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Comparison of the Nasal Olfactory Organs of Various Species of Lizardfishes (Teleostei: Aulopiformes: Synodontidae) with Additional Remarks on the Brain

Comparison of the Nasal Olfactory Organs of Various Species of Lizardfishes (Teleostei:... Hindawi Publishing Corporation International Journal of Zoology Volume 2010, Article ID 807913, 8 pages doi:10.1155/2010/807913 Research Article Comparison of the Nasal Olfactory Organs of Various Species of Lizardfishes (Teleostei: Aulopiformes: Synodontidae) with Additional Remarks on the Brain 1 2 3 1 L. Fishelson, D. Golani, B. Galil, and M. Goren Department of Zoology, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978, Israel Department of Evolution, Systematic, and Ecology, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem 91130, Israel National Institute of Oceanography, Shikmona, Haifa 31080, Israel Correspondence should be addressed to L. Fishelson, fishelv@post.tau.ac.il Received 7 March 2010; Revised 23 May 2010; Accepted 10 August 2010 Academic Editor: Marilyn Renfree Copyright © 2010 L. Fishelson et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. The olfactory organs of lizardfishes (Synodontidae) are situated in two capsules connected to the outside by incurrent and excurrent openings. The olfactory epithelium is in form of petal rosettes each composed of lamellae and a rephe, and bear olfactory receptor neurons, supporting cells and cells with kinocillia. The dimension of rosettes and lamellae, as well as the number of lamellae, increase with growth of the fish; until in adult fish these parameters remaine constant, species specific. In adult Synodus spp. and Trachinocephalus myops the rosettes are 3.5–4.0 mm long, with 5–8 lamellae, whereas in Saurida spp. they are 8.0 mm and possess up tp 22 lamellae. The number of ORN ranges from 2,600 on the smaller lamellae to 20,000 on the largest ones. The number of ORN/mm of olfactory is ca. 30,000 in Saurida spp. Thus the rosettes of S. macrolepis with 20 lamellae possess a total of ca. 170,000 ORN, whereas those of Sy. variegatus and T. myops with the average of six lamellae possess only ca. 50,000–65,000 ORN. The olfactory nerves lead from the rosettes to the olfactory balbs situated on the olfactory lobes. The differences among the species in olfactory organs are discussed in correlation with their distribution. 1. Introduction a knob-like swollen part; Type II sensory microvilli-bearing cells, often also with cilia on their exposed surfaces; Type III, Sensory organs responsible for olfaction in fish have been a special subtype of ciliated neurons, namely rod cells, which studied for almost two centuries [1–9, 20,and literature present an adhered group of cilia of a single neuron. Recently, therein]. Reviews of these studies were published by Doty a new type of the so-called “crypt cells” has been described [10], Hansen and Zielinski [11], and Valentinc¸ic [12], and in sharks [17] and teleosts [18], in which the sensory cilia are the evolution of these sensory organs was discussed by Zeiske situated in a neuronal crypt. Elongating at their basal region, and Hansen [13]. Several contributions to our understanding the ORNs form fibers that jointly constitute the olfactory of the specificity of odor recognition by the olfactory receptor nerves (ONs). In addition to the ORN, the OE includes neurons (ORNs) have also been made [14, 15]. Olfaction in basal cells, situated close to the basal membrane of this fish is mainly carried out within a pair of nasal cavities in epithelium, from which the other cell types can regenerate, the ethmoidal part of the head, which in ditrematous fishes as well as supporting cells. Water is transported in and out connects with the outside via two openings, the incurrent of the nasal capsules by kinocilia situated within the OE and recurrent nares. The olfactory epithelium (OE) develops or by constrictions of the muscles around the capsules. In from two ectodermic thickenings in front of the embryonic most fishes, the sensory epithelium forms petal-like folds neural tube [13, 16], and early on during embryogenesis (lamellae) in the nasal cavities found on either side of a this anlage differentiates into several types of ORN: Type I raphe, and together forming a sensory rosette [19]. Each dendrites bearing cilia on their apical surfaces attached to rosette lies within a cover of connective tissue, all surrounded 2 International Journal of Zoology by the nasal capsules. The ORN and supporting cells extend of Polard, E5100), and studied with a scanning electron over the surface of these lamellae. In numerous fishes, the microscope (JSM840A). The various measurements were base of the epithelium extends below the skin, forming a executed with a Digmatic microcaliber (Mitutoyo Comp.). miniature sack that is also possibly involved in the transport Counts of the ORN were executed with the aid of a dissecting of water across the sensory cells. microscope and SEM micrographs and included 10 sites each Fish with few lamellae on the rosettes as, for example, of 1000 μm from each organ (lamella). Also the volume blennies [20] are termed microsmatic while those with of the nasal capsules was calculated from microcaliber data numerous lamellae are termed macrosmatic. Most authors according to πr . Similarly, the relative dimensions of the agree that the number of lamellae and the number of sensory olfactory bulb, forebrain, and optic tectum were calculated cells on them reflect the sensory acuity of the fish [19, 21]. as a sphere, however, being ventrally flat, the results were The signals received by the cells of these organs are carried divided by two. via the ON to the olfactory bulb (OB), from where they continue via a pair of olfactory tracts (OTs), to the olfactory 3. Results lobes of the forebrain [20]. The position of OB relative to the sensory epithelium differs in different fishes; in some, 3.1. Olfactory Rosettes. Except for the genus Trachinoceph- for example, cyprinids, they are closely attached to the alus, all the heads of the studied lizardfishes are pointed, olfactory epithelium [22], whereas in others, as in cichlid with a terminal mouth that extends back to behind the fishes [20], the OB is closely attached to the olfactory lobe eyes (Figures 1(a), 1(b), and 1(c)). The head dorsa of Tra- of the