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Carbon Dioxide Emission Measurement and Its Spatiotemporal Evolution of Tourism Industry in Heilongjiang Province, China

Carbon Dioxide Emission Measurement and Its Spatiotemporal Evolution of Tourism Industry in... Hindawi Advances in Meteorology Volume 2021, Article ID 1458373, 10 pages https://doi.org/10.1155/2021/1458373 Research Article Carbon Dioxide Emission Measurement and Its Spatiotemporal Evolution of Tourism Industry in Heilongjiang Province, China 1,2 1 Zi Tang and Tianyue Huang School of Tourism and Cuisine, Harbin University of Commerce, Harbin 150028, China Postdoctoral Station of Business Administration, Harbin University of Commerce, Harbin 150028, China Correspondence should be addressed to Zi Tang; tz09@163.com Received 14 July 2021; Revised 20 August 2021; Accepted 23 August 2021; Published 3 September 2021 Academic Editor: Antonio Donateo Copyright © 2021 Zi Tang and Tianyue Huang. *is is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. *is study analyses the composition and evolution of carbon dioxide emissions from the tourism industry in Heilongjiang Province and its 12 regions by the tourism consumption stripping coefficient method and calculates the decoupling relationship between the carbon dioxide emissions and economic growth of tourism from 2010 to 2019. *e empirical results are as follows. (1) From 2010 to 2019, carbon dioxide emissions from Heilongjiang Province’s tourism industry and its subsector increased steadily, of which the tourism industry accounted for a relatively large amount of carbon dioxide emissions in “Transport, Storage, and Post.” (2) Time series analysis reveals that the carbon dioxide emissions of tourism basically show an increasing trend and there are still multiple decoupling relationships with economic growth. Expansive decoupling and weak decoupling have occurred more frequently. (3) Spatial analysis reveals that the carbon dioxide emissions of the regional tourism industry show a fluctuating upward trend. *e tourism industry in Harbin has significantly higher carbon dioxide emissions than in other regions. In addition, this study provides feasible suggestions and countermeasures for low-carbon tourism development in Heilongjiang Province. *e findings are considered useful in future planning of energy conservation and emission reduction in Heilongjiang Province and the regional tourism industry. As for the tourism industry, due to the overexploitation of 1. Introduction resources and energy consumption, it also produces a certain Global climate change is one of the largest, most extensive, amount of carbon dioxide emissions, which has exerted a and most far-reaching challenges facing mankind in the 21st growing influence on the ecological environment and cli- century. Continued greenhouse gas emissions will cause mate change [3]. further global warming and lead to changes in all compo- *e COVID-19 epidemic has affected all walks of life in nents of the climate system. According to the IPCC Working China’s economy, and the highly market-oriented tourism Group I report, Climate Change 2021: the Physical Science industry is one of the industries that has suffered the most. Basis, emissions of greenhouse gases from human activities Consumer service industries such as industrial production, are responsible for approximately 1.1 C of warming since catering, and tourism are greatly affected, and the whole industrialization, and global temperature is expected to society is in a passive low-carbon lifestyle. *at is to say, the reach or exceed 1.5 C of warming [1]. Global warming leads decline in carbon dioxide emissions caused by the epidemic to rising sea levels, extreme weather is everywhere, and is temporary, and the short-term decline in emissions is not global climate change has become an important factor abnormal. After the epidemic, energy conservation and emission reduction still have a long way to go. With the hindering sustainable and high-quality social and economic development. As an important greenhouse gas, carbon di- epidemic being under control in China, various production oxide emission due to energy consumption is one of the operations have begun to gradually recover, and carbon important factors in aggravating global climate change [2]. dioxide emissions are gradually rising. If the energy system 2 Advances in Meteorology structure is not changed, emissions will return to their tourism industry’s energy consumption and carbon dioxide original levels after the epidemic. With the effective control emissions from different research perspectives. *e esti- mation methods include production method and expendi- of the COVID-19 epidemic, tourist attractions have opened their doors to welcome visitors, and the tourism economy ture method, input-output method, extended tourism has gradually recovered. *e vigorous development of the satellite record method, “bottom-up” model based on tourism industry will also affect changes in the economy and process analysis, and “top-down” model based on input- the ecological environment. President Xi promised the output analysis. Kelly and Williams [20] applied a “bottom- world at the UN General Assembly and the Climate Am- up” approach to assess the impact of greenhouse gas bition Summit that China will increase its nationally de- emissions in Whistler, British Columbia. Sun [21] used the termined contribution to climate change—aim to have CO “bottom-up” method to estimate Shanghai’s carbon dioxide emissions peak before 2030 and achieve carbon neutrality emissions of tourism from 1997 to 2017. Wang and Xie [22] before 2060 [4]. *is not only clarifies the goals for China’s used Kaya identities to estimate Shenzhen’s carbon dioxide efforts to tackle climate change but also provides a driving emissions. Zhang and Liu [23] used the tourism con- sumption stripping coefficient method to estimate the force for the further development of the carbon dioxide emission rights market mechanism. *erefore, while the carbon dioxide emissions of the tourism industry in China’s rapid development of the tourism industry promotes rapid coastal regions. *e carbon dioxide emissions of the tourism and sound economic development, environmental protec- industry are estimated by different methods, and the results tion must also be strengthened. Heilongjiang Province has are different. According to the definition of tourism, this always attached great importance to tourism development, study uses the consumption coefficient method to calculate and the tourism industry has injected new vitality into the and obtain more accurate results. development of Heilongjiang’s consumer market. In 2019, In addition, scholars are also concerned about the re- Heilongjiang Province received 220 million domestic and lationship between the carbon dioxide emissions of the foreign tourists and achieved income of tourism at 268.4 tourism industry and its economic growth. Akadiri et al. [24] billion yuan. Income of domestic tourism and foreign studied the relationship between the carbon emissions of 16 tourist island countries and the growth of international tourism increased by 19% and 19.6%, respectively [5]. Scholars have so far measured the carbon dioxide tourism from 1995 to 2016 and proved that there is a two- emissions of the tourism industry mainly in three dimen- way causal relationship between globalization and carbon sions. First of all, in the selection of research objects, the emissions. Wang et al. [25] believed that there is a long-term current research on the carbon dioxide emissions calculation cointegration relationship between economic growth in the of tourism is mostly discussed from the national scale. Azam tourism industry and carbon dioxide emissions. Ma et al. et al. [6] examined the impact of the entry of tourists from [26] analysed the decoupling relationship between carbon Malaysia, *ailand, and Singapore on the environmental dioxide emissions and economic growth of inbound tour- pollution caused by carbon dioxide emissions from 1990 to ism. Tzeremes [27] used the time-varying method to mea- 2014. Wu and Shi [7] discussed the formulation of emission- sure the environmental Kuznets curve of 30 regions in China reduction policies in China’s tourism industry and the from 1997 to 2012. To sum up, through literature review, it is found that the preliminary estimation of energy consumption and carbon emissions in China’s tourism industry. Zha et al. [8] esti- current measurement research on carbon dioxide emissions mated the carbon dioxide emissions of China’s tourism of China’s tourism mainly draws on foreign bottom-up industry from 2005 to 2015. Tang et al. [9–13] estimated the estimation methods and directly uses the accounting coef- CO emissions of tourism between individual provinces. ficients in foreign research results, which inevitably deviates Han and Wu [14] estimated carbon dioxide emissions from from China’s national conditions. Due to the limited sta- tourism in parts of China. Coopera and McCulloughb [15] tistical data, previous research direction is mainly focused on quantified the carbon footprint of the 2019 National College the development of the tourism industry in a certain Sports Association Men’s Basketball Championship. province, and there is less research on the economic per- spective of regional space. In-depth study of the temporal Guhnemann ¨ et al. [16] reviewed and evaluated the current state of knowledge about the complex relationship between and spatial characteristics of carbon dioxide emissions in different regions can not only identify the key factors af- the tourism industry and climate change in the Austrian case study. Saviolidis et al. [17] developed a national indicator set fecting the development of low-carbon tourism but also help formulate industrial development strategies and policies. specifically for Iceland to assess its ability to capture the impact of tourism on environmental sustainability. Fili- Among them, the relevant research on the estimation carbon monau et al. [18] developed a new method for compre- dioxide emissions of tourism in Heilongjiang Province is hensive assessment of greenhouse gas emissions based on relatively early, the data in recent years are lacking, and the the British tourism market and tested its applicability. estimation on carbon dioxide emissions of tourism at the Paiano et al. [19] analysed the carbon dioxide emissions