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Blood-Brain Barrier Breakdown and Blood-Brain Communication in Neurological and Psychiatric Diseases

Blood-Brain Barrier Breakdown and Blood-Brain Communication in Neurological and Psychiatric Diseases Hindawi Publishing Corporation Cardiovascular Psychiatry and Neurology Volume 2011, Article ID 431470, 2 pages doi:10.1155/2011/431470 Editorial Blood-Brain Barrier Breakdown and Blood-Brain Communication in Neurological and Psychiatric Diseases 1 2 Alon Friedman and Daniela Kaufer Department of Physiology and Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Health Sciences and Zlotowski Center for Neuroscience, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva 84105, Israel Department of Integrative Biology and Helen Wills Neuroscience Institute, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3140, USA Correspondence should be addressed to Alon Friedman, alonf@bgu.ac.il Received 26 April 2011; Accepted 26 April 2011 Copyright © 2011 A. Friedman and D. Kaufer. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. More than a century ago, Paul Ehrlich demonstrated in a set complications of type 2 diabetes mellitus”) is given. Experi- of dye experiments the lack of permeability of intracerebral mental evidence points to the mechanisms involved, which vessels to albumin-binding dyes and therefore postulated a most importantly seems to include astroglial activation and barrier between blood and neuronal tissue. Indeed, transport disturbance of the extracellular milieu, specifically altered across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is tightly regulated by at homeostasis of water and electrolytes (V. C. Anderson et al. least four different cells that comprise the brain microvascu- in “The blood-brain barrier and microvascular water exchange lature: the endothelial cell and highly specific tight junctions in Alzheimer’s disease”). In addition, immune response and between them, the pericytes which share with the endothelial inflammation seems to have closed bidirectional interactions cells a common capillary basement membrane, the astrocytic with disturbed BBB permeability (H. B. Stolp et al. in “Ef- foot processes which cover the capillaries, and nerve endings fects of neonatal systemic inflammation on blood-brain barrier which innervate the vessels. Importantly, dysfunction of the permeability and behaviour in juvenile and adult rats,” A. BBB occurs during numerous common neurological dis- S. Haqqani and D. B. Stanimirovic in “Intercellular interac- eases, including stroke, epilepsy, trauma, tumors, and infec- tomics of human brain endothelial cells and Th17 lymphocytes: tious and degenerative diseases. While it has been long recog- a novel strategy for identifying therapeutic targets of CNS nized that BBB dysfunction is associated with brain diseases, inflammation,” andA.R.Friedmanetal. in “Elucidating the only recently it has been suggested to play a role in the complex interactions between stress and epileptogenic path- pathogenesis of neuronal networks dysfunction and degener- ways”). ation. In this special issue clinical and experimental evidence The accumulating experimental evidence for BBB in- for the involvement of BBB dysfunction in the pathogenesis volvement in the pathogenesis and progression of these com- of seizures and epilepsy (N. Marchi et al. “the etiological role mon neurological diseases raises important unresolved ques- of blood-brain barrier dysfunction in seizure disorders”and tions of how similar vascular dysfunction can lead to wide L. M. Gibson et al. in “Occult cerebrovascular disease and range of neurological symptoms and signs. While the lateonset epilepsy: could loss of neurovascular unit integrity be answers to these key questions are not yet known, papers aviablemodel?”), posttraumatic epilepsy (O. Tomkins et al. in this special issue tackle some of the potential variables in “Blood-brain barrier breakdown following traumatic brain including the localization, extent, and duration of BBB dys- injury: a possible role in posttraumatic epilepsy”), Alzheimer’s function (Y. Serlin et al. in “Vascular pathology and blood- diseases (V. C. Anderson et al. in “The blood-brain barrier and brain barrier disruption in cognitive and psychiatric complica- microvascular water exchange in Alzheimer’s disease”), and tions of type 2 diabetes mellitus”), the time point during de- psychiatric disorders (Y. Serlin et al. in “Vascular pathology velopment (H. B. Stolp et al. in “Effects of neonatal sys- and blood-brain barrier disruption in cognitive and psychiatric temic inflammation on blood-brain barrier permeability and 2 Cardiovascular Psychiatry and Neurology behaviourinjuvenileand adultrats”) and aging (L. M. Gibson et al. in “Occult cerebrovascular disease and late-onset epilepsy: could loss of neurovascular unit integrity be a viable model?”) in which disturbance occurs, and the interaction with confounding factors such as stress in early life or in adulthood (A. R. Friedman et al. in “Elucidating the com- plex interactions between stress and epileptogenic pathways”). These open questions raise the need for the development of new methods for the study of BBB dysfunction exvivo—as described by R. Kovacs ´ and colleagues (in “Slice cultures as a model to study neurovascular coupling and blood brain barrier in vitro”). Furthermore, it becomes clear that methods for the quantitative and reliable evaluation of BBB permeability are lacking. In this respect, new imaging approaches in experimental animals (D. Jorks et al. in “A novel algorithm for the assessment of blood-brain barrier permeability suggests that brain topical application of endothelin-1 does not cause early opening of the barrier in rats”) and in humans (O. Tomkins et al. in “Blood-brain barrier breakdown following traumatic brain injury: a possible role in posttraumatic epilepsy” and V. C. Anderson et al. in “The blood-brain barrier and mi- crovascular water exchange in Alzheimer’s disease”)are pre- sented as part of the ongoing effort to allow the diagnosis, followup, and evaluation of the integrity of the neurovascular unit and BBB functions. Finally, the new concepts and mech- anisms described recently in the literature highlight the neu- rovascular unit including specifically brain vessels and im- mune system as new therapeutic targets for the prevention and treatment of neurological diseases. Novel approaches for the identification of new targets based on complex ge- nomic, proteomic, and interactomics tools are presented by A. S. Haqqani and D. B. Stanimirovic (in “Intercellular interactomics of human brain endothelial cells and Th17 lymphocytes: a novel strategy for identifying therapeutic targets of CNS inflammation”). Alon Friedman Daniela Kaufer MEDIATORS of INFLAMMATION The Scientific Gastroenterology Journal of World Journal Research and Practice Diabetes Research Disease Markers Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 International Journal of Journal of Immunology Research Endocrinology Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 Submit your manuscripts at http://www.hindawi.com BioMed PPAR Research Research International Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 Journal of Obesity Evidence-Based Journal of Journal of Stem Cells Complementary and Ophthalmology International Alternative Medicine Oncology Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 Parkinson’s Disease Computational and Behavioural Mathematical Methods AIDS Oxidative Medicine and in Medicine Research and Treatment Cellular Longevity Neurology Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Cardiovascular Psychiatry and Neurology Hindawi Publishing Corporation

