Hindawi Applied Bionics and Biomechanics Volume 2021, Article ID 7464719, 7 pages https://doi.org/10.1155/2021/7464719 Research Article Biomechanical Characteristics on the Lower Extremity of Three Typical Yoga Manoeuvres 1 2 2 1 2 Elizabeth Whissell, Lin Wang , Pan Li , Jing Xian Li , and Zhen Wei School of Human Kinetics, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada School of Kinesiology, Shanghai University of Sport, Shanghai, China Correspondence should be addressed to Jing Xian Li; firstname.lastname@example.org and Zhen Wei; email@example.com Received 26 June 2021; Revised 2 August 2021; Accepted 5 August 2021; Published 13 August 2021 Academic Editor: Qiguo Rong Copyright © 2021 Elizabeth Whissell et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. This study was aimed at exploring the biomechanical characteristics of the lower extremity amongst three typical yoga manoeuvres. A total of thirteen experienced female yoga practitioners were recruited in the current study; they were all certiﬁed with the Yoga Alliance. A three-dimensional motion capture system with 10 cameras combined with four synchronised force plates was used to collect kinematics of the lower extremity and ground reactive force whilst the participants performed the crescent lunge pose, warrior II pose, and triangle pose. One-way repeated ANOVA was used in exploring the diﬀerences amongst the three yoga movements, and the signiﬁcance was set to alpha < 0:05. The triangle pose performed the largest range of motion (ROM) of the ° ° ° ° ° ° ° ° hip (90:5 ±22:9 ), knee (68:8 ±23:1 ), and ankle (46:4 ±11:3 ) in the sagittal plane and the hip (54:8 ±6:5 ), knee ° ° ° ° (42:4 ±12:8 ), and ankle (4:8 ±1:7 ) in the frontal plane amongst the three manoeuvres (P <0:05). No signiﬁcant diﬀerence was found for the hip and ankle joint moment amongst the three manoeuvres (P >0:05). Knee joint travelled into 9.5 of extension and slight adduction of 1.94 whilst expressing the largest knee joint adduction moments (0:30 ± 0:22 Nm/kg) in the triangle pose. The distribution of the angular impulse of the lower limb joints indicated that the hip joint contributed signiﬁcantly the most in the sagittal and frontal planes of the three yoga manoeuvres (P <0:05), ranging from 51.67% to 70.56%. Results indicated that triangle pose may be superior to the other two manoeuvres, which improved hip joint ROM, strength, and dynamic stability. However, knee injuries such as osteoarthritis (OA) should be considered because of the large knee extensor angle and adductor moments. 1. Introduction strain. Kuntz et al.  stated that yoga manoeuvres may aﬀect the alignment of lower limb joints, which could contribute to Yoga is a mind-body exercise developed in India, which has knee injuries. Numerous studies in the current literature have gained popularity worldwide [1, 2]. This exercise can be char- explored the risk factors for yoga injuries, which could be acterised by slow movements, with large body movement related to poor yoga technique, incorrect joint alignment, range when participants are standing, seated, and lying previous injury history, excess eﬀort, and insuﬃcient instruc- supine or prone . Practising yoga has been veriﬁed to tions from the yoga instructor [8, 9]. Following to Mears et al. increase muscle strength, joint ﬂexibility , and joint range , by utilising a motion capture system and force plates to of motion (ROM) ; improve balance, coordination , explore ankle ROM and moments in diﬀerent yoga manoeu- and perceived stress and depression ; and reduce pain vres, studies on quantifying the kinematics and kinetics of amongst patients with osteoarthritis (OA) . yoga manoeuvres and exploring the possible mechanism of body yoga injuries are still lacking. Despite the potential beneﬁts of yoga manoeuvres, yoga- related injuries should also be considered. Fishman et al.  