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Cockroach Infestation and Factors Affecting the Estimation of Cockroach Population in Urban Communities

Cockroach Infestation and Factors Affecting the Estimation of Cockroach Population in Urban... Hindawi Publishing Corporation International Journal of Zoology Volume 2013, Article ID 649089, 6 pages http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/649089 Research Article Cockroach Infestation and Factors Affecting the Estimation of Cockroach Population in Urban Communities Gholam Hossein Shahraki, Saadat Parhizkar, and Alireza Raygan Shirazi Nejad Faculty of Health Science, Yasuj University of Medical Sciences, Yasuj, Iran Correspondence should be addressed to Gholam Hossein Shahraki; vahabsh@yahoo.com Received 5 February 2013; Revised 21 April 2013; Accepted 22 April 2013 Academic Editor: Randy J. Nelson Copyright © 2013 Gholam Hossein Shahraki et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Cockroach is one of the most important pests in urban communities. This study was conducted to determine the situation of cockroach infestation and eeff ctive factors on cockroach trap count in urban communities of Yasuj City in southwestern Iran. In this study cockroach population in 573 sampling units (residential units, official places, and hospitals) was monitored using sticky traps over a vfi e-week trapping period. Occupants of 348 residential units were also questioned (by means of questionnaire) for cockroach infestation in their respective residence. The study shows almost 39% of sampling units were infested by cockroach. Five species from two families had been identified: Blattidae (comprising Blatta orientalis, B. lateralis,and Periplaneta americana)and Blattellidae (comprising Blattella germanica and Supella longipalpa). German cockroach, B. germanica, with widespread distribution (80% of infested sampling units) showed the highest frequency (96.7%) of trap counts. eTh expression of the distribution of German cockroach populations and some factors could aec ff t trapping, and population monitoring in an urban community was surveyed. Additionally, affecting some exclusion factors on cockroach infestation was pointed. Rates and source of cockroach infestation were discussed from the viewpoints of the residents. 1. Introduction insect pests in hotels and food outlets [17, 18]. There are over 3,500 species of cockroaches worldwide. Of these only several Cockroaches have been in existence for about 360 million species are commonly associated with humans. Three domi- years [1], and they are one of the important groups of insect ciliary species of importance are the German cockroach, the pests in urban environments. Cockroaches not only spoil American cockroach (Periplaneta americana), and the Orien- food but also transfer pathogens and cause allergic reactions tal cockroach (Blatta orientalis)[19]. German cockroach has and psychological distress [2]. As a potential mechanical a worldwide distribution, although it originated in north or vector of human diseases, many pathogenic organisms have tropical Africa despite the misleading common name [20]. been associated with cockroaches. These include poliomyeli- However, German cockroach has created substantial pest tis viruses, bacteria, fungi, protozoa, and helminthes [3– problems in many developing countries [21–24]. This species 6]. Pai et al. [7] reported cockroaches as potential vectors reported a common indoor pest in low-income housing [2]. of nosocomial infections. Moreover, bacteria with antibiotic According to the report by Hanafi-Bojd and Sadaghiani resistance have been isolated from household cockroaches [25], there are 24 species of cockroaches from 4 families: [8, 9]. The most common important species is associated to Polyphagidae (12 species), Blattidae (5 species), Blattellidae (5 surveyed locations. In the southeastern United States, smoky- species), and Ectobiidae (2 species), that have been identified brown cockroach [10], in New Zealand, German cockroach throughout the cities of Iran so far. Three species, the Ger- [11], andinSoutheast Asia,Americancockroach [12–16]were man cockroach, the American cockroach, and the Oriental found to be the most dominant species, respectively. While cockroach, are the most common species that have caused the German cockroaches, Blattella germanica (L.), are not health problems in urban communities (e.g., residential present in households in Southeast Asia, they are prevalent buildings, hotels, hospitals, restaurants, and shopping) of 2 International Journal of Zoology Table 1: Surveyed locations and results of trap monitoring throughout the programme. Number of infested Number of Sampling Size of units Infested Number of identified Type of location units with locations units (limitation) sampling units cockroaches (%) B. germanica 5758 B. germanica (97.59%) 91 B. lateralis (1.54%) Dormitories from 11 dormitories 386 12–18 m × 2.5 m 141 (37%) 116 46 P. americana (0.78%) four universities 4 S. longipalpa (0.07%) 1 B. orientalis (0.02%) 1125 B. germanica (93.28%) Hospital 2 hospitals 121 12–18 m × 3 m 71 (59%) 60 62 B. lateralis (5.14%) 19 P. americana (1.58%) 131 B. germanica (94.93%) Housing complex 7 buildings 27 70 m × 2.5 m 7 (26%) 5 6 P. americana (4.35%) 1 Supella longipalpa (0.72%) Official place 1 building 22 12–14 m × 3 m 4 (18%) 0 5 B. lateralis (100%) Hotel 1 building 17 12–18 m × 2.5 m 2 (12%) 0 2 B. lateralis (100%) YUMS, YU, AU, and TU. Iran. Additionally, Polyphaga indica, P. aegyptiaca, Periplan- A set of questionnaires were distributed for occupants eta australasiae,and Blatta lateralis are the other important of the 348 residential units (from 10 dormitories, 97 private cockroaches in Iran. houses, and 7 house building complexes) to obtain infor- Yasuj, whichissituatedinsouthwesternIranand the mation about cockroach infestation in their houses (e.g., capital of Kohgiluyeh va Boyer