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Comparative Evaluations of Selected Pigeon Pea (Cajanus cajan) Genotypes for Biomass Yield, Nutrient Composition, and Dry Matter Intake under Diverse Locations of Tropical Africa

Comparative Evaluations of Selected Pigeon Pea (Cajanus cajan) Genotypes for Biomass Yield,... Hindawi Advances in Agriculture Volume 2021, Article ID 5516662, 5 pages https://doi.org/10.1155/2021/5516662 Research Article Comparative Evaluations of Selected Pigeon Pea (Cajanus cajan) Genotypes for Biomass Yield, Nutrient Composition, and Dry Matter Intake under Diverse Locations of Tropical Africa Abuye Tulu , Mekonnen Diribsa, Gutu Fekede, Worku Temesgen, Wakgari Keba, and Alemayehu Kumsa Oromia Agricultural Research Institute, Bako Agricultural Research Center, P.O. Box 03, Bako, Ethiopia Correspondence should be addressed to Abuye Tulu; armdilla@gmail.com Received 19 February 2021; Revised 14 September 2021; Accepted 16 September 2021; Published 23 September 2021 Academic Editor: Mirza Hasanuzzaman Copyright © 2021 Abuye Tulu et al. )is is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Feeding standards of ruminant livestock could be significantly enhanced through the cultivation of improved quality forages, which are suitable for different agroclimatic conditions in tropical Africa. In this frame, ten pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) genotypes were evaluated across three locations in western Ethiopia during the 2014 and 2015 cropping seasons using a randomized complete block design with three replications. )e study was designed to determine the nutrient composition, in vitro digestibility, and dry matter intake of selected pigeon pea genotypes. )e result revealed that the studied quality parameters were significantly influenced by the genotypic and environmental main effects but not their interaction, while forage yield was influenced by both main effects and their interaction. Mean forage yield was greater for Degagsa across all locations followed by Belabas. In vitro organic matter digestibility and ash parameters did not vary among genotypes. However, variations were observed across lo- cations for daily dry matter intake (DMI) and crude protein (CP) with the greatest value received from Degagsa and Belabas. )e fiber components of Degagsa and Belabas were less than those of the remaining genotypes. Generally, Degagsa and Belabas had shown a greater forage yield, DMI, and CP content, but less in fiber components, and thus can be cultivated to enhance livestock productivity in western Ethiopia and similar agroecologies of tropical Africa. Supplementation of low-quality feeds with legumi- 1. Introduction nous forage in ruminant diets can potentially be con- )e ruminant livestock production system is hindered by sidered for use to offset limitations associated with low inadequacy and low quality of feed. A high level of pro- feed quality in systems where livestock are increasingly ductivity cannot be obtained since the tropical grasses which becoming dependent on low-quality roughages [4]. In this are usually fed to this livestock are inherently low in protein regard, the effective use of leguminous forage crops as an [1]. Likewise, the cereal straws and native grass hay com- alternative source of protein in livestock feeding has become an urgent research topic globally. A lot of research monly used as a roughage feed source for dairy animals in the present study area were observed to contain considerably studies on the introduction and evaluation of leguminous low CP, in vitro organic matter digestibility, and higher forage species have been performed extensively. Pigeon levels of detergent fibers [2]. When fed alone, these char- pea species are one of the potential forage legumes being acteristics of the feeds lead to a slow rate at which feed extensively evaluated under the agroecology of tropical particles break down to a size that can leave the rumen and Africa. result in low total digestibility of nutrients [3]. )is suggests In these forage legume evaluation programs, much at- the need for additional protein supplementation for efficient tention has been given to the evaluation of their biomass utilization of the basal feed resources and subsequent bet- yielding potential and environmental adaptation. Infor- terment of livestock production in the country. mation on their nutrient composition and digestibility 2 Advances in Agriculture potential, however, is rarely addressed. Getachew et al. and 2.4. Chemical Analysis and Calculated Measurements. Diriba et al. [5, 6] revealed that a database on nutrient Nitrogen content was analyzed according to the AOAC- composition and nutritional value of promising forages is 984.13 [7] procedure. Crude protein was estimated by one of the basic technical inputs required to design strategies multiplying the N value by a factor of 6.25. Neutral detergent for alleviating poor nutrition and optimizing the utilization fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), and acid detergent of available low-quality feed resources. )us, to properly lignin (ADL) were