Raub and James  have described 57 basic yoga have proposed that long-term incorrect yoga posture may manoeuvres on the basis of traditional Iyengar yoga, of which result in lower back pain and lower limb muscle and ligament several variations can be derived . Diﬀerent yoga 2 Applied Bionics and Biomechanics During data collection, practitioners were instructed to manoeuvres could have diﬀerent eﬀects on the physical exer- cise and mechanism of injury . As suggested by a previ- stand on the force plates, and a static calibration trial was ous study, Sauna yoga superiorly improves ﬂexibility, recorded. In calibrating the system, the researcher would strength, and balance ; alignment-based yoga exercise conduct a dynamic calibration using a T-shaped wand may be more eﬃcacious for knee OA . Even so, based on (240 mm) with three reﬂective markers. In practising a typi- current reports, no study has been conducted to investigate cal yoga manoeuvre and standardising the study, participants the biomechanical diﬀerence of these typical yoga performed barefoot, and they were randomised in a counter- manoeuvres. balanced order for three yoga manoeuvres. All the practices Therefore, the present study is aimed at exploring the began from the downward dog and returned to the down- biomechanical characteristics of the lower extremity amongst ward dog at their natural speed, and each practice was sepa- three representative yoga manoeuvres, namely, the crescent rated with a break consisting of ﬁve deep breaths in the lunge pose (Halasana), warrior II pose (Virabhadrasana II), downward dog (Figure 1). and triangle pose (Trikonasana). These three typical yoga 2.3. Data Reduction and Statistical Analysis. The parameters manoeuvres are commonly found in various styles of yoga and are taught as introductory manoeuvres in many Hatha for the right and left legs were collected, but only the data of yoga classes for beginners and as an intermediary step to the dominant leg were modelled to compute and analyse the more advanced yoga manoeuvres [13, 14]. required variables using Vicon Nexus (version 1.8, Oxford We hypothesise that the biomechanical characteristic of Metrics, Oxford, UK). The dominant leg was determined by kicking a ball . Start and end of data collection were these yoga manoeuvres is diﬀerent. The triangle pose may have a relatively higher maximum joint angle and moment, obtained as a motion cycle by inspecting the force vector which are superior to the other two yoga manoeuvres, to emitted from the force plate and position of the virtual improve lower limb joint angle and decrease lower extremity marker. Each motion cycle trial was time normalised on a injury risk. The ﬁndings of the current study can contribute time basis of 100% to mitigate the eﬀect of the varying speed of each individual using a custom algorithm (MATLAB, in determining the potential mechanisms of injury in yoga exercise and help participants improve their skills to prevent MathWorks, Natick, USA) . The angles in the sagittal injuries. and frontal planes were obtained by calculations derived from the Plug-in-Gait model, which predicted the joint cen- tres of the hip, knee, and ankle in Vicon Nexus (v1.8) to ﬁnd 2. Method the maximum and minimum angles during each trial, and 2.1. Participants. Thirteen experienced female yoga practi- then, the ROM range was calculated. Raw kinetic data of the GRF from the force plates was ﬁltered with a 6 Hz 2nd- tioners were recruited in the current study (aged 33:1± 5:40 years, body height 161:3± 5:6cm, body mass 63:3± order Butterworth low-pass ﬁlter. The kinematic data were 10:4kg, and practice experience 5:5±1:05 years). These modeled to compute the required variables with Vicon Nexus; the inverse dynamic model was utilised to calculate practitioners were all certiﬁed with a Yoga Alliance- accredited 200-hour Hatha yoga teacher-training course with the kinetic parameters. The angular impulse was obtained by calculating the integral of the joint moment of each joint a minimum of 5 years of teaching experience . Partici- pants would be excluded if they had musculoskeletal and/or in the sagittal and frontal planes. It is expressed as the sum other medical conditions in the previous 6 months before of the total angular impulse (Nm/kg) of one movement cycle. The proﬁles of the ﬁve successful normalised trials were aver- the study. The experiment was approved by the University Ethical Committee, and all participants signed an informed aged to obtain an ensemble average for each participant. consent before the experiments. 