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Bionics and Human Biomechanics Applied in Intelligent Crash Tests of Cars

Bionics and Human Biomechanics Applied in Intelligent Crash Tests of Cars Hindawi Applied Bionics and Biomechanics Volume 2019, Article ID 8750413, 2 pages https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/8750413 Editorial Bionics and Human Biomechanics Applied in Intelligent Crash Tests of Cars 1 1 2 3 4 Tao Xu , Tatsuo Yoshino , Shujun Zhang, Guowu Wei, and Zhixin Liu School of Mechanical Science and Engineering, Jilin University, Changchun, China School of Computing and Technology, University of Gloucestershire, Cheltenham, UK School of Computing, Science & Engineering, University of Salford, Salford, UK China Automotive Technology and Research Center (CATARC), Tianjin, China Correspondence should be addressed to Tao Xu; xutao@jlu.edu.cn Received 21 October 2018; Accepted 21 October 2018; Published 8 January 2019 Copyright © 2019 Tao Xu et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 1. Introduction involve bionics, biomechanics, automobile engineering, human body modeling, impact and contact mechanics, mate- Improving crash safety of cars has become an important con- rials science of skin, and high-precision sensor informatics tent in the research of automotive safety. The optimum and mechanical processing technology. The highly integrated design of intelligent crash test technology and devices for dummy design is also subject to various standard calibration automotive safety has become a hot issue in the field. In order tests, so this special issue is a cross-discipline. to test active safety or passive safety by braking or crash tests, intelligent testing devices (also called anthropomor- 2. Injury Criteria phic test devices (ATDs) or crash test dummies) need to describe and simulate the damage mechanism and the tol- In crash tests of cars, each part of the occupant could be erance limit of biological characteristics of the human body, injured to varying degrees. Some injury criteria of key parts such as dynamics and kinematics response to impact or are shown in Table 1, and the specific meanings of the sym- acceleration. This is essential to protect human beings from bols can be found in [1]. car accidents. Along with the increasing exploration of nature, organ- 3. Description of the Special Issue isms with rigid flexible coupling structures are gradually discovered, which have excellent performances such as This special issue accepted 5 papers out of 10 after careful impact resistance, abrasion resistance, and drag reduction. reviewing by editors, which leads to an acceptance ratio of The combination of bionics and biomechanics constantly 50%. The 5 papers focuse on crash dummy improvement, brings about new inspiration and innovation to the field of injury characteristics of knee joints, and injury in some spe- engineering and automotive safety. So, this special issue cial conditions. called for original research articles on basic biomechanical T. Xu et al. review the development and validation of researches of the human body, computer simulation for dummies and human models used in crash tests. The human body modeling and analysis, new development of mechanical dummies are introduced according to the col- intelligent anthropomorphic test devices for measuring the lision types: frontal impact dummy, side impact dummy, response of the human body in certain environments where and rear impact dummy. And the human model section an impact or other loadings are applied to the body, and details WSU, HUMOS, THUMS, and GHBMC human the application of bionic structures in automobiles to models. From the article, we can see the technological improve their anticollision performance. The contents can progress of the dummies and the human body models. 2 Applied Bionics and Biomechanics routes of the research and to enhance some gaps that can Table 1: Injury criteria of key parts. be filled in future works. Part Injury criterion Formula 2 5 Tao Xu HIC Head HIC = t − t 1/t − t adt 2 1 2 1 Tatsuo Yoshino Shujun Zhang N N = F /F + M /M Neck GuoWu Wei ij ij z int y int Zhixin Liu CTI CTI = A /A + D /D Chest max int max int TI TI = M /M + F /F Tibia R R max Z Z max References [1] K. U. Schmitt, P. F. Niederer, M. H. Muser, and F. Walz, Injury criteria and biomechanical tests in early time are Trauma Biomechanics: Accidental Injury in Traffic and Sports, also introduced. Springer, 2009. Y. Xiong et al. explore the mechanical response and injury characteristics of knee joints at different speeds using impact experiment with cadaveric knee samples and finite element simulation. The tests are all carried under conditions of longitudinal impacts, and the results all show that low-speed impact mainly leads to medial injuries, while high-speed impact leads to both medial and lateral injuries. The study can provide research basis for the prevention and treatment of longitudinal impact injuries of knee joints. S. Wang et al. use finite element models to analyze how the panel design parameters can affect occupant head injuries. The paper focuses on the three factors of panel hardness, elastic modulus of the filling and frame, and the distance from fixed location. The findings indicate that a soft panel with a long fixing distance is beneficial for the head prevention. I. L. Cruz-Jaramillo et al. study the head injury crite- rion (HIC) and chest severity index (CSI) with a 6-year-old Hybrid III dummy in the low-back booster (LBB) passive safety system. The findings of this study suggest that using materials, the attachment system of the LBB and the belt restraint system properly placed over the infant trunk are the main factors to reduce the injury criterion rate. H. Guo et al. applied a novel biobjective algorithm New- ton Neumann Series Expansion Frisch Algorithm (NNSEFA) to dummy head FE experiment. By optimizing the dummy head with the algorithm, the improved model has a better accuracy in the collision simulation. The application of the biobjective optimization algorithm provides new ideas for occupant safety design. Conflicts of Interest The Guest Editorial team as a whole declares that any member of the team does not have any conflict of interest or private agreements with companies. Acknowledgments We want to thank all the authors and reviewers for their valu- able work to disseminate and curate the content of this spe- cial issue. We hope that this special issue can contribute to the discussion of the scientific community to focus on some International Journal of Advances in Rotating Machinery Multimedia Journal of The Scientific Journal of Engineering World Journal Sensors Hindawi Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Hindawi Hindawi Hindawi www.hindawi.com Volume 2018 http://www www.hindawi.com .hindawi.com V Volume 2018 olume 2013 www.hindawi.com Volume 2018 www.hindawi.com Volume 2018 www.hindawi.com Volume 2018 Journal of Control Science and Engineering Advances in Civil Engineering Hindawi Hindawi www.hindawi.com Volume 2018 www.hindawi.com Volume 2018 Submit your manuscripts at www.hindawi.com Journal of Journal of Electrical and Computer Robotics Engineering Hindawi Hindawi www.hindawi.com Volume 2018 www.hindawi.com Volume 2018 VLSI Design Advances in OptoElectronics International Journal of Modelling & Aerospace International Journal of Simulation Navigation and in Engineering Engineering Observation Hindawi Hindawi Hindawi Hindawi Volume 2018 Volume 2018 Hindawi www.hindawi.com Volume 2018 www.hindawi.com Volume 2018 www.hindawi.com www.hindawi.com www.hindawi.com Volume 2018 International Journal of Active and Passive International Journal of Antennas and Advances in Chemical Engineering Propagation Electronic Components Shock and Vibration Acoustics and Vibration Hindawi Hindawi Hindawi Hindawi Hindawi www.hindawi.com Volume 2018 www.hindawi.com Volume 2018 www.hindawi.com Volume 2018 www.hindawi.com Volume 2018 www.hindawi.com Volume 2018 http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Applied Bionics and Biomechanics Hindawi Publishing Corporation