and spatial level in the province is not yet clear. waste associated with water and beverage packaging for all Based on low-carbon tourism, this study focuses on the temporal and spatial distribution of carbon dioxide emis- passengers visiting Italian ports on cruise ships for two years. Secondly, with regard to the measurement method of the sions of tourism in Heilongjiang Province from 2010 to 2019. Due to the complex composition of the tourism industry, it tourism industry’s carbon dioxide emissions, based on existing research, scholars have measured and analysed the is also difficult to obtain tourism-related data, which makes Advances in Meteorology 3 it very difficult to accurately measure carbon dioxide energy consumption of Heilongjiang’s tourism industry emissions from the tourism industry. *e data for this study from the energy consumption of its related industries. *e formula is are obtained from Heilongjiang Statistical Yearbook and China Energy Statistical Yearbook, which ensure the reli- ability of the data and the scientific nature of the method. R � , (1) *e tourism consumption stripping coefficient method is used to make a preliminary estimation of the total amount where R represents the stripping coefficient of tourism and structure of the tourism industry’s carbon dioxide consumption in industry i, V represents the added value of emissions. In addition, this study obtains the characteristics industry i [29], and T represents the added value of tourism of its temporal and spatial distribution changes by mea- in industry i (T can be obtained by multiplying the value- suring the carbon dioxide emissions of the tourism industry. added rate of industry i by the income of tourism in industry On this basis, the decoupling theory is used to obtain the i). *e value-added rate of industry i refers to the ratio of the relationship between the carbon dioxide emissions of the added value of industry i to the total output value of industry tourism industry and economic growth, and finally the i. development of low-carbon tourism is analysed. *e results of this study can be used as a reference for follow-up research to explore the emission reduction potential of the tourism 2.3. Carbon Dioxide Emission Measurement. In formulas (3) industry in Heilongjiang Province and sought to maximize and (4), C represents the total carbon dioxide emissions of the economic and environmental benefits of the regional the tourism industry, C represents the dioxide emissions of tourism industry. On the basis of this research, relevant tourism-related industries, E represents the energy con- ij departments can plan and manage low-carbon tourism in sumed by industry i, excluding tourism irrelevant parts, and Heilongjiang Province. h represents the converted standard coal coefficient of energy j. Generally, one ton of standard coal can produce 2.66–2.72 tons of carbon dioxide. In this study, the value of k 2. Materials and Methods is 2.45 [29], and E represents the amount of energy of type j ij consumed by industry i. China stipulates that the calorific 2.1. Data Source and Processing. *e data come from Hei- value per kilogram of standard coal is 7000 kcal. *e calorific longjiang Statistical Yearbook and China Energy Statistical value of coal, oil, natural gas, and electric energy is different Yearbook. Due to the different statistical methods of some (see Table 1). In order to compare various energy sources to yearbook data before and after 2009, this study selects the calculate and investigate their energy consumption, the tourism-related data of Heilongjiang Province from 2010 to standard conversion unit of standard coal is usually used. 2019 to measure the carbon dioxide emissions of tourism. *e statistical methods of data for some industries in 2018 C � 􏽘 C , (2) and 2019 are completely different from previous years and are estimated based on the predicted values of previous years. Due to the limitation of statistical data, this study C � 􏽘 􏼐E • h • k􏼑, (3) ij j cannot calculate the energy consumption and emissions of j�1 all sectors in the tourism industry. According to the Hei- longjiang Statistical Yearbook, the tourism industry’s carbon E � E • R . (4) ij ij i dioxide emissions are mainly related to two parts of the tertiary industry. *e category of part A is “Transport, Storage, and Post,” and part B is “Wholesale, Retail Trade, 2.4. Decoupling Model. *is study uses a decoupling model and Catering Services.” Similarly, in China Energy Statistical to explain the relationship between tourism economic Yearbook: Heilongjiang Province Energy Balance Sheet growth and carbon dioxide emissions of tourism. *e (Physical Quantity), part A is “Transport, Storage, and Post” decoupling theory is the basic theory proposed by the In- and “Wholesale and Retail Trade” and “Hotels and Catering ternational Organization for Economic Cooperation and Services” are selected as part B related to the tourism Development (OECD) to describe the blocking of the link industry. between economic growth and resource consumption or environmental pollution. *e percentage of change in car- 2.2. Consumption Stripping Coefficient. *e tourism in- bon dioxide emissions reflects the degree of sensitivity be- dustry in a narrow sense in China mainly refers to travel tween them [30]. *e theory originally originated from the agencies, hotels, coach and shipping companies, and field of physics, which refers to the disconnection between tourism businesses that specialize in the purchase and sale two interconnected physical quantities. *e Organization of tourism products. *e tourism industry in a broad sense for Economic Cooperation and Development applies it to includes all walks of life related to tourism in addition to the environmental field and defines it as the breakdown of companies that specialize in tourism business. Since China the link between environmental pollution and economic has not established data on carbon dioxide emissions growth [31]. Since then, Tapio and others have further re- classified by industries, this study uses the “tourism con- fined the decoupling model indicators to form the Tapio sumption stripping coefficient” method [28] to separate the carbon dioxide emission decoupling indicator, which is 4 Advances in Meteorology Table 1: Partial energy conversion standard coal reference Figure 1 shows that from a time series perspective, the coefficient. total carbon dioxide emissions of Heilongjiang Province’s tourism industry and its components have shown a fluc- Energy type Converted standard coal coefficient tuating growth trend from 2010 to 2019, increasing from 3.6 Coal 0.7143 kgce/kg million tons in 2010 to 22.2 million tons in 2019. *e total Gasoline 1.4714 kgce/kg carbon dioxide emissions of tourism in Heilongjiang Coal oil 1.4714 kgce/kg Province have been increasing for two consecutive years Diesel oil 1.4571 kgce/kg since 2010 and have been reduced year by year after 2012. It Fuel oil 1.4286 kgce/kg Coal tar 1.1429 kgce/kg increased significantly in 2018 and maintained the same Liquefied petroleum gas 1.7143 kgce/kg growth trend in 2019, which was 6 times the total carbon Oilfield natural gas 1.33 kgce/m dioxide emissions of tourism in 2010. Gas field natural gas 1.214 kgce/m In the past ten years, the difference between the carbon Heat (equivalent value) 0.03412 kgce/MJ dioxide emissions of part A and part B of the tourism in- Electricity (equivalent value) 0.1229 kgce/(kW•h) dustry in Heilongjiang Province was relatively small, and the Electricity (equivalent) — carbon dioxide emissions of part A of the tourism industry Data source: General Principles for Calculation of the Comprehensive accounted for more in the first five years. *e fluctuation Energy Consumption (GB/T 2589-2008), https://www.cnis.ac.cn/pcindex/. trend of the two is the same as the total carbon dioxide emission. Since 2015, the carbon dioxide emissions of Heilongjiang Province’s tourism industry in part A have currently one of the most used models in the field of energy continued to increase, and the carbon dioxide emissions in conservation and emission reduction. *e calculation for- part B have surpassed part A in 2015 and show a trend of first mula is decline and then increase. In 2018 and 2019, it exceeded the carbon dioxide emissions of tourism in part A for two ΔE/E t � , (5) consecutive years. ΔI/I Figure 2 shows that the total income of tourism in where t represents the decoupling coefficient between Heilongjiang Province from 2010 to 2019 has the same tourism economic growth and industrial carbon dioxide fluctuating trend as the carbon dioxide emissions of the emissions, ΔE/E represents the growth rate of carbon di- tourism industry in part A, showing a slow growth, then a oxide emissions of tourism, and ΔI/I represents the eco- decline, and then a steady growth trend. *e carbon dioxide nomic growth rate of tourism (this study uses income of emissions of the tourism industry in Heilongjiang Province tourism as an economic indicator). *e decoupling rela- in part B have the same trend as income of tourism in the tionship between tourism economic growth and carbon first five years, falling to 5.1 million tons in 2016, then dioxide emissions of tourism can be divided into three types: rebounding in 2017, and significantly increasing to 9.2 negative decoupling, decoupling, and connection, and each million tons in 2018. *rough SPSS software testing, the type is refined into three indicators (see Table 2). Negative correlation coefficient between Heilongjiang’s carbon di- decoupling often means that the efficiency of energy con- oxide emissions of tourism and income of tourism is 0.976, servation and emission reduction in the tourism industry is which further proves that Heilongjiang’s carbon dioxide decreasing, that is, energy consumption per unit output emissions of tourism have a strong positive correlation with value and carbon dioxide emissions are increasing. economic development. Decoupling often means that the energy-saving efficiency of Figure 3 shows that from the perspective of the com- the tourism industry is increasing, that is, energy con- bined analysis of tourism carbon emissions and economic sumption per unit output value and carbon dioxide emis- development, through decoupling analysis, there are mul- sions are decreasing. Connection means that the efficiency of tiple decoupling relationships between carbon dioxide energy conservation and emission