotenius Passeriformes Nectariniidae LC ∗ nectarivore) Omnivore (Chiefly Oriental magpie robin Copsychus saularis Passeriformes Muscicapidae LC ∗ insectivore) Oriental white-eye Zosterops palpebrosus Passeriformes Zosteropidae LC ∗ Carnivore (insectivore) 6 International Journal of Zoology fl fl ffi fl Table 2: Continued. IUCN Conservation status Common Name Scientific name Order Family status migrant endemic resident Feeding behavior Dicaeum Pale-billed ower pecker Passeriformes Dicaeidae LC ∗ Herbivore (nectarivore) erythrorhynchos Omnivore (Chiefly Purple- rumped sunbird Leptocoma zeylonica Passeriformes Nectariniidae LC ∗ nectarivore) Red-vented bulbul Pycnonotus cafer Passeriformes Pycnonotidae LC ∗ Herbivore Rose- ringed parakeet Psittacula krameri Psittaciformes Psittacidae LC ∗ Herbivore Scaly-breasted munia Lonchura punctulata Passeriformes Estrildidae LC ∗ Herbivore (Chiefly seeds) Pericrocotus Small minivet Passeriformes Campephagidae LC ∗ Omnivore cinnamomeus Stigmatopelia Omnivore (Chiefly seeds, Spotted dove Columbiformes Columbidae LC ∗ chinensis grains) White- bellied drongo Dicrurus caerulescens Passeriformes Dicruridae LC ∗ Carnivore (insectivore) White-rumped munia Lonchura striata Passeriformes Estrildidae LC ∗ Herbivore (Chiefly seeds) White-throated kingfisher Halcyon smyrnensis Coraciiformes Alcedinidae LC ∗ Carnivore Omnivore (Chiefly Yellow-billed babbler Turdoides anis Passeriformes Timaliidae LC ∗ Insectivore) Lesser golden-backed Dinopium Carnivore (Mainly ants and Piciformes Picidae LC ∗ woodpecker benghalense termites) Brahminy kite Haliastur indus Accipitriformes Accipitridae LC ∗ Carnivore Cattle egret Bubulcus ibis Pelecaniformes Ardeidae LC ∗ Carnivore Columba livia Herbivore (chiefly seeds, Columbiformes Columbidae LC ∗ Feral pigeon domestica grains) Dendronanthus Carnivore (Chiey Forest wagtail Passeriformes Motacillidae LC ∗ indicus Insectivore) House crow Corvus splendens Passeriformes Corvidae LC ∗ Omnivore Shikra Accipiter badius Passeriformes Corvidae LC ∗ Carnivore Black-headed munia Lonchura malacca Passeriformes Estrildidae LC ∗ Herbivore (Chiefly seeds) Carnivore (Chiey Asian brown flycatcher Muscicapa latirostris Passeriformes Muscicapidae LC ∗ Insectivore) Note: LC refers to least concern category in IUCN categorization and∗ mark represents the belonging indication. International Journal of Zoology 7 160.0 140.0 22 22 120.0 100.0 80.0 14 14 60.0 40.0 20.0 0.0 Habitat Habitat Figure 3: Variation of total abundance of species between dieff rent Figure 4: Variation of species richness among habitats. habitats. significantly high (80%) compared to the total number of bird 3.5 3.09 2.93 2.88 2.89 2.83 species. According to Figure 2, percentages of migrant birds 2.77 2.44 and endemic birds were recorded as 17.5% and 2.5%, respec- 2.5 2.25 tively. Findings indicated that majority of the residential bird species have occupied the habitats during sampling period 1.5 compared to the migrant and endemic bird species in the University of Kelaniya premises. 0.5 Diversity and species composition parameters showed a considerable variation among different habitats selected. The mean abundance and total maximum abundance of birds (in Habitat one sampling event) are given in Figure 3 which illustrates that highest abundance (135 individuals) was recorded in Saiba ground habitat which is an open grassland habitat. The second highest total abundance was shown from Mee amba sevana habitat (highly wooded) and Thal weta premises (low wooded) habitats. Further, gym canteen premises habitat was Figure 5: Variation of Shannon-Wiener diversity index (H’) in the least birds’ abundant habitat among 4 types of habitats. habitats. Generally, findings showed that there are significant higher numbers of birds in highly wooded and open space habitats compared to other habitats. Species richness provided infor- mation of the diverse nature of the habitats. Figure 4 shows habitats, medical center area, Mee amba sevana, and Girls’ that Mee amba sevana habitat (highly wooded), Saiba ground Hostel complex premises showed the most evenly distributed habitat (open ground), and English language teaching unit habitats numerically (J = 0.977, J = 0.937, and J = 0.932 habitat (moderately wooded), respectively, indicated higher orderly). Gym canteen premises were the lowest evenly dis- species richness values of 27, 24, and 23. In contrast, gym persed habitat (J = 0.85) during the survey. Comprehensively, canteen premises habitat (Low wooded) and English lan- majority of sampled habitats were evenly distributed with guage teaching unit habitat (moderately wooded) indicated reference to species (Figure 6 ). the lowest species richness as 14. In assessing the differences As per the Kruskal-Wallis statistical results for species dis- of the Shannon-Weiner diversity index (H ) among habitats, tribution (Table 3 ), Asian-paradise yfl catcher, black-rumped Mee ambasevanaand Saibagroundexpressed thehighest afl meback,cattle egret,feral pigeon,house crow, pale- 󸀠 󸀠 Shannon-Weiner diversity index (H =3.09 and H =2.93) billed flowerpecker, small minivet, and white-rumped munia correspondingly. Moreover, gym canteen premises were the species were not significantly different in all the habitat types (p> 0.05, Kruskal-Wallis). The Asian brown yfl catcher lowest heterogeneous habitat with regard to Shannon-Weiner diversity index. Inclusively, Shannon-Weiner diversity index (Saiba ground, medical center area, Mee amba sevana, Girls’ value varied in the range of 2.5-3.1 reflecting that all sites Hostel complex, and English language teaching unit habi- seem comparatively heterogeneous (Figure 5 ). In terms of tats) and white-bellied drongo (Saiba ground, Mee amba even dispersal and distribution of species between sampling sevana, Girls’ Hostel complex, English language teaching H1/SG ( open ground) H2/GCP (Low wooded) H3/MCA(Highly wooded) H4/MAS (Highly wooded) H5/GHC (Low wooded) H6/MIT (Moderately wooded) H7/ELTU (Moderately wooded) H8/TWP (Low wooded) H1/SG ( open ground) H2/GCP (Low wooded) H3/MCA(Highly wooded) H4/MAS (Highly wooded) H5/GHC (Low wooded) H6/MIT (Moderately wooded) H7/ELTU (Moderately wooded) H8/TWP (Low wooded) H1/SG ( open ground) H2/GCP (Low wooded) H3/MCA(Highly wooded) H4/MAS (Highly wooded) H5/GHC (Low wooded) H6/MIT (Moderately wooded) H7/ELTU (Moderately wooded) H8/TWP (Low wooded) Total Abundance Shannon Wiener Diversity Index (( ) Species Richness 8 International Journal of Zoology Th Table 3: e highest bird distribution within selected habitats (according to z value), Kruskal-Wallis test (Minitab 14). H2 H3 H4 H5 H6 H7 H8 H1 Species (Gym canteen (Medical centre (Mee amba (Girls’ hostel (Management & IT (English language (Thal weta (Saiba ground) premises) area) sevana) complex) department) teaching unit) premises) Asian brown flycatcher Terpsiphone ∗ - ∗∗ ∗ - ∗ - paradisi Asian koel (Eudynamys -- ∗∗∗ ∗ scolopaceus) Barn swallow (Hirundo rustica) Black hooded oriole ∗∗ ∗ ∗ (Oriolus xanthornus) Black-headed munia (Lonchura atricapilla) Blue tailed bee-eater ∗∗ ∗ ∗ (Merops philippinus) Brown shrike (Lanius cristatus) Brown-breasted flycatcher ( Muscicapa ∗ muttui) Brown-headed barbet (Psilopogon ∗∗ ∗ ∗∗ zeylanicus) Common myna ∗∗ ∗ ∗ (Acridotheres tristis) Common tailorbird ∗∗ ∗ ∗ (Orthotomus sutorius) Crimson-fronted barbet (Megalaima ∗∗∗ rubricapillus) Forest wagtail (Dendronanthus ∗ indicus) Great tit (Parus ∗∗∗ major) Greater coucal (Centropus sinensis,) Green imperial pigeon (Ducula ∗∗ ∗ aenea) International Journal of Zoology 9 fi ffi ft Table 3: Continued. H2 H3 H4 H5 H6 H7 H8 H1 Species (Gym canteen (Medical centre (Mee amba (Girls’ hostel (Management & IT (English language (Thal weta (Saiba ground) premises) area) sevana) complex) department) teaching unit) premises) House swi ( Apus ∗∗ ∗ nipalensis) Jungle crow (Corvus ∗∗ ∗ macrorhynchos) Lesser hill myna (Gracula (religiosa)∗∗∗ indica) Loten’s sun bird ∗∗ ∗∗ (Cinnyris lotenius) Oriental white-eye (Zosterops ∗∗∗ palpebrosus) Oriental magpie robin ∗∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ (Copsychus saularis) Purple sunbird ∗∗ ∗ (Cinnyris asiaticus) Purple-rumped sunbird (Leptocoma ∗∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ zeylonica) Red-vented bulbul ∗∗ ∗∗ ∗ (Pycnonotus cafer) Rose-ringed parakeet ∗∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ (Psittacula krameri) Scaly-breasted munia ∗∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ (Lonchura punctulata) Shikra (Accipiter ∗∗ badius) Spotted dove ∗∗∗ ∗∗ ∗ (Spilopelia chinensis) White bellied drongo (Dicrurus ∗∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ caerulescens) White throated kingfisher ( Halcyon∗∗ ∗∗ smyrnensis) Yellow billed babbler ∗∗ ∗ ∗ (Turdoides anis) Note: Indication of “∗” represents the presence of each bird species in each habitat and the double asterisk (∗∗) represents the signicant highest criterion among sites with regard to Z value. 10 International Journal of Zoology 1.0000 complex habitat which stands as a low wooded habitat. More- 0.9777 0.9800 over, Thal weta premises housed birds such as barn swallow, 0.9600 0.9375 black-hooded oriole, and white-throated kingfisher. In the 0.9317 0.9400 0.9246 0.9219 0.9217 0.9155 group of moderately wooded habitats, red-vented bulbul was 0.9200 0.9000 the characteristic bird in Management and IT department 0.8800 habitat while English language teaching unit habitats was 0.8526 0.8600 represented by shikra, yellow-billed babbler, barn swallow, 0.8400 black-headed oriole, and greater coucal. Medical center area 0.8200 0.8000 habitat which is highly wooded was characterized by feral 0.7800 pigeon.Further,highly wooded Meeamba sevana habitat was characterized by species like brahminy kite, crimson-fronted barbet, forest wagtail, lesser hill myna, brown-headed barbet, and small minivet. According to the PCA habitat categoriza- tion considering PC score 1 to PC score 4, Saiba ground was Habitat categorized by open grassland birds. Similarly, Mee amba sevana was characterized by frugivorous birds while Girls’ Hostel complex habitat was dominated by carnivorous birds which can easily find their food items in that environment. Figure 6: Variation of Pielou’s evenness index (J) among habitats. 