analyzed using the procedures of Van balance the use of pigeon pea in ruminant nutrition, there is Soest et al. [8]. )e in vitro organic matter digestibility a need for an adequate understanding of the nutrient (IVOMD) was determined using the Tilley and Terry [9] availability from this forage species. )erefore, keeping in method. Potential daily dry matter intake (DMI) was also view the scarcity of quality fodder and the necessity of calculated as DMI: 1.2 × body weight/NDF% [10], where characterizing the nutrient profile of pigeon pea genotypes body weight is equivalent to an estimated livestock unit to identify the most proper genotypes for ruminants, the metabolic weight of 450 kg. current study was undertaken with the objectives to evaluate the dry matter intake, nutrient composition, and in vitro 2.5. Data Analysis. Analysis of variance following the digestibility of selected pigeon pea genotypes under the general linear model procedure of SAS [11] version 9.3 was agroclimatic conditions of tropical Africa. used for data analysis. Herbage DM yield was analyzed for the main effects of the genotype and environment 2. Materials and Methods (year × location) and their interaction with replicate × year × location, while quality traits were analyzed 2.1. Study Locations. )e experiment was conducted during for the main effects of the genotype and environment with the years 2014 and 2015 at three locations (Bako, Gute, and year as the blocking factor. Means were separated using the Chewaka) located in subhumid areas of western Oromia, least significant difference at a 5% level of significance. Ethiopia. Descriptions of the test locations are indicated in Table 1. 3. Results and Discussion 3.1. Herbage Dry Matter Yield. )e result from the analysis of 2.2. Experimental Design and Treatments. A total of thirty variance for herbage dry matter yield of the 10 pigeon pea plots of 4 × 3 m were established on 1 June 2014 across genotypes over the three sites is shown in Table 2. Herbage locations (Bako, Gute, and Chewaka, Ethiopia). )e geno- DM yield was significantly affected by the genotype, loca- types tested in the current study were ILRI 16274, ILRI tion, and year with a significant interaction, so data for 16277, ILRI 16520, ILRI 16524, ILRI 16526, ILRI 16528, ILRI individual locations in each year are presented. )e result 16555, ILRI 16527, ILRI 11575, and Tsigab (check). Among revealed that, for the environmental grouping, the lowest the genotypes tested, Tsigab was already registered as a mean herbage DM yield was recorded in 2014 at the Bako variety and thus used as a standard check for performance location, while the higher was received in 2015 at the comparison against the genotypes evaluated in the present Chewaka location (Table 2). Concerning the genotypic ef- study, whereas genotypes ILRI 16527 and ILRI 11575 (to be fect, the lower mean herbage DM yield was observed for referred hereafter as Belabas and Degagsa, respectively) were ILRIL 16528, while the highest was recorded for Degagsa verified against the check in 2016 and thus registered as a −1 followed by Belabas, with a mean value of 4.32 t ha . For variety. )e experiment was set up using a randomized combined analysis, however, the highest mean herbage DM complete block design with three replications. In each plot, −1 yield t ha was obtained from Degagsa in 2014, while the seeds of the designated pigeon pea genotype were planted in lower mean value was recorded from ILRI 16526 in 2014. In a row at spacing of 1 m and 0.5 m between the row and agreement with the present study result, significant differ- plants, respectively. Diammonium phosphate (DAP) fer- ences in DM yield have been observed previously among 6 tilizer was applied to all plots during plantation at a rate of −1 accessions of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) evaluated 100 kg ha . for the agroecological difference across five locations in lowlands of southern Ethiopia [12]. Ilknur et al. [13] also 2.3. Herbage Dry Matter Yield. )e two inner rows were reported that a significant variation in DM yield was ob- manually harvested by hand using a sickle leaving a stubble served among nine cowpea genotypes tested across two height of 5 cm at 50% flowering stages for herbage dry matter environments. yield estimation. )e fresh weight of the cut biomass was )e herbage DM yield observed in the present study was measured just after mowing with a suspended field balance. lower than the finding reported by Debela et al. [14] who )en, composited samples of 200 g per treatment were taken studied the forage yield and quality of five pigeon pea ge- from each location and experimental year, weighed, and notypes under the agroecology of southwestern Ethiopia. oven-dried at 65 C for 72 hrs until a constant weight was )is variation might be attributed to the difference in the obtained to determine the herbage dry matter (DM) content genetic potential of the genotypes studied and agroecologies and yield. )ese subsamples were then ground to pass where the studies were carried out. In conformity to the through a 1 mm sieve screen size