forebrain. The length of the ON differs accordingly; chinocephalus and Synodus spp., beginning from a transverse in fishes with the OB attached to the olfactory epithelium supraoccipital ridge, is naked and rugose, bearing an intricate the ONs are almost invisible [22], whereas in those with and species-specific pattern of ridges, interspersed with lines the OB attached to the olfactory lobes, the ONs are long of pores of mucus cells (Figure 1(d)). In Saurida spp., the and the OTs are not prominent [20–22]. The present study dorsal cover of scales extends over the head. The nares of the compares the form and cytology of the nasal rosettes of studied fishes are situated close to the head apex, dorso lateral 12 species of lizardfishes (Synodontidae) from the Red Sea, on the head. The incurrent and recurrent openings of each eastern Mediterranean Sea, and near Hawaii and Taiwan in nare are in close proximity; the incurrent opening displays the Pacific Ocean (Table 1) with additional brief remarks on a small skin flap (Figure 1(e)). The volume of the nasal their brain. All these are benthic predatory fishes, usually capsules was ca. 3.0–5.5 mm ; they are situated between the resting on or partly concealed in the soft sediment, with only head apex and eyes (Figure 1(f)) supported by the premaxilla the upper head part, eyes, and nostrils exposed. They are and palatal bones, as well as an embedding dense mucous predators, ambushing passing fish and crustaceans. layer. In each nasal capsule, the olfactory epithelium forms the lamellations that constitute the olfactory rosettes described 2. Material and Methods in various fishes. The olfactory rosettes can be divided into The lizardfishes for the present study were collected at several groups by their gross morphology [23]. The rosettes depths of 10–300 m using various types of nets (hand nets, are attached ventrally, exposing dorsally the free endings of standing gill nets, beam trawl). Some of the specimens the olfactory lamellae (Figure 1(h)). The smallest rosettes, were fresh collected whereas others were given from good- of ca. 1.4 (±0.3) mm long, were seen in Trachinocephalus preserved museum collections (see Acknowledgment). All myops (Figure 1(i)), and the largest, 7.5 (±1.2) mm, in S. studied fish are listed in Table 1. To allow better penetration macrolepis (Figure 2(a)). In Saurida spp., the height of the of fixatives into the nasal organs and brain, the nasal lamellae is equal or almost equal to the side attached to organs were partly exposed in the freshly collected specimens the raphe whereas in Synodus spp. and Trachinocephalus during fixation. For light microscopy (LM), the samples were myops the attached side is often narrower than the free end fixed in 10% neutral formaldehyde (Frutarom, Israel) or (Figure 2(b)). Each lamella is formed by two layers of a 70% ethanol, and the sampled organs were embedded in pseudo stratified epithelium, between which blood capillar- Paraplast, from which 8 μm thick sections were made and ies and the neural filaments of the sensory cells are situated stained with crysol violet (Sigma) or Ehrlich Hemtoxylin- within the connective tissue. The neural filaments join and eosin. These sections were studied with a Leider microscope continue to form a bundle in the raphe (Figure 2(c)). Exiting equipped with a digital camera (Motic) attached to a PC. the nasal capsules, these bundles continue as two ca. 0.5 mm For electron microscopy (EM), some samples were fixed in thick olfactory nerves that extend toward the OB, on the 10% neutral formaldehyde or 3% glutaraldehyde (Fluka). forebrain (Figure 2(d) and insets 1, 2). For transmission electron microscopy (TEM), the samples The major intraspecific and interspecific differences in were postfixed in osmium tetroxide and embedded in Epon. the dimensions of the rosettes and the number of lamellae The ultra thin sections of these blocks were then stained with in each rosette of the studied lizardfish were found in fish of uranyl acetate and lead citrate and studied with an electron different standard body-length (S ) and in different species. microscope (JEOL-K 9). For scanning electron microscopy For example, Saurida macrolepis of 90 mm S bear 8 lamellae (SEM), the formaldehyde-fixed samples were passed along on each side of the raphe; those of 110 mm S bear 12 lamella; ascending grades of ethanol, saturated with C0 ,critically of 140 (±5) mm S bear14 lamella; of 180 (±8) mm S bear16 2 L L point dried with Balzer 11120, gold dusted (Sputter Counter lamellae, and in fish of 220 (±20) mm S each rosette bears L International Journal of Zoology 3 Table 1: Lizardfishes studied, locality of origin, and standard length (S + SD in mm.). Species name & author Site of collection No. fish studied S (mm) Sex Taiwan 7 140 (±20) M + F Saurida elongata (Temminck & Schlegel, 1846) Red Sea, Kosrae 8 160 (±9) M + F Saurida gracilis (Quoy & Gaimard, 1924) Mediterranean, Red S. 20 280 (±80) M + F Saurida macrolepis (Tanaka, 1917) Hawaii 1 109 F Saurida nebulosa (Valenciennes, 1850) Red Sea 7 220 (±60) M + F Saurida tumbil (Bloch, 1795) Tonga Is., Seychelles, Mozambique 8 90 (±50) M + F Synodus dermatogenis (Fowler, 1912) Hawaii 1 56 M Synodus falcatus (Waples & Randall, 1989) India (Kerala) 1 126 F Synodus indicus (Day,1873) Hawaii 2 155, 202 F Synodus kaianus (Guenther, 1880) Mediterranean Sea 4 180 (±15) M + F Synodus saurus (Linnaeus, 1758) Red Sea, Philippines, Natal (S. Africa) 26 150 (±80) M + F Synodus variegatus (Lacepode, 1803) Red Sea, Hawaii 8 175 (±45) M + F Trachinocephalus myops (Forster, 1801) (no differences were exposed between the sexes); SD, standard deviation. 