4. Discussion unit, and Thal weta premises habitats) were recorded as widely distributed within vfi e habitats out of selected eight Complexity and the nature of habitats and micro habitats habitats. The second largest distribution was recorded by constitute a valuable factor that determines the species com- black-hooded oriole, blue-tailed bee-eater, cattle egret, feral position and diversity in a particular area. Thereby several pigeon, brown-headed barbet, oriental magpie robin, purple- bird species tend to find their own suitable habitats where rumped sunbird, red-vented bulbul, rose-ringed parakeet, they have access and resources to feed and breed. Highly and scaly-breasted munia within four habitats out of eight complex habitats provide wide array of opportunities to selected habitats. The third most distribution was recorded higher number of bird species as they are enriched with within three habitats out of eight habitats by Asian koel, wide range of foods and other resources to sustain lives. common myna, common tailor bird, Loren’s sunbird, and This parameter governs the variation of avifaunal species white-throated kingfisher. Other observed bird species were composition and diversity in large scale. Parameters such barn swallow, black-headed munia, brown shrike, brown- as abundance and relative abundance of bird species might breasted yfl catcher, forest wagtail, greater coucal, green impe- be associated with nature of habitat, abundance of food, rial pigeon, house swi,ft jungle crow, lesser hill myna, oriental and breeding season of the species [2]. During the bird white eye, purple sun bird, shikra, and yellow-billed babbler survey, highest birds’ abundance, richness, evenness, and (z> 0, Kruskal-Wallis, Minitab 14). diversitywere recordedmainlyin highlywooded habitats Ordination of the habitats based on PC1 and PC2 scores of and one moderately wooded habitat. Habitat 4/Mee amba Principal Component Analysis of the abundance of avifauna sevana habitat showed 123 individuals (Figure 3) of birds of sampling habitats is given in Figure 7. The eigenvalues from different 27 species (Figure 3) throughout the sam- of the rfi st two principal components (PC 1 and PC 2), pling period. As Mee amba sevana habitat is composed eigenvectors of the bird species variables, and the principal of Mango (Mangifera indica), Kumbuk (Terminalia arjuna), component scores for different habitats are given in Table 4. Kottamba (Terminalia catappa), Mara (Samanea saman), Cumulatively, 67% of the total variation of abundance of birds Avocado (Persea americana), Jackfruit (Artocarpus hetero- among habitats is represented by PC 1 and PC 2. According phyllus), Mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla), Asoka (Saraca to the PCA, habitats were characterized as follows based on asoca), and some fruiting plants, they facilitate higher canopy distribution avifaunal species in study area. variation and structural variation among those wooded and Four main contrasting groups were generated comprising nonwooded floral species. It may enable most of bird species a category of open space ground, combination of moderately to forage, rest, and feed on different plant species. The role wooded (Management and IT and English language teaching of diversity of foliage height and horizontal habitat variety unit) and low wooded habitats (gym canteen premises and influences the species richness in a particular habitat or Girls’ Hostel complex), medical center area, highly wooded a microhabitat in vegetative environment [36, 37]. Density Mee amba sevana, and Thal weta premises (low wooded), and lushness of vegetation cover in those highly wooded separately (Figure 7). Saiba ground (open ground) was char- areas enhance formation of favorable micro climate in those acterized by Asian-paradise flycatcher, brown shrike, and habitats. Among habitats, highly wooded and moderately house swift. Girls’ Hostel complex habitat (low wooded) was wooded areas such as Mee amba sevana habitats, medical characterized by rose-ringed parakeet whereas cattle egret, center area, and English language teaching unit habitat hold black-headed munia, shikra, greater coucal, house crow, and high degree of species richness. Woody habitats with well- brown-breasted yfl catcher were identical in Girls’ Hostel structured and heterogeneous plant species, including woody H1/SG ( open ground) H2/GCP (Low wooded) H3/MCA(Highly wooded) H4/MAS (Highly wooded) H5/GHC (Low wooded) H6/MIT (Moderately wooded) H7/ELTU (Moderately wooded) H8/TWP (Low wooded) Pielou’s Evenness Index (J) International Journal of Zoology 11 MAS (highly wooded) TWP (Low wooded) MCA (highly wooded) MIT (moderately wooded) GCP (Low wooded) −2 SG (Open ground) ELTU (moderately wooded) GHC (Low wooded) −4 −7.5 −5.0 −2.5 0.0 2.5 5.0 First Component (PC 1) Figure 7: Ordination of the habitats based on PC1 and PC2 scores of Principal Component Analysis of the abundance of avifauna of sampling habitats. lianas and grasses, provided more niches and food sources that is given by [39], as it provides high degree of species for birds [38]. Generally, wooded plant cover shows the value richness and biodiversity when vegetation cover is denser. Further, anthropogenic influence and increased disturbances of niches and or fl istic aspects for abundance of most bird species [38]. The mainly forested birds species have a positive reduce the presence of birds as they avoid risks and tend relationship with canopy cover, ground tree density, and tree to show avoidance behavior [42]. However, Saiba ground is density. Presence of more trees provides various food sources structured with numerous micro habitats like dying branches or nesting or perching grounds for the survival of birds [39]. with leaves, water pools, bank vegetation in the ground (very u Th s, different plant species maximize the choices of food smaller coverage), grassland, and open ground (enriched and nutrition requirement which most frugivorous and plant with soil particles, debris, decaying plant leaves, soil animals feeding animals depend upon. Some environmental param- like worms and oligochaetes, ground dwelling insects, and eters such as rainfall, mean temperature, solar radiation, and flies). Hence, wide varieties of micro habitats govern the moisture content may be ideally maintained among those habitation, foraging, nesting, and breeding birds in those highly to moderately wooded canopies which strengthen premises. As their food resources are available on the habitat, more birds may be attracted to feed upon those in Saiba the housing of different bird species. Climatic conditions like mean annual temperature, evapotranspiration, and solar ground. Thal weta premises, which are also a low wooded radiation are responsible for predicting and supporting the environment, facilitate man-made structures such as build- changes in species richness of birds [40, 41]. ings, an abandon pond, very few wooded trees and a few o fl w- Conversely, a significant increase in total abundance ering plants, paved roads, and payments. Most of resting and and richness of birds in open ground area/Saiba ground perching birds were recorded around that location. Therefore, and Thal weta premises (low wooded) was recorded during according to the observed results, another reason for high the sampling period compared to other moderately to low abundance of birds recorded in open ground/Saiba ground wooded habitats (Figures 3 and 4). This contradicts the idea may be the lower level of competition among residential birds Second Component (PC 2) 12 International Journal of Zoology Table 4: Final output of the PCA of abundance of birds’ species recorded in dieff rent habitat types in University of Kelaniya. Cumulative % variations of only the PC1 and PC2 are shown. A considerable cumulative percentage as 67% of the total variation among abundance of bird species is explained by PC1 and PC2 axis. (a) Eigenvectors (coefficients in the linear combinations of variables making up PCs) Variable PC1 PC2 Asian brown flycatcher -0.061 0.121 Asian koel -0.055 0.263 Asian paradise yfl catcher -0.162 -0.058 Barn swallow -0.029 0.118 Black hooded oriole -0.281 0.01 Black-headed munia 0.135 -0.126 Black-rumped flame back -0.268 -0.088 Blue tailed bee-eater -0.246 -0.152 Brahminy kite -0.018 0.257 Brown shrike -0.27 -0.11 Brown-breasted yfl catcher 0.135 -0.126 Brown-headed barbet -0.123 0.2 Cattle egret 0.135 -0.126 Common myna -0.235 -0.013 Common tailorbird -0.069 0.185 Crimson-fronted barbet -0.051 0.222 Feral pigeon 0.139 0.05 Forest wagtail -0.018 0.257 Great tit 0.007 0.269 Greater coucal 0.141 -0.165 Green imperial pigeon 0.071 0.071 House swift -0.278 -0.07 House crow 0.165 -0.183 Jungle crow 0.06 0.17 Lesser hill myna -0.221 0.112 Loten’s sunbird 0.012 0.227 Oriental white-eye -0.267 -0.08 Oriental magpie robin 0.13 0.051 Pale-billed flower pecker 0.013 0.22 Purple-rumped sunbird 0.082 0.19 Red-vented bulbul 0.12 -0.078 Rose-ringed parakeet -0.136 -0.063 Scaly-breasted munia -0.181 -0.221 Shikra 0.141 -0.165 Small minivet -0.018 0.257 white rumped munia -0.252 -0.048 Spotted dove -0.167 -0.164 White bellied drongo -0.063 -0.052 White throated kingfisher -0.227 0.038 Yellow billed babbler -0.136 0.187 (b) Eigenvalues PC Eigen values %Variation Cumulative % Variation 1 10.93 36 36 29.19 31 67 36.41 18.2 85.2 44.47 10.8 95.2 International Journal of Zoology 13 (c) Principal component scores Sample SCORE 1 SCORE 2 SCORE 3 SCORE 4 Saiba ground (Open ground) -7.315 -2.500 1.243 -0.075 Gym canteen premises (Low wooded) -0.030 -1.555 -2.884 0.030 Medical center area (Highly wooded) 1.374 1.191 -0.337 2.254 Mee amba sevana (Highly wooded) -0.498 5.843 2.771 0.585 Girls’ hostel complex (Low wooded) 3.655 -2.875 3.670 -2.808 Management and IT premises (Moderately wooded) 2.246 -0.756 -2.490 0.250 English language training unit (Moderately wooded) 1.355 -2.023 0.687 2.873 Thal weta premises (Low wooded) -0.788 2.674 -2.660 -3.110 due to resources partitioning. The linkage between occupying became relatively lower out of urban areas and became rapidly growing in urban and suburban areas [50, 51]. There of suitable niche space and species richness supports the evidence to draw conclusion and predictions on variation is high correlation between high pedestrian or urbanized of biodiversity [43]. In a given habitat, species richness is habitats in wildlife refuges and lower species richness and denoted by presence of range of resources, including finding abundance of endemic and migrant birds [52]. Besides, of foods and mechanisms to avoid predators. These resources diversity aspects of migrant birds and insectivore birds also are partitioned in between species to weaken the competition decline