Blood-Brain Barrier Breakdown and Blood-Brain Communication in Neurological and Psychiatric Diseases

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Publisher
Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Copyright
Copyright © 2011 Alon Friedman and Daniela Kaufer. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
ISSN
2090-0163
DOI
10.1155/2011/431470
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Abstract

Hindawi Publishing Corporation Cardiovascular Psychiatry and Neurology Volume 2011, Article ID 431470, 2 pages doi:10.1155/2011/431470 Editorial Blood-Brain Barrier Breakdown and Blood-Brain Communication in Neurological and Psychiatric Diseases 1 2 Alon Friedman and Daniela Kaufer Department of Physiology and Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Health Sciences and Zlotowski Center for Neuroscience, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva 84105, Israel Department of Integrative Biology and Helen Wills Neuroscience Institute, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3140, USA Correspondence should be addressed to Alon Friedman, alonf@bgu.ac.il Received 26 April 2011; Accepted 26 April 2011 Copyright © 2011 A. Friedman and D. Kaufer. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. More than a century ago, Paul Ehrlich demonstrated in a set complications of type 2 diabetes mellitus”) is given. Experi- of dye experiments the lack of permeability of intracerebral mental evidence points to the mechanisms involved, which vessels to albumin-binding dyes and therefore postulated a most importantly seems to include astroglial activation and barrier between blood and neuronal tissue. Indeed, transport disturbance of the extracellular milieu, specifically altered across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is tightly regulated by at homeostasis of water and electrolytes (V. C. Anderson et al. least four different cells that comprise the brain microvascu- in “The blood-brain barrier and microvascular water exchange lature: the endothelial cell and highly specific tight junctions in Alzheimer’s disease”). In addition, immune response and between them, the pericytes which share with the endothelial inflammation seems to have closed bidirectional interactions cells a common capillary basement membrane, the astrocytic with disturbed BBB permeability (H. B. Stolp et al. in “Ef- foot processes which cover the capillaries, and nerve endings fects of neonatal systemic inflammation on blood-brain barrier which innervate the vessels. Importantly, dysfunction of the permeability and behaviour in juvenile and adult rats,” A. BBB occurs during numerous common neurological dis- S. Haqqani and D. B. Stanimirovic in “Intercellular interac- eases, including stroke, epilepsy, trauma, tumors, and infec- tomics of human brain endothelial cells and Th17 lymphocytes: tious and degenerative diseases. While it has been long recog- a novel strategy for identifying therapeutic targets of CNS nized that BBB dysfunction is associated with brain diseases, inflammation,” andA.R.Friedmanetal. in “Elucidating the only recently it has been suggested to play a role in the complex interactions between stress and epileptogenic path- pathogenesis of neuronal networks dysfunction and degener- ways”). ation. In this special issue clinical and experimental evidence The accumulating experimental evidence for BBB in- for the involvement of BBB dysfunction in the pathogenesis volvement in the pathogenesis and progression of these com- of seizures and epilepsy (N. Marchi et al. “the etiological role mon neurological diseases raises important unresolved ques- of blood-brain barrier dysfunction in seizure disorders”and tions of how similar vascular dysfunction can lead to wide L. M. Gibson et al. in “Occult cerebrovascular disease and range of neurological symptoms and signs. While the lateonset epilepsy: could loss of neurovascular unit integrity be answers to these key questions are not yet known, papers