19 (±1) lamellae on each side of the raphe. In the three distribution among the various species studied. For example, genera the lamellae also differ in their form (Figure 1(i) and in Synodus spp. and T. myops the ORNs form lines of Figures 2(a) and 2(b)). single-isolated or densely-packed cells, each with 10–20 cilia; A similar pattern was observed in S. tumbil. In contrast, similar cells are also partly situated between the microvillar in S. gracilis (of the same genus) of 65 mm S the rosettes cells (Figure 2(g)). In Saurida macrolepis and S. tumbil, bear 10 lamellae on each side of the raphe, and specimens of below the zone of microvilli extends a zone of ORNs, 102 mm S bear 22 lamellae (Figure 2(e)). In Synodus spp. each with 3–5 cilia, 0.2–0.25 μm thick and 6.0–8.0 μmlong, and T. myops, larger fishes of 180 (±30) mm S featured forming a mosaic at 8–10 μm intervals from each other only 7.0 (±2) lamellae on each side. One exception was Sy. (Figure 2(h)). In Saurida spp. other ORNs are irregularly falcatus from Hawaii, in which a specimen of 56 mm S and distributed between such ORNs, with cilia 0.15–0.20 μm a rosette of 0.8 mm in length already bore 9 lamellae. In thick and 6-7 μmlong(Figure 2(i)). Below this zone extends Sy. dermatogenis from Tonga the rosettes differ from all the a zone with sparsely distributed ORNs and a dense cover of other species in being round, with a miniature central raphe kinocilia, more delicate and longer than the cilia of the ORNs surrounded by 12 lamellae. Table 2 summarizes the data on (Figure 2(j)). the rosettes of the studied species. 3.2. Olfactory Lamellae. Each lamella of the olfactory rosette 3.3. Number of Olfactory Receptor Neurons on Lamellae. The is triangular in shape, with the base attached to a central density of ORN on the lamellae differs among the various raphe. The largest and widest-based lamella were observed species studied. Calculations show that in S. macrolepis the in 200 mm S Saurida macrolepis, 1.0 mm long and 0.4 mm surface of the largest lamellae covers ca. 0.24 mm and of wide at the base, and situated along the central part of the smallest that covers 0.05 mm . As the largest measured the raphe; while the narrowest lamellae were observed in rosettes of S. macrolepis bear ca. 20 lamellae, on each side of Synodus variegatus, being 1.0–1.3 mm long and 0.3 mm wide the raphe, with an average area of 0.15 mm ,suchrosettes at the base. In all instances, the smallest lamellae were always will cover a total of ca. 6.0 mm surface, in turn covered by found at the posterior end of the raphe. The cells forming ORN and supporting cells. Counts show that in Saurida,on the OE on the various sites of the lamellae differ in the the largest lamellae ca. 14,000–20,000 ORN can be found, structures of their exposed membranes. For example, over and around 1,200–1,600 on the smallest lamellae. As the the apical narrow frame, 60.0–70.0 μm wide, the exposed average number of observed ORN on such lamellae was ca. membranes of nonsensory cells are covered by the typical 30/1000 μm , this brings the total of ORN on all lamellae of microridge (fingerprint) patterns (Figure 2(f)), described for S. gracilis to ca. 105,000 and of S. macrolepis to ca. 180,000, skin surfaces and sensory lamellae of numerous fish groups whereas in the genera Synodus and Trachinocephalus it is no [20, 21]. In T. myops such microridged epithelium covers the higher than ca. 70,000. posterior part of the frame only, while the rest bears cells with In all the species studied the so-called olfactory lashes kinocilia. [24]orolfactory rods,aswellasunique olfactoryvela, Across this zone, on either side of the lamellae, extends were frequently found on several sites of the lamellae a ca. 90–100.0 μm wide zone with numerous microvillar (Figure 3(a)). These are in fact groups of cilia from a single ORNs, each with 90–100 2-3 μm long microvilli. At the ORN united into one organelle, round or flat, covered end of this zone the microvillar cells intermingle with externally by a mucous envelope. The number of such rods cilia-bearing ORNs, differing in the form and pattern of or vela per site differs among the species. 4 International Journal of Zoology (e) (a) an pn (b) (f) (c) (d) (g) in in (h) (i) ra cp ra Figure 1: The genera of the studied lizardfishes, the olfactory nares, and olfactory rosettes. (a) Trachinicephalus myops;(b) Synodus variegatus;(c) Saurida tumbil, scale bar = 1.5 cm; (d) dorsal skull surface of Trachinocephalus myops, scale bar = 4 cm; (e) external nares of Sy. variegatus, scale bar = 0.8 mm; (f) open nasal capsule of Sy. saurus, scale bar = 3 mm; (g) internal nares of Sy. variegatus, scale bar = 1.5 mm; (h) olfactory rosette of Sy. kaianus, scale bar = 4 mm; (i) One site of the olfactory rosette of T. myops, scale bar = 0.8 mm: an, anterior nare; c, olfactory capsule with rosette; cp, inner cover of olfactory capsule; e, eye; g, lines of mucus gland cells; in, inner nares; l, olfactory lamellae; o, deeper part of the olfactory capsule; p, anterior part of the palate; pn, posterior nare; r, ridges on the head; ra, raphe of rosette; t, teeth of upper jaw; star, passages for water transport; arrows, swollen margins of olfactory lamellae. International Journal of Zoology 5 (a) (b) ll ra sl rl (c) (d) nf nr or or nl on on (e) (f) (g) mi ra mr ci mi mi (h) (i) (j) osn mi mi kl mi osn Figure 2: Olfactory rosettes and their lamellae with olfactory neurons. (a) The olfactory rosette of Saurida macrolepis, scale bar = 0.8 mm; (b) lateral aspect of isolated lamellae of Synodus variegatus, scale bar = 100 μm; (c) longitudinal section of lamellae of S. gracilis, featuring olfactory fibers and nerve in the raphe, scale bar = 60 μm; (d) exposed brain, olfactory nerves and rosettes of S. tumbil, scale bar = 2.4 mm (inset 1, longitudinal section of the ON; inset 2, cross section of the same; scale bars = 100 μm, LM); (e) olfactory rosette of S. gracilis, scale bar = 1mm; (f) the rim of an olfactory lamella of Sy. variegatus, scale bar = 8 μm; (g) rows of ciliated cells on lamellae of the same, scale bar = 4 μm. (h)mosaicofORN on alamellaeof S. tumbil, scale bar = 12 μm; (i) isolated ORN of Trachinocephalus myops, scale bar = 2.6 μm; (j) Kinocilia-cells at the base of olfactory lamellae of S. macrolepis, scale bar = 4 μm. b, boundless of neural filaments; c, cilia of ORN; kl, kinocilia; l,olfactory lamellae; ll, largest lamella; mi, microvillar cells; mr, microridges on cell surfaces; nf, neural fibrille; nl, nerve-bundles in olfactory lamellae; nr, nerve branch in the raphe; on, olfactory nerve; or, olfactory rosettes; osn, cilia of olfactory sensory neurons; sl, smallest lamellae; ra, raphe of rosette; triangles, sensory epithelium (C and insets, LM; all other SEM). 