with higher percentage of the contiguous landscape raised among different species [44–46]. A research study covered by pavements, buildup areas coverage, and bare [43] reported that resources in the core of particular habitat grounds [49]. Therefore, the present study findings are proven are highly rich and exploitable by generalists compared to by the available literature. peripheral resources. This might be a factor for having higher Shannon-Weiner diversity index is a parameter used for degree of biodiversity in both Saiba ground and Mee amba comparing diversity between various habitats. It gives infor- mation on heterogeneity of habitat. It assumes that individu- sevana. Sampling habitats such as low wooded Girls’ Hostel als are randomly selected and all the species are represented complex and moderately wooded Management and IT area in the sample [53]. In addition, Pielou’s evenness index, which indicated lower values for species richness, Shannon-Weiner provides indication regarding evenness of species in a habitat, diversity, and Pielou’s evenness indices (Figures 4, 5, and 6). indicated that two highly wooded habitats, namely, Mee aba The main influential factor for this variation may be due to sevana and medical center area, hold the highest evenness the location of these habitats neighboring paved roads where values compared to all other habitats (Figure 5). These results people and moving motor vehicles are available. In partic- showed that higher wooded percentage accounts for higher ular, these two habitats are highly occupied by residential degree of heterogeneity and evenness of habitats. Availability undergraduates in the University of Kelaniya. u Th s, it may of numerous micro habitats on Mee amba sevana and medical generate a considerable magnitude of noise forcing avifaunal center area habitats may be the effective reason of increased species to avoid foraging, resting, and habitation. Increased heterogeneity and evenness. The study of [54] supported distance and traffic sounds from roads and highways, and the idea that vegetation cover is a major contributor for anthropogenic disturbances negatively correlate with abun- variation and change of species composition and diversity. dance and diversity of birds [47]. A study [48] supported this Fluctuation of number of birds in a habitat connected with finding suggesting two main reasons. Firstly, communication vegetation changes along some biological and environmental of birds for maintenance and establishment of territories may gradients. be aec ff ted by huge noise. This may interfere with intrapair PCA habitat categorization illustrated that Saiba ground and adult-young communication as well. Moreover, human was categorized by open grassland birds. Similarly, Mee aba noise may confuse individuals, making them more vulnerable sevana was characterized by frugivore birds while Girls’ to predation. Also, this may increase antipredator attention, Hostel complex was dominated by carnivorous birds which which could indirectly aec ff t bird reproductive rate [48]. can easily find their food items in that environment. Species In terms of species composition and habitat dispersal like crimson-fronted barbet, forest wagtail, lesser hill myna, status of birds in the total study area of University of and brown-headed barbet were more dependent on fruits Kelaniya, 80% of resident birds, 17.5% of migrants, and 2.5% and they are highly abundant in forests and canopies with of endemic birds were observed (Figure 2). The results of higher vegetation [33]. Additionally, they can be seen in present study mentioned that endemism has been greatly home gardens in common. As Mee aba sevana premises are aec ff ted by habitat alteration. As University of Kelaniya is enriched with higher vegetation cover, they facilitate higher located in an urban landscape, there is a higher possibility degree of habitations for those species. In Saiba ground, bird of encountering lower abundance of endemism among bird species such as Asian-paradise yfl catcher, brown shrike, and species. In general, community composition of birds in urban house swift are feeding on insects and many larvae of insects environment is represented by few migrant and insectivorous (insectivore) and are abundant in open lands and urban areas bird species while housing high omnivorous, resident, exotic, in common [33]. Since Saiba ground contains different micro and granivorous bird species [49]. The development effects habitats to feed and rest for several insectivorous birds in an 14 International Journal of Zoology open area, findings of the study correlate with those of [33]. community composition and structure of associated avifau- Carnivore birds species of cattle egret, shikra, greater coucal, nal species to change from development-sensitive species to house crow, and brown-breasted yc fl atcher were frequently well adapted generalists that tolerate development stressors [55]. recorded in Girls’ Hostel complex as they are inhabiting closer to human habitations and feed on small mammals like mice and lizards. Higher disposal of food and household waste 5. Conclusion from hostels might be the main cause for the attraction of those birds in this area which might lead to increase in their Birds are group of faunal species that are influenced by population because, in some places, garbage accumulated human attention. Therefore, some scenarios lead to reduction plots support food sources for birds such as house crows. in insectivore birds and total birds’ richness as a result Avifaunal species such as Asian-paradise yfl catcher, of anthropogenic disturbances. In more human-modified black-rumped flameback, cattle egret, feral pigeon, house urban land uses, less development-sensitive bird species can crow, pale-billed flowerpecker, small minivet, and white- be seen while there are larger number of individuals of rumped munia species were not significantly different in all birds in recreational trails in forest and grassland ecosys- the habitat types (p> 0.05, Kruskal-Wallis). The major reason tems. Reduction and control of human-modiefi d land uses for that may be they are widely available in ranges of habitat within a greener area will facilitate habitat for sensitive types. These bird species are common generalists in wide species for rapid development activities with large scale range of habitats. As most of these bird species can feed on disturbances. When constructions and developments are various types of food sources, they show their presence as conducted, vegetation and plants are cleared and removed more common in home gardens and other human-modified from the sites creating canopy gaps. This narrows down landscapes [55]. Further, the Asian brown yfl catcher was dis- and separates habitat connectivity of habitats, making more tributed in habitats of Saiba ground, medical center area, Mee sensitive species vulnerable and decreasing their population amba sevana,Girls’ Hostel complex,and English language size. The study claimed that there was a variation of species training unit (z> 0, Kruskal-Wallis, Minitab 14). Asian brown diversity parameters among dieff rent land use patterns. yfl catcher is less selective in its habitat. It seems partial to Conservation and management efforts should be oriented gardens and can be found even in densely populated localities toward protecting habitat and resources for development- where there are plenty of mature trees [55]. White-bellied sensitive species, such as migrants, insectivores, and forest drongo (Saiba ground, Thal weta premises, Mee amba sevana, specialists, during the modification of available land uses. Girls’ Hostel complex, and English language training unit) Most of birds inhabiting these areas are vulnerable to habitat was recorded as widely distributed within vfi e habitats out degradation due to loopholes in existing legal protection. In of selected eight habitats (z> 0, Kruskal-Wallis, Minitab 14). addition, community knowledge enhancements also should White-bellied drongo appears in forest as well as suburban be strengthened for a sustainable conservation of bird species areas. In addition, it is common to low lands [55]. while maintaining their ecological interactions. Future long- The second largest distribution was recorded by black- term studies are recommended covering migratory seasons hooded oriole, blue-tailed bee-eater, cattle egret, feral pigeon, and establishment of mimicable structures and landscapes brown-headed barbet, oriental magpie robin, purple-rumped during construction stages within the university premises. sunbird, red-vented bulbul, rose-ringed parakeet, and scaly- breasted munia within four habitats out of eight selected habitats (z> 0, Kruskal-Wallis, Minitab 14). Brown-headed Data Availability barbet is famous as a garden bird readily found even in heavily built-up areas where higher vegetative cover is observed. It The data used to support the findings of this study are favors feeding on fruits. The birds excavate a nesting burrow, available from the corresponding author upon request. usually high up on an old exposed branch or tree trunk, out of reach of most predators [55]. Purple-rumped sunbird Conflicts of Interest occurs in every garden in the suburbs, even in townships. They appear to have its resident pair [55]. Blue-tailed bee- The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest. eater small parties will even take up residence in the tall trees. It takes up position on a high perch from which it sallies after aerial insects [55]. Moreover, scaly-breasted munia is Authors’ Contributions more abundant in garden type habitats with vegetation. In addition rose-ringed parakeet also favors a habitat with P.A. B.G. Panagoda and H.W.G. A. S.Weerasinghe planned vegetation cover and higher availability of fruiting plants (z the study. B.K.A.Bellanthudawa, N. M. S.K.Nawalage,P. > 0, Kruskal-Wallis, Minitab 14). Black-hooded oriole is a A. B. G. Panagoda, H. W. G. A. S. Weerasinghe, L. K. D. bird which is very common and widespread, garden and N.Tharaka, H.K.A.D.Silva, and D.M.S. N.Dissanayake forest bird. It can be seen in the tree-lined streets. However, participated in sampling sites selection and data collection. B. due to its habits preference on tree tops, it is difficult to K. A. Bellanthudawa, N. M. S. K. Nawalage, S. Subanky, and locate [55]. Built-up areas and other physical developments in M. S. J. Abeywickrama analyzed the data and created graphs. modern urban landscapes increase the habitat isolation, frag- B. K. A. Bellanthudawa, N. M. S. K. Nawalage, and H. M. A. mentation, and development density. These changes cause K. Handapangoda compiled the manuscript. International Journal of Zoology 15 Acknowledgments [16] D. Palomino and L. Carrascal, “Threshold distances to nearby cities and roads influence the bird community of a mosaic Special thanks to Dr. (Mrs.) W. M. D. N. 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Composition and Diversity Variation of Avifauna, along Different Vegetative Habitat Types in a Human-Modified Area, University of Kelaniya, Sri Lanka