reduction in the tourism emissions and income of tourism in Heilongjiang Province industry is relatively stable, and energy consumption per from 2010 to 2019; expansive decoupling state appears four unit output value and carbon dioxide emissions have not times, and weak decoupling state appears three times. From changed much. 2010 to 2016, the growth rate of Heilongjiang’s tourism industry’s carbon dioxide emissions and income of tourism increased one after another. Among them, the tourism in- 3. Results and Discussion dustry of Heilongjiang Province reached a state of strong decoupling in 2013, and the reduction in carbon dioxide 3.1. Carbon Dioxide Emissions of Tourism in Heilongjiang Province. From formulas (3) and (4), the annual carbon emissions of tourism was accompanied by the increase of dioxide emissions of tourism in Heilongjiang Province in A income of tourism. According to the Heilongjiang Statistical and B can be obtained, respectively, that is, the carbon Yearbook, the statistical caliber of income of tourism in 2014 dioxide emissions of the tourism industry in “Transport, is different and incomparable with previous years. After the Storage, and Post” and the tourism industry carbon dioxide tourism industry in Heilongjiang Province reached a state emissions in “Wholesale, Retail Trade, and Catering Ser- where the growth rate of carbon dioxide emissions was equal to the growth rate of income of tourism in 2017, the former vices.” *en, we get the total carbon dioxide emissions from tourism in Heilongjiang Province by formula (2). continued to be higher than the latter. From a long-term Advances in Meteorology 5 Table 2: Tapio carbon emission decoupling relationship index. Type Index ΔE ΔI t Implication Strong decoupling <0 >0 <0 CO emissions reduced and income increased *e reduction rate of CO emissions is faster than the reduction rate Decoupling Recession decoupling <0 <0 >1.2 of income Weak decoupling >0 >0 0< t< 0.8 *e increase in CO emissions is slower than the increase in income Critical growth >0 >0 0.8< t< 1.2 CO emissions are growing at the same rate as income Connection Critical decline <0 <0 0.8< t< 1.2 CO emissions are declining at the same rate as income Weak negative *e reduction rate of CO emissions is slower than the reduction rate <0 <0 0< t< 0.8 decoupling of income Negative Expansive decoupling >0 >0 >1.2 *e increase in CO emissions is faster than the increase in income decoupling Strong negative >0 <0 <0 CO emissions increased and income reduced decoupling 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 Time (year) Industries for Part A Industries for Part B Total Industries Figure 1: Carbon dioxide emissions of tourism in Heilongjiang Province. 14 300 0 0 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 Time (year) Industries for Part A Industries for Part B Total Industries Figure 2: Income and carbon dioxide emissions of tourism in Heilongjiang Province. perspective, the decoupling relationship between Hei- decoupling appearing repeatedly. It can be seen that although longjiang’s carbon dioxide emissions and economic growth of the ideal state of strong decoupling between carbon dioxide tourism is basically in a good state. From a short-term per- emissions and income of tourism in Heilongjiang Province has spective, the decoupling relationship between Heilongjiang’s reached an ideal state of strong decoupling, there is still space carbon dioxide emissions and economic growth of tourism is for improvement in Heilongjiang Province to maintain this unstable, with states weak decoupling and expansive state. Carbon Emissions of Tourism (million tons) Carbon Emissions of Tourism (million tons) Income (billion yuan) 6 Advances in Meteorology 6 the regional tourism industry and the growth of income of tourism in Heilongjiang Province during the ten years. *e more the decoupling state occurs, the better the region can coordinate the development of the tourism industry and the protection of the ecology. *e frequency of decoupling in Suihua and negative decoupling in Harbin was the same, both being 6 times. Compared with other regions, Qitaihe and Jixi had fewer occurrences of ND, with the same number of 3 occurrences. Decoupling less frequently appeared in 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 Hegang, but connected appeared 4 times. Harbin has a -1 Time (year) greater impact on the energy efficiency of tourism in Hei- Figure 3: Decoupling relationships for Heilongjiang Province. longjiang Province. Qitaihe and Jixi should invest more management and research on low-carbon tourism. Other cities need to pay more attention to low-carbon tourism. 3.2. Carbon Dioxide Emissions of Tourism in Regions. From Figure 4, Harbin tourism’s carbon dioxide emissions 4. Discussion and Conclusions in part A and part B are both the largest among the twelve regions. *e tourism industries of Kiamusze, Daqing, and On the whole, from 2010 to 2019, the total carbon dioxide Harbin have higher carbon dioxide emissions in part B, and emissions of the tourism industry in Heilongjiang Province the tourism industries of the other nine regions have higher on “Transport, Storage, and Post” decreased from 63% to carbon dioxide emissions in part A. *e tourism industries 47% of the total, and the tourism industry’s total carbon of Qitaihe, Kiamusze, and Daqing have the same carbon dioxide emissions on “Wholesale, Retail Trade, and Catering dioxide emissions in the above two parts, while the tourism Services” increased from 37% to 53%. In the past ten years, industries in the other regions have a large difference in the carbon dioxide emissions of Heilongjiang Province’s carbon dioxide emissions in the two parts A and B. *e tourism industry in part A have surpassed the carbon di- difference in carbon dioxide emissions between the two parts oxide emissions of part B in seven years, indicating that part of Harbin tourism is 15.1 million tons. *e difference in A still has a greater influence on the carbon dioxide carbon dioxide emissions between the two parts of Heihe emissions of Heilongjiang Province’s tourism industry. tourism is 6.8 million tons. However, the carbon dioxide emissions of the tourism in- As can be seen from Figure 5, the carbon dioxide dustry in part B exceeded the carbon dioxide emissions of emissions of Heilongjiang’s regional tourism industry in part A in 2015 and the past two years, and the increase in part A showed a fluctuating upward trend. From 2010 to carbon dioxide emissions from the tourism industry was 2016, the carbon dioxide emissions of Heilongjiang Prov- faster than the increase in income of tourism. It can be seen ince’s regional tourism first increased, then decreased, and that the development focus of Heilongjiang Province’s finally increased steadily. From 2017 to 2019, the carbon tourism industry is tilted towards wholesale, retail, ac- dioxide emissions of tourism in eleven other regions except commodation, and catering industries. *is is followed by an Heihe have grown rapidly. During the ten years, the carbon increase in energy consumption and carbon dioxide emis- dioxide emissions of Daqing tourism fluctuated greatly in sions. Although the tourism industry in Heilongjiang the first five years, the carbon dioxide emissions of Harbin Province has gradually formed a green development mode tourism fluctuated greatly in the next five years, and the and lifestyle, the green ecological industry has developed carbon dioxide emissions of Qitaihe tourism were low and rapidly, the total discharge of major pollutants has been almost unchanged. significantly reduced, and the air quality in the city has been It can be seen from Figure 6 that the carbon dioxide significantly improved. However, the total carbon dioxide emissions of Heilongjiang Province’s regional tourism in- emissions of the tourism industry are showing an upward dustry in part B show a fluctuating upward trend overall. trend as a whole. While promoting the development of Harbin tourism has the most carbon dioxide emissions and tourism from multiple angles and fields, the development is significantly higher than other regions. *e carbon dioxide environment still needs to be vigorously optimized. emissions of tourism in all regions increased significantly in From the perspective of economic development, the 2011 and 2015 and have continued to increase in the past two decoupling relationship between carbon dioxide emissions years. From 2016 to 2017, except for Harbin’s tourism in- and economic growth of tourism in Heilongjiang Province dustry, the growth rate of carbon dioxide emissions slowed from 2010 to 2019 is basically in good condition. It shows down, and the others all declined. In the past ten years, the that energy-saving and emission-reduction measures have carbon dioxide emissions of Harbin tourism have increased achieved certain results in the development of the province’s rapidly, the carbon dioxide emissions of Daqing and Qiqihar tourism industry. While vigorously developing the econ- tourism have fluctuated significantly, and the carbon dioxide omy, Heilongjiang Province also pays attention to protecting emissions of Heihe and Qitaihe tourism have been low and the environment. In the short term, the decoupling rela- almost unchanged. tionship between Heilongjiang’s carbon dioxide emissions Figure 7 and Table 3 show the proportion of the and economic growth of tourism is unstable. Among them, decoupling state between the carbon dioxide emissions of the four years of tourism in Heilongjiang Province have seen De-coupling Relationship (100 tons/million yuan) Advances in Meteorology 7 Suihua Heihe Mudanjiang Qitaihe Kiamusze Yichun Daqing Shuangyashan Hegang Jixi Qiqihar Harbin 0 5 10 15 20 25 Carbon Emissions of Tourism (million tons) Industries for Part A Industries for Part B Figure 4: Carbon dioxide emissions in regional tourism. the past two years. It shows that as the overall tourism 2.5 industry in Heilongjiang Province has been significantly improved in economic growth, energy consumption has 2.0 not received sufficient attention in management and control. *e strong decoupling between carbon dioxide 1.5 emissions and economic growth of tourism has not been maintained. 