for the chemical analysis of current finding, herbage DM yield ranging from 4.4 to 5 t −1 quality traits. ha was reported by Alexander et al. [15] who evaluated the Advances in Agriculture 3 Table 1: Geographical description of the test locations in tropical western Ethiopia. Test locations Parameters Bako Chewaka Gute ° ° ° Latitude 9 06′N 09 98285′N 9 01′N ° ° ° Longitude 37 09′E 036 11703′E 36 40′E Altitude (masl) 1650 1259 1880 Average annual rainfall (mm) 1431 1600 2067 Average minimum temperature ( C) 11.23 18 12.2 Average maximum temperature ( C) 31.74 32 27.9 Soil type Sandy clay Sandy loam Clay loam (60%), sandy soil (35%), and clay (5%) )e annual mean rainfall, mean minimum, and maximum temperature for the Chewaka location were reported from Diga district located at a distance of about 15 km. −1 Table 2: Herbage dry matter yield (t ha ) of the selected ten pigeon pea genotypes tested at three locations in Ethiopia. 2014 2015 Genotypes Mean Bako Chewaka Gute Bako Chewaka Gute efg cd bc f c e ef ILRI 16274 2.69 4.99 3.57 2.66 3.37 2.85 3.35 ef dc b de c e e ILRI 16277 2.80 4.48 4.62 3.22 3.58 2.93 3.61 fg bc bc ef c e ef ILRI 16520 2.57 5.27 3.80 2.77 3.27 2.78 3.41 fg d c cd c e f ILRI 16524 2.56 3.84 2.91 3.71 3.53 2.70 3.21 g cd bc cd c e ef ILRI 16526 2.33 4.53 3.53 3.60 3.31 2.97 3.38 e cd c f c e f ILRI 16528 3.01 4.89 2.91 2.57 2.96 2.64 3.16 c b a b b c c ILRI 16555 4.30 6.47 5.96 5.01 6.21 4.73 5.45 b a a a ab b b Belabas 5.53 8.16 6.46 5.80 6.95 5.51 6.40 a a a a a a a Degagsa 6.39 9.00 7.25 6.27 7.86 6.52 7.22 d bc bc c c d d Tsigab 3.86 5.42 3.71 3.91 3.90 3.59 4.07 Mean 3.61 5.71 4.47 3.95 4.49 3.72 4.32 LSD 0.39 1.23 1.29 0.48 1.03 0.44 0.39 CV (%) 6.32 12.6 16.77 7.14 13.32 6.89 13.55 P value <0.0001 <0.0001 <0.0001 <0.0001 <0.0001 <0.0001 <0.0001 Values are the means of three replicates in each year at each location. P values for the main effects of the genotype (G), environment (E � year × location), and a,b,c,d,e,f,g G × E interaction are 0.0001, 0.0001, and 0.0098, respectively. Means within a row with different superscripts differ significantly (P< 0.05). LSD: least significant difference; ILRI: International Livestock Research Institute, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. variation in forage yield and quality traits of 200 pigeon pea )e CP values found in the current study (Table 3) agree lines under the agroecology of Patancheru, India. with the CP content of leguminous forage crops reported in various literature studies for selected browse plants [17], Lablab purpureus species [18], and Centrosema species [6], 3.2. Quality Features and Daily Dry Matter Intake. Mean but greater than for some legume plant species derived from nutrient composition of the ten pigeon pea genotypes Egyptian rangeland reported by Mahmoud et al. [19]. In tested across three locations is shown in Table 3. Except for addition to genetic variability, differences in CP between this ash and IVOMD, the remaining quality parameters were and other studies may be attributed to differences in rainfall, significantly influenced by the main effects of the location, soil fertility, forage harvesting stage, and other climatic while environmental main effects had shown a significant conditions in which the studies were carried out. influence for CP, ash, daily DM intake, and fiber constit- Except for Degagsa and Belabas, which contained NDF −1 uents, but not for IVOMD. None of the studied quality falling within the range of 400 to 460 g kg DM to be rated traits were influenced as a result of the interaction between as having a first-grade quality standard as reported by the environment and genotypes; thus, combined analysis Kazemi et al. [20], the remaining genotypes conform to the −1 was employed for studied quality traits. )e greatest CP value ranging from 450 to 650 g kg DM (Table 3) to be concentration occurred in Degagsa, followed by Belabas, classified as medium-quality feeds [21]. Irrespective of the Tsigab (control), and ILRI 16555, while the remaining remaining genotypes tested in the present study, the ADF genotypes had the least CP value (Table 3). )e CP content content of Degagsa and Belabas genotypes falls within the −1 of all the studied pigeon pea genotypes was higher than the range of 310 to 400 g kg DM, where browse substrate is minimum threshold value of 15% required to support regarded as having a first-grade quality standard and is lactation and growth in dairy cows [16], suggesting the expected to be digestible without negatively influencing the adequacy of all the studied genotypes to supplement ru- bioavailability of CP [20]. )e mean ADL content of the ten minants based on predominantly low-quality pasture and pigeon pea genotypes across the study location (Table 3) is crop residue [2, 3]. nearly comparable to the results reported by Hunegnaw and 4 Advances in Agriculture Table 3: Combined analysis of variance for quality parameters and daily dry matter intake of the selected ten pigeon pea genotypes tested across three environments (locations) in Ethiopia. Genotypes CP Ash NDF ADF ADL IVOMD DMI cd a a b b ILRI 16274 191.5 