6 International Journal of Zoology (a) (c) on ob mi tl ro mi to (b) or or cc crc on on (d) on ob re tl ob to tl cc to crc cc Figure 3: SEM of the brain and receptor cells. (a) Rod receptor and compound “vela” on lamellae of Trachinocephalus myops, scale bar = 2.5 μm; (b) brain and olfactory rosettes of Saurida tumbil, scale bar = 3.5 mm; (c) brain of T. myops, scale bar = 1cm; (d) ibid of Synodus variegatus, scale bar = 1cm. cc, cerebellum;crc, corpus cerebellis; l, eye lens; mi, microvillar cells; ob, olfactory bulb; on, olfactory nerve; or, olfactory rosettes; re, retina (part); ro, rode-like compound cilia; tl, telencephalon; to, optic tectum; v, “vela-like” compound cilia. International Journal of Zoology 7 Table 2: Dimensions of rosettes, number of lamellae, and approximate number of ORN on the largest of them (size in mm) in the studied lizardfishes. ∗∗ ∗ Species Largest fish (S)Smallestfish(S ) Largest rosette Smallest rosette No. of lamellae No. of ORN L L Saurida elongata 140 102 4.4 3.0 20 (±2) 14,000 Saurida gracilis 160 48 6.0 3.0 36 (±2) 16,000 Saurida macrolepis 230 90 6.5 3.2 40 (±10) 16,800 Saurida nebulosa 109 n/a 4.5 3.2 20 (±2) 14,000 Saurida tumbil 245 98 7.5 4.4 28 (±8) 20,000 Synodus dermatogenis 139 31 2.9 1.6 14 (±7) 12,000 Synodus falcatus 56 n/a 0.8 n/a 18 5,000 Synodus indicus 126 n/a 2.6 n/a 16 10,000 Synodus kaianus 202 155 4.8 4.0 18 (±4) 12,000 Synodus saurus 180 130 4.7 3.0 16 (±4) 12,600 Synodus variegatus 200 87 5.0 2.2 14 (±4) 7,600 Trachinocephalus myops 175 128 4.8 2.8 12 (±5) 10,200 ∗∗ ∗ on both sides of the raphe; on the largest lamella; n/a, not applicable. 3.4. Remarks on the Olfactory Bulb and Telencephalon. As side of the rosettes varies from 7 to 22, the central ones of stated earlier, two strong ONs extend from the olfactory which attain a maximum size of 7.5 × 3.0 mm. This increase rosettes to the olfactory bulb (OB) attached to the forebrain. in size of the rosettes and number of lamellae in larger The olfactory tracts of fibers that extend from the OB to specimens, as observed with the growth of the fish (Table 2), the brain are thus concealed (Figure 3(b)). The present study may increase the olfactory acuity of the fish [1, 19]. The small revealed that the dimensions of the OB and telencephalon sizes of olfactory rosettes in blennies and their larger sizes in (TE) in the lizardfishes are relatively small in comparison synodontids suggest that the sense of smell does not play an to the optic tectum. For example, the relatively small OB important role in the life of the former, unlike in the latter of Synodus variegatus is ca. 14% the size of the TE, and the group. The lizardfishes are active hunters, and it is possible TE is only 5.4–5.8% in volume that of the optic tectum; in that smell is involved not only in food detection. Saurida gracilis the OB is 6.2% of the optic tectum, and in S. Calculation of the apparent number of ORNs on the tumbil the OB is 8.8% of the optic tectum. Differences were larger lamellae of the studied fish revealed that in species also observed in the dimensions and forms of the brain in the of the genus Saurida, this number was always higher various species (Figure 3(c) and 3(d)). than in species of the other two genera (Table 2). For example, the highest number of ORN/largest lamellae was 20,000 in S. tumbil, and only 7,600 in Synodus variegatus. 4. Discussion Such differences were persistent in all the studied species. 2 2 Studies of olfaction in fish have shown that the various ORNs Calculated per mm , it reaches ca. 145,000 ORN/mm in are specialized for detection of various multiple odorants, S. tumbil, and 45,000/mm in Sy. variegatus. A similar and the sensitivity of the organ can be compared to that phenomenon was previously observed in species of blenny of the retina [11, 15]. Atema [4] was the first to state fishes: Salaria pavo possess ca. 55,000/mm on the lamellae, that “chemical pictures may not be essentially different whereas Heteroclinus perspicillatus of a similar size possess ca. from visual, mechanical, sound, or electrical pictures in 117, 000/mm [20]. These numbers of ORNs in lizardfishes containing specific information” (p. 61). In most instances, are relatively low compared to the 400,000–500,000/mm the studies on olfaction have focused on a single species of a in Xiphophorus and 460,000/mm in Oryzias [20]. The selected taxon, and only a few researches have compared the calculated number of ORNs in the largest rosettes of adult S. organization of these organs in a group of species from the macrolepis with 20 lamellae on each side of the rosette will same taxonomic unit, as, for example, Livingstone [25]in be ca. 300,000. This large number of ORNs could explain flatfishes, Fishelson [21] in cichlids, and Gon and Fishelson the relatively thick olfactory nerves that extend toward the [20] in blennies. OB (Figure 3). As argued [24, 26–28], in numerous fishes The studied lizardfishes are predators that, like other olfaction is also important in reproduction communication, larger predators, use visual signals to detect passing prey, and it is consequently possible that olfaction is also involved predominantly other fish. However, the results have shown in reproductive behavior in the lizardfishes. In the Gulf that, in addition, the lamellation of the olfactory epithelium of Aqaba, Red Sea (L.F. pers. observ.), several times in and the resulting receptor rosettes with ORN are relatively the shallow water of the Red Sea more colorful males of well developed. For example, in blennies, which feed on Synodus variegatus were occasionally observed to follow on benthic algae or small crustaceans, the rosettes possess 3-4 the bottom females with swollen abdomens at a distance of lamellae, and each rosette is 2.0 × 12.5 mm in size whereas in 15–25 cm. It seems that at this stage of reproductive behavior the studied synodontid fish the number of lamellae on each olfactory reception can play an important role. 8 International Journal of Zoology However, to determine whether such following is based K. Reutter and B. G. Kapoor, Eds., pp. 1–29, Science Publish- ers, Enfield, NH, USA, 2005. solely on vision or also on olfactory stimuli, additional field [14] J. L. Dynes and J. 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Publishers, Enfield, NH, USA, 2005. Gonc¸alves, P. H. A. Hastings, and B. G. Kapoor, Eds., pp. 353– 378, Science Publishers, Enfield, NH, USA, 2009. [10] R. L. Doty, Handbook of Olfaction and Gustation,Marcel Decker, New York, NY, USA, 2nd edition, 2003. [28] T. B. Cole and N. E. Stacey, “Olfactory responses to steroids in an African mouth-brooding cichlid, Haplochromis burtoni [11] A. Hansen and B. S. Zielinski, “Diversity in the olfactory epithelium of bony fishes: development, lamellar arrange- (Gunther), ¨ ” Journal of Fish Biology, vol. 68, no. 3, pp. 661–680, ment, sensory neuron cell types and transduction compo- nents,” JournalofNeurocytology, vol. 34, no. 3–5, pp. 183–208, [12] T. Valentinc¸ic, “Olfactory discrimination in fishes,” in Fish Chemosenses, K. Reutter and B. G. Kapoor, Eds., pp. 65–85, Science Publishers, Enfield, NH, USA, 2005. [13] E. Zeiske and A. 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Comparison of the Nasal Olfactory Organs of Various Species of Lizardfishes (Teleostei: Aulopiformes: Synodontidae) with Additional Remarks on the Brain