1.0 *e tourism industry’s carbon dioxide emissions have been a topic of concern in recent years. *is study has made 0.5 preliminary attempts and explorations in the measurement of tourism industry’s carbon dioxide emissions. *ere are 0.0 still many shortcomings in the research, and there are many 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 aspects that need to be explored and improved in future Time (year) research. Due to the limited data sources, this study only Harbin Yichun measures the carbon dioxide emissions of the tourism in- Kiamusze Qiqihar dustry in Heilongjiang Province of China from the time Jixi Qitaihe series and spatial perspectives and analyses the decoupling Hegang Mudanjiang relationship between the carbon dioxide emissions of the Heihe Shuangyashan regional tourism industry and economic growth. *e carbon Daqing Suihua dioxide emissions of scenic spots in Heilongjiang Province Figure 5: Carbon dioxide emissions of regional tourism in cannot be measured. In addition, as a popular ice and snow “Transport, Storage, and Post.” tourist destination in Heilongjiang Province, the tourism industry is greatly affected by the seasons. *e follow-up a high rate of increase in carbon dioxide emissions from research can also measure the seasons from a time series tourism. It shows that Heilongjiang Province’s economic perspective. *is study is only an estimate of the current aggregate has been expanding and its structure has been situation. *e focus of the next step of the study should be to optimized in recent years. It also has achieved remarkable estimate the future energy consumption and carbon dioxide results in cultivating new kinetic energy and new growth emission scenarios of the tourism industry under the premise of improving the accuracy of the estimate, so as to areas. While vigorously developing the economy, it has strengthened ecological protection, and straw can be com- enhance the practical guiding significance of this research. prehensively used. From a regional perspective, the tourism industry in 5. Suggestions Harbin at Part B has significantly higher carbon dioxide emissions than in other regions from 2010 to 2019, in- *is study estimates the carbon dioxide emissions from dicating that the economic development of regional tourism in Heilongjiang Province and its region from 2010 tourism in Heilongjiang Province is unbalanced, and the to 2019 by industry. From the perspective of time series, the tourism industry in some areas is still not very attractive. changes in the carbon dioxide emissions of the tourism In 2018 and 2019, there were 11 regions in Heilongjiang industry in Heilongjiang Province in the past ten years and Province where the carbon dioxide emissions of tourism in the decoupling relationship with economic growth are part A increased rapidly, and the carbon dioxide emissions measured. From the perspective of space, we compare the of tourism in all regions in part B continued to increase in consumption of carbon dioxide emissions of tourism by Carbon Emissions of Tourism (million tons) Location (region) 8 Advances in Meteorology 6.0 5.0 4.0 3.0 2.0 1.0 0.0 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 Time (year) Harbin Yichun Qiqihar Kiamusze Qitaihe Jixi Hegang Mudanjiang Shuangyashan Heihe Suihua Daqing Figure 6: Carbon dioxide emissions of regional tourism in “Wholesale, Retail Trade, and Catering Services.” Suihua Heihe Mudanjiang Qitaihe Kiamusze Yichun Daqing Shuangyashan Hegang Jixi Qiqihar Harbin 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 Proportion (%) Decoupling Connection Negative Decoupling Figure 7: Decoupling relationships for regional tourism. industry among regions. *e research results provide an achieve results in the development of Heilongjiang’s objective basis for the future implementation of energy tourism industry, but the trend of change is unstable, in- conservation and emission reduction in Heilongjiang dicating that the government should focus on reducing Province and the regional tourism industry. overall carbon dioxide emissions from a technical and *is research aims to provide feasible suggestions and management perspective. Compared with the research results of other scholars, it can be seen that the tourism countermeasures for the development of tourism in Hei- longjiang Province and its region and to provide an objective industry in Heilongjiang Province has been improving year basis for the implementation of energy conservation and by year in the promotion of low-carbon tourism in the past emission reduction in the tourism industry in Heilongjiang ten years. Province and cities in the future. It can be seen that energy- *rough the above analysis, the recommendations are as saving and emission-reduction measures have continued to follows: Location (region) Carbon Emissions of Tourism (million tons) Advances in Meteorology 9 Table 3: Decoupling coefficient for regional tourism. Year Region 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 Harbin 0.05 3.9 1.95 0.31 0.66 1.72 0.97 0.42 2.25 1.44 Qiqihar 0.72 5.01 −0.50 −0.36 0.7 1.53 −0.004 0.98 3.99 1.43 Jixi 0.46 5.86 0.1 0.21 0.96 1.16 −0.03 0.40 4.83 1.43 Hegang 0.17 4.59 0.46 4.93 1.06 1.19 1.02 0.98 1.22 1.40 Shuangyashan 0.73 6.29 0.13 −2.32 −1.24 0.53 −0.05 0.61 2.58 1.38 Daqing 0.23 9.63 0.59 −0.68 0.98 0.28 −1.05 1.58 3.97 1.39 Yichun −0.16 5.33 0.83 −0.46 0.15 1.52 0.63 −0.19 2.57 1.41 Kiamusze 0.07 6.76 −0.4 −1.25 1.06 1.35 −0.09 1.12 2.54 1.46 Qitaihe 0.33 6.41 0.53 −2.28 0.99 1.11 −0.3 0.57 121.23 1.42 Mudanjiang 0.05 3.31 −0.73 0.04 0.06 1.02 −1.3 1.51 5.63 1.36 Heihe 0.62 6.14 0.31 0.39 −0.13 1.18 0.87 2.44 25.63 1.41 Suihua 0.5 5.99 0.31 −0.59 0.59 0.62 0.23 0.48 4.48 1.43 (1) In terms of hotel management in the tourism in- regional needs. Related industries should also ac- dustry, green hotels should be selected to reduce the tively cooperate with local universities, increase in- use of resources and energy and the generation of vestment in related scientific research, and increase pollutants. Direct energy conservation and emission research on the development and utilization of new reduction can be achieved by improving technology tourism energy and the recycling of tourism waste. and management behaviour to increase energy effi- (4) In terms of policy improvement in the tourism in- ciency and reduce unit energy consumption. Indirect dustry, governments, social organizations, tourism- energy saving and emission reduction can be achieved related enterprises, and so on should actively ad- by adjusting the production structure and product vocate concepts such as low-carbon consumption. structure and improving labour productivity. *rough the promotion of low-carbon tourism in (2) In terms of transportation in the tourism industry, Heilongjiang Province and the development of low- the main direction of energy conservation and carbon tourism scenic spots, tourists are guided to emission reduction is to pay attention to the use of choose environmentally friendly transportation. transportation vehicles and vigorously promote *ere is a large gap in tourism development between green tourism transportation. *e authorities Heilongjiang Province and its regions, accompanied by slow should guide and encourage tourists to use low- development of tourism resources and uneven development carbon public transportation, such as subways, of 12 regions. *e improvement of the tourism system is the buses, urban public bicycles, and so on. Hei- top priority for the overall balanced development of Hei- longjiang Province should change the past high- longjiang’s tourism industry in the future. *e authorities of carbon dioxide emission energy use and con- Heilongjiang Province still need to focus on planning the sumption structure and effectively reduce the in- layout of related industries in their tourism industry. For tensity of carbon dioxide emissions in various example, the relevant departments have gradually realized sectors of the tourism industry, in order to achieve the sustainable development of the tourism industry in the ideal strong decoupling relationship between Heilongjiang Province through measures such as promoting Heilongjiang’s carbon dioxide emissions and eco- the ecological culture of the regional tourism industry, so as nomic growth of tourism. to reach and maintain the strong decoupling state as soon as (3) In terms of technological innovation in the tourism possible. industry, regional tourism-related enterprises should increase the research and utilization of low-carbon Data Availability technologies to promote the development of low- carbon technologies. At present, China’s low-carbon *e data are available upon request to the corresponding technology has achieved certain results, but due to author at tz09@163.com. the large regional differences in China, the appli- cability of the corresponding technology is not good. Conflicts of Interest While introducing advanced technologies, the pro- portion of clean energy sources such as solar energy, *e authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest. hydropower, and biomass should be increased. At the same time, in order to realize the green and Acknowledgments sustainable growth of the tourism economy in Heilongjiang Province, relevant departments should *is research was supported by the National Natural Science independently research and develop low-carbon Foundation of China (grant no. 41801137), China Post- emission-reduction technologies suitable for doctoral Science Foundation (grant no. 2016M600257), 10 Advances in Meteorology [15] J. A. Coopera and B. P. McCulloughb, “Bracketing sustain- Postdoctoral Program of Heilongjiang Province (grant no. ability: carbon footprinting March Madness to rethink sus- LBH-Z16093), Projects of Philosophy and Social Sciences of tainable tourism approaches and measurements,” Journal of Heilongjiang Province (grant nos. 20JYE275 and 19JYE271), Cleaner Production, vol. 318, Article ID 128475, 2021. Doctoral Research Projects of Harbin University of Com- [16] A. Guhnemann, ¨ A. Kurzwei, and M. Mailer, “Tourism mo- merce (grant no. 2016BS05), Young Innovative Talents bility and climate change-a review of the situation in Austria,” Project of Harbin University of Commerce (grant nos. Journal of Outdoor Recreation and Tourism, 2021, in press, 2019CX19 and 18XN013), and Graduate Innovative Re- Article ID 100382. search Project of Harbin University of Commerce (grant no. [17] N. M. Saviolidis, D. Cook, B. Dav´ıðsdo´ttir, L. Jo´hannsdo´ttir, YJSCX2020-655HSD). ´ and S. Olafsson, “Challenges of national measurement of environmental sustainability in tourism,” Current Research in Environmental Sustainability, vol. 3, Article ID 100079, References [18] V. Filimonau, J. Dickinson, D. Robbins, and M. V. Reddy, [1] IPCC, AR6 Climate Change 2021: 2e Physical Science Basis, “*e role of “indirect” greenhouse gas emissions in tourism: IPCC, Geneva, Switzerland, 2021. assessing the hidden carbon impacts from a holiday package [2] A. Mardani, D. Streimikiene, F. Cavallaro, N. Loganathan, tour,” Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, and M. Khoshnoudi, “Carbon dioxide (CO ) emissions and vol. 54, pp. 78–91, 2013. economic growth: a systematic review of two decades of [19] A. Paiano, T. Crovella, and G. Lagioia, “Managing sustainable research from 1995 to 2017,” 2e Science of the Total Envi- practices in cruise tourism: the assessment of carbon footprint ronment, vol. 649, pp. 31–49, 2018. and waste of water and beverage packaging,” Tourism [3] S. 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Carbon Dioxide Emission Measurement and Its Spatiotemporal Evolution of Tourism Industry in Heilongjiang Province, China