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Copyright © 2019 B. K. A. Bellanthudawa et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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10.1155/2019/9727609
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Hindawi International Journal of Zoology Volume 2019, Article ID 9727609, 16 pages https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/9727609 Research Article Composition and Diversity Variation of Avifauna, along Different Vegetative Habitat Types in a Human-Modified Area, University of Kelaniya, Sri Lanka B. K. A. Bellanthudawa ,N. M.S.K.Nawalage, S. Subanky, P.A.B.G. Panagoda, H. W. G. A. S. Weerasinghe, L. K. D. N. Tharaka, H. M. A. K. Handapangoda, H. K. A. D. Silva, D. M. S. N. Dissanayake, and M. S. J. Abeywickrama Department of Zoology and Environmental Management, Faculty of Science, University of Kelaniya, Sri Lanka Correspondence should be addressed to B. K. A. Bellanthudawa; aravindabellanthudawa@gmail.com Received 23 February 2019; Accepted 16 May 2019; Published 10 July 2019 Academic Editor: Marco Cucco Copyright © 2019 B. K. A. Bellanthudawa et al. is Th is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Role of conservation of birds has been least considered during modification of vegetative habitats, in studies conducted on birds in protected areas and urban landscapes in Sri Lanka. eTh present study was intended to assess the relationship between landscape and the composition and distribution of avifauna in University of Kelaniya, a human-modified area. eTh study was conducted selecting 8 habitats including open ground, low, moderately, and highly wooded habitats. A survey was conducted from 0530 to 0730 hr in the morning and 1630-1830 hr in the evening from August to December 2016 ensuring eight sampling events at each habitat. Point counting method (15 m radius) was used along a 100 m line transect. Species diversity parameters were analyzed. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was performed to characterize the habitats with bird species. A total of 40 species were recorded. Species richness (r = 27) and species heterogeneity (H = 3.09) were the highest in Mee amba sevana habitat while species evenness (J = 0.977) was the highest in medical center area habitat. Total abundance (n = 135) was recorded in Saiba ground. Asian brown yfl catcher (Saiba ground, medical center area, Mee amba sevana, Girls’ Hostel complex, and English language unit habitats) and white-bellied drongo (Saiba ground, medical center area, Girls’ Hostel complex, English language unit, and Thal weta premises) were widely distributed (z> 0, Kruskal-Wallis, Minitab 14). eTh second largest distribution was recorded by black-hooded oriole, blue- tailed bee-eater, cattle egret, feral pigeon, brown-headed barbet, red-vented bulbul, and rose-ringed parakeet within four habitats (z> 0, Kruskal-Wallis). According to the PCA, Saiba ground habitat was categorized by open ground dwelling birds, and Mee amba sevana was characterized by frugivorous birds, while Girls’ Hostel complex habitat was characterized by carnivorous birds. Comparatively, medical center area habitat contributes to the highest species diversity with many flowering and fruiting trees while providing sufficient food resources and high floral structural complexity. Recorded avifaunal community composition ensures considerable conservation value to university premises of Kelaniya. Awareness and monitoring programs are recommended for sustainable conservation of bird species in Kelaniya. 1. Introduction dispersal [2]. Furthermore, birds are relatively easy to observe and monitor. The concept of “using birds as indicators for Avifaunal assemblages have contributed significantly to the recognizing land ecosystems rich in biological diversity” has advancement of science in the eld fi of community ecology. now gained a wide global acceptance [3–6]. As ecosystems are Comparative avifaunal diversity is an excellent indicator of degraded by anthropogenic activities, the need to monitor, ecosystem stability because birds respond quickly to changes evaluate, manage, and remediate ecological change will grow in their environments [1]. Among all other species, birds immensely. Because of the complexity of ecosystems, it is play a major role in attracting human attention. In ecology, likely that the use of biological indicators may also similarly birds are of significance as pollinators and help in seed increase [7]. Avifaunal species community in an environment 2 International Journal of Zoology is subject to regular and irregular fluctuations, and bird Since there is a positive correlation between availability of populations respond to these changes in predictable ways. vegetation cover and birds’ biodiversity [23], continuous Their responding ability varies with scale of magnitude monitoring of the landscape changes is an ideal tool to predict community structure of fauna associated with the and degree to which they face that impact. The eeff cts of environmental changes on bird populations are more oeft n habitat. influenced by several intermediate factors, or the popula- The geographical location of Sri Lanka encounters high degree of biodiversity. Sri Lanka is a tropical island in tion changes are caused by numerous interacting eeff cts [8]. The effective and direct responses are behavioral and the Indian Ocean, at the southern point of the Indian physiological involving changes of individuals. These impacts subcontinent, with a main island and several small islands. influence the birth rate, death rate, and rate of distribution. Furthermore, Sri Lanka is placed among the 36 biodiversity Thereby these changes cause impacts on density, abundance, hotspots in the world [25]. Therefore, Sri Lanka is considered as the highest in Asia with respect to ‘biodiversity per unit occurrence, size, geographic range, habitat occupancy, age structure, sex ratios, or the proportion of birds that breed area’ [26]. Study conducted by [27] stated that currently Sri [8]. Therefore, along with some parameters, abundance and Lanka is enriched with 453 avifaunal species including 240 species of breeding residents, of which 27 are endemics. diversity of avifaunal species serve as ecological health indi- cators. According to [28], there are different six avifaunal zones, Birds remaining in relatively natural fragmented habitats based on the distribution patterns of the resident bird species, namely, northern or Indian zone, low country wet zone, are affected by those communities and human activities associated with urbanization [9]. Rapid and unplanned mid-country wet zone, hill country wet zone, dry zone, and urbanization often results in homogenous, dense, articfi ial Uva zone. Among all zones, hill country wet zone holds environments which are dominated by many exotic commu- higher percentage of the endemic and threatened species nities of fauna [10]. However, the massive and vast conversion [28, 29]. In Sri Lanka context, avifaunal species are facing severe threats due to deforestation, urban developments, and of forests into agricultural lands and urban lands has rapidly increased as a result of “development” [11, 12]. Some recent highway improvements. As a result, the forest area coverage studies showed that heavy and wide spread of deforestation in Sri Lanka (33.0% in 2015) is rapidly declining [30]. Even though several studies have been conducted on birds in and has led to declining and narrowing the birds’ populations and diversity over range of landscapes [13, 14]. Besides, urban around protected areas in Sri Lanka, the role of human- development scenarios such as roads and highways have modified land uses in conservation of birds has been greatly caused a significant impact on the bird assemblages [15]. neglected. In some birds’ surveys, studies have shown that abundance, Hence, the objective of the present study was to cre- occurrence, and species richness of breeding birds are heavily ate a baseline species checklist of birds in the university impacted near roads, with larger declines near high-traffic premises for ensuring the sustainable avifaunal conservation roads than near lower traffic roads [16–18]. Noise pollution and management efforts. Further, this birds survey aimed to focus on the dispersal of habitat specific birds species along is one of critical factor that contributes to reduction in bird diversity and abundance especially in human-modified various human-modified land uses. Additionally, this study land uses. Even though sounds are closely linked with focused on assessing the variation of species composition and diversity parameters with change of vegetation cover human- avian communities because these comprise a contribution towards species that rely on acoustic signals for mating, modified habitats. predator evasion, and other activities, limited numbers of studies have been conducted to assess its correlation. Find- 2. Materials and Methods ings of [19] stated that male Willow Warblers experienced difficulties in females’ attraction along with highways, as 2.1. Study Area and Site Selection. The study area is located it masks male song by noise as a possible mechanism. in University of Kelaniya, Dalugama, Gampaha district, com- Nevertheless, some studies claim that disturbance of vocal prised of 18.7 ha in wet zone of Sri Lanka (Figure 1). The bird communication does not cause reduced densities of birds. survey was conducted within university premises of Kelaniya Presently, correlation between bird communities and the by selecting eight habitats using purposive/judgmental sam- habitat variables has become a theme in ecological studies pling covering whole study area while representing different [20]. Conversely, those studies were conducted in tropics habitats types such as open grounds, low wooded, moderately