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Hindawi Publishing Corporation International Journal of Zoology Volume 2010, Article ID 807913, 8 pages doi:10.1155/2010/807913 Research Article Comparison of the Nasal Olfactory Organs of Various Species of Lizardfishes (Teleostei: Aulopiformes: Synodontidae) with Additional Remarks on the Brain 1 2 3 1 L. Fishelson, D. Golani, B. Galil, and M. Goren Department of Zoology, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978, Israel Department of Evolution, Systematic, and Ecology, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem 91130, Israel National Institute of Oceanography, Shikmona, Haifa 31080, Israel Correspondence should be addressed to L. Fishelson, fishelv@post.tau.ac.il Received 7 March 2010; Revised 23 May 2010; Accepted 10 August 2010 Academic Editor: Marilyn Renfree Copyright © 2010 L. Fishelson et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. The olfactory organs of lizardfishes (Synodontidae) are situated in two capsules connected to the outside by incurrent and excurrent openings. The olfactory epithelium is in form of petal rosettes each composed of lamellae and a rephe, and bear olfactory receptor neurons, supporting cells and cells with kinocillia. The dimension of rosettes and lamellae, as well as the number of lamellae, increase with growth of the fish; until in adult fish these parameters remaine constant, species specific. In adult Synodus spp. and Trachinocephalus myops the rosettes are 3.5–4.0 mm long, with 5–8 lamellae, whereas in Saurida spp. they are 8.0 mm and possess up tp 22 lamellae. The number of ORN ranges from 2,600 on the smaller lamellae to 20,000 on the largest ones. The number of ORN/mm of olfactory is ca. 30,000 in Saurida spp. Thus the rosettes of S. macrolepis with 20 lamellae possess a total of ca. 170,000 ORN, whereas those of Sy. variegatus and T. myops with the average of six lamellae possess only ca. 50,000–65,000 ORN. The olfactory nerves lead from the rosettes to the olfactory balbs situated on the olfactory lobes. The differences among the species in olfactory organs are discussed in correlation with their distribution. 1. Introduction a knob-like swollen part; Type II sensory microvilli-bearing cells, often also with cilia on their exposed surfaces; Type III, Sensory organs responsible for olfaction in fish have been a special subtype of ciliated neurons, namely rod cells, which studied for almost two centuries [1–9, 20,and literature present an adhered group of cilia of a single neuron. Recently, therein]. Reviews of these studies were published by Doty a new type of the so-called “crypt cells” has been described [10], Hansen and Zielinski [11], and Valentinc¸ic [12], and in sharks [17] and teleosts [18], in which the sensory cilia are the evolution of these sensory organs was discussed by Zeiske situated in a neuronal crypt. Elongating at their basal region, and Hansen [13]. Several contributions to our understanding the ORNs form fibers that jointly constitute the olfactory of the specificity of odor recognition by the olfactory receptor nerves (ONs). In addition to the ORN, the OE includes neurons (ORNs) have also been made [14, 15]. Olfaction in basal cells, situated close to the basal membrane of this fish is mainly carried out within a pair of nasal cavities in epithelium, from which the other cell types can regenerate, the ethmoidal part of the head, which in ditrematous fishes as well as supporting cells. Water is transported in and out connects with the outside via two openings, the incurrent of the nasal capsules by kinocilia situated within the OE and recurrent nares. The olfactory epithelium (OE) develops or by constrictions of the muscles around the capsules. In from two ectodermic thickenings in front of the embryonic most fishes, the sensory epithelium forms petal-like folds neural tube [13, 16], and early on during embryogenesis (lamellae) in the nasal cavities found on either side of a this anlage differentiates into several types of ORN: Type I raphe, and together forming a sensory rosette [19]. Each dendrites bearing cilia on their apical surfaces attached to rosette lies within a cover of connective tissue, all surrounded 2 International Journal of Zoology by the nasal capsules. The ORN and supporting cells extend of Polard, E5100), and studied with a scanning electron over the surface of these lamellae. In numerous fishes, the microscope (JSM840A). The various measurements were base of the epithelium extends below the skin, forming a executed with a Digmatic microcaliber (Mitutoyo Comp.). miniature sack that is also possibly involved in the transport Counts of the ORN were executed with the aid of a dissecting of water across the sensory cells. microscope and SEM micrographs and included 10 sites each Fish with few lamellae on the rosettes as, for example, of 1000 μm from each organ (lamella). Also the volume blennies [20] are termed microsmatic while those with of the nasal capsules was calculated from microcaliber data numerous lamellae are termed macrosmatic. Most authors according to πr . Similarly, the relative dimensions of the agree that the number of lamellae and the number of sensory olfactory bulb, forebrain, and optic tectum were calculated cells on them reflect the sensory acuity of the fish [19, 21]. as a sphere, however, being ventrally flat, the results were The signals received by the cells of these organs are carried divided by two. via the ON to the olfactory bulb (OB), from where they continue via a pair of olfactory tracts (OTs), to the olfactory 3. Results lobes of the forebrain [20]. The position of OB relative to the sensory epithelium differs in different fishes; in