Advances in Meteorology , Volume 2021 – Sep 3, 2021

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Abstract

Hindawi Advances in Meteorology Volume 2021, Article ID 1458373, 10 pages https://doi.org/10.1155/2021/1458373 Research Article Carbon Dioxide Emission Measurement and Its Spatiotemporal Evolution of Tourism Industry in Heilongjiang Province, China 1,2 1 Zi Tang and Tianyue Huang School of Tourism and Cuisine, Harbin University of Commerce, Harbin 150028, China Postdoctoral Station of Business Administration, Harbin University of Commerce, Harbin 150028, China Correspondence should be addressed to Zi Tang; tz09@163.com Received 14 July 2021; Revised 20 August 2021; Accepted 23 August 2021; Published 3 September 2021 Academic Editor: Antonio Donateo Copyright © 2021 Zi Tang and Tianyue Huang. *is is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. *is study analyses the composition and evolution of carbon dioxide emissions from the tourism industry in Heilongjiang Province and its 12 regions by the tourism consumption stripping coefficient method and calculates the decoupling relationship between the carbon dioxide emissions and economic growth of tourism from 2010 to 2019. *e empirical results are as follows. (1) From 2010 to 2019, carbon dioxide emissions from Heilongjiang Province’s tourism industry and its subsector increased steadily, of which the tourism industry accounted for a relatively large amount of carbon dioxide emissions in “Transport, Storage, and Post.” (2) Time series analysis reveals that the carbon dioxide emissions of tourism basically show an increasing trend and there are still multiple decoupling relationships with economic growth. Expansive decoupling and weak decoupling have occurred more frequently. (3) Spatial analysis reveals that the carbon dioxide emissions of the regional tourism industry show a fluctuating upward trend. *e tourism industry in Harbin has significantly higher carbon dioxide emissions than in other regions. In addition, this study provides feasible suggestions and countermeasures for low-carbon tourism development in Heilongjiang Province. *e findings are considered useful in future planning of energy conservation and emission reduction in Heilongjiang Province and the regional tourism industry. As for the tourism industry, due to the overexploitation of 1. Introduction resources and energy consumption, it also produces a certain Global climate change is one of the largest, most extensive, amount of carbon dioxide emissions, which has exerted a and most far-reaching challenges facing mankind in the 21st growing influence on the ecological environment and cli- century. Continued greenhouse gas emissions will cause mate change [3]. further global warming and lead to changes in all compo- *e COVID-19 epidemic has affected all walks of life in nents of the climate system. According to the IPCC Working China’s economy, and the highly market-oriented tourism Group I report, Climate Change 2021: the Physical Science industry is one of the industries that has suffered the most. Basis, emissions of greenhouse gases from human activities Consumer service industries such as industrial production, are responsible for approximately 1.1 C of warming since catering, and tourism are greatly affected, and the whole industrialization, and global temperature is expected to society is in a passive low-carbon lifestyle. *at is to say, the reach or exceed 1.5 C of warming [1]. Global warming leads decline in carbon dioxide emissions caused by the epidemic to rising sea levels, extreme weather is everywhere, and is temporary, and the short-term decline in emissions is not global climate change has become an important factor abnormal. After the epidemic, energy conservation and emission reduction still have a long way to go. With the hindering sustainable and high-quality social and economic development. As an important greenhouse gas, carbon di- epidemic being under control in China, various production oxide emission due to energy consumption is one of the operations have begun to gradually recover, and carbon important factors in aggravating global climate change [2]. dioxide emissions are gradually rising. If the energy system 2 Advances in Meteorology structure is not changed, emissions will return to their tourism industry’s energy consumption and carbon dioxide original levels after the epidemic. With the effective control emissions from different research perspectives. *e esti- mation methods include production method and expendi- of the COVID-19 epidemic, tourist attractions have opened their doors to welcome visitors, and the tourism economy ture method, input-output method, extended tourism has gradually recovered. *e vigorous development of the satellite record method, “bottom-up” model based on tourism industry will also affect changes in the economy and process analysis, and “top-down” model based on input- the ecological environment. President Xi promised the output analysis. Kelly and Williams [20] applied a “bottom- world at the UN General Assembly and the Climate Am- up” approach to assess the impact of greenhouse gas bition Summit that China will increase its nationally de- emissions in Whistler, British Columbia. Sun [21] used the termined contribution to climate change—aim to have CO “bottom-up” method to estimate Shanghai’s carbon dioxide emissions peak before 2030 and achieve carbon neutrality emissions of tourism from 1997 to 2017. Wang and Xie [22] before 2060 [4]. *is not only clarifies the goals for China’s used Kaya identities to estimate Shenzhen’s carbon dioxide efforts to tackle climate change but also provides a driving emissions. Zhang and Liu [23] used the tourism con- sumption stripping coefficient method to estimate the force for the further development of the carbon dioxide emission rights market mechanism. *erefore, while the carbon dioxide emissions of the tourism industry in China’s rapid development of the tourism industry promotes rapid coastal regions. *e carbon dioxide emissions of the tourism and sound economic development, environmental protec- industry are estimated by different methods, and the results tion must also be strengthened. Heilongjiang Province has are different. According to the definition of tourism, this always attached great importance to tourism development, study uses the consumption coefficient method to calculate and the tourism industry has injected new vitality into the and obtain more accurate results. development of Heilongjiang’s consumer market. In 2019, In addition, scholars are also concerned about the re- Heilongjiang Province received 220 million domestic and lationship between the carbon dioxide emissions of the foreign tourists and achieved income of tourism at 268.4 tourism industry and its economic growth. Akadiri et al. [24] billion yuan. Income of domestic tourism and foreign studied the relationship between the carbon emissions of 16 tourist island countries and the growth of international tourism increased by 19% and 19.6%, respectively [5]. Scholars have so far measured the carbon dioxide tourism from 1995 to 2016 and proved that there is a two- emissions of the tourism industry mainly in three dimen- way causal relationship between globalization and carbon sions. First of all, in the selection of research objects, the emissions. Wang et al. [25] believed that there is a long-term current research on the carbon dioxide emissions calculation cointegration relationship between economic growth in the of tourism is mostly discussed from the national scale. Azam tourism industry and carbon dioxide emissions. Ma et al. et al. [6] examined the impact of the entry of tourists from [26] analysed the decoupling relationship between carbon Malaysia, *ailand, and Singapore on the environmental dioxide emissions and economic growth of inbound tour- pollution caused by carbon dioxide emissions from 1990 to ism. Tzeremes [27] used the time-varying method to mea- 2014. Wu and Shi [7] discussed the formulation of emission- sure the environmental Kuznets curve of 30 regions in China reduction policies in China’s tourism industry and the from 1997 to 2012. To sum up, through literature review, it is found that the preliminary estimation of energy consumption and carbon emissions in China’s tourism industry. Zha et al. [8] esti- current measurement research on carbon dioxide emissions mated the carbon dioxide emissions of China’s tourism of China’s tourism mainly draws on foreign bottom-up industry from 2005 to 2015. Tang et al. [9–13] estimated the estimation methods and directly uses the accounting coef- CO emissions of tourism between individual provinces. ficients in foreign research results, which inevitably deviates Han and Wu [14] estimated carbon dioxide emissions from from China’s national conditions. Due to the limited sta- tourism in parts of China. Coopera and McCulloughb [15] tistical data, previous research direction is mainly focused on quantified the carbon footprint of the 2019 National College the development of the tourism industry in a certain Sports Association Men’s Basketball Championship. province, and there is less research on the economic per- spective of regional space. In-depth study of the temporal Guhnemann ¨ et al. [16] reviewed and evaluated the current state of knowledge about the complex relationship between and spatial characteristics of carbon dioxide