confined to examine the effect on birds in urban-rural wooded, and highly wooded with more or less human distur- gradients [13, 21, 22] and agricultural ecosystems [23, 24]. In bances (Table 1: habitat classification). Digitizing technique in the available literature, the contribution and extent of focus Arc GIS 10.2 version was used for calculation of percentage of on avifaunal distribution patterns in natural ecosystems are canopy cover in each habitat [31]. limited. The insufficiency of proper studies prior to phases of the destruction and threats exerted on natural forest habitats 𝑒𝑔𝑟𝑐𝑒𝑛𝑎𝑒𝑡𝑃𝑦𝑝𝑐𝑎𝑛𝑜𝑐𝑜 V changes the focus of the attention of conservation planners from natural forest patches in early phases of destruction 𝐴𝑟𝑓𝑜𝑖𝑠ℎ𝑐𝑟𝑜𝑤𝑖𝑡ℎ𝑖𝑛𝑡ℎ𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑖 = (1) to severely destructed habitats and their regeneration. Veg- 𝑜𝑇𝑎𝑓𝑜𝑡ℎ𝑒𝑆𝑒𝑠𝑖 etation cover and availability of open space of the habitat are rapidly changing with the anthropogenic disturbance. ×100% 𝑡𝑒𝑙𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑒𝑑 𝑟𝑒𝑎𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝑡𝑒𝑒𝑙𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑒𝑑 𝑙𝑜 𝑔𝑟𝑒𝑒𝑛 𝑒𝑎 𝑒𝑟 International Journal of Zoology 3 Meters 0 45 90 180 270 360 Figure 1: eTh study area of University of Kelaniya. Table 1: Habitat categorization depending on the nature and percentage of tree cover of the environment. Percentage of cover of the wooded Habitat Number (H) Common name of the habitat Type of the habitat vegetation (%) H 1 Saiba ground (SG) 1.7 open ground H 2 Gym canteen premises (GCP) 21.7 Low wooded H 3 Medical centre area (MCA) 63.9 Highly wooded H 4 Mee amba sevana (MAS) 91.4 Highly wooded H 5 Girls’ hostel complex (GHC) 27.3 Low wooded Management and IT department H6 36.4 Moderately wooded premises (MIT) English language training unit premises H7 55.3 Moderately wooded (ELTU) H 8 Thal weta premises (TWP) 26.8 Low wooded Note: eTh percentage of wood cover was calculated, area of canopy cover of habitat with reference to total area of the habitat. Site categorization was based on the percentage cover of the A few number of palm trees (Arecaceae spp.) and Temple trees vegetation of the habitats. Habitat 1/H 1/Saiba ground (SG) is (Plumeria spp.) were present. These areas are comprised of the one open ground with short grass species. some built-up and open spacious locations with a smaller Grass species such as u Th ththiri ( Chrysopogon acicu- number of trees. In the category of moderately wooded type latus), Bala thana (Eleusine indica), Mottu thana (Cyperus habitats, Management and IT department premises (MIT) and English language training unit premises (ELTU) were kyllingia),and Nidikumba (Mimosa pudica) were dominated in the open ground habitat. A large part of the Saiba ground the habitats denoted as H 6 and H 7, respectively. The habitat is composed of open area with dead leaves and soil, wooded plantation cover ranges from 36% to 56% hosting and east to southwest margin of the habitat is surrounded by Neem (Azadirachta spp.), Mango (Mangifera indica), Cashew wooded line. The level of disturbance in Saiba ground is high (Anacardium occidentale), Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyl- as it is used as a playground by undergraduates of the Univer- lus), and Kottamba (Terminalia catappa). Habitat 3 (H 3) and sity of Kelaniya. Habitats 2, 5, and 8, respectively, standing for Habitat 4 (H 4), namely, medical center area (MCA) and Mee gym canteen premises (GCP), Girls’ Hostel complex (GHC), amba sevana (MAS), were grouped under the highly wooded and Thal weta premises (TWP), are grouped under the low habitats. The H 3 and H 4 cover 63.9% and 91.4% of the wooded habitats covering 21.7% to 27.3% of vegetation cover. wooded vegetation with reference to the area of the habitat 4 International Journal of Zoology 2.50% correspondingly. Mango (Mangifera indica), Kottamba (Ter- minalia catappa), Mara (Samanea saman), Avocado (Persea 17.50% americana), Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus), Mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla), and Asoka (Saraca asoca)dominate in those two habitats with high percentage of fruiting plants. 2.2. Sampling Procedure. The efi ld survey was conducted dur- ing the period of 0530 hr-0730 hr in the morning and 1630 hr- 1830 hr in the evening time of August 2016 to December 2016. Eight sampling events (n = 8) were conducted at each habitat covering 64 sampling events throughout the study period. Point counting method (15 m radius) was used for sampling 80% technique [10, 32] along a 100 m line transect. In a single habitat, 3 points were selected along a 100 m line transect Resident Birds in a sampling event. 20 minutes were spent at each point Migratory Birds along 100 m line transect for observations. 60-minute (20∗3) Endemic Birds sampling duration was observed in a particular sampling habitat along 100m line transect. Survey was not conducted Figure 2: Percentage of resident, migratory, and endemic birds during rainy and windy weather. Visual assessment (seeing) recorded in the survey. and birds’ calls were considered to record number of birds in each species. Opticron 8×30, Super Zenith 8×40, binoculars, and standard guide of [33] were used to identify species. richness and species evenness as two independent character- A baseline of bird database (checklist) was prepared istics of biological communities that together constitute its considering all the recorded species during the study period. diversity [35]. Species diversity parameters such as total abundance, species richness, species heterogeneity using Shannon-Weiner diver- P𝑜𝑢𝑙𝑖𝑒 𝑠 Evenness Index (𝐽 )= (5) sity index (H ), and species evenness using Pielou’s evenness log𝑆 index (J) were calculated using Microsoft Excel 2013. where H is the Shannon-Wiener diversity index and S is the Abundance. Abundance of species in a community of sample number of species in the community. is the number of individuals belonging to that species [34]. Species distribution among habitats was analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis test (Minitab 14 software) after conrfi ming the Abundance normal distribution. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) (2) was followed to characterize the habitats with abundance of = Total number of individuals belong to particular species representative bird species using Minitab 14 software. Species Richness. Species richness is the total number of species in an assemblage or a sample [34]. 3. Results 3.1. Baseline Database (Checklist) of Birds Recorded throughout Species richness the Study of University of Kelaniya. Total species of birds (3) recorded during the birds’ survey is shown in Table 2. As = Total number of species in an assemblage or a sample per Table 2, one species representing order Apodiformes, 󸀠 order Accipitriformes, order Psittaciformes, and order Pele- Shannon-Wiener Diversity Index (H ). Shannon-Wiener caniformes, two species representing order Cuculiformes and diversity index (H) is commonly used to calculate aquatic order Coraciiformes, 3 species representing order Piciformes and terrestrial biodiversity. This index was calculated as and order Columbiformes, and 26 species representing order Passeriformes were observed in the survey. The most dom- inant order was “Passeriformes”. In summary, a total of 40 𝐻 =∑{(𝑃𝑖 )×(ln𝑃𝑖 )} (4) avifaunal species were recorded. The International Union for 𝑖=1 Conservation of Nature (IUCN) conservation status (2012) th of the birds in the study area is encountered and categorized where pi is the proportion of individuals in the “i ”taxon under Least Concern (LC) stage. This implied that most of of the community and s is the total number of taxa in the threatened and endangered bird species are not found in the community. University of Kelaniya at current condition. As the number and distribution of taxa (biotic diversity) within the community increase, so does the value of “H” [34]. 3.2. The Species Composition and Diversity of Bird Species Pielou’s Evenness Index (J). The distribution of individuals of in Habitats. The habitat dispersal status of birds is also a species is the evenness. It makes sense to consider species represented in Figure 2. The percentage of resident birds was International Journal of Zoology 5 fl fl fl Th fl ft Table 2: e checklist of birds recorded during the survey of University of Kelaniya. IUCN Conservation status Common Name Scientific name Order Family status migrant endemic resident Feeding behavior Eudynamys Asian koel Cuculiformes Cuculidae LC ∗ Omnivore scolopaceus Asian-paradise flycatcher Terpsiphone paradise Passeriformes Monarchidae LC ∗ Carnivore (insectivore) Carnivore (Chiey Barn swallow Hirundo rustica Passeriformes Hirundinidae LC ∗ insectivore) Black-hooded oriole Oriolus xanthornus Passeriformes Oriolidae LC ∗ Omnivore Carnivore (Chiey Blue-tailed bee eater Merops philippinus Coraciiformes Meropidae LC ∗ insectivore) Brown shrike Lanius cristatus Passeriformes Laniidae LC ∗ Carnivore Carnivore- (Chiefly Brown breasted ycatcher Muscicapa muttui Passeriformes Muscicapidae LC ∗ insectivore) Omnivore (Chiefly Brown-headed barbet Psilopogon zeylanicus Piciformes Ramphastidae LC ∗ Frugivore) Common myna Acridotheres tristis Passeriformes Sturnidae LC ∗ Omnivore Common tailorbird Orthotomus sutorius Passeriformes Cisticolidae LC ∗ Omnivore Megalaima Omnivore (Chiefly Crimson-fronted barbet Piciformes Ramphastidae LC ∗ rubricapillus Frugivore) Great tit Parus major Passeriformes Paridae LC ∗ Omnivore Greater coucal Centropus sinensis Cuculiformes Cuculidae LC ∗ Carnivore Green imperial pigeon Ducula aenea Columbiformes Columbidae LC ∗ Herbivore Carnivore - (Chiey House swi Apus nipalensis Apodiformes Apodidae ∗ insectivore) Corvus Large-billed crow Passeriformes Corvidae LC ∗ Omnivore macrorhynchos Gracula (religiosa) Lesser hill myna Passeriformes Sturnidae LC ∗ Omnivore indica Omnivore (Chiefly Loten’s sun bird Cinnyris lotenius Passeriformes Nectariniidae LC ∗ nectarivore) Omnivore (Chiefly Oriental magpie robin Copsychus saularis Passeriformes Muscicapidae LC ∗ insectivore) Oriental white-eye Zosterops palpebrosus Passeriformes Zosteropidae LC ∗ Carnivore (insectivore) 6 International Journal of Zoology fl fl ffi fl Table 2: Continued. IUCN Conservation status Common Name Scientific name Order Family status migrant endemic resident Feeding behavior Dicaeum Pale-billed ower pecker Passeriformes