aviablemodel?”), posttraumatic epilepsy (O. Tomkins et al. in this special issue tackle some of the potential variables in “Blood-brain barrier breakdown following traumatic brain including the localization, extent, and duration of BBB dys- injury: a possible role in posttraumatic epilepsy”), Alzheimer’s function (Y. Serlin et al. in “Vascular pathology and blood- diseases (V. C. Anderson et al. in “The blood-brain barrier and brain barrier disruption in cognitive and psychiatric complica- microvascular water exchange in Alzheimer’s disease”), and tions of type 2 diabetes mellitus”), the time point during de- psychiatric disorders (Y. Serlin et al. in “Vascular pathology velopment (H. B. Stolp et al. in “Effects of neonatal sys- and blood-brain barrier disruption in cognitive and psychiatric temic inflammation on blood-brain barrier permeability and 2 Cardiovascular Psychiatry and Neurology behaviourinjuvenileand adultrats”) and aging (L. M. Gibson et al. in “Occult cerebrovascular disease and late-onset epilepsy: could loss of neurovascular unit integrity be a viable model?”) in which disturbance occurs, and the interaction with confounding factors such as stress in early life or in adulthood (A. R. Friedman et al. in “Elucidating the com- plex interactions between stress and epileptogenic pathways”). These open questions raise the need for the development of new methods for the study of BBB dysfunction exvivo—as described by R. Kovacs ´ and colleagues (in “Slice cultures as a model to study neurovascular coupling and blood brain barrier in vitro”). Furthermore, it becomes clear that methods for the quantitative and reliable evaluation of BBB permeability are lacking. In this respect, new imaging approaches in experimental animals (D. Jorks et al. in “A novel algorithm for the assessment of blood-brain barrier permeability suggests that brain topical application of endothelin-1 does not cause early opening of the barrier in rats”) and in humans (O. Tomkins et al. in “Blood-brain barrier breakdown following traumatic brain injury: a possible role in posttraumatic epilepsy” and V. C. Anderson et al. in “The blood-brain barrier and mi- crovascular water exchange in Alzheimer’s disease”)are pre- sented as part of the ongoing effort to allow the diagnosis, followup, and evaluation of the integrity of the neurovascular unit and BBB functions. Finally, the new concepts and mech- anisms described recently in the literature highlight the neu- rovascular unit including specifically brain vessels and im- mune system as new therapeutic targets for the prevention and treatment of neurological diseases. Novel approaches for the identification of new targets based on complex ge- nomic, proteomic, and interactomics tools are presented by A. S. Haqqani and D. B. Stanimirovic (in “Intercellular interactomics of human brain endothelial cells and Th17 lymphocytes: a novel strategy for identifying therapeutic targets of CNS inflammation”). Alon Friedman Daniela Kaufer MEDIATORS of INFLAMMATION The Scientific Gastroenterology Journal of World Journal Research and Practice Diabetes Research Disease Markers Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 International Journal of Journal of Immunology Research Endocrinology Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 Submit your manuscripts at http://www.hindawi.com BioMed PPAR Research Research International Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 Journal of Obesity Evidence-Based Journal of Journal of Stem Cells Complementary and Ophthalmology International Alternative Medicine Oncology Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 Parkinson’s Disease Computational and Behavioural Mathematical Methods AIDS Oxidative Medicine and in Medicine Research and Treatment Cellular Longevity Neurology Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014

Journal

Cardiovascular Psychiatry and NeurologyHindawi Publishing Corporation

Published: Jul 6, 2011

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