97.7 573.3 415.3 189 519.4 9.5 d a a ab b ILRI 16277 189.8 101.1 585.3 392.2 195.3 519.3 10.3 bcd ab a b b ILRI 16520 200.4 92.0 549.9 403.1 189.8 516.7 10.5 bcd ab a ab b ILRI 16524 198.9 94.9 550.7 409.1 194.6 515.9 9.9 bcd a a ab b ILRI 16526 200.3 99.6 578.9 408.6 203.1 518.8 9.3 bcd a a ab b ILRI 16528 198.0 97.1 582.8 407.5 200.3 516.5 9.3 b b a a b ILRI 16555 205.3 99.1 518.7 406.7 207.1 522.9 10.5 bc c b c a Belabas 201.6 98.7 440.7 326.0 164.6 519.0 12.6 a c b c a Degagsa 220.8 93.5 437.5 322.2 170.1 525.7 12.6 b b a ab b Tsigab 203.2 94.5 506.9 391.9 194.3 520.2 10.7 Mean 201 96.8 532.5 388.3 190.8 519.5 10.5 LSD 11.3 0.96 47.9 24.1 1.5 9.9 1.63 CV 5.96 10.53 9.53 6.58 8.34 2.03 16.43 P values Genotype (G) 0.0002 0.5201 <0.0001 <0.00011 <0.0001 0.6767 0.0002 Environment (E) <0.0001 0.0192 0.0043 0.0001 <0.0001 0.6867 0.0833 G ∗ E 0.9772 0.1045 0.2287 0.5559 0.1912 0.9943 0.5144 a,b,c,d Values are the means of two years as replicates. Means within a row with different superscripts differ significantly (P< 0.05). CP: crude protein; NDF: neutral detergent fiber; ADF: acid detergent fiber; ADL: acid detergent lignin; IVOMD: in vitro organic matter digestibility; DMI: dry matter intake; LSD: least significant difference; CV: coefficient of variation; ILRI: International Livestock Research Institute, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Berhan [22] and Netsanet and Yonatan [23], but lower than Data Availability the findings reported by Solomon et al. [24]. )e data supporting the findings of this study are available Maximum daily dry matter intake (DMI) is a very im- from the corresponding author upon request. portant factor in ensuring the release of adequate nutrients for maintenance and production. Considerable variations in DMI were observed among the pigeon pea genotypes studied Conflicts of Interest in the current study. )e value for DMI was higher for )e authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest. Degagsa and Belabas over the remaining genotypes, which might be most probably related to their lower fiber content leading to a fast rate of passage through the rumen and Acknowledgments enhanced the ability of ruminants to consume sufficient )e authors would like to thank the animal feed research forage to meet nutrient requirements [25]. Similar findings team technical staff of Bako Agricultural Research Center for were also reported by Hilda et al. [17], reporting that daily their assistance in data collection and facilitating routine dry matter intake for three browse species (M. oleifera, field management activities. Oromia Agricultural Research L. leucocephala, and M. azedarach) was high because of the Institute is also highly acknowledged for funding this re- low neutral and acid detergent fiber content. search work. 4. Conclusion References )e present study demonstrated that a considerable [1] A. Nurfeta, “Digestibility and nitrogen utilization in sheep fed variation among the pigeon pea genotypes tested across enset (Ensete ventricosum) pseudostem or corm and graded three locations was observed for herbage dry matter yield levels of Desmodium intortum hay to wheat straw-based di- and most of the studied forage quality traits. )is variation ets,” Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition, indicates the potential for selecting superior pigeon pea vol. 94, no. 6, pp. 773–779, 2010. [2] G. Diriba, H. Mekonnen, M. Ashenafi, and T. Adugna, genotypes to be used as supplements to low-quality feed “Nutritive value of selected browse and herbaceous forage resources. In general, taking into consideration the forage legumes adapted to medium altitude sub-humid areas of yield, daily dry matter intake potential, and most of the western Oromia, Ethiopia,” Global Veterinaria, vol. 11, nutrient composition, it was observed that genotypes pp. 809–816, 2013. Degagsa and Belabas outperformed the rest of the can- [3] P. McDonald, R. A. Edwards, J. F. D. Greenhalgh, and didate genotypes and thus were recommended for C. A. Morgan, Animal Nutrition, Prentice-Hall, Hoboken, NJ, wider cultivation in the study area and similar tropical USA, 6th edition, 2002. agroecologies. )us, future studies should focus on [4] B. L. Maass, M. R. Knox, S. C. Venkatesha, T. T. Angessa, evaluating the performance of ruminants fed on the forage S. Ramme, and B. C. Pengelly, “Lablab purpureus-a crop lost produced by superior-performing, broadly adapted for Africa?” Tropical Plant Biology, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 123–135, genotypes. 2010. Advances in Agriculture 5 [5] G. Getachew, P. H. Robinson, E. J. Depeters, and S. J. Taylor, [20] M. Kazemi, A. M. Tahmasbi, A. A. Naserian, R. Valizadeh, and “Relationships between chemical composition, dry matter M. M. 