2.4. Statistical Analysis. All data were presented as mean and 2.2. Data Acquisition. All participants were asked to change standard deviation. Shapiro–Wilk’s test was used to test the normal distribution. One-way repeated ANOVA was used into a skin-tight suit, and then, body height and body mass were measured. Forty-ﬁve reﬂective markers (14 mm diame- in exploring the diﬀerences amongst the three yoga move- ter) were placed on anatomical landmarks of the participant ments. Bonferroni post hoc tests were conducted to compare speciﬁcdiﬀerences. All variables were analysed using SPSS 22 in accordance to the Plug-in-Gait set . The participants were given 10 min to warm up as they choose  (i.e., prac- software (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Statistical signiﬁ- cance was set at alpha < 0:05. tice Sun Salutations or other yoga postures) and familiarise themselves with the data collection environment and proto- cols to ensure that participants move at a comfortable level 3. Results of mobility. A three-dimensional motion capture system with 10 3.1. Lower Limb Joint Angle. The three yoga movements cameras (Vicon MX-13, Oxford Metrics, Oxford, UK) was began in the same initial yoga posture, and all three joints used to obtain marker trajectory with a sampling rate of in the frontal and sagittal planes began at the same joint angle 100 Hz. We synchronised four force platforms (Kistler 9287 (Table 1). C, Winterthur, Switzerland) embedded in the middle of the The ROM of the yoga movements was 90.5 for the hip, ° ° testing area in accordance to previous studies; the frequency 83.3 for the knee, and 48.7 for the ankle in the sagittal plane ° ° ° of force plates was set at 1000 Hz [5, 18]. and 54.8 for the hip, 44.9 for the knee, and 4.8 for the ankle Applied Bionics and Biomechanics 3 Crescent lunge pose Warrior II pose Triangle pose Figure 1: Three typical yoga manoeuvres. Table 1: Mean and standard deviation for peak joint angles and range of motion ( ) in the sagittal and frontal planes. Flex/ext Abd/add Max Min ROM Max Min ROM 121:3±0:552:8±27:2 −3:7±3:2 −41:3±28:7 Hip 90.5 54.8 66:9±7:317:1±23:1 41:8±1:313:3±13:6 Yoga averages Knee 83.3 44.9 9:2±1:2 −17:0±18:4 5:8±0:92:1±0:3 Ankle 48.7 4.8 121:3±10:483:3±14:738:0± 13:1 −0:1±5:1 −8:3±5:38:2±3:8 Hip 73:8±17:631:0±18:042:7± 15:342:9±15:017:6±8:925:3±12:7 Lunge Knee 9:1±7:3 −6:6±8:415:7± 7:24:8±2:92:1±2:52:8±1:3 Ankle 120:8±12:643:8±23:977:0± 24:3 −5:5±6:0 −55:3±6:449:7±7:5 Hip 67:7±19:929:9±15:737:8± 14:342:0±8:924:2±9:217:8±9:9 Warrior II Knee 10:4±5:4 −6:3±7:716:7± 6:56:0±3:22:4±2:63:6±1:5 Ankle ∗ ∗ Hip 121:8±11:831:3±22:8 90:5 ± 22:9 −5:5±5:5 −60:3±6:1 54:8 ± 6:5 ∗ ∗ 59:2±23:5 −9:5±6:1 68:8 ± 23:1 40:4±12:2 −1:9±5:4 42:4 ± 12:8 Triangle Knee ∗ ∗ 8:1±9:2 −38:3±7:5 46:4 ± 11:3 6:6±3:01:8±2:4 4:8 ± 1:7 Ankle Note: positive values indicate ﬂexion and abduction and negative values indicate extension and adduction; signiﬁcant diﬀerences ( P <0:05) are highlighted in bold. in the frontal plane. When analysing the individual yoga largest knee joint adduction moments (0.30 Nm/kg) com- movement, we observed that the triangle pose performed a pared with the lunge (0.06 Nm/kg) and warrior II signiﬁcant and the largest ROM of the hip (90.5 ), knee (0.07 Nm/kg) poses. Notably, the triangle pose was the only ° ° (68.8 ), and ankle (46.4 ) in the sagittal plane (P <0:05) and posture that could generate remarkable knee adduction ° ° ° hip (54.8 ), knee (42.4 ), and ankle (4.8 ) in the frontal plane moment after the initiation of the movement at approxi- (P <0:05) amongst the three yoga manoeuvres. Therefore, mately 40% of the movement cycle. For ankle adductor moving into the triangle pose required the most ROM for moments and eversion moment, the peak value was similar amongst the three manoeuvres (P >0:05), 0.06 Nm/kg for all three joints in both planes. the warrior II pose and 0.07 Nm/kg for the lunge and triangle poses (Table 2). 3.2. Lower Limb Joint Moment 3.2.1. Sagittal Plane. No signiﬁcant diﬀerence was found for 3.3. Lower Limb Angular Impulses. Upon visual inspection the hip ﬂexor moment throughout the entire movement cycle distribution of the lower limb angular impulse, we found that (P >0:05): lunge (1.90 Nm/kg), warrior II (1.45 Nm/kg), and the hip joint contributed signiﬁcantly the most