emissions in different regions can not only identify the key factors af- the tourism industry and climate change in the Austrian case study. Saviolidis et al. [17] developed a national indicator set fecting the development of low-carbon tourism but also help formulate industrial development strategies and policies. specifically for Iceland to assess its ability to capture the impact of tourism on environmental sustainability. Fili- Among them, the relevant research on the estimation carbon monau et al. [18] developed a new method for compre- dioxide emissions of tourism in Heilongjiang Province is hensive assessment of greenhouse gas emissions based on relatively early, the data in recent years are lacking, and the the British tourism market and tested its applicability. estimation on carbon dioxide emissions of tourism at the Paiano et al. [19] analysed the carbon dioxide emissions and spatial level in the province is not yet clear. waste associated with water and beverage packaging for all Based on low-carbon tourism, this study focuses on the temporal and spatial distribution of carbon dioxide emis- passengers visiting Italian ports on cruise ships for two years. Secondly, with regard to the measurement method of the sions of tourism in Heilongjiang Province from 2010 to 2019. Due to the complex composition of the tourism industry, it tourism industry’s carbon dioxide emissions, based on existing research, scholars have measured and analysed the is also difficult to obtain tourism-related data, which makes Advances in Meteorology 3 it very difficult to accurately measure carbon dioxide energy consumption of Heilongjiang’s tourism industry emissions from the tourism industry. *e data for this study from the energy consumption of its related industries. *e formula is are obtained from Heilongjiang Statistical Yearbook and China Energy Statistical Yearbook, which ensure the reli- ability of the data and the scientific nature of the method. R � , (1) *e tourism consumption stripping coefficient method is used to make a preliminary estimation of the total amount where R represents the stripping coefficient of tourism and structure of the tourism industry’s carbon dioxide consumption in industry i, V represents the added value of emissions. In addition, this study obtains the characteristics industry i [29], and T represents the added value of tourism of its temporal and spatial distribution changes by mea- in industry i (T can be obtained by multiplying the value- suring the carbon dioxide emissions of the tourism industry. added rate of industry i by the income of tourism in industry On this basis, the decoupling theory is used to obtain the i). *e value-added rate of industry i refers to the ratio of the relationship between the carbon dioxide emissions of the added value of industry i to the total output value of industry tourism industry and economic growth, and finally the i. development of low-carbon tourism is analysed. *e results of this study can be used as a reference for follow-up research to explore the emission reduction potential of the tourism 2.3. Carbon Dioxide Emission Measurement. In formulas (3) industry in Heilongjiang Province and sought to maximize and (4), C represents the total carbon dioxide emissions of the economic and environmental benefits of the regional the tourism industry, C represents the dioxide emissions of tourism industry. On the basis of this research, relevant tourism-related industries, E represents the energy con- ij departments can plan and manage low-carbon tourism in sumed by industry i, excluding tourism irrelevant parts, and Heilongjiang Province. h represents the converted standard coal coefficient of energy j. Generally, one ton of standard coal can produce 2.66–2.72 tons of carbon dioxide. In this study, the value of k 2. Materials and Methods is 2.45 [29], and E represents the amount of energy of type j ij consumed by industry i. China stipulates that the calorific 2.1. Data Source and Processing. *e data come from Hei- value per kilogram of standard coal is 7000 kcal. *e calorific longjiang Statistical Yearbook and China Energy Statistical value of coal, oil, natural gas, and electric energy is different Yearbook. Due to the different statistical methods of some (see Table 1). In order to compare various energy sources to yearbook data before and after 2009, this study selects the calculate and investigate their energy consumption, the tourism-related data of Heilongjiang Province from 2010 to standard conversion unit of standard coal is usually used. 2019 to measure the carbon dioxide emissions of tourism. *e statistical methods of data for some industries in 2018 C � 􏽘 C , (2) and 2019 are completely different from previous years and are estimated based on the predicted values of previous years. Due to the limitation of statistical data, this study C � 􏽘 􏼐E • h • k􏼑, (3) ij j cannot calculate the energy consumption and emissions of j�1 all sectors in the tourism industry. According to the Hei- longjiang Statistical Yearbook, the tourism industry’s carbon E � E • R . (4) ij ij i dioxide emissions are mainly related to two parts of the tertiary industry. *e category of part A is “Transport, Storage, and Post,” and part B is “Wholesale, Retail Trade, 2.4. Decoupling Model. *is study uses a decoupling model and Catering Services.” Similarly, in China Energy Statistical to explain the relationship between tourism economic Yearbook: Heilongjiang Province Energy Balance Sheet growth and carbon dioxide emissions of tourism. *e (Physical Quantity), part A is “Transport, Storage, and Post” decoupling theory is the basic theory proposed by the In- and “Wholesale and Retail Trade” and “Hotels and Catering ternational Organization for Economic Cooperation and Services” are selected as part B related to the tourism Development (OECD) to describe the blocking of the link industry. between economic growth and resource consumption or environmental pollution. *e percentage of change in car- 2.2. Consumption Stripping Coefficient. *e tourism in- bon dioxide emissions reflects the degree of sensitivity be- dustry in a narrow sense in China mainly refers to travel tween them [30]. *e theory originally originated from the agencies, hotels, coach and shipping companies, and field of physics, which refers to the disconnection between tourism businesses that specialize in the purchase and sale two interconnected physical quantities. *e Organization of tourism products. *e tourism industry in a broad sense for Economic Cooperation and Development applies it to includes all walks of life related to tourism in addition to the environmental field and defines it as the breakdown of companies that specialize in tourism business. Since China the link between environmental pollution and economic has not established data on carbon dioxide emissions growth [31]. Since then, Tapio and others have further re- classified by industries, this study uses the “tourism con- fined the decoupling model indicators to form the Tapio sumption stripping coefficient” method [28] to separate the carbon dioxide emission decoupling indicator, which is 4 Advances in Meteorology Table 1: Partial energy conversion standard coal reference Figure 1 shows that from a time series perspective, the coefficient. total carbon dioxide emissions of Heilongjiang Province’s tourism industry and its components have shown a fluc- Energy type Converted standard coal coefficient tuating growth trend from 2010 to 2019, increasing from 3.6 Coal 0.7143 kgce/kg million tons in 2010 to 22.2 million tons in 2019. *e total Gasoline 1.4714 kgce/kg carbon dioxide emissions of tourism in Heilongjiang Coal oil 1.4714 kgce/kg Province have been increasing for two consecutive years Diesel oil 1.4571 kgce/kg since 2010 and have been reduced year by year after 2012. It Fuel oil 1.4286 kgce/kg Coal tar 1.1429 kgce/kg increased significantly in 2018 and maintained the same Liquefied petroleum gas 1.7143 kgce/kg growth trend in 2019, which was 6 times the total carbon Oilfield natural gas 1.33 kgce/m dioxide emissions of tourism in 2010. Gas field natural gas 1.214 kgce/m In the past ten years, the difference between the carbon Heat (equivalent value) 0.03412 kgce/MJ dioxide emissions of part A and part B of the tourism in- Electricity (equivalent value) 0.1229 kgce/(kW•h) dustry in Heilongjiang Province was relatively small, and the Electricity (equivalent) — carbon dioxide emissions of part A of the tourism industry Data source: General Principles for Calculation of the Comprehensive accounted for more in the first five years. *e fluctuation Energy Consumption (GB/T 2589-2008), https://www.cnis.ac.cn/pcindex/. trend of the two is the same as the total carbon dioxide emission. Since 2015, the carbon dioxide emissions of Heilongjiang Province’s tourism industry in part A have currently one of the most used models in the field of energy continued to increase, and the carbon dioxide emissions in conservation and emission reduction. *e calculation for- part B have surpassed part A in 2015 and show a trend of first mula is decline and then increase. In 2018 and 2019, it exceeded the carbon dioxide emissions of tourism in part A for two ΔE/E t � , (5) consecutive years. ΔI/I Figure 2 shows that the total income of tourism in where t represents the decoupling coefficient between Heilongjiang Province from 2010 to 2019 has the same tourism economic growth and industrial carbon dioxide fluctuating trend as the carbon dioxide emissions of the emissions, ΔE/E represents the growth rate of carbon di- tourism industry in part A, showing a slow growth, then a oxide emissions of tourism, and ΔI/I represents the eco- decline, and then a steady growth trend. *e carbon dioxide nomic growth rate of tourism (this study uses income of emissions of the tourism industry in Heilongjiang Province tourism as an economic indicator). *e decoupling rela- in part B have the same trend as income of tourism in the tionship between tourism economic growth and carbon first five years, falling to 5.1 million tons in 2016, then dioxide emissions of tourism can be divided into three types: rebounding in 2017, and significantly increasing to 9.2 negative decoupling, decoupling, and connection, and each million tons in 2018. *rough SPSS software testing, the type is refined into three indicators (see Table 2). Negative correlation coefficient between Heilongjiang’s carbon di- decoupling