some, 3.1. Olfactory Rosettes. Except for the genus Trachinoceph- for example, cyprinids, they are closely attached to the alus, all the heads of the studied lizardfishes are pointed, olfactory epithelium [22], whereas in others, as in cichlid with a terminal mouth that extends back to behind the fishes [20], the OB is closely attached to the olfactory lobe eyes (Figures 1(a), 1(b), and 1(c)). The head dorsa of Tra- of the forebrain. The length of the ON differs accordingly; chinocephalus and Synodus spp., beginning from a transverse in fishes with the OB attached to the olfactory epithelium supraoccipital ridge, is naked and rugose, bearing an intricate the ONs are almost invisible [22], whereas in those with and species-specific pattern of ridges, interspersed with lines the OB attached to the olfactory lobes, the ONs are long of pores of mucus cells (Figure 1(d)). In Saurida spp., the and the OTs are not prominent [20–22]. The present study dorsal cover of scales extends over the head. The nares of the compares the form and cytology of the nasal rosettes of studied fishes are situated close to the head apex, dorso lateral 12 species of lizardfishes (Synodontidae) from the Red Sea, on the head. The incurrent and recurrent openings of each eastern Mediterranean Sea, and near Hawaii and Taiwan in nare are in close proximity; the incurrent opening displays the Pacific Ocean (Table 1) with additional brief remarks on a small skin flap (Figure 1(e)). The volume of the nasal their brain. All these are benthic predatory fishes, usually capsules was ca. 3.0–5.5 mm ; they are situated between the resting on or partly concealed in the soft sediment, with only head apex and eyes (Figure 1(f)) supported by the premaxilla the upper head part, eyes, and nostrils exposed. They are and palatal bones, as well as an embedding dense mucous predators, ambushing passing fish and crustaceans. layer. In each nasal capsule, the olfactory epithelium forms the lamellations that constitute the olfactory rosettes described 2. Material and Methods in various fishes. The olfactory rosettes can be divided into The lizardfishes for the present study were collected at several groups by their gross morphology [23]. The rosettes depths of 10–300 m using various types of nets (hand nets, are attached ventrally, exposing dorsally the free endings of standing gill nets, beam trawl). Some of the specimens the olfactory lamellae (Figure 1(h)). The smallest rosettes, were fresh collected whereas others were given from good- of ca. 1.4 (±0.3) mm long, were seen in Trachinocephalus preserved museum collections (see Acknowledgment). All myops (Figure 1(i)), and the largest, 7.5 (±1.2) mm, in S. studied fish are listed in Table 1. To allow better penetration macrolepis (Figure 2(a)). In Saurida spp., the height of the of fixatives into the nasal organs and brain, the nasal lamellae is equal or almost equal to the side attached to organs were partly exposed in the freshly collected specimens the raphe whereas in Synodus spp. and Trachinocephalus during fixation. For light microscopy (LM), the samples were myops the attached side is often narrower than the free end fixed in 10% neutral formaldehyde (Frutarom, Israel) or (Figure 2(b)). Each lamella is formed by two layers of a 70% ethanol, and the sampled organs were embedded in pseudo stratified epithelium, between which blood capillar- Paraplast, from which 8 μm thick sections were made and ies and the neural filaments of the sensory cells are situated stained with crysol violet (Sigma) or Ehrlich Hemtoxylin- within the connective tissue. The neural filaments join and eosin. These sections were studied with a Leider microscope continue to form a bundle in the raphe (Figure 2(c)). Exiting equipped with a digital camera (Motic) attached to a PC. the nasal capsules, these bundles continue as two ca. 0.5 mm For electron microscopy (EM), some samples were fixed in thick olfactory nerves that extend toward the OB, on the 10% neutral formaldehyde or 3% glutaraldehyde (Fluka). forebrain (Figure 2(d) and insets 1, 2). For transmission electron microscopy (TEM), the samples The major intraspecific and interspecific differences in were postfixed in osmium tetroxide and embedded in Epon. the dimensions of the rosettes and the number of lamellae The ultra thin sections of these blocks were then stained with in each rosette of the studied lizardfish were found in fish of uranyl acetate and lead citrate and studied with an electron different standard body-length (S ) and in different species. microscope (JEOL-K 9). For scanning electron microscopy For example, Saurida macrolepis of 90 mm S bear 8 lamellae (SEM), the formaldehyde-fixed samples were passed along on each side of the raphe; those of 110 mm S bear 12 lamella; ascending grades of ethanol, saturated with C0 ,critically of 140 (±5) mm S bear14 lamella; of 180 (±8) mm S bear16 2 L L point dried with Balzer 11120, gold dusted (Sputter Counter lamellae, and in fish of 220 (±20) mm S each rosette bears L International Journal of Zoology 3 Table 1: Lizardfishes studied, locality of origin, and standard length (S + SD in mm.). Species name & author Site of collection No. fish studied S (mm) Sex Taiwan 7 140 (±20) M + F Saurida elongata (Temminck & Schlegel, 1846) Red Sea, Kosrae 8 160 (±9) M + F Saurida gracilis (Quoy & Gaimard, 1924) Mediterranean, Red S. 20 280 (±80) M + F Saurida macrolepis (Tanaka, 1917) Hawaii 1 109 F Saurida nebulosa (Valenciennes, 1850) Red Sea 7 220 (±60) M + F Saurida tumbil (Bloch, 1795) Tonga Is., Seychelles, Mozambique 8 90 (±50) M + F Synodus dermatogenis (Fowler, 1912) Hawaii 1 56 M Synodus falcatus (Waples & Randall, 1989) India (Kerala) 1 126 F Synodus indicus (Day,1873) Hawaii 2 155, 202 F Synodus kaianus (Guenther, 1880) Mediterranean Sea 4 180 (±15) M + F Synodus saurus (Linnaeus, 1758) Red Sea, Philippines, Natal (S. Africa) 26 150 (±80) M + F Synodus variegatus (Lacepode, 1803) Red Sea, Hawaii 8 175 (±45) M + F Trachinocephalus myops (Forster, 1801) (no differences were exposed between the sexes); SD, standard deviation. 