Bionics and Human Biomechanics Applied in Intelligent Crash Tests of Cars

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Publisher
Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Copyright
Copyright © 2019 Tao Xu et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
ISSN
1176-2322
eISSN
1754-2103
DOI
10.1155/2019/8750413
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Hindawi Applied Bionics and Biomechanics Volume 2019, Article ID 8750413, 2 pages https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/8750413 Editorial Bionics and Human Biomechanics Applied in Intelligent Crash Tests of Cars 1 1 2 3 4 Tao Xu , Tatsuo Yoshino , Shujun Zhang, Guowu Wei, and Zhixin Liu School of Mechanical Science and Engineering, Jilin University, Changchun, China School of Computing and Technology, University of Gloucestershire, Cheltenham, UK School of Computing, Science & Engineering, University of Salford, Salford, UK China Automotive Technology and Research Center (CATARC), Tianjin, China Correspondence should be addressed to Tao Xu; xutao@jlu.edu.cn Received 21 October 2018; Accepted 21 October 2018; Published 8 January 2019 Copyright © 2019 Tao Xu et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 1. Introduction involve bionics, biomechanics, automobile engineering, human body modeling, impact and contact mechanics, mate- Improving crash safety of cars has become an important con- rials science of skin, and high-precision sensor informatics tent in the research of automotive safety. The optimum and mechanical processing technology. The highly integrated design of intelligent crash test technology and devices for dummy design is also subject to various standard calibration automotive safety has become a hot issue in the field. In order tests, so this special issue is a cross-discipline. to test active safety or passive safety by braking or crash tests, intelligent testing devices (also called anthropomor- 2. Injury Criteria phic test devices (ATDs) or crash test dummies) need to describe and simulate the damage mechanism and the tol- In crash tests of cars, each part of the occupant could be erance limit of biological characteristics of the human body, injured to varying degrees. Some injury criteria of key parts such as dynamics and kinematics response to impact or are shown in Table 1, and the specific meanings of the sym- acceleration. This is essential to protect human beings from bols can be found in [1]. car accidents. Along with the increasing exploration of nature, organ- 3. Description of the Special Issue isms with rigid flexible coupling structures are gradually discovered, which have excellent performances such as This special issue accepted 5 papers out of 10 after careful impact resistance, abrasion resistance, and drag reduction. reviewing by editors, which leads to an acceptance ratio of The combination of bionics and biomechanics constantly 50%. The 5 papers focuse on crash dummy improvement, brings about new inspiration and innovation to the field of injury characteristics of knee joints, and injury in some spe- engineering and automotive safety. So, this special issue cial conditions. called for original research articles on basic biomechanical T. Xu et al. review the development and validation of researches of the human body, computer simulation for dummies and human models used in crash tests. The human body modeling and analysis, new development of mechanical dummies are introduced according to the col- intelligent anthropomorphic test devices for measuring the lision types: frontal impact dummy, side impact dummy, response of the human body in certain environments where and rear impact dummy. And the human model section an impact or other loadings are applied to the body, and details WSU, HUMOS, THUMS, and GHBMC human the application of bionic structures in automobiles to models. From the article, we can see the technological improve their anticollision performance. The contents can progress of the dummies and the human body models. 