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Berhan, “Effects of supplementation trosema species grown under sub-humid climatic conditions with pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan), cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), of western Oromia, Ethiopia,” Global Veterinaria, vol. 11, and lablab (Lablab purpureus) on feed intake, body weight pp. 735–741, 2013. gain, and carcass characteristics in wollo sheep fed grass hay,” [7] AOAC (Association of Official Analytic Chemists), Official International Journal of Advanced Research in Biological Methods of Analysis of AOAC International, AOAC Inter- Science, vol. 3, pp. 280–295, 2016. national, Gaithersburg, MD, U.S.A, 18th edition, 2005. [23] B. Netsanet and K. Yonatan, “Participatory evaluation of dual- [8] P. J. Van Soest, J. B. Robertson, and B. A. 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Cornell Nutrition Conference for Feed Manufacture, Cornell [25] D. P. Poppi, “Nutritional constraints for grazing animals and University, East Syracuse, NY, USA, 2002. the importance of selective grazing behaviour,” in Grassland [11] SAS (Statistical Analysis System), User’s Guide: Version 9.3, Productivity and Ecosystem Services, pp. 19–26, CABI, SAS Institute, Inc., Cary, NC, USA, 2007. Wallingford, UK, 2011. [12] T. T. Tessema, “Evaluation of forage type cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) accessions for dry matter yield in the lowland of southern Ethiopia,” Forage Research, vol. 44, pp. 74–80, 2018. [13] A. Ilknur, M. Hanife, B. Ugur, A. Zeki, and O. A. Ozlem, “Forage potential of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. WALP),” Turkish Journal of Field Crops, vol. 17, pp. 135–138, 2012. [14] H. Debela, K. Sintayehu, and B. 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Alemayehu, “Herbage yield potential, crude protein yield, and feeding value of selected Lablab purpureus cultivars grown under the sub-humid climatic conditions of western Oromia, Ethiopia,” International Journal of Applied Agri- cultural Research, vol. 6, pp. 93–100, 2018. [19] A. E. M. Mahmoud, M. S. Abbas, A. Cieslak, and M. Szumacher-Strabel, “Evaluation of chemical composition and in vitro dry matter and organic matter digestibility of some forage plant species derived from Egyptian rangelands,” =e Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences, vol. 27, pp. 1573– 1581, 2017. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Advances in Agriculture Hindawi Publishing Corporation

Comparative Evaluations of Selected Pigeon Pea (Cajanus cajan) Genotypes for Biomass Yield, Nutrient Composition, and Dry Matter Intake under Diverse Locations of Tropical Africa

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Hindawi Advances in Agriculture Volume 2021, Article ID 5516662, 5 pages https://doi.org/10.1155/2021/5516662 Research Article Comparative Evaluations of Selected Pigeon Pea (Cajanus cajan) Genotypes for Biomass Yield, Nutrient Composition, and Dry Matter Intake under Diverse Locations of Tropical Africa Abuye Tulu , Mekonnen Diribsa, Gutu Fekede, Worku Temesgen, Wakgari Keba, and Alemayehu Kumsa Oromia Agricultural Research Institute, Bako Agricultural Research Center, P.O. Box 03, Bako, Ethiopia Correspondence should be addressed to Abuye Tulu; armdilla@gmail.com Received 19 February 2021; Revised 14 September 2021; Accepted 16 September 2021; Published 23 September 2021 Academic Editor: Mirza Hasanuzzaman Copyright © 2021 Abuye Tulu et al. )is is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Feeding standards of ruminant livestock could be significantly enhanced through the cultivation of improved quality forages, which are suitable for different agroclimatic conditions in tropical Africa. In this frame, ten pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) genotypes were evaluated across three locations in western Ethiopia during the 2014 and 2015 cropping seasons using a randomized complete block design with three replications. )e study was designed to determine the nutrient composition, in vitro digestibility, and dry matter intake of selected pigeon pea genotypes. )e result revealed that the studied quality parameters were significantly influenced by the genotypic and environmental main effects but not their interaction, while forage yield was influenced by both main effects and their interaction. Mean forage yield was greater for Degagsa across all locations followed by Belabas. In vitro organic matter digestibility and ash parameters did not vary among genotypes. However, variations were observed across lo- cations for daily dry matter intake (DMI) and crude protein (CP) with the greatest value received from Degagsa and Belabas. )e fiber components of Degagsa and Belabas were less than those of the remaining genotypes. Generally, Degagsa and Belabas had shown a greater forage yield, DMI, and CP content, but less in fiber components, and thus can be cultivated to enhance livestock productivity in western Ethiopia and similar agroecologies of tropical Africa. Supplementation of low-quality feeds with legumi- 1. Introduction nous forage in ruminant diets can potentially be con- )e ruminant livestock production system is hindered by sidered for use to offset limitations associated with low inadequacy and low quality of feed. A high level of pro- feed quality in systems where livestock are increasingly ductivity cannot be obtained since the tropical grasses which becoming dependent on