Ahmad, was chosen for this size of cockroach, time, and entrance-source of cockroach study. eTh province covers an area of 15,563 square kilometers infestation). Some details of the structural design (conjugated and in 2006 had a population of 634,000 [26]. The weather to survival of cockroach) for 69 units of hospital were varies with seasons: cold and snowy in the winter, cold or collected by the other set of questionnaire. moderate and rainy in the spring and fall, and hot (not more Data was analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis Test and Spearman than 35 C) anddry in thesummer[27]. Mean annual tem- correlation coefficient besides descriptive statistics using the perature, rainfall, and humidity are 15 C, 866 mm, and 45% SPSS software. RH, respectively. Although ancient structures of housings are predominant throughout the city, new structures of buildings 3. Results and Discussion have sprung up in the last few years [27]. From a total of 573 sampling units inspected using trapping (i.e., apartments, units, or housings), 39.3% (225 units) were 2. Materials and Methods infested with cockroaches. The results show that 37, 59, 26, 18, Aeft r a preliminary survey on private and public places in and 12% of the sampling units in the surveyed dormitories, the southwestern of Iran, Yasuj City, 573 sampling units were hospitals, housing building complexes, official places, and selected forthe study(usingstickytrap), andasampling unit hotel, respectively, were infested with cockroaches (Table 1). comprised an “apartment unit” for residential building and a Therefore, the hospitals showed the highest frequency of “room” for hospital, dormitory, hotel, and government office infested units via trap monitoring. Plumbing facilities (i.e., (Table 1). At the inspection stage, monitoring was performed wash basin), heating source, and openings in the roof for weekly using sticky traps for sampling units. Moreover 97 84, 43.5, and 21% of units (𝑁=69 units) at the hospi- private houses had been surveyed by questionnaire. The tals, respectively, obtained from the questionnaire, could be sticky traps were manufactured by Ridsect (produced by Sara detected as effective factors for survival of cockroach [ 28] LeeSch.Bhd.Malaysia) in baited tent form,and thesize which explained the high rate of infestation for the hospitals. of the sticky surface of the trap was 16× 9cm . Depending A survey on 97 private houses throughout the city by means on the surveyed locations, traps were placed in cabinets, of questionnaires showed that 80% of residences complained under the sink, beside the refrigerator, beside the stove, in of cockroach infestation. er Th efore, survey by cockroach trap closets, and on shelves, with one side of the trap resting monitoring showed that all surveyed locations (22 areas) in against a vertical surface. Average one trap per eight square this city were infested with cockroaches, although infestation meters was installed in sampling units. Totally the number of rates varied throughout the urban communities. cockroaches per trap for each sampling unit was estimated. From a total of 7251 cockroaches collected from 22 Infestation rate is den fi ed as cockroach trap count per trap dieff rent locationsofthe city,five speciesofcockroaches during seven-day trapping period. Numbers of cockroaches had been identified. The German cockroach was the most trapped were recorded weekly aeft r each 7-day trapping abundant comprising 96.73% of all cockroaches trapped. period. eTh trapping process continued for a 5-week period. The other identified species in order of abundance were the International Journal of Zoology 3 Turkestan cockroach (Blatta lateralis)(2.21%),the American Table2:Meanofcockroach trap counts forfourstudy locations. cockroach (0.98%), the Brown-banded cockroach (Supella Number of Frequency Mean of longipalpa) (0.07%), and the Oriental cockroach (0.01%). The Study Variance surveyed of infested infestation rate recognized species are from two families: Blattidae (compris- locations /mean ratio units units (per trap/unit) ing B. orientalis, B. lateralis,and P. americana)and Blattel- Girls’ lidae (comprising B. germanica and S. longipalpa). Hanafi- 53 72% 15.90 18.75 dormitory Bojd and Sadaghiani [25] previously reported four families Boys’ from indoor and outdoor survey (Polyphagidae, Blattidae, 72 72% 16.96 34.87 dormitory Blattellidae, and Ectobiidae). However three species, the Residential German, American, and Oriental cockroaches were reported 25 60% 7.73 7.39 building as the most common species in Iran [25]. These species were Hospital 101 61% 4.02 1.36 detected in this study, although the Turkestan cockroach Forinfestedunits. instead of the Oriental cockroach showed the third common species (for frequency of distribution and dispersion). Per- Table 3: Mean and variance of cockroach tap counts for surveyed centage frequency of the German cockroach in the vfi e types floors of four surveyed buildings (72 units). of study locations (Table 1)shows theGermancockroach was the most abundant in the dormitories (98%), housing Floor Mean N Std. deviation Variance (95%), and hospital (93%), respectively, compared to the G 3.4450 4 1.07438 1.154 other species. However, it was not seen in official places and 1 11.8731 25 13.11264 171.941 hotels. Moreover, more than 80% of infested units (181 from 2 11.4316 29 15.25659 232.763 225 units; Table 1) were infested by the German cockroach 3 10.1000 10 9.08811 82.594 (i.e., the highest frequency of dispersion among infested 4 51.5000 4 46.56616 2168.407 units). er Th efore, surveyed dormitories showed the most diverse composition with all ve fi species present and the most Total 13.1823 72 18.52862 343.310 abundant for the German cockroach compared to the other study locations. Ocffi ial places and hotels with the lowest floors (the highest floor with the biggest variance; Table 3), infested units (18 and 