Dicaeidae LC ∗ Herbivore (nectarivore) erythrorhynchos Omnivore (Chiefly Purple- rumped sunbird Leptocoma zeylonica Passeriformes Nectariniidae LC ∗ nectarivore) Red-vented bulbul Pycnonotus cafer Passeriformes Pycnonotidae LC ∗ Herbivore Rose- ringed parakeet Psittacula krameri Psittaciformes Psittacidae LC ∗ Herbivore Scaly-breasted munia Lonchura punctulata Passeriformes Estrildidae LC ∗ Herbivore (Chiefly seeds) Pericrocotus Small minivet Passeriformes Campephagidae LC ∗ Omnivore cinnamomeus Stigmatopelia Omnivore (Chiefly seeds, Spotted dove Columbiformes Columbidae LC ∗ chinensis grains) White- bellied drongo Dicrurus caerulescens Passeriformes Dicruridae LC ∗ Carnivore (insectivore) White-rumped munia Lonchura striata Passeriformes Estrildidae LC ∗ Herbivore (Chiefly seeds) White-throated kingfisher Halcyon smyrnensis Coraciiformes Alcedinidae LC ∗ Carnivore Omnivore (Chiefly Yellow-billed babbler Turdoides anis Passeriformes Timaliidae LC ∗ Insectivore) Lesser golden-backed Dinopium Carnivore (Mainly ants and Piciformes Picidae LC ∗ woodpecker benghalense termites) Brahminy kite Haliastur indus Accipitriformes Accipitridae LC ∗ Carnivore Cattle egret Bubulcus ibis Pelecaniformes Ardeidae LC ∗ Carnivore Columba livia Herbivore (chiefly seeds, Columbiformes Columbidae LC ∗ Feral pigeon domestica grains) Dendronanthus Carnivore (Chiey Forest wagtail Passeriformes Motacillidae LC ∗ indicus Insectivore) House crow Corvus splendens Passeriformes Corvidae LC ∗ Omnivore Shikra Accipiter badius Passeriformes Corvidae LC ∗ Carnivore Black-headed munia Lonchura malacca Passeriformes Estrildidae LC ∗ Herbivore (Chiefly seeds) Carnivore (Chiey Asian brown flycatcher Muscicapa latirostris Passeriformes Muscicapidae LC ∗ Insectivore) Note: LC refers to least concern category in IUCN categorization and∗ mark represents the belonging indication. International Journal of Zoology 7 160.0 140.0 22 22 120.0 100.0 80.0 14 14 60.0 40.0 20.0 0.0 Habitat Habitat Figure 3: Variation of total abundance of species between dieff rent Figure 4: Variation of species richness among habitats. habitats. significantly high (80%) compared to the total number of bird 3.5 3.09 2.93 2.88 2.89 2.83 species. According to Figure 2, percentages of migrant birds 2.77 2.44 and endemic birds were recorded as 17.5% and 2.5%, respec- 2.5 2.25 tively. Findings indicated that majority of the residential bird species have occupied the habitats during sampling period 1.5 compared to the migrant and endemic bird species in the University of Kelaniya premises. 0.5 Diversity and species composition parameters showed a considerable variation among different habitats selected. The mean abundance and total maximum abundance of birds (in Habitat one sampling event) are given in Figure 3 which illustrates that highest abundance (135 individuals) was recorded in Saiba ground habitat which is an open grassland habitat. The second highest total abundance was shown from Mee amba sevana habitat (highly wooded) and Thal weta premises (low wooded) habitats. Further, gym canteen premises habitat was Figure 5: Variation of Shannon-Wiener diversity index (H’) in the least birds’ abundant habitat among 4 types of habitats. habitats. Generally, findings showed that there are significant higher numbers of birds in highly wooded and open space habitats compared to other habitats. Species richness provided infor- mation of the diverse nature of the habitats. Figure 4 shows habitats, medical center area, Mee amba sevana, and Girls’ that Mee amba sevana habitat (highly wooded), Saiba ground Hostel complex premises showed the most evenly distributed habitat (open ground), and English language teaching unit habitats numerically (J = 0.977, J = 0.937, and J = 0.932 habitat (moderately wooded), respectively, indicated higher orderly). Gym canteen premises were the lowest evenly dis- species richness values of 27, 24, and 23. In contrast, gym persed habitat (J = 0.85) during the survey. Comprehensively, canteen premises habitat (Low wooded) and English lan- majority of sampled habitats were evenly distributed with guage teaching unit habitat (moderately wooded) indicated reference to species (Figure 6 ). the lowest species richness as 14. In assessing the differences As per the Kruskal-Wallis statistical results for species dis- of the Shannon-Weiner diversity index (H ) among habitats, tribution (Table 3 ), Asian-paradise yfl catcher, black-rumped Mee ambasevanaand Saibagroundexpressed thehighest afl meback,cattle egret,feral pigeon,house crow, pale- 󸀠 󸀠 Shannon-Weiner diversity index (H =3.09 and H =2.93) billed flowerpecker, small minivet, and white-rumped munia correspondingly. Moreover, gym canteen premises were the species were not significantly different in all the habitat types (p> 0.05, Kruskal-Wallis). The Asian brown yfl catcher lowest heterogeneous habitat with regard to Shannon-Weiner diversity index. Inclusively, Shannon-Weiner diversity index (Saiba ground, medical center area, Mee amba sevana, Girls’ value varied in the range of 2.5-3.1 reflecting that all sites Hostel complex, and English language teaching unit habi- seem comparatively heterogeneous (Figure 5 ). In terms of tats) and white-bellied drongo (Saiba ground, Mee amba even dispersal and distribution of species between sampling sevana, Girls’ Hostel complex, English language teaching H1/SG ( open ground) H2/GCP (Low wooded) H3/MCA(Highly wooded) H4/MAS (Highly wooded) H5/GHC (Low wooded) H6/MIT (Moderately wooded) H7/ELTU (Moderately wooded) H8/TWP (Low wooded) H1/SG ( open ground) H2/GCP (Low wooded) H3/MCA(Highly wooded) H4/MAS (Highly wooded) H5/GHC (Low wooded) H6/MIT (Moderately wooded) H7/ELTU (Moderately wooded) H8/TWP (Low wooded) H1/SG ( open ground) H2/GCP (Low wooded) H3/MCA(Highly wooded) H4/MAS (Highly wooded) H5/GHC (Low wooded) H6/MIT (Moderately wooded) H7/ELTU (Moderately wooded) H8/TWP (Low wooded) Total Abundance Shannon Wiener Diversity Index (( ) Species Richness 8 International Journal of Zoology Th Table 3: e highest bird distribution within selected habitats (according to z value), Kruskal-Wallis test (Minitab 14). H2 H3 H4 H5 H6 H7 H8 H1 Species (Gym canteen (Medical centre (Mee amba (Girls’ hostel (Management & IT (English language (Thal weta (Saiba ground) premises) area) sevana) complex) department) teaching unit) premises) Asian brown flycatcher Terpsiphone ∗ - ∗∗ ∗ - ∗ - paradisi Asian koel (Eudynamys -- ∗∗∗ ∗ scolopaceus) Barn swallow (Hirundo rustica) Black hooded oriole ∗∗ ∗ ∗ (Oriolus xanthornus) Black-headed munia (Lonchura atricapilla) Blue tailed bee-eater ∗∗ ∗ ∗ (Merops philippinus) Brown shrike (Lanius cristatus) Brown-breasted flycatcher ( Muscicapa ∗ muttui) Brown-headed barbet (Psilopogon ∗∗ ∗ ∗∗ zeylanicus) Common myna ∗∗ ∗ ∗ (Acridotheres tristis) Common tailorbird ∗∗ ∗ ∗ (Orthotomus sutorius) Crimson-fronted barbet (Megalaima ∗∗∗ rubricapillus) Forest wagtail (Dendronanthus ∗ indicus) Great tit (Parus ∗∗∗ major) Greater coucal (Centropus sinensis,) Green imperial pigeon (Ducula ∗∗ ∗ aenea) International Journal of Zoology 9 fi ffi ft Table 3: Continued. H2 H3 H4 H5 H6 H7 H8 H1 Species (Gym canteen (Medical centre (Mee amba (Girls’ hostel (Management & IT (English language (Thal weta (Saiba ground) premises) area) sevana) complex) department) teaching unit) premises) House swi ( Apus ∗∗ ∗ nipalensis) Jungle crow (Corvus ∗∗ ∗ macrorhynchos) Lesser hill myna (Gracula (religiosa)∗∗∗ indica) Loten’s sun bird ∗∗ ∗∗ (Cinnyris lotenius) Oriental white-eye (Zosterops ∗∗∗ palpebrosus) Oriental magpie robin ∗∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ (Copsychus saularis) Purple sunbird ∗∗ ∗ (Cinnyris asiaticus) Purple-rumped sunbird (Leptocoma ∗∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ zeylonica) Red-vented bulbul ∗∗ ∗∗ ∗ (Pycnonotus cafer) Rose-ringed parakeet ∗∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ (Psittacula krameri) Scaly-breasted munia ∗∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ (Lonchura punctulata) Shikra (Accipiter ∗∗ badius) Spotted dove ∗∗∗ ∗∗ ∗ (Spilopelia chinensis) White bellied drongo (Dicrurus ∗∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ caerulescens) White throated kingfisher ( Halcyon∗∗ ∗∗ smyrnensis) Yellow billed babbler ∗∗ ∗ ∗ (Turdoides anis) Note: Indication of “∗” represents the presence of each bird species in each habitat and the double asterisk (∗∗) represents the signicant highest criterion among sites with regard to Z value. 10 International Journal of Zoology 1.0000 complex habitat which stands as a low wooded habitat. More- 0.9777 0.9800 over, Thal weta premises housed birds such as barn swallow, 0.9600 0.9375 black-hooded oriole, and white-throated kingfisher. In the 0.9317 0.9400 0.9246 0.9219 0.9217 0.9155 group of moderately wooded habitats, red-vented bulbul was 0.9200 0.9000 the characteristic bird in Management and IT department 0.8800 habitat while English language teaching unit habitats was 0.8526 0.8600 represented by shikra, yellow-billed babbler, barn swallow, 0.8400 black-headed oriole, and greater coucal. Medical center area 0.8200 0.8000 habitat which is highly wooded was characterized by feral 0.7800 pigeon.Further,highly wooded Meeamba sevana habitat was characterized by species like brahminy kite, crimson-fronted barbet, forest wagtail, lesser hill myna, brown-headed barbet, and small minivet. According to the PCA habitat categoriza- tion considering PC score 1 to PC score 4, Saiba ground was Habitat categorized by open grassland birds. Similarly, Mee amba sevana was characterized by frugivorous birds while Girls’ Hostel complex habitat was dominated by carnivorous birds which can easily find their food items in that environment. Figure 6: Variation of Pielou’s evenness index (J) among habitats. 