2 Applied Bionics and Biomechanics routes of the research and to enhance some gaps that can Table 1: Injury criteria of key parts. be filled in future works. Part Injury criterion Formula 2 5 Tao Xu HIC Head HIC = t − t 1/t − t adt 2 1 2 1 Tatsuo Yoshino Shujun Zhang N N = F /F + M /M Neck GuoWu Wei ij ij z int y int Zhixin Liu CTI CTI = A /A + D /D Chest max int max int TI TI = M /M + F /F Tibia R R max Z Z max References [1] K. U. Schmitt, P. F. Niederer, M. H. Muser, and F. Walz, Injury criteria and biomechanical tests in early time are Trauma Biomechanics: Accidental Injury in Traffic and Sports, also introduced. Springer, 2009. Y. Xiong et al. explore the mechanical response and injury characteristics of knee joints at different speeds using impact experiment with cadaveric knee samples and finite element simulation. The tests are all carried under conditions of longitudinal impacts, and the results all show that low-speed impact mainly leads to medial injuries, while high-speed impact leads to both medial and lateral injuries. The study can provide research basis for the prevention and treatment of longitudinal impact injuries of knee joints. S. Wang et al. use finite element models to analyze how the panel design parameters can affect occupant head injuries. The paper focuses on the three factors of panel hardness, elastic modulus of the filling and frame, and the distance from fixed location. The findings indicate that a soft panel with a long fixing distance is beneficial for the head prevention. I. L. Cruz-Jaramillo et al. study the head injury crite- rion (HIC) and chest severity index (CSI) with a 6-year-old Hybrid III dummy in the low-back booster (LBB) passive safety system. The findings of this study suggest that using materials, the attachment system of the LBB and the belt restraint system properly placed over the infant trunk are the main factors to reduce the injury criterion rate. H. Guo et al. applied a novel biobjective algorithm New- ton Neumann Series Expansion Frisch Algorithm (NNSEFA) to dummy head FE experiment. By optimizing the dummy head with the algorithm, the improved model has a better accuracy in the collision simulation. The application of the biobjective optimization algorithm provides new ideas for occupant safety design. Conflicts of Interest The Guest Editorial team as a whole declares that any member of the team does not have any conflict of interest or private agreements with companies. Acknowledgments We want to thank all the authors and reviewers for their valu- able work to disseminate and curate the content of this spe- cial issue. We hope that this special issue can contribute to the discussion of the scientific community to focus on some International Journal of Advances in Rotating Machinery Multimedia Journal of The Scientific Journal of Engineering World Journal Sensors Hindawi Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Hindawi Hindawi Hindawi www.hindawi.com Volume 2018 http://www www.hindawi.com .hindawi.com V Volume 2018 olume 2013 www.hindawi.com Volume 2018 www.hindawi.com Volume 2018 www.hindawi.com Volume 2018 Journal of Control Science and Engineering Advances in Civil Engineering Hindawi Hindawi www.hindawi.com Volume 2018 www.hindawi.com Volume 2018 Submit your manuscripts at www.hindawi.com Journal of Journal of Electrical and Computer Robotics Engineering Hindawi Hindawi www.hindawi.com Volume 2018 www.hindawi.com Volume 2018 VLSI Design Advances in OptoElectronics International Journal of Modelling & Aerospace International Journal of Simulation Navigation and in Engineering Engineering Observation Hindawi Hindawi Hindawi Hindawi Volume 2018 Volume 2018 Hindawi www.hindawi.com Volume 2018 www.hindawi.com Volume 2018 www.hindawi.com www.hindawi.com www.hindawi.com Volume 2018 International Journal of Active and Passive International Journal of Antennas and Advances in Chemical Engineering Propagation Electronic Components Shock and Vibration Acoustics and Vibration Hindawi Hindawi Hindawi Hindawi Hindawi www.hindawi.com Volume 2018 www.hindawi.com Volume 2018 www.hindawi.com Volume 2018 www.hindawi.com Volume 2018 www.hindawi.com Volume 2018

Journal

Applied Bionics and BiomechanicsHindawi Publishing Corporation

Published: Jan 8, 2019

References