12%, resp.) revealed the least varied and this correlation was signicfi ant ( 𝑟 =7, 𝑃 = for cockroach species and least abundant for the German 𝑠 (1-tailed) 0.045). Paige [32] reported strong population u fl ctuation of cockroaches. However, more ocia ffi l buildings and hotel units need to be surveyed to substantiate the nd fi ings. German cockroach was negatively correlated with barometric pressure. It can be deduced that the higher the floors of a Sizeable German cockroach trap count was detected for four study locations (Table 2). The expression of the building, the greater the cockroach population uc fl tuations. distribution of German cockroach populations in space at eTh se observations will be useful when conducting survey of four locations based on the formula of the variance to mean cockroach infestations in buildings with more than vfi e floors 2 2 ratio ([𝜎 /𝜉 < 1 ] for uniform [𝜎 /𝜉 = 1 ] for random, and high or in skyline structures. [𝜎 /𝜉>1 ]for clumped) [29]was clumped, although forthe Eighty one percent of residents for three dormitories hospitalsthisratiowasneartorandom(Table 2). This index is (comprising 116 units) said that their units were infested important because it is consistent from year to year for each by cockroaches, although 53% of those units were detected species [29]. The German cockroach is known as domestic as infested via cockroach trap monitoring. Actually resi- cockroach and lives in groups (semisocial insect), and they dents reported 28% higher infestations of units than that are rarely dispersed throughout a building [30, 31]. u Th s determined from trap monitoring. This is probably due clumped distribution for these species is expected. Cockroach to the low tolerance of a considerable number of respon- infestation rates for hospital and residential building show dents towards cockroach, prompting to a questionably high lowermeanthangirls’and boys’dormitories,althoughthere incidence of infestation. Moreover, sensitivity of trapping was no significant difference ( 𝑃 > 0.05 ) between mean method for clean level of infestation could be influenced by of cockroach infestation rates for four surveyed locations frequency of infestation, and those units with less than one (Kruskal-Wallis Test; chi-square = 1.352, d.f = 3, and𝑃= cockroach per trap (nominated as clean level unit) reported 0.509). as infested instead. Brenner et al. [33] reported different Some factors aeff cting the estimating of cockroach pop- rates of cockroach prevalence for residential apartments ulation in an urban community were surveyed. Survey on from questionnaire and trapping. Agrawal and Tilak [34] infestation rates (German cockroach infestation) for the units reported more cockroach counts based on visual counts (72 units at four locations) which were located on different method compared to sticky trap method. However, the traps floors showed the number of floors (i.e., distance of apart- (baited with mouse pellets) were reported as a best way to ment from ground) did not significantly aeff ct cockroach trap determine cockroach infestation [35–37]. Only 4% of the counts (𝑟 =0.118,𝑃=0.324 ). Moreover, there was no signif- occupants at the infested units did not notice any infestation. icant difference in cockroach infestation rates between floors This could be attributed to these occupants being away of these buildings (Kruskal-Wallis Test; chi-square = 7.636, d.f from home. Moreover, survey on 348 study units of private =4,and𝑃 = 0.106 )(Table 3). Additionally the variance of houses, dormitories, and housing complex via questionnaires the population was positively correlated with elevation of the showed that residents for 72% of surveyed residential units 4 International Journal of Zoology Table 4: Frequency of resident’s responses to four items of questionnaire. Pointed out to Encountered German Pointed out to infestation Frequency of Type of location Sampling units infestation of their cockroach size initiated from more than 6 old ancient units (≤1.5 cm) months ago Dormitories 228 0 (153/228) 67% (107/149) 72% (80/150) 53% Private houses 97 55 (57%) (78/97) 80% (45/77) 58% (52/75) 69% Housing 23 0 (20/23) 87% (10/18) 56% (11/18) 61% complex Total 348 55 (16%) (251/348) 72% (162/245) 66% (143/243) 59% Unit or houses. admitted to cockroach infestation in their houses (Table 4). Table 5: Frequency of screened fans at the surveyed kitchens. Comparison of this rate and total infestation report via No. of units (%) trapping (39%) shows 33% reduction for clean level units (in Cockroach infestation Total Fan without screen Screened fan agreement with previous report: 28% for the dormitories). Clean level of infestation 1 (25.0%) 3 (75.0%) 4 Therefore, the determination of cockroach infested units is Infested with cockroach 9 (60.0%) 6 (40.0%) 15 highly associated to the type of cockroach monitoring. Survey Total 10 (52.6%) 9 (47.4%) 19 on 19 house kitchens of the dormitories via two approaches (visual and trap counts) showed that cockroach had been seen immediately once upon entry for 20% of infested kitchens. of trap damage canbeassociatedwithexistingfactors in the From 80% remaining kitchens, the cockroach had been seen surveyed location. visually in 8% of these places when the trash container The other effective factors on cockroach infestations are was moved. Survey via sticky trap resulted in 21% high exclusion factors related to urban buildings. In this survey levels of infestation (≥26 cockroach per trap per kitchen) 35% of units (from 319 units) had opening in the wall or roof for the kitchens. This is close to the rate of visual survey without screen. eTh frequency of this factor for infested units (20%) even aeft r moving the trash container (28%) in the in three surveyed dormitories was 43% versus 33% for clean kitchens. However, the greatest difference between methods level units. However, there was no significant ( 𝑃 = 0.05 ) is observed for the determination