low-quality roughages [4]. In this are usually fed to this livestock are inherently low in protein regard, the effective use of leguminous forage crops as an [1]. Likewise, the cereal straws and native grass hay com- alternative source of protein in livestock feeding has become an urgent research topic globally. A lot of research monly used as a roughage feed source for dairy animals in the present study area were observed to contain considerably studies on the introduction and evaluation of leguminous low CP, in vitro organic matter digestibility, and higher forage species have been performed extensively. Pigeon levels of detergent fibers [2]. When fed alone, these char- pea species are one of the potential forage legumes being acteristics of the feeds lead to a slow rate at which feed extensively evaluated under the agroecology of tropical particles break down to a size that can leave the rumen and Africa. result in low total digestibility of nutrients [3]. )is suggests In these forage legume evaluation programs, much at- the need for additional protein supplementation for efficient tention has been given to the evaluation of their biomass utilization of the basal feed resources and subsequent bet- yielding potential and environmental adaptation. Infor- terment of livestock production in the country. mation on their nutrient composition and digestibility 2 Advances in Agriculture potential, however, is rarely addressed. Getachew et al. and 2.4. Chemical Analysis and Calculated Measurements. Diriba et al. [5, 6] revealed that a database on nutrient Nitrogen content was analyzed according to the AOAC- composition and nutritional value of promising forages is 984.13 [7] procedure. Crude protein was estimated by one of the basic technical inputs required to design strategies multiplying the N value by a factor of 6.25. Neutral detergent for alleviating poor nutrition and optimizing the utilization fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), and acid detergent of available low-quality feed resources. )us, to properly lignin (ADL) were analyzed using the procedures of Van balance the use of pigeon pea in ruminant nutrition, there is Soest et al. [8]. )e in vitro organic matter digestibility a need for an adequate understanding of the nutrient (IVOMD) was determined using the Tilley and Terry [9] availability from this forage species. )erefore, keeping in method. Potential daily dry matter intake (DMI) was also view the scarcity of quality fodder and the necessity of calculated as DMI: 1.2 × body weight/NDF% [10], where characterizing the nutrient profile of pigeon pea genotypes body weight is equivalent to an estimated livestock unit to identify the most proper genotypes for ruminants, the metabolic weight of 450 kg. current study was undertaken with the objectives to evaluate the dry matter intake, nutrient composition, and in vitro 2.5. Data Analysis. Analysis of variance following the digestibility of selected pigeon pea genotypes under the general linear model procedure of SAS [11] version 9.3 was agroclimatic conditions of tropical Africa. used for data analysis. Herbage DM yield was analyzed for the main effects of the genotype and environment 2. Materials and Methods (year × location) and their interaction with replicate × year × location, while quality traits were analyzed 2.1. Study Locations. )e experiment was conducted during for the main effects of the genotype and environment with the years 2014 and 2015 at three locations (Bako, Gute, and year as the blocking factor. Means were separated using the Chewaka) located in subhumid areas of western Oromia, least significant difference at a 5% level of significance. Ethiopia. Descriptions of the test locations are indicated in Table 1. 3. Results and Discussion 3.1. Herbage Dry Matter Yield. )e result from the analysis of 2.2. Experimental Design and Treatments. A total of thirty variance for herbage dry matter yield of the 10 pigeon pea plots of 4 × 3 m were established on 1 June 2014 across genotypes over the three sites is shown in Table 2. Herbage locations (Bako, Gute, and Chewaka, Ethiopia). )e geno- DM yield was significantly affected by the genotype, loca- types tested in the current study were ILRI 16274, ILRI tion, and year with a significant interaction, so data for 16277, ILRI 16520, ILRI 16524, ILRI 16526, ILRI 16528, ILRI individual locations in each year are presented. )e result 16555, ILRI 16527, ILRI 11575, and Tsigab (check). Among revealed that, for the environmental grouping, the lowest the genotypes tested, Tsigab was already registered as a mean herbage DM yield was recorded in 2014 at the Bako variety and thus used as a standard check for performance location, while the higher was received in 2015 at the comparison against the genotypes evaluated in the present Chewaka location (Table 2). Concerning the genotypic ef- study, whereas genotypes ILRI 16527 and ILRI 11575 (to be fect, the lower mean herbage DM yield was observed for referred hereafter as Belabas and Degagsa, respectively) were ILRIL 16528, while the highest was recorded for Degagsa verified against the check