19 (±1) lamellae on each side of the raphe. In the three distribution among the various species studied. For example, genera the lamellae also differ in their form (Figure 1(i) and in Synodus spp. and T. myops the ORNs form lines of Figures 2(a) and 2(b)). single-isolated or densely-packed cells, each with 10–20 cilia; A similar pattern was observed in S. tumbil. In contrast, similar cells are also partly situated between the microvillar in S. gracilis (of the same genus) of 65 mm S the rosettes cells (Figure 2(g)). In Saurida macrolepis and S. tumbil, bear 10 lamellae on each side of the raphe, and specimens of below the zone of microvilli extends a zone of ORNs, 102 mm S bear 22 lamellae (Figure 2(e)). In Synodus spp. each with 3–5 cilia, 0.2–0.25 μm thick and 6.0–8.0 μmlong, and T. myops, larger fishes of 180 (±30) mm S featured forming a mosaic at 8–10 μm intervals from each other only 7.0 (±2) lamellae on each side. One exception was Sy. (Figure 2(h)). In Saurida spp. other ORNs are irregularly falcatus from Hawaii, in which a specimen of 56 mm S and distributed between such ORNs, with cilia 0.15–0.20 μm a rosette of 0.8 mm in length already bore 9 lamellae. In thick and 6-7 μmlong(Figure 2(i)). Below this zone extends Sy. dermatogenis from Tonga the rosettes differ from all the a zone with sparsely distributed ORNs and a dense cover of other species in being round, with a miniature central raphe kinocilia, more delicate and longer than the cilia of the ORNs surrounded by 12 lamellae. Table 2 summarizes the data on (Figure 2(j)). the rosettes of the studied species. 3.2. Olfactory Lamellae. Each lamella of the olfactory rosette 3.3. Number of Olfactory Receptor Neurons on Lamellae. The is triangular in shape, with the base attached to a central density of ORN on the lamellae differs among the various raphe. The largest and widest-based lamella were observed species studied. Calculations show that in S. macrolepis the in 200 mm S Saurida macrolepis, 1.0 mm long and 0.4 mm surface of the largest lamellae covers ca. 0.24 mm and of wide at the base, and situated along the central part of the smallest that covers 0.05 mm . As the largest measured the raphe; while the narrowest lamellae were observed in rosettes of S. macrolepis bear ca. 20 lamellae, on each side of Synodus variegatus, being 1.0–1.3 mm long and 0.3 mm wide the raphe, with an average area of 0.15 mm ,suchrosettes at the base. In all instances, the smallest lamellae were always will cover a total of ca. 6.0 mm surface, in turn covered by found at the posterior end of the raphe. The cells forming ORN and supporting cells. Counts show that in Saurida,on the OE on the various sites of the lamellae differ in the the largest lamellae ca. 14,000–20,000 ORN can be found, structures of their exposed membranes. For example, over and around 1,200–1,600 on the smallest lamellae. As the the apical narrow frame, 60.0–70.0 μm wide, the exposed average number of observed ORN on such lamellae was ca. membranes of nonsensory cells are covered by the typical 30/1000 μm , this brings the total of ORN on all lamellae of microridge (fingerprint) patterns (Figure 2(f)), described for S. gracilis to ca. 105,000 and of S. macrolepis to ca. 180,000, skin surfaces and sensory lamellae of numerous fish groups whereas in the genera Synodus and Trachinocephalus it is no [20, 21]. In T. myops such microridged epithelium covers the higher than ca. 70,000. posterior part of the frame only, while the rest bears cells with In all the species studied the so-called olfactory lashes kinocilia. [24]orolfactory rods,aswellasunique olfactoryvela, Across this zone, on either side of the lamellae, extends were frequently found on several sites of the lamellae a ca. 90–100.0 μm wide zone with numerous microvillar (Figure 3(a)). These are in fact groups of cilia from a single ORNs, each with 90–100 2-3 μm long microvilli. At the ORN united into one organelle, round or flat, covered end of this zone the microvillar cells intermingle with externally by a mucous envelope. The number of such rods cilia-bearing ORNs, differing in the form and pattern of or vela per site differs among the species. 4 International Journal of Zoology (e) (a) an pn (b) (f) (c) (d) (g) in in (h) (i) ra cp ra Figure 1: The genera of the studied lizardfishes, the olfactory nares, and olfactory rosettes. (a) Trachinicephalus myops;(b) Synodus variegatus;(c) Saurida tumbil, scale bar = 1.5 cm; (d) dorsal skull surface of Trachinocephalus myops, scale bar = 4 cm; (e) external nares of Sy. variegatus, scale bar = 0.8 mm; (f) open nasal capsule of Sy. saurus, scale bar = 3 mm; (g) internal nares of Sy. variegatus, scale bar = 1.5 mm; (h) olfactory rosette of Sy. kaianus, scale bar = 4 mm; (i) One site of the olfactory rosette of T. myops, scale bar = 0.8 mm: an, anterior nare; c, olfactory capsule with rosette; cp, inner cover of olfactory capsule; e, eye; g, lines of mucus gland cells; in, inner nares; l, olfactory lamellae; o, deeper part of the olfactory capsule; p, anterior part of the palate; pn, posterior nare; r, ridges on the head; ra, raphe of rosette; t, teeth of upper jaw; star, passages for water transport; arrows, swollen margins of olfactory lamellae. International Journal of Zoology 5 (a) (b) ll ra sl rl (c) (d) nf nr or or nl on on (e) (f) (g) mi ra mr ci mi mi (h) (i) (j) osn mi mi kl mi osn Figure 2: Olfactory rosettes and their lamellae with olfactory neurons. (a) The olfactory rosette of Saurida macrolepis, scale bar = 0.8 mm; (b) lateral aspect of isolated lamellae of Synodus variegatus, scale bar = 100 μm; (c) longitudinal section of lamellae of S. gracilis, featuring olfactory fibers and nerve in the raphe, scale bar = 60 μm; (d) exposed brain, olfactory nerves and rosettes of S. tumbil, scale bar = 2.4 mm (inset 1, longitudinal section of the ON; inset 2, cross section of the same; scale bars = 100 μm, LM); (e) olfactory rosette of S. gracilis, scale bar = 1mm; (f) the rim of an olfactory lamella of Sy. variegatus, scale bar = 8 μm; (g) rows of ciliated cells on lamellae of the same, scale bar = 4 μm. (h)mosaicofORN on alamellaeof S. tumbil, scale bar = 12 μm; (i) isolated ORN of Trachinocephalus myops, scale bar = 2.6 μm; (j) Kinocilia-cells at the base of olfactory lamellae of S. macrolepis, scale bar = 4 μm. b, boundless of neural filaments; c, cilia of ORN; kl, kinocilia; l,olfactory lamellae; ll, largest lamella; mi, microvillar cells; mr, microridges on cell surfaces; nf, neural fibrille; nl, nerve-bundles in olfactory lamellae; nr, nerve branch in the raphe; on, olfactory nerve; or, olfactory rosettes; osn, cilia of olfactory sensory neurons; sl, smallest lamellae; ra, raphe of rosette; triangles, sensory epithelium (C and insets, LM; all other SEM). 