4. Discussion unit, and Thal weta premises habitats) were recorded as widely distributed within vfi e habitats out of selected eight Complexity and the nature of habitats and micro habitats habitats. The second largest distribution was recorded by constitute a valuable factor that determines the species com- black-hooded oriole, blue-tailed bee-eater, cattle egret, feral position and diversity in a particular area. Thereby several pigeon, brown-headed barbet, oriental magpie robin, purple- bird species tend to find their own suitable habitats where rumped sunbird, red-vented bulbul, rose-ringed parakeet, they have access and resources to feed and breed. Highly and scaly-breasted munia within four habitats out of eight complex habitats provide wide array of opportunities to selected habitats. The third most distribution was recorded higher number of bird species as they are enriched with within three habitats out of eight habitats by Asian koel, wide range of foods and other resources to sustain lives. common myna, common tailor bird, Loren’s sunbird, and This parameter governs the variation of avifaunal species white-throated kingfisher. Other observed bird species were composition and diversity in large scale. Parameters such barn swallow, black-headed munia, brown shrike, brown- as abundance and relative abundance of bird species might breasted yfl catcher, forest wagtail, greater coucal, green impe- be associated with nature of habitat, abundance of food, rial pigeon, house swi,ft jungle crow, lesser hill myna, oriental and breeding season of the species [2]. During the bird white eye, purple sun bird, shikra, and yellow-billed babbler survey, highest birds’ abundance, richness, evenness, and (z> 0, Kruskal-Wallis, Minitab 14). diversitywere recordedmainlyin highlywooded habitats Ordination of the habitats based on PC1 and PC2 scores of and one moderately wooded habitat. Habitat 4/Mee amba Principal Component Analysis of the abundance of avifauna sevana habitat showed 123 individuals (Figure 3) of birds of sampling habitats is given in Figure 7. The eigenvalues from different 27 species (Figure 3) throughout the sam- of the rfi st two principal components (PC 1 and PC 2), pling period. As Mee amba sevana habitat is composed eigenvectors of the bird species variables, and the principal of Mango (Mangifera indica), Kumbuk (Terminalia arjuna), component scores for different habitats are given in Table 4. Kottamba (Terminalia catappa), Mara (Samanea saman), Cumulatively, 67% of the total variation of abundance of birds Avocado (Persea americana), Jackfruit (Artocarpus hetero- among habitats is represented by PC 1 and PC 2. According phyllus), Mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla), Asoka (Saraca to the PCA, habitats were characterized as follows based on asoca), and some fruiting plants, they facilitate higher canopy distribution avifaunal species in study area. variation and structural variation among those wooded and Four main contrasting groups were generated comprising nonwooded floral species. It may enable most of bird species a category of open space ground, combination of moderately to forage, rest, and feed on different plant species. The role wooded (Management and IT and English language teaching of diversity of foliage height and horizontal habitat variety unit) and low wooded habitats (gym canteen premises and influences the species richness in a particular habitat or Girls’ Hostel complex), medical center area, highly wooded a microhabitat in vegetative environment [36, 37]. Density Mee amba sevana, and Thal weta premises (low wooded), and lushness of vegetation cover in those highly wooded separately (Figure 7). Saiba ground (open ground) was char- areas enhance formation of favorable micro climate in those acterized by Asian-paradise flycatcher, brown shrike, and habitats. Among habitats, highly wooded and moderately house swift. Girls’ Hostel complex habitat (low wooded) was wooded areas such as Mee amba sevana habitats, medical characterized by rose-ringed parakeet whereas cattle egret, center area, and English language teaching unit habitat hold black-headed munia, shikra, greater coucal, house crow, and high degree of species richness. Woody habitats with well- brown-breasted yfl catcher were identical in Girls’ Hostel structured and heterogeneous plant species, including woody H1/SG ( open ground) H2/GCP (Low wooded) H3/MCA(Highly wooded) H4/MAS (Highly wooded) H5/GHC (Low wooded) H6/MIT (Moderately wooded) H7/ELTU (Moderately wooded) H8/TWP (Low wooded) Pielou’s Evenness Index (J) International Journal of Zoology 11 MAS (highly wooded) TWP (Low wooded) MCA (highly wooded) MIT (moderately wooded) GCP (Low wooded) −2 SG (Open ground) ELTU (moderately wooded) GHC (Low wooded) −4 −7.5 −5.0 −2.5 0.0 2.5 5.0 First Component (PC 1) Figure 7: Ordination of the habitats based on PC1 and PC2 scores of Principal Component Analysis of the abundance of avifauna of sampling habitats. lianas and grasses, provided more niches and food sources that is given by [39], as it provides high degree of species for birds [38]. Generally, wooded plant cover shows the value richness and biodiversity when vegetation cover is denser. Further, anthropogenic influence and increased disturbances of niches and or fl istic aspects for abundance of most bird species [38]. The mainly forested birds species have a positive reduce the presence of birds as they avoid risks and tend relationship with canopy cover, ground tree density, and tree to show avoidance behavior [42]. However, Saiba ground is density. Presence of more trees provides various food sources structured with numerous micro habitats like dying branches or nesting or perching grounds for the survival of birds [39]. with leaves, water pools, bank vegetation in the ground (very u Th s, different plant species maximize the choices of food smaller coverage), grassland, and open ground (enriched and nutrition requirement which most frugivorous and plant with soil particles, debris, decaying plant leaves, soil animals feeding animals depend upon. Some environmental param- like worms and oligochaetes, ground dwelling insects, and eters such as rainfall, mean temperature, solar radiation, and flies). Hence, wide varieties of micro habitats govern the moisture content may be ideally maintained among those habitation, foraging, nesting, and breeding birds in those highly to moderately wooded canopies which strengthen premises. As their food resources are available on the habitat, more birds may be attracted to feed upon those in Saiba the housing of different bird species. Climatic conditions like mean annual temperature, evapotranspiration, and solar ground. Thal weta premises, which are also a low wooded radiation are responsible for predicting and supporting the environment, facilitate man-made structures such as build- changes in species richness of birds [40, 41]. ings, an abandon pond, very few wooded trees and a few o fl w- Conversely, a significant increase in total abundance ering plants, paved roads, and payments. Most of resting and and richness of birds in open ground area/Saiba ground perching birds were recorded around that location. Therefore, and Thal weta premises (low wooded) was recorded during according to the observed results, another reason for high the sampling period compared to other moderately to low abundance of birds recorded in open ground/Saiba ground wooded habitats (Figures 3 and 4). This contradicts the idea may be the lower level of competition among residential birds Second Component (PC 2) 12 International Journal of Zoology Table 4: Final output of the PCA of abundance of birds’ species recorded in dieff rent habitat types in University of Kelaniya. Cumulative % variations of only the PC1 and PC2 are shown. A considerable cumulative percentage as 67% of the total variation among abundance of bird species is explained by PC1 and PC2 axis. (a) Eigenvectors (coefficients in the linear combinations of variables making up PCs) Variable PC1 PC2 Asian brown flycatcher -0.061 0.121 Asian koel -0.055 0.263 Asian paradise yfl catcher -0.162 -0.058 Barn swallow -0.029 0.118 Black hooded oriole -0.281 0.01 Black-headed munia 0.135 -0.126 Black-rumped flame back -0.268 -0.088 Blue tailed bee-eater -0.246 -0.152 Brahminy kite -0.018 0.257 Brown shrike -0.27 -0.11 Brown-breasted yfl catcher 0.135 -0.126 Brown-headed barbet -0.123 0.2 Cattle egret 0.135 -0.126 Common myna -0.235 -0.013 Common tailorbird -0.069 0.185 Crimson-fronted barbet -0.051 0.222 Feral pigeon 0.139 0.05 Forest wagtail -0.018 0.257 Great tit 0.007 0.269 Greater coucal 0.141 -0.165 Green imperial pigeon 0.071 0.071 House swift -0.278 -0.07 House crow 0.165 -0.183 Jungle crow 0.06 0.17 Lesser hill myna -0.221 0.112 Loten’s sunbird 0.012 0.227 Oriental white-eye -0.267 -0.08 Oriental magpie robin 0.13 0.051 Pale-billed flower pecker 0.013 0.22 Purple-rumped sunbird 0.082 0.19 Red-vented bulbul 0.12 -0.078 Rose-ringed parakeet -0.136 -0.063 Scaly-breasted munia -0.181 -0.221 Shikra 0.141 -0.165 Small minivet -0.018 0.257 white rumped munia -0.252 -0.048 Spotted dove -0.167 -0.164 White bellied drongo -0.063 -0.052 White throated kingfisher -0.227 0.038 Yellow billed babbler -0.136 0.187 (b) Eigenvalues PC Eigen values %Variation Cumulative % Variation 1 10.93 36 36 29.19 31 67 36.41 18.2 85.2 44.47 10.8 95.2 International Journal of Zoology 13 (c) Principal component scores Sample SCORE 1 SCORE 2 SCORE 3 SCORE 4 Saiba ground (Open ground) -7.315 -2.500 1.243 -0.075 Gym canteen premises (Low wooded) -0.030 -1.555 -2.884 0.030 Medical center area (Highly wooded) 1.374 1.191 -0.337 2.254 Mee amba sevana (Highly wooded) -0.498 5.843 2.771 0.585 Girls’ hostel complex (Low wooded) 3.655 -2.875 3.670 -2.808 Management and IT premises (Moderately wooded) 2.246 -0.756 -2.490 0.250 English language training unit (Moderately wooded) 1.355 -2.023 0.687 2.873 Thal weta premises (Low wooded) -0.788 2.674 -2.660 -3.110 due to resources partitioning. The linkage between occupying became relatively lower out of urban areas and became rapidly growing in urban and suburban areas [50, 51]. There of suitable niche space and species richness supports the evidence to draw conclusion and predictions on variation is high correlation between high pedestrian or urbanized of biodiversity [43]. In a given habitat, species richness is habitats in wildlife refuges and lower species richness and denoted by presence of range of resources, including finding abundance of endemic and migrant birds [52]. Besides, of foods and mechanisms to avoid predators. These resources diversity aspects of migrant birds and insectivore birds also are partitioned in between species to weaken the competition decline with higher percentage of the contiguous landscape raised among different species [44–46]. A research study covered by pavements, buildup areas coverage, and bare [43] reported that resources in the core of particular habitat grounds [49]. Therefore, the present study findings are proven are highly rich and exploitable by generalists compared to by the available literature. peripheral resources. This might be a factor for having higher Shannon-Weiner diversity index is a