in 2016 and thus registered as a −1 followed by Belabas, with a mean value of 4.32 t ha . For variety. )e experiment was set up using a randomized combined analysis, however, the highest mean herbage DM complete block design with three replications. In each plot, −1 yield t ha was obtained from Degagsa in 2014, while the seeds of the designated pigeon pea genotype were planted in lower mean value was recorded from ILRI 16526 in 2014. In a row at spacing of 1 m and 0.5 m between the row and agreement with the present study result, significant differ- plants, respectively. Diammonium phosphate (DAP) fer- ences in DM yield have been observed previously among 6 tilizer was applied to all plots during plantation at a rate of −1 accessions of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) evaluated 100 kg ha . for the agroecological difference across five locations in lowlands of southern Ethiopia [12]. Ilknur et al. [13] also 2.3. Herbage Dry Matter Yield. )e two inner rows were reported that a significant variation in DM yield was ob- manually harvested by hand using a sickle leaving a stubble served among nine cowpea genotypes tested across two height of 5 cm at 50% flowering stages for herbage dry matter environments. yield estimation. )e fresh weight of the cut biomass was )e herbage DM yield observed in the present study was measured just after mowing with a suspended field balance. lower than the finding reported by Debela et al. [14] who )en, composited samples of 200 g per treatment were taken studied the forage yield and quality of five pigeon pea ge- from each location and experimental year, weighed, and notypes under the agroecology of southwestern Ethiopia. oven-dried at 65 C for 72 hrs until a constant weight was )is variation might be attributed to the difference in the obtained to determine the herbage dry matter (DM) content genetic potential of the genotypes studied and agroecologies and yield. )ese subsamples were then ground to pass where the studies were carried out. In conformity to the through a 1 mm sieve screen size for the chemical analysis of current finding, herbage DM yield ranging from 4.4 to 5 t −1 quality traits. ha was reported by Alexander et al. [15] who evaluated the Advances in Agriculture 3 Table 1: Geographical description of the test locations in tropical western Ethiopia. Test locations Parameters Bako Chewaka Gute ° ° ° Latitude 9 06′N 09 98285′N 9 01′N ° ° ° Longitude 37 09′E 036 11703′E 36 40′E Altitude (masl) 1650 1259 1880 Average annual rainfall (mm) 1431 1600 2067 Average minimum temperature ( C) 11.23 18 12.2 Average maximum temperature ( C) 31.74 32 27.9 Soil type Sandy clay Sandy loam Clay loam (60%), sandy soil (35%), and clay (5%) )e annual mean rainfall, mean minimum, and maximum temperature for the Chewaka location were reported from Diga district located at a distance of about 15 km. −1 Table 2: Herbage dry matter yield (t ha ) of the selected ten pigeon pea genotypes tested at three locations in Ethiopia. 2014 2015 Genotypes Mean Bako Chewaka Gute Bako Chewaka Gute efg cd bc f c e ef ILRI 16274 2.69 4.99 3.57 2.66 3.37 2.85 3.35 ef dc b de c e e ILRI 16277 2.80 4.48 4.62 3.22 3.58 2.93 3.61 fg bc bc ef c e ef ILRI 16520 2.57 5.27 3.80 2.77 3.27 2.78 3.41 fg d c cd c e f ILRI 16524 2.56 3.84 2.91 3.71 3.53 2.70 3.21 g cd bc cd c e ef ILRI 16526 2.33 4.53 3.53 3.60 3.31 2.97 3.38 e cd c f c e f ILRI 16528 3.01 4.89 2.91 2.57 2.96 2.64 3.16 c b a b b c c ILRI 16555 4.30 6.47 5.96 5.01 6.21 4.73 5.45 b a a a ab b b Belabas 5.53 8.16 6.46 5.80 6.95 5.51 6.40 a a a a a a a Degagsa 6.39 9.00 7.25 6.27 7.86 6.52 7.22 d bc bc c c d d Tsigab 3.86 5.42 3.71 3.91 3.90 3.59 4.07 Mean 3.61 5.71 4.47 3.95 4.49 3.72 4.32 LSD 0.39 1.23 1.29 0.48 1.03 0.44 0.39 CV (%) 6.32 12.6 16.77 7.14 13.32 6.89 13.55 P value <0.0001 <0.0001 <0.0001 <0.0001 <0.0001 <0.0001 <0.0001 Values are the means of three replicates in each year at each location. P values for the main effects of the genotype (G), environment (E � year × location), and a,b,c,d,e,f,g G × E interaction are 0.0001, 0.0001, and 0.0098, respectively. Means within a row with different superscripts differ significantly (P< 0.05). LSD: least significant difference; ILRI: International Livestock Research Institute, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. variation in forage yield and quality traits of 200 pigeon pea )e CP values found in the current study (Table 3) agree lines under the agroecology of Patancheru, India. with the CP content of leguminous forage crops reported in various literature studies for selected browse plants [17], Lablab purpureus species [18], and Centrosema species [6], 3.2. Quality Features and Daily Dry Matter Intake. Mean but greater than for some legume plant species derived from nutrient composition of the ten pigeon pea genotypes Egyptian rangeland reported by Mahmoud et al. [19]. In tested across three locations is shown in Table 3. Except for addition to genetic variability, differences in CP between this ash and IVOMD, the remaining quality parameters were and other studies may be attributed to differences in rainfall, significantly