6 International Journal of Zoology (a) (c) on ob mi tl ro mi to (b) or or cc crc on on (d) on ob re tl ob to tl cc to crc cc Figure 3: SEM of the brain and receptor cells. (a) Rod receptor and compound “vela” on lamellae of Trachinocephalus myops, scale bar = 2.5 μm; (b) brain and olfactory rosettes of Saurida tumbil, scale bar = 3.5 mm; (c) brain of T. myops, scale bar = 1cm; (d) ibid of Synodus variegatus, scale bar = 1cm. cc, cerebellum;crc, corpus cerebellis; l, eye lens; mi, microvillar cells; ob, olfactory bulb; on, olfactory nerve; or, olfactory rosettes; re, retina (part); ro, rode-like compound cilia; tl, telencephalon; to, optic tectum; v, “vela-like” compound cilia. International Journal of Zoology 7 Table 2: Dimensions of rosettes, number of lamellae, and approximate number of ORN on the largest of them (size in mm) in the studied lizardfishes. ∗∗ ∗ Species Largest fish (S)Smallestfish(S ) Largest rosette Smallest rosette No. of lamellae No. of ORN L L Saurida elongata 140 102 4.4 3.0 20 (±2) 14,000 Saurida gracilis 160 48 6.0 3.0 36 (±2) 16,000 Saurida macrolepis 230 90 6.5 3.2 40 (±10) 16,800 Saurida nebulosa 109 n/a 4.5 3.2 20 (±2) 14,000 Saurida tumbil 245 98 7.5 4.4 28 (±8) 20,000 Synodus dermatogenis 139 31 2.9 1.6 14 (±7) 12,000 Synodus falcatus 56 n/a 0.8 n/a 18 5,000 Synodus indicus 126 n/a 2.6 n/a 16 10,000 Synodus kaianus 202 155 4.8 4.0 18 (±4) 12,000 Synodus saurus 180 130 4.7 3.0 16 (±4) 12,600 Synodus variegatus 200 87 5.0 2.2 14 (±4) 7,600 Trachinocephalus myops 175 128 4.8 2.8 12 (±5) 10,200 ∗∗ ∗ on both sides of the raphe; on the largest lamella; n/a, not applicable. 3.4. Remarks on the Olfactory Bulb and Telencephalon. As side of the rosettes varies from 7 to 22, the central ones of stated earlier, two strong ONs extend from the olfactory which attain a maximum size of 7.5 × 3.0 mm. This increase rosettes to the olfactory bulb (OB) attached to the forebrain. in size of the rosettes and number of lamellae in larger The olfactory tracts of fibers that extend from the OB to specimens, as observed with the growth of the fish (Table 2), the brain are thus concealed (Figure 3(b)). The present study may increase the olfactory acuity of the fish [1, 19]. The small revealed that the dimensions of the OB and telencephalon sizes of olfactory rosettes in blennies and their larger sizes in (TE) in the lizardfishes are relatively small in comparison synodontids suggest that the sense of smell does not play an to the optic tectum. For example, the relatively small OB important role in the life of the former, unlike in the latter of Synodus variegatus is ca. 14% the size of the TE, and the group. The lizardfishes are active hunters, and it is possible TE is only 5.4–5.8% in volume that of the optic tectum; in that smell is involved not only in food detection. Saurida gracilis the OB is 6.2% of the optic tectum, and in S. Calculation of the apparent number of ORNs on the tumbil the OB is 8.8% of the optic tectum. Differences were larger lamellae of the studied fish revealed that in species also observed in the dimensions and forms of the brain in the of the genus Saurida, this number was always higher various species (Figure 3(c) and 3(d)). than in species of the other two genera (Table 2). For example, the highest number of ORN/largest lamellae was 20,000 in S. tumbil, and only 7,600 in Synodus variegatus. 4. Discussion Such differences were persistent in all the studied species. 2 2 Studies of olfaction in fish have shown that the various ORNs Calculated per mm , it reaches ca. 145,000 ORN/mm in are specialized for detection of various multiple odorants, S. tumbil, and 45,000/mm in Sy. variegatus. A similar and the sensitivity of the organ can be compared to that phenomenon was previously observed in species of blenny of the retina [11, 15]. Atema [4] was the first to state fishes: Salaria pavo possess ca. 55,000/mm on the lamellae, that “chemical pictures may not be essentially different whereas Heteroclinus perspicillatus of a similar size possess ca. from visual, mechanical, sound, or electrical pictures in 117, 000/mm [20]. These numbers of ORNs in lizardfishes containing specific information” (p. 61). In most instances, are relatively low compared to the 400,000–500,000/mm the studies on olfaction have focused on a single species of a in Xiphophorus and 460,000/mm in Oryzias [20]. The selected taxon, and only a few researches have compared the calculated number of ORNs in the largest rosettes of adult S. organization of these organs in a group of species from the macrolepis with 20 lamellae on each side of the rosette will same taxonomic unit, as, for example, Livingstone [25]in be ca. 300,000. This large number of ORNs could explain flatfishes, Fishelson [21] in cichlids, and Gon and Fishelson the relatively thick olfactory nerves that extend toward the [20] in blennies. OB (Figure 3). As argued [24, 26–28], in numerous fishes The studied lizardfishes are predators that, like other olfaction is also important in reproduction communication, larger predators, use visual signals to detect passing prey, and it is consequently possible that olfaction is also involved predominantly other fish. However, the results have shown in reproductive behavior in the lizardfishes. In the Gulf that, in addition, the lamellation of the olfactory epithelium of Aqaba, Red Sea (L.F. pers. observ.), several times in and the resulting receptor rosettes with ORN are relatively the shallow water of the Red Sea more colorful males of well developed. For example, in blennies, which feed on Synodus variegatus were occasionally observed to follow on benthic algae or small crustaceans, the rosettes possess 3-4 the bottom females with swollen abdomens at a distance of lamellae, and each rosette is 2.0 × 12.5 mm in size whereas in 15–25 cm. It seems that at this stage of reproductive behavior the studied synodontid fish the number of lamellae on each olfactory reception can play an important role. 8 International Journal of Zoology However, to determine whether such following is based K. Reutter and B. G. Kapoor, Eds., pp. 1–29, Science Publish- ers, Enfield, NH, USA, 2005. solely on vision or also on olfactory stimuli, additional field [14] J. L. Dynes and J. 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