of very low levels of correlation between infestation and opening in the wall or infestation. It shows a limitation for exact determination of roof. infested sampling units. Crack and crevices had been detected for 39% of units eTh other factor pointed as an eeff ctive factor on infes- (from 306 units). Frequency of crack and crevices for infested tation is age of building. Only 16% of surveyed places were units of three dormitories was 15% versus 27.5% for clean considered old (≥10 years old). All of these places were in the level units. However, there was no significant ( 𝑃 = 0.05 ) categories of private houses (Table 4). Surveys on the houses correlation between infestation levels and crack and crevices. showed 85% of old houses versus 73% of new houses (46 Survey on 19 kitchens of dormitories showed electric versus 30 houses) were infested by cockroaches. er Th efore, air fans (air conditioner fans) had been screened for 60% age of building could have an impact on infestation, although infested kitchens versus 25% clean level kitchens. There was the correlation between the two factors was not signicfi ant a signicfi ant correlation ( 𝑃 < 0.05 ,Spearman) between based on 95% CI (𝑟 =0.149,𝑃=0.150 ). Survey also showed screened fans and infestation (𝑟 = −0.396 , 𝑃 = 0.047 ) 59% of infested units were infested more than six months (Table 5). prior to the survey (Table 2), suggesting infestation did not Kitchen drains were not screened in 53% of infested occur spontaneously and transient in nature. kitchens versus 25% clean level kitchens in these dormitories. The other factors that could aeff ct trapping (and/or pop- However, there was no significant correlation ( 𝑃 = 0.05 ) ulation monitoring) are attacks by other pests and damage between infestation and unscreened drains. to traps. Out of the 2113 inspection of cockroach traps in Based on the residence opinions (survey on 283 residen- the surveyed dormitories throughout the programme, 7.8% of tial units), the sources of cockroach infestation are the toilet traps were found damaged. The most frequent cause of these (65.7%), kitchen (40.3%), rubbish containers (22.3%), and damages(4.8%)was that thetraps hadbeenthrownout by neighbors’ residence (21.6%) (Table 6). German cockroaches residents. Although a briefing for occupants to accept and prefer dry habitats with a nearby water source such as contribute to this programme led to reduction in trap dispo- kitchen and bathroom [38]. Stephan [39]reported65% sition, a number of respondents were not comfortable with of the emigrants German cockroach came from adjoining the image that their living or working place is infested with kitchen areas. However, the American cockroach (with 0.6% cockroaches. The incidences of damage by lizard (0.28%), ant frequency in the surveyed dormitories) prefers wet and moist (0.28%),andmice(0.24%)werelowinthisstudy,althoughfor locations such as sewers and toilet. Toilet and kitchen with other countries, such as Malaysia, lizard (and also ant) could high frequency of choice by respondents could be the main be the greatest cause of trap damages. eTh refore incidence entrance-source of these species. However, the local name of International Journal of Zoology 5 Table 6: eTh entrance-source of cockroaches according to standpoint of occupants for 283 surveyed units of dormitories. The entrance- N N T T N, T, N, T, T, K, N N, T, Others Did House Rubbish source of Toilet Neighbours and and and and and and and and K, (yard or not Total kitchen containers cockroaches T R R K R K R K and R drainage) know Frequency 97 39 16 11 6 7 8 44 10 3 9 1 18 7 8 283 34.3 5.7 100 Percentage 13.8 3.9 2.12 2.8 2.8 15.6 3.5 1.1 3.2 0.4 6.4 1.2 2.8 348 residents were questioned, although 81% of them had answer. T: toilet, K: kitchen, R: rubbish container, and N: neighbours. cockroach in the research country is bath beetle which came [6] Y.M.Tatfeng,M.U.Usuanlele,A.Orukpeetal.,“Mechanical transmission of pathogenic organisms: the role of cockroaches,” rfi st from theAmericancockroach andtheir harborage. This Journal of Vector Borne Diseases,vol.42,no.4,pp.129–134,2005. name may have misled some people to choose toilet as the highest incidence rate for the entrance-source. Therefore, the [7] H.H.Pai,W.C.Chen, andC.F.Peng, “Cockroaches as potential vectors of nosocomial infections,” Infection Control and Hospital study shows that the viewpoints of the residents about the Epidemiology,vol.25, no.11, pp.979–984,2004. entrance-source and predominant species concur with the result from the cockroach trap counts. Seventy percent of [8] S.J.N.Deviand C. J. 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Cockroach Infestation and Factors Affecting the Estimation of Cockroach Population in Urban Communities

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Hindawi Publishing Corporation International Journal of Zoology Volume 2013, Article ID 649089, 6 pages http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/649089 Research Article Cockroach Infestation and Factors Affecting the Estimation of Cockroach Population in Urban Communities Gholam Hossein Shahraki, Saadat Parhizkar, and Alireza Raygan Shirazi Nejad Faculty of Health Science, Yasuj University of Medical Sciences, Yasuj, Iran Correspondence should be addressed to Gholam Hossein Shahraki; vahabsh@yahoo.com Received 5 February 2013; Revised 21 April 2013; Accepted 22 April 2013 Academic Editor: Randy J. Nelson Copyright © 2013 Gholam Hossein Shahraki et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Cockroach is one of the most important pests in urban communities. This study was conducted to determine the situation of cockroach infestation and eeff ctive factors on cockroach trap count in urban communities of Yasuj City in southwestern Iran. In this study cockroach population in 573 sampling units (residential units, official places, and hospitals) was monitored using sticky traps over a vfi