often means that the efficiency of energy con- oxide emissions of tourism and income of tourism is 0.976, servation and emission reduction in the tourism industry is which further proves that Heilongjiang’s carbon dioxide decreasing, that is, energy consumption per unit output emissions of tourism have a strong positive correlation with value and carbon dioxide emissions are increasing. economic development. Decoupling often means that the energy-saving efficiency of Figure 3 shows that from the perspective of the com- the tourism industry is increasing, that is, energy con- bined analysis of tourism carbon emissions and economic sumption per unit output value and carbon dioxide emis- development, through decoupling analysis, there are mul- sions are decreasing. Connection means that the efficiency of tiple decoupling relationships between carbon dioxide energy conservation and emission reduction in the tourism emissions and income of tourism in Heilongjiang Province industry is relatively stable, and energy consumption per from 2010 to 2019; expansive decoupling state appears four unit output value and carbon dioxide emissions have not times, and weak decoupling state appears three times. From changed much. 2010 to 2016, the growth rate of Heilongjiang’s tourism industry’s carbon dioxide emissions and income of tourism increased one after another. Among them, the tourism in- 3. Results and Discussion dustry of Heilongjiang Province reached a state of strong decoupling in 2013, and the reduction in carbon dioxide 3.1. Carbon Dioxide Emissions of Tourism in Heilongjiang Province. From formulas (3) and (4), the annual carbon emissions of tourism was accompanied by the increase of dioxide emissions of tourism in Heilongjiang Province in A income of tourism. According to the Heilongjiang Statistical and B can be obtained, respectively, that is, the carbon Yearbook, the statistical caliber of income of tourism in 2014 dioxide emissions of the tourism industry in “Transport, is different and incomparable with previous years. After the Storage, and Post” and the tourism industry carbon dioxide tourism industry in Heilongjiang Province reached a state emissions in “Wholesale, Retail Trade, and Catering Ser- where the growth rate of carbon dioxide emissions was equal to the growth rate of income of tourism in 2017, the former vices.” *en, we get the total carbon dioxide emissions from tourism in Heilongjiang Province by formula (2). continued to be higher than the latter. From a long-term Advances in Meteorology 5 Table 2: Tapio carbon emission decoupling relationship index. Type Index ΔE ΔI t Implication Strong decoupling <0 >0 <0 CO emissions reduced and income increased *e reduction rate of CO emissions is faster than the reduction rate Decoupling Recession decoupling <0 <0 >1.2 of income Weak decoupling >0 >0 0< t< 0.8 *e increase in CO emissions is slower than the increase in income Critical growth >0 >0 0.8< t< 1.2 CO emissions are growing at the same rate as income Connection Critical decline <0 <0 0.8< t< 1.2 CO emissions are declining at the same rate as income Weak negative *e reduction rate of CO emissions is slower than the reduction rate <0 <0 0< t< 0.8 decoupling of income Negative Expansive decoupling >0 >0 >1.2 *e increase in CO emissions is faster than the increase in income decoupling Strong negative >0 <0 <0 CO emissions increased and income reduced decoupling 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 Time (year) Industries for Part A Industries for Part B Total Industries Figure 1: Carbon dioxide emissions of tourism in Heilongjiang Province. 14 300 0 0 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 Time (year) Industries for Part A Industries for Part B Total Industries Figure 2: Income and carbon dioxide emissions of tourism in Heilongjiang Province. perspective, the decoupling relationship between Hei- decoupling appearing repeatedly. It can be seen that although longjiang’s carbon dioxide emissions and economic growth of the ideal state of strong decoupling between carbon dioxide tourism is basically in a good state. From a short-term per- emissions and income of tourism in Heilongjiang Province has spective, the decoupling relationship between Heilongjiang’s reached an ideal state of strong decoupling, there is still space carbon dioxide emissions and economic growth of tourism is for improvement in Heilongjiang Province to maintain this unstable, with states weak decoupling and expansive state. Carbon Emissions of Tourism (million tons) Carbon Emissions of Tourism (million tons) Income (billion yuan) 6 Advances in Meteorology 6 the regional tourism industry and the growth of income of tourism in Heilongjiang Province during the ten years. *e more the decoupling state occurs, the better the region can coordinate the development of the tourism industry and the protection of the ecology. *e frequency of decoupling in Suihua and negative decoupling in Harbin was the same, both being 6 times. Compared with other regions, Qitaihe and Jixi had fewer occurrences of ND, with the same number of 3 occurrences. Decoupling less frequently appeared in 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 Hegang, but connected appeared 4 times. Harbin has a -1 Time (year) greater impact on the energy efficiency of tourism in Hei- Figure 3: Decoupling relationships for Heilongjiang Province. longjiang Province. Qitaihe and Jixi should invest more management and research on low-carbon tourism. Other cities need to pay more attention to low-carbon tourism. 3.2. Carbon Dioxide Emissions of Tourism in Regions. From Figure 4, Harbin tourism’s carbon dioxide emissions 4. Discussion and Conclusions in part A and part B are both the largest among the twelve regions. *e tourism industries of Kiamusze, Daqing, and On the whole, from 2010 to 2019, the total carbon dioxide Harbin have higher carbon dioxide emissions in part B, and emissions of the tourism industry in Heilongjiang Province the tourism industries of the other nine regions have higher on “Transport, Storage, and Post” decreased from 63% to carbon dioxide emissions in part A. *e tourism industries 47% of the total, and the tourism industry’s total carbon of Qitaihe, Kiamusze, and Daqing have the same carbon dioxide emissions on “Wholesale, Retail Trade, and Catering dioxide emissions in the above two parts, while the tourism Services” increased from 37% to 53%. In the past ten years, industries in the other regions have a large difference in the carbon dioxide emissions of Heilongjiang Province’s carbon dioxide emissions in the two parts A and B. *e tourism industry in part A have surpassed the carbon di- difference in carbon dioxide emissions between the two parts oxide emissions of part B in seven years, indicating that part of Harbin tourism is 15.1 million tons. *e difference in A still has a greater influence on the carbon dioxide carbon dioxide emissions between the two parts of Heihe emissions of Heilongjiang Province’s tourism industry. tourism is 6.8 million tons. However, the carbon dioxide emissions of the tourism in- As can be seen from Figure 5, the carbon dioxide dustry in part B exceeded the carbon dioxide emissions of emissions of Heilongjiang’s regional tourism industry in part A in 2015 and the past two years, and the increase in part A showed a fluctuating upward trend. From 2010 to carbon dioxide emissions from the tourism industry was 2016, the carbon dioxide emissions of Heilongjiang Prov- faster than the increase in income of tourism. It can be seen ince’s regional tourism first increased, then decreased, and that the development focus of Heilongjiang Province’s finally increased steadily. From 2017 to 2019, the carbon tourism industry is tilted towards wholesale, retail, ac- dioxide emissions of tourism in eleven other regions except commodation, and catering industries. *is is followed by an Heihe have grown rapidly. During the ten years, the carbon increase in energy consumption and carbon dioxide emis- dioxide emissions of Daqing tourism fluctuated greatly in sions. Although the tourism industry in Heilongjiang the first five years, the carbon dioxide emissions of Harbin Province has gradually formed a green development mode tourism fluctuated greatly in the next five years, and the and lifestyle, the green ecological industry has developed carbon dioxide emissions of Qitaihe tourism were low and rapidly, the total discharge of major pollutants has been almost unchanged. significantly reduced, and the air quality in the city has been It can be seen from Figure 6 that the carbon dioxide significantly improved. However, the total carbon dioxide emissions of Heilongjiang Province’s regional tourism in- emissions of the tourism industry are showing an upward dustry in part B show a fluctuating upward trend overall. trend as a whole. While promoting the development of Harbin tourism has the most carbon dioxide emissions and tourism from multiple angles and fields, the development is significantly higher than other regions. *e carbon dioxide environment still needs to be vigorously optimized. emissions of tourism in all regions increased significantly in From the perspective of economic development, the 2011 and 2015 and have continued to increase in the past two decoupling relationship between carbon dioxide emissions years. From 2016 to 2017, except for Harbin’s tourism in- and economic growth of tourism in Heilongjiang Province dustry, the growth rate of carbon dioxide emissions slowed from 2010 to 2019 is basically in good condition. It shows down, and the others all declined. In the past ten years, the that energy-saving and emission-reduction measures have carbon dioxide emissions of Harbin tourism have increased achieved certain results in the development of the province’s rapidly, the carbon dioxide emissions of Daqing and Qiqihar tourism industry. While vigorously developing the econ- tourism have fluctuated significantly, and the carbon dioxide omy, Heilongjiang Province also pays attention to protecting emissions of Heihe and Qitaihe tourism have been low and the environment. In the short term, the decoupling rela- almost unchanged. tionship between Heilongjiang’s carbon dioxide emissions Figure 7 and Table 3 show the proportion of the and economic growth of tourism is unstable. Among them, decoupling state between the carbon dioxide emissions of the four years of tourism in Heilongjiang Province have seen De-coupling Relationship (100 tons/million yuan) Advances in Meteorology 7 Suihua Heihe Mudanjiang Qitaihe Kiamusze Yichun Daqing Shuangyashan Hegang Jixi Qiqihar Harbin 0 5 10 15 20 25 Carbon Emissions of Tourism (million tons) Industries for Part A Industries for Part B Figure 4: Carbon dioxide emissions in regional tourism. the past two years. It shows that as the overall tourism 2.5 industry in Heilongjiang Province has been significantly improved in economic growth, energy consumption has 2.0 not received sufficient attention in management and control. *e strong decoupling between carbon dioxide 1.5 emissions and economic growth of tourism has not been maintained. 