parameter used for degree of biodiversity in both Saiba ground and Mee amba comparing diversity between various habitats. It gives infor- mation on heterogeneity of habitat. It assumes that individu- sevana. Sampling habitats such as low wooded Girls’ Hostel als are randomly selected and all the species are represented complex and moderately wooded Management and IT area in the sample [53]. In addition, Pielou’s evenness index, which indicated lower values for species richness, Shannon-Weiner provides indication regarding evenness of species in a habitat, diversity, and Pielou’s evenness indices (Figures 4, 5, and 6). indicated that two highly wooded habitats, namely, Mee aba The main influential factor for this variation may be due to sevana and medical center area, hold the highest evenness the location of these habitats neighboring paved roads where values compared to all other habitats (Figure 5). These results people and moving motor vehicles are available. In partic- showed that higher wooded percentage accounts for higher ular, these two habitats are highly occupied by residential degree of heterogeneity and evenness of habitats. Availability undergraduates in the University of Kelaniya. u Th s, it may of numerous micro habitats on Mee amba sevana and medical generate a considerable magnitude of noise forcing avifaunal center area habitats may be the effective reason of increased species to avoid foraging, resting, and habitation. Increased heterogeneity and evenness. The study of [54] supported distance and traffic sounds from roads and highways, and the idea that vegetation cover is a major contributor for anthropogenic disturbances negatively correlate with abun- variation and change of species composition and diversity. dance and diversity of birds [47]. A study [48] supported this Fluctuation of number of birds in a habitat connected with finding suggesting two main reasons. Firstly, communication vegetation changes along some biological and environmental of birds for maintenance and establishment of territories may gradients. be aec ff ted by huge noise. This may interfere with intrapair PCA habitat categorization illustrated that Saiba ground and adult-young communication as well. Moreover, human was categorized by open grassland birds. Similarly, Mee aba noise may confuse individuals, making them more vulnerable sevana was characterized by frugivore birds while Girls’ to predation. Also, this may increase antipredator attention, Hostel complex was dominated by carnivorous birds which which could indirectly aec ff t bird reproductive rate [48]. can easily find their food items in that environment. Species In terms of species composition and habitat dispersal like crimson-fronted barbet, forest wagtail, lesser hill myna, status of birds in the total study area of University of and brown-headed barbet were more dependent on fruits Kelaniya, 80% of resident birds, 17.5% of migrants, and 2.5% and they are highly abundant in forests and canopies with of endemic birds were observed (Figure 2). The results of higher vegetation [33]. Additionally, they can be seen in present study mentioned that endemism has been greatly home gardens in common. As Mee aba sevana premises are aec ff ted by habitat alteration. As University of Kelaniya is enriched with higher vegetation cover, they facilitate higher located in an urban landscape, there is a higher possibility degree of habitations for those species. In Saiba ground, bird of encountering lower abundance of endemism among bird species such as Asian-paradise yfl catcher, brown shrike, and species. In general, community composition of birds in urban house swift are feeding on insects and many larvae of insects environment is represented by few migrant and insectivorous (insectivore) and are abundant in open lands and urban areas bird species while housing high omnivorous, resident, exotic, in common [33]. Since Saiba ground contains different micro and granivorous bird species [49]. The development effects habitats to feed and rest for several insectivorous birds in an 14 International Journal of Zoology open area, findings of the study correlate with those of [33]. community composition and structure of associated avifau- Carnivore birds species of cattle egret, shikra, greater coucal, nal species to change from development-sensitive species to house crow, and brown-breasted yc fl atcher were frequently well adapted generalists that tolerate development stressors [55]. recorded in Girls’ Hostel complex as they are inhabiting closer to human habitations and feed on small mammals like mice and lizards. Higher disposal of food and household waste 5. Conclusion from hostels might be the main cause for the attraction of those birds in this area which might lead to increase in their Birds are group of faunal species that are influenced by population because, in some places, garbage accumulated human attention. Therefore, some scenarios lead to reduction plots support food sources for birds such as house crows. in insectivore birds and total birds’ richness as a result Avifaunal species such as Asian-paradise yfl catcher, of anthropogenic disturbances. In more human-modified black-rumped flameback, cattle egret, feral pigeon, house urban land uses, less development-sensitive bird species can crow, pale-billed flowerpecker, small minivet, and white- be seen while there are larger number of individuals of rumped munia species were not significantly different in all birds in recreational trails in forest and grassland ecosys- the habitat types (p> 0.05, Kruskal-Wallis). The major reason tems. Reduction and control of human-modiefi d land uses for that may be they are widely available in ranges of habitat within a greener area will facilitate habitat for sensitive types. These bird species are common generalists in wide species for rapid development activities with large scale range of habitats. As most of these bird species can feed on disturbances. When constructions and developments are various types of food sources, they show their presence as conducted, vegetation and plants are cleared and removed more common in home gardens and other human-modified from the sites creating canopy gaps. This narrows down landscapes [55]. Further, the Asian brown yfl catcher was dis- and separates habitat connectivity of habitats, making more tributed in habitats of Saiba ground, medical center area, Mee sensitive species vulnerable and decreasing their population amba sevana,Girls’ Hostel complex,and English language size. The study claimed that there was a variation of species training unit (z> 0, Kruskal-Wallis, Minitab 14). Asian brown diversity parameters among dieff rent land use patterns. yfl catcher is less selective in its habitat. It seems partial to Conservation and management efforts should be oriented gardens and can be found even in densely populated localities toward protecting habitat and resources for development- where there are plenty of mature trees [55]. White-bellied sensitive species, such as migrants, insectivores, and forest drongo (Saiba ground, Thal weta premises, Mee amba sevana, specialists, during the modification of available land uses. Girls’ Hostel complex, and English language training unit) Most of birds inhabiting these areas are vulnerable to habitat was recorded as widely distributed within vfi e habitats out degradation due to loopholes in existing legal protection. In of selected eight habitats (z> 0, Kruskal-Wallis, Minitab 14). addition, community knowledge enhancements also should White-bellied drongo appears in forest as well as suburban be strengthened for a sustainable conservation of bird species areas. In addition, it is common to low lands [55]. while maintaining their ecological interactions. Future long- The second largest distribution was recorded by black- term studies are recommended covering migratory seasons hooded oriole, blue-tailed bee-eater, cattle egret, feral pigeon, and establishment of mimicable structures and landscapes brown-headed barbet, oriental magpie robin, purple-rumped during construction stages within the university premises. sunbird, red-vented bulbul, rose-ringed parakeet, and scaly- breasted munia within four habitats out of eight selected habitats (z> 0, Kruskal-Wallis, Minitab 14). Brown-headed Data Availability barbet is famous as a garden bird readily found even in heavily built-up areas where higher vegetative cover is observed. It The data used to support the findings of this study are favors feeding on fruits. The birds excavate a nesting burrow, available from the corresponding author upon request. usually high up on an old exposed branch or tree trunk, out of reach of most predators [55]. Purple-rumped sunbird Conflicts of Interest occurs in every garden in the suburbs, even in townships. They appear to have its resident pair [55]. Blue-tailed bee- The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest. eater small parties will even take up residence in the tall trees. It takes up position on a high perch from which it sallies after aerial insects [55]. Moreover, scaly-breasted munia is Authors’ Contributions more abundant in garden type habitats with vegetation. In addition rose-ringed parakeet also favors a habitat with P.A. B.G. Panagoda and H.W.G. A. S.Weerasinghe planned vegetation cover and higher availability of fruiting plants (z the study. B.K.A.Bellanthudawa, N. M. S.K.Nawalage,P. > 0, Kruskal-Wallis, Minitab 14). Black-hooded oriole is a A. B. G. Panagoda, H. W. G. A. S. Weerasinghe, L. K. D. bird which is very common and widespread, garden and N.Tharaka, H.K.A.D.Silva, and D.M.S. N.Dissanayake forest bird. It can be seen in the tree-lined streets. However, participated in sampling sites selection and data collection. B. due to its habits preference on tree tops, it is difficult to K. A. Bellanthudawa, N. M. S. K. Nawalage, S. Subanky, and locate [55]. Built-up areas and other physical developments in M. S. J. Abeywickrama analyzed the data and created graphs. modern urban landscapes increase the habitat isolation, frag- B. K. A. Bellanthudawa, N. M. S. K. Nawalage, and H. M. A. mentation, and development density. These changes cause K. Handapangoda compiled the manuscript. International Journal of Zoology 15 Acknowledgments [16] D. Palomino and L. Carrascal, “Threshold distances to nearby cities and roads influence the bird community of a mosaic Special thanks to Dr. (Mrs.) W. M. D. N. 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