influenced by the main effects of the location, soil fertility, forage harvesting stage, and other climatic while environmental main effects had shown a significant conditions in which the studies were carried out. influence for CP, ash, daily DM intake, and fiber constit- Except for Degagsa and Belabas, which contained NDF −1 uents, but not for IVOMD. None of the studied quality falling within the range of 400 to 460 g kg DM to be rated traits were influenced as a result of the interaction between as having a first-grade quality standard as reported by the environment and genotypes; thus, combined analysis Kazemi et al. [20], the remaining genotypes conform to the −1 was employed for studied quality traits. )e greatest CP value ranging from 450 to 650 g kg DM (Table 3) to be concentration occurred in Degagsa, followed by Belabas, classified as medium-quality feeds [21]. Irrespective of the Tsigab (control), and ILRI 16555, while the remaining remaining genotypes tested in the present study, the ADF genotypes had the least CP value (Table 3). )e CP content content of Degagsa and Belabas genotypes falls within the −1 of all the studied pigeon pea genotypes was higher than the range of 310 to 400 g kg DM, where browse substrate is minimum threshold value of 15% required to support regarded as having a first-grade quality standard and is lactation and growth in dairy cows [16], suggesting the expected to be digestible without negatively influencing the adequacy of all the studied genotypes to supplement ru- bioavailability of CP [20]. )e mean ADL content of the ten minants based on predominantly low-quality pasture and pigeon pea genotypes across the study location (Table 3) is crop residue [2, 3]. nearly comparable to the results reported by Hunegnaw and 4 Advances in Agriculture Table 3: Combined analysis of variance for quality parameters and daily dry matter intake of the selected ten pigeon pea genotypes tested across three environments (locations) in Ethiopia. Genotypes CP Ash NDF ADF ADL IVOMD DMI cd a a b b ILRI 16274 191.5 97.7 573.3 415.3 189 519.4 9.5 d a a ab b ILRI 16277 189.8 101.1 585.3 392.2 195.3 519.3 10.3 bcd ab a b b ILRI 16520 200.4 92.0 549.9 403.1 189.8 516.7 10.5 bcd ab a ab b ILRI 16524 198.9 94.9 550.7 409.1 194.6 515.9 9.9 bcd a a ab b ILRI 16526 200.3 99.6 578.9 408.6 203.1 518.8 9.3 bcd a a ab b ILRI 16528 198.0 97.1 582.8 407.5 200.3 516.5 9.3 b b a a b ILRI 16555 205.3 99.1 518.7 406.7 207.1 522.9 10.5 bc c b c a Belabas 201.6 98.7 440.7 326.0 164.6 519.0 12.6 a c b c a Degagsa 220.8 93.5 437.5 322.2 170.1 525.7 12.6 b b a ab b Tsigab 203.2 94.5 506.9 391.9 194.3 520.2 10.7 Mean 201 96.8 532.5 388.3 190.8 519.5 10.5 LSD 11.3 0.96 47.9 24.1 1.5 9.9 1.63 CV 5.96 10.53 9.53 6.58 8.34 2.03 16.43 P values Genotype (G) 0.0002 0.5201 <0.0001 <0.00011 <0.0001 0.6767 0.0002 Environment (E) <0.0001 0.0192 0.0043 0.0001 <0.0001 0.6867 0.0833 G ∗ E 0.9772 0.1045 0.2287 0.5559 0.1912 0.9943 0.5144 a,b,c,d Values are the means of two years as replicates. Means within a row with different superscripts differ significantly (P< 0.05). CP: crude protein; NDF: neutral detergent fiber; ADF: acid detergent fiber; ADL: acid detergent lignin; IVOMD: in vitro organic matter digestibility; DMI: dry matter intake; LSD: least significant difference; CV: coefficient of variation; ILRI: International Livestock Research Institute, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Berhan [22] and Netsanet and Yonatan [23], but lower than Data Availability the findings reported by Solomon et al. [24]. )e data supporting the findings of this study are available Maximum daily dry matter intake (DMI) is a very im- from the corresponding author upon request. portant factor in ensuring the release of adequate nutrients for maintenance and production. Considerable variations in DMI were observed among the pigeon pea genotypes studied Conflicts of Interest in the current study. )e value for DMI was higher for )e authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest. Degagsa and Belabas over the remaining genotypes, which might be most probably related to their lower fiber content leading to a fast rate of passage through the rumen and Acknowledgments enhanced the ability of ruminants to consume sufficient )e authors would like to thank the animal feed research forage to meet nutrient requirements [25]. Similar findings team technical staff of Bako Agricultural Research Center for were also reported by Hilda et al. [17], reporting that daily their assistance in data collection and facilitating routine dry matter intake for three browse species (M. oleifera, field management activities. Oromia Agricultural Research L. leucocephala, and M. azedarach) was high because of the Institute is also highly acknowledged for funding this re- low neutral and acid detergent fiber content. search work. 4. Conclusion References )e present study demonstrated that a considerable [1] A. 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Advances in AgricultureHindawi Publishing Corporation

Published: Sep 23, 2021

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