1.0 *e tourism industry’s carbon dioxide emissions have been a topic of concern in recent years. *is study has made 0.5 preliminary attempts and explorations in the measurement of tourism industry’s carbon dioxide emissions. *ere are 0.0 still many shortcomings in the research, and there are many 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 aspects that need to be explored and improved in future Time (year) research. Due to the limited data sources, this study only Harbin Yichun measures the carbon dioxide emissions of the tourism in- Kiamusze Qiqihar dustry in Heilongjiang Province of China from the time Jixi Qitaihe series and spatial perspectives and analyses the decoupling Hegang Mudanjiang relationship between the carbon dioxide emissions of the Heihe Shuangyashan regional tourism industry and economic growth. *e carbon Daqing Suihua dioxide emissions of scenic spots in Heilongjiang Province Figure 5: Carbon dioxide emissions of regional tourism in cannot be measured. In addition, as a popular ice and snow “Transport, Storage, and Post.” tourist destination in Heilongjiang Province, the tourism industry is greatly affected by the seasons. *e follow-up a high rate of increase in carbon dioxide emissions from research can also measure the seasons from a time series tourism. It shows that Heilongjiang Province’s economic perspective. *is study is only an estimate of the current aggregate has been expanding and its structure has been situation. *e focus of the next step of the study should be to optimized in recent years. It also has achieved remarkable estimate the future energy consumption and carbon dioxide results in cultivating new kinetic energy and new growth emission scenarios of the tourism industry under the premise of improving the accuracy of the estimate, so as to areas. While vigorously developing the economy, it has strengthened ecological protection, and straw can be com- enhance the practical guiding significance of this research. prehensively used. From a regional perspective, the tourism industry in 5. Suggestions Harbin at Part B has significantly higher carbon dioxide emissions than in other regions from 2010 to 2019, in- *is study estimates the carbon dioxide emissions from dicating that the economic development of regional tourism in Heilongjiang Province and its region from 2010 tourism in Heilongjiang Province is unbalanced, and the to 2019 by industry. From the perspective of time series, the tourism industry in some areas is still not very attractive. changes in the carbon dioxide emissions of the tourism In 2018 and 2019, there were 11 regions in Heilongjiang industry in Heilongjiang Province in the past ten years and Province where the carbon dioxide emissions of tourism in the decoupling relationship with economic growth are part A increased rapidly, and the carbon dioxide emissions measured. From the perspective of space, we compare the of tourism in all regions in part B continued to increase in consumption of carbon dioxide emissions of tourism by Carbon Emissions of Tourism (million tons) Location (region) 8 Advances in Meteorology 6.0 5.0 4.0 3.0 2.0 1.0 0.0 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 Time (year) Harbin Yichun Qiqihar Kiamusze Qitaihe Jixi Hegang Mudanjiang Shuangyashan Heihe Suihua Daqing Figure 6: Carbon dioxide emissions of regional tourism in “Wholesale, Retail Trade, and Catering Services.” Suihua Heihe Mudanjiang Qitaihe Kiamusze Yichun Daqing Shuangyashan Hegang Jixi Qiqihar Harbin 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 Proportion (%) Decoupling Connection Negative Decoupling Figure 7: Decoupling relationships for regional tourism. industry among regions. *e research results provide an achieve results in the development of Heilongjiang’s objective basis for the future implementation of energy tourism industry, but the trend of change is unstable, in- conservation and emission reduction in Heilongjiang dicating that the government should focus on reducing Province and the regional tourism industry. overall carbon dioxide emissions from a technical and *is research aims to provide feasible suggestions and management perspective. Compared with the research results of other scholars, it can be seen that the tourism countermeasures for the development of tourism in Hei- longjiang Province and its region and to provide an objective industry in Heilongjiang Province has been improving year basis for the implementation of energy conservation and by year in the promotion of low-carbon tourism in the past emission reduction in the tourism industry in Heilongjiang ten years. Province and cities in the future. It can be seen that energy- *rough the above analysis, the recommendations are as saving and emission-reduction measures have continued to follows: Location (region) Carbon Emissions of Tourism (million tons) Advances in Meteorology 9 Table 3: Decoupling coefficient for regional tourism. Year Region 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 Harbin 0.05 3.9 1.95 0.31 0.66 1.72 0.97 0.42 2.25 1.44 Qiqihar 0.72 5.01 −0.50 −0.36 0.7 1.53 −0.004 0.98 3.99 1.43 Jixi 0.46 5.86 0.1 0.21 0.96 1.16 −0.03 0.40 4.83 1.43 Hegang 0.17 4.59 0.46 4.93 1.06 1.19 1.02 0.98 1.22 1.40 Shuangyashan 0.73 6.29 0.13 −2.32 −1.24 0.53 −0.05 0.61 2.58 1.38 Daqing 0.23 9.63 0.59 −0.68 0.98 0.28 −1.05 1.58 3.97 1.39 Yichun −0.16 5.33 0.83 −0.46 0.15 1.52 0.63 −0.19 2.57 1.41 Kiamusze 0.07 6.76 −0.4 −1.25 1.06 1.35 −0.09 1.12 2.54 1.46 Qitaihe 0.33 6.41 0.53 −2.28 0.99 1.11 −0.3 0.57 121.23 1.42 Mudanjiang 0.05 3.31 −0.73 0.04 0.06 1.02 −1.3 1.51 5.63 1.36 Heihe 0.62 6.14 0.31 0.39 −0.13 1.18 0.87 2.44 25.63 1.41 Suihua 0.5 5.99 0.31 −0.59 0.59 0.62 0.23 0.48 4.48 1.43 (1) In terms of hotel management in the tourism in- regional needs. Related industries should also ac- dustry, green hotels should be selected to reduce the tively cooperate with local universities, increase in- use of resources and energy and the generation of vestment in related scientific research, and increase pollutants. Direct energy conservation and emission research on the development and utilization of new reduction can be achieved by improving technology tourism energy and the recycling of tourism waste. and management behaviour to increase energy effi- (4) In terms of policy improvement in the tourism in- ciency and reduce unit energy consumption. Indirect dustry, governments, social organizations, tourism- energy saving and emission reduction can be achieved related enterprises, and so on should actively ad- by adjusting the production structure and product vocate concepts such as low-carbon consumption. structure and improving labour productivity. *rough the promotion of low-carbon tourism in (2) In terms of transportation in the tourism industry, Heilongjiang Province and the development of low- the main direction of energy conservation and carbon tourism scenic spots, tourists are guided to emission reduction is to pay attention to the use of choose environmentally friendly transportation. transportation vehicles and vigorously promote *ere is a large gap in tourism development between green tourism transportation. *e authorities Heilongjiang Province and its regions, accompanied by slow should guide and encourage tourists to use low- development of tourism resources and uneven development carbon public transportation, such as subways, of 12 regions. *e improvement of the tourism system is the buses, urban public bicycles, and so on. Hei- top priority for the overall balanced development of Hei- longjiang Province should change the past high- longjiang’s tourism industry in the future. *e authorities of carbon dioxide emission energy use and con- Heilongjiang Province still need to focus on planning the sumption structure and effectively reduce the in- layout of related industries in their tourism industry. For tensity of carbon dioxide emissions in various example, the relevant departments have gradually realized sectors of the tourism industry, in order to achieve the sustainable development of the tourism industry in the ideal strong decoupling relationship between Heilongjiang Province through measures such as promoting Heilongjiang’s carbon dioxide emissions and eco- the ecological culture of the regional tourism industry, so as nomic growth of tourism. to reach and maintain the strong decoupling state as soon as (3) In terms of technological innovation in the tourism possible. industry, regional tourism-related enterprises should increase the research and utilization of low-carbon Data Availability technologies to promote the development of low- carbon technologies. At present, China’s low-carbon *e data are available upon request to the corresponding technology has achieved certain results, but due to author at tz09@163.com. the large regional differences in China, the appli- cability of the corresponding technology is not good. Conflicts of Interest While introducing advanced technologies, the pro- portion of clean energy sources such as solar energy, *e authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest. hydropower, and biomass should be increased. At the same time, in order to realize the green and Acknowledgments sustainable growth of the tourism economy in Heilongjiang Province, relevant departments should *is research was supported by the National Natural Science independently research and develop low-carbon Foundation of China (grant no. 41801137), China Post- emission-reduction technologies suitable for doctoral Science Foundation (grant no. 2016M600257), 10 Advances in Meteorology [15] J. A. Coopera and B. P. 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Advances in MeteorologyHindawi Publishing Corporation

Published: Sep 3, 2021

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