e-week trapping period. Occupants of 348 residential units were also questioned (by means of questionnaire) for cockroach infestation in their respective residence. The study shows almost 39% of sampling units were infested by cockroach. Five species from two families had been identified: Blattidae (comprising Blatta orientalis, B. lateralis,and Periplaneta americana)and Blattellidae (comprising Blattella germanica and Supella longipalpa). German cockroach, B. germanica, with widespread distribution (80% of infested sampling units) showed the highest frequency (96.7%) of trap counts. eTh expression of the distribution of German cockroach populations and some factors could aec ff t trapping, and population monitoring in an urban community was surveyed. Additionally, affecting some exclusion factors on cockroach infestation was pointed. Rates and source of cockroach infestation were discussed from the viewpoints of the residents. 1. Introduction insect pests in hotels and food outlets [17, 18]. There are over 3,500 species of cockroaches worldwide. Of these only several Cockroaches have been in existence for about 360 million species are commonly associated with humans. Three domi- years [1], and they are one of the important groups of insect ciliary species of importance are the German cockroach, the pests in urban environments. Cockroaches not only spoil American cockroach (Periplaneta americana), and the Orien- food but also transfer pathogens and cause allergic reactions tal cockroach (Blatta orientalis)[19]. German cockroach has and psychological distress [2]. As a potential mechanical a worldwide distribution, although it originated in north or vector of human diseases, many pathogenic organisms have tropical Africa despite the misleading common name [20]. been associated with cockroaches. These include poliomyeli- However, German cockroach has created substantial pest tis viruses, bacteria, fungi, protozoa, and helminthes [3– problems in many developing countries [21–24]. This species 6]. Pai et al. [7] reported cockroaches as potential vectors reported a common indoor pest in low-income housing [2]. of nosocomial infections. Moreover, bacteria with antibiotic According to the report by Hanafi-Bojd and Sadaghiani resistance have been isolated from household cockroaches [25], there are 24 species of cockroaches from 4 families: [8, 9]. The most common important species is associated to Polyphagidae (12 species), Blattidae (5 species), Blattellidae (5 surveyed locations. In the southeastern United States, smoky- species), and Ectobiidae (2 species), that have been identified brown cockroach [10], in New Zealand, German cockroach throughout the cities of Iran so far. Three species, the Ger- [11], andinSoutheast Asia,Americancockroach [12–16]were man cockroach, the American cockroach, and the Oriental found to be the most dominant species, respectively. While cockroach, are the most common species that have caused the German cockroaches, Blattella germanica (L.), are not health problems in urban communities (e.g., residential present in households in Southeast Asia, they are prevalent buildings, hotels, hospitals, restaurants, and shopping) of 2 International Journal of Zoology Table 1: Surveyed locations and results of trap monitoring throughout the programme. Number of infested Number of Sampling Size of units Infested Number of identified Type of location units with locations units (limitation) sampling units cockroaches (%) B. germanica 5758 B. germanica (97.59%) 91 B. lateralis (1.54%) Dormitories from 11 dormitories 386 12–18 m × 2.5 m 141 (37%) 116 46 P. americana (0.78%) four universities 4 S. longipalpa (0.07%) 1 B. orientalis (0.02%) 1125 B. germanica (93.28%) Hospital 2 hospitals 121 12–18 m × 3 m 71 (59%) 60 62 B. lateralis (5.14%) 19 P. americana (1.58%) 131 B. germanica (94.93%) Housing complex 7 buildings 27 70 m × 2.5 m 7 (26%) 5 6 P. americana (4.35%) 1 Supella longipalpa (0.72%) Official place 1 building 22 12–14 m × 3 m 4 (18%) 0 5 B. lateralis (100%) Hotel 1 building 17 12–18 m × 2.5 m 2 (12%) 0 2 B. lateralis (100%) YUMS, YU, AU, and TU. Iran. Additionally, Polyphaga indica, P. aegyptiaca, Periplan- A set of questionnaires were distributed for occupants eta australasiae,and Blatta lateralis are the other important of the 348 residential units (from 10 dormitories, 97 private cockroaches in Iran. houses, and 7 house building complexes) to obtain infor- Yasuj, whichissituatedinsouthwesternIranand the mation about cockroach infestation in their houses (e.g., capital of Kohgiluyeh va Boyer Ahmad, was chosen for this size of cockroach, time, and entrance-source of cockroach study. eTh province covers an area of 15,563 square kilometers infestation). Some details of the structural design (conjugated and in 2006 had a population of 634,000 [26]. The weather to survival of cockroach) for 69 units of hospital were varies with seasons: cold and snowy in the winter, cold or collected by the other set of questionnaire. moderate and rainy in the spring and fall, and hot (not more Data was analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis Test and Spearman than 35 C) anddry in thesummer[27]. Mean annual tem- correlation coefficient besides descriptive statistics using the perature, rainfall, and humidity are 15 C, 866 mm, and 45% SPSS software. RH, respectively. Although ancient structures of housings are predominant throughout the city, new structures of buildings 3. Results and Discussion have sprung up in the last few years [27]. From a total of 573 sampling units inspected using trapping (i.e., apartments, units, or housings), 39.3% (225 units) were 2. Materials and Methods infested with cockroaches. The results show that 37, 59, 26, 18, Aeft r a preliminary survey on private and public places in and 12% of the sampling units in the surveyed dormitories, the southwestern of Iran, Yasuj City, 573 sampling units were hospitals, housing building complexes, official places, and selected forthe study(usingstickytrap), andasampling unit hotel, respectively, were infested with cockroaches (Table 1). comprised an “apartment unit” for residential building and a Therefore, the hospitals showed the highest frequency of “room” for hospital, dormitory, hotel, and government office infested units via trap monitoring. Plumbing facilities (i.e., (Table 1). At the inspection stage, monitoring was performed wash basin), heating source, and openings in the roof for weekly using sticky traps for sampling units. Moreover 97 84, 43.5, and 21% of units (𝑁=69 units) at the hospi- private houses had been surveyed by questionnaire. The tals, respectively, obtained from the questionnaire, could be sticky traps were manufactured by Ridsect (produced by Sara detected as effective factors for survival of cockroach [ 28] LeeSch.Bhd.Malaysia) in baited tent form,and thesize which explained the high rate of infestation for the hospitals. of the sticky surface of the trap was 16× 9cm . Depending A survey on 97 private houses throughout the city by means on the surveyed locations, traps were placed in cabinets, of questionnaires showed that 80% of residences complained under the sink, beside the refrigerator, beside the stove, in of cockroach infestation. er Th efore, survey by cockroach trap closets, and on shelves, with one side of the trap resting monitoring showed that all surveyed locations (22 areas) in against a vertical surface. Average one trap per eight square this city were infested with cockroaches, although infestation meters was installed in sampling units. Totally the number of rates varied throughout the urban communities. cockroaches per trap for each sampling unit was estimated. From a total of 7251 cockroaches collected from 22 Infestation rate is den fi ed as cockroach trap count per trap dieff rent locationsofthe city,five speciesofcockroaches during seven-day trapping period. Numbers of cockroaches had been identified. The German cockroach was the most trapped were recorded weekly aeft r each 7-day trapping abundant comprising 96.73% of all cockroaches trapped. period. eTh trapping process continued for a 5-week period. The other identified species in order of abundance were the International Journal of Zoology 3 Turkestan cockroach (Blatta lateralis)(2.21%),the American Table2:Meanofcockroach trap counts forfourstudy locations. cockroach (0.98%), the Brown-banded cockroach (Supella Number of Frequency Mean of longipalpa) (0.07%), and the Oriental cockroach (0.01%). The Study Variance surveyed of infested infestation rate recognized species are from two families: Blattidae (compris- locations /mean ratio units units (per trap/unit) ing B. orientalis, B. lateralis,and P. americana)and Blattel- Girls’ lidae (comprising B. germanica and S. longipalpa). Hanafi- 53 72% 15.90 18.75 dormitory Bojd and Sadaghiani [25] previously reported four families Boys’ from indoor and outdoor survey (Polyphagidae, Blattidae, 72 72% 16.96 34.87 dormitory Blattellidae, and Ectobiidae). However three species, the Residential German, American, and Oriental cockroaches were reported 25 60% 7.73 7.39 building as the most common species in Iran [25]. These species were Hospital 101 61% 4.02 1.36 detected in this study, although the Turkestan cockroach Forinfestedunits. instead of the Oriental cockroach showed the third common species (for frequency of distribution and dispersion). Per- Table 3: Mean and variance of cockroach tap counts for surveyed centage frequency of the German cockroach in the vfi e types floors of four surveyed buildings (72 units). of study locations (Table 1)shows theGermancockroach was the most abundant in the dormitories (98%), housing Floor Mean N Std. deviation Variance (95%), and hospital (93%), respectively, compared to the G 3.4450 4 1.07438 1.154 other species. However, it was not seen in official places and 1 11.8731 25 13.11264 171.941 hotels. Moreover, more than 80% of infested units (181 from 2 11.4316 29 15.25659 232.763 225 units; Table 1) were infested by the German cockroach 3 10.1000 10 9.08811 82.594 (i.e., the highest frequency of dispersion among infested 4 51.5000 4 46.56616 2168.407 units). er Th efore, surveyed dormitories showed the most diverse composition with all ve fi species present and the most Total 13.1823 72 18.52862 343.310 abundant for the German cockroach compared to the other study locations. Ocffi ial places and hotels with the lowest floors (the highest floor with the biggest variance; Table 3), infested units (18 and 12%, resp.) revealed the least varied and this correlation was signicfi ant ( 𝑟 =7, 𝑃 = for cockroach species and least abundant for the German 𝑠 (1-tailed) 0.045). Paige [32] reported strong population u fl ctuation of cockroaches. However, more ocia ffi l buildings and hotel units need to be surveyed to substantiate the nd fi ings. German cockroach was negatively correlated with barometric pressure. It can be deduced that the higher the floors of a Sizeable German cockroach trap count was detected for four study locations (Table 2). The expression of the building, the greater the cockroach population uc fl tuations. distribution of German cockroach populations in space at eTh se observations will be useful when conducting survey of four locations based on the formula of the variance to mean cockroach infestations in buildings with more than vfi e floors 2 2 ratio ([𝜎 /𝜉 < 1 ] for uniform [𝜎 /𝜉 = 1 ] for random, and high or in skyline structures. [𝜎 /𝜉>1 ]for clumped) [29]was clumped, although forthe Eighty one percent of residents for three dormitories hospitalsthisratiowasneartorandom(Table 2). This index is (comprising 116 units) said that their units were infested important because it is consistent from year to year for each by cockroaches, although 53% of those units were detected species [29]. The German cockroach is known as domestic as infested via cockroach trap monitoring. Actually resi- cockroach and lives in groups (semisocial insect), and they dents reported 28% higher infestations of units than that are rarely dispersed throughout a building [30, 31]. u Th s determined from trap monitoring. This is probably due clumped distribution for these species is expected. Cockroach to the low tolerance of a considerable number of respon- infestation rates for hospital and residential building show dents towards cockroach, prompting to a questionably high lowermeanthangirls’and boys’dormitories,althoughthere incidence of infestation. Moreover, sensitivity of trapping was no significant difference ( 𝑃 > 0.05 ) between mean method for clean level of infestation could be influenced by of cockroach infestation rates for four surveyed locations frequency of infestation, and those units with less than one (Kruskal-Wallis Test; chi-square = 1.352, d.f = 3, and𝑃= cockroach per trap (nominated as clean level unit) reported 0.509). as infested instead. Brenner et al. [33] reported different Some factors aeff cting the estimating of cockroach pop- rates of cockroach prevalence for residential apartments ulation in an urban community were surveyed. Survey on from questionnaire and trapping. Agrawal and Tilak [34] infestation rates (German cockroach infestation) for the units reported more cockroach counts based on visual counts (72 units at four locations) which were located on different method compared to sticky trap method. However, the traps floors showed the number of floors (i.e., distance of apart- (baited with mouse pellets) were reported as a best way to ment from ground) did not significantly aeff ct cockroach trap determine cockroach infestation [35–37]. Only 4% of the counts (𝑟 =0.118,𝑃=0.324 ). Moreover, there was no signif- occupants at the infested units did not notice any infestation. icant difference in cockroach infestation rates between floors This could be attributed to these occupants being away of these buildings (Kruskal-Wallis Test; chi-square = 7.636, d.f from home. Moreover, survey on 348 study units of private =4,and𝑃 = 0.106 )(Table 3). Additionally the variance of houses, dormitories, and housing complex via questionnaires the population was positively correlated with elevation of the showed that residents for 72% of surveyed residential units 4 International Journal of Zoology Table 4: Frequency of resident’s responses to four items of questionnaire. Pointed out to Encountered German Pointed out to infestation Frequency of Type of location Sampling units infestation of their cockroach size initiated from more than 6 old ancient units (≤1.5 cm) months ago Dormitories 228 0 (153/228) 67% (107/149) 72% (80/150) 53% Private houses 97 55 (57%) (78/97) 80% (45/77) 58% (52/75) 69% Housing 23 0 (20/23) 87% (10/18) 56% (11/18) 61% complex Total 348 55 (16%) (251/348) 72% (162/245) 66% (143/243) 59% Unit or houses. admitted to cockroach infestation in their houses (Table 4). Table 5: Frequency of screened fans at the surveyed kitchens. Comparison of this rate and total infestation report via No. of units (%) trapping (39%) shows 33% reduction for clean level units (in Cockroach infestation Total Fan without screen Screened fan agreement with previous report: 28% for the dormitories). Clean level of infestation 1 (25.0%) 3 (75.0%) 4 Therefore, the determination of cockroach infested units is Infested with cockroach 9 (60.0%) 6 (40.0%) 15 highly associated to the type of cockroach monitoring. Survey Total 10 (52.6%) 9 (47.4%) 19 on 19 house kitchens of the dormitories via two approaches (visual and trap counts) showed that cockroach had been seen immediately once upon entry for 20% of infested kitchens. of trap damage canbeassociatedwithexistingfactors in the From 80% remaining kitchens, the cockroach had been seen surveyed location. visually in 8% of these places when the trash container The other effective factors on cockroach infestations are was moved. Survey via sticky trap resulted in 21% high exclusion factors related to urban buildings. In this survey levels of infestation (≥26 cockroach per trap per kitchen) 35% of units (from 319 units) had opening in the wall or roof for the kitchens. This is close to the rate of visual survey without screen. eTh frequency of this factor for infested units (20%) even aeft r moving the trash container (28%) in the in three surveyed dormitories was 43% versus 33% for clean kitchens. However, the greatest difference between methods level units. However, there was no significant ( 𝑃 = 0.05 ) is observed for the determination of very low levels of correlation between infestation and opening in the wall or infestation. It shows a limitation for exact determination of roof. infested sampling units. Crack and crevices had been detected for 39% of units eTh other factor pointed as an eeff ctive factor on infes- (from 306 units). Frequency of crack and crevices for infested tation is age of building. Only 16% of surveyed places were units of three dormitories was 15% versus 27.5% for clean considered old (≥10 years old). All of these places were in the level units. However, there was no significant ( 𝑃 = 0.05 ) categories of private houses (Table 4). Surveys on the houses correlation between infestation levels and crack and crevices. showed 85% of old houses versus 73% of new houses (46 Survey on 19 kitchens of dormitories showed electric versus 30 houses) were infested by cockroaches. er Th efore, air fans (air conditioner fans) had been screened for 60% age of building could have an impact on infestation, although infested kitchens versus 25% clean level kitchens. There was the correlation between the two factors was not signicfi ant a signicfi ant correlation ( 𝑃 < 0.05 ,Spearman) between based on 95% CI (𝑟 =0.149,𝑃=0.150 ). Survey also showed screened fans and infestation (𝑟 = −0.396 , 𝑃 = 0.047 ) 59% of infested units were infested more than six months (Table 5). prior to the survey (Table 2), suggesting infestation did not Kitchen drains were not screened in 53% of infested occur spontaneously and transient in nature. kitchens versus 25% clean level kitchens in these dormitories. The other factors that could aeff ct trapping (and/or pop- However, there was no significant correlation ( 𝑃 = 0.05 ) ulation monitoring) are attacks by other pests and damage between infestation and unscreened drains. to traps. Out of the 2113 inspection of cockroach traps in Based on the residence opinions (survey on 283 residen- the surveyed dormitories throughout the programme, 7.8% of tial units), the sources of cockroach infestation are the toilet traps were found damaged. The most frequent cause of these (65.7%), kitchen (40.3%), rubbish containers (22.3%), and damages(4.8%)was that thetraps hadbeenthrownout by neighbors’ residence (21.6%) (Table 6). German cockroaches residents. Although a briefing for occupants to accept and prefer dry habitats with a nearby water source such as contribute to this programme led to reduction in trap dispo- kitchen and bathroom [38]. Stephan [39]reported65% sition, a number of respondents were not comfortable with of the emigrants German cockroach came from adjoining the image that their living or working place is infested with kitchen areas. However, the American cockroach (with 0.6% cockroaches. The incidences of damage by lizard (0.28%), ant frequency in the surveyed dormitories) prefers wet and moist (0.28%),andmice(0.24%)werelowinthisstudy,althoughfor locations such as sewers and toilet. Toilet and kitchen with other countries, such as Malaysia, lizard (and also ant) could high frequency of choice by respondents could be the main be the greatest cause of trap damages. eTh refore incidence entrance-source of these species. However, the local name of International Journal of Zoology 5 Table 6: eTh entrance-source of cockroaches according to standpoint of occupants for 283 surveyed units of dormitories. The entrance- N N T T N, T, N, T, T, K, N N, T, Others Did House Rubbish source of Toilet Neighbours and and and and and and and and K, (yard or not Total kitchen containers cockroaches T R R K R K R K and R drainage) know Frequency 97 39 16 11 6 7 8 44 10 3 9 1 18 7 8 283 34.3 5.7 100 Percentage 13.8 3.9 2.12 2.8 2.8 15.6 3.5 1.1 3.2 0.4 6.4 1.2 2.8 348 residents were questioned, although 81% of them had answer. T: toilet, K: kitchen, R: rubbish container, and N: neighbours. cockroach in the research country is bath beetle which came [6] Y.M.Tatfeng,M.U.Usuanlele,A.Orukpeetal.,“Mechanical transmission of pathogenic organisms: the role of cockroaches,” rfi st from theAmericancockroach andtheir harborage. This Journal of Vector Borne Diseases,vol.42,no.4,pp.129–134,2005. name may have misled some people to choose toilet as the highest incidence rate for the entrance-source. Therefore, the [7] H.H.Pai,W.C.Chen, andC.F.Peng, “Cockroaches as potential vectors of nosocomial infections,” Infection Control and Hospital study shows that the viewpoints of the residents about the Epidemiology,vol.25, no.11, pp.979–984,2004. entrance-source and predominant species concur with the result from the cockroach trap counts. Seventy percent of [8] S.J.N.Deviand C. J. Murray,“Cockroaches(Blatta andPeripla- occupants in the surveyed dormitories and housing complex neta species) as reservoirs of drug-resistant salmonellas,” Epide- (from 167 units; Table 4) encountered cockroaches with sizes miology and Infection,vol.107,no. 2, pp.357–361,1991. less than 1.5 cm (the German cockroach size) close to the [9] H.H.Pai,W.C.Chen, andC.F.Peng, “Isolation of bacteria with rate of the German cockroach-infested units of the same antibiotic resistance from household cockroaches (Periplaneta buildings detected via trapping (82% from 148 infested units; americana and Blattella germanica),” Acta Tropica,vol.93, no. Table 1). However, incidence of infested units encountered 3, pp.259–265,2005. by residents was 28% higher than that estimated from the [10] E. P. Benson, Ecology and control of the smokybrown cockroach, cockroach traps counts exercise. periplaneta fuliginosa (Serville), in South Carolina [M.S. thesis], In conclusion, more attention needs to be given to view- Clemson University, Clemson, SC, USA, 1988. points of residents and factors aeff cting population (moni- [11] J. Lane, R. Siebers, G. Pene, P. Howden-Chapman, and J. Crane, toring methods, damages, and exclusion) when conducting “Tokelau: a unique low allergen environment at sea level,” Clini- a survey on cockroach in urban communities. cal and Experimental Allergy,vol.35, no.4,pp. 479–482, 2005. [12] C. Y. Lee, N. L. Chong, and H. H. Yap, “A study on domiciliary Acknowledgments cockroach infestation in Penang, Malaysia,” Journal of Bio- sciences,vol.4,pp. 95–98, 1993. eTh authors are grateful to Professor Dr. Dzolkhifli B. Omar, [13] C. Y. Lee and L. C. Lee, “Diversity of cockroach species and Prof.Dr. YusofB.Ibrahim,Dr. Mohd Khadri Shahar,and effect of sanitation on level of cockroach infestation in residen- Dr. Faizah Abood for technical help and their guidance for tial premises,” Tropical Biomedicine,vol.17, pp.39–43,2000. the duration of this project. ey Th thank the Vice-Chancellor [14] P. Oothuman, J. Jeeff ry, M. Z. Daud, L. Rampal, and C. Shekhar, of Yasuj University of Medical Sciences, Yasuj University, “Distribution of different species of cockroaches in the district Azad University, and Tarbiat Moallem University for their of Kelang, Selangor,” Journalofthe MalaysianSociety of Health, invaluable assistance for access to the study sampling units. vol. 4, pp. 52–56, 1984. [15] H.H.Yap,N.L.Chong,P.Y.Loh,R.Baba, andA.M.Yahaya, References “Survey of domiciliary cockroaches in Penang, Malaysia,” Jour- nal of Biosciences,vol.2,pp. 71–75, 1991. [1] D. G. Cochran, “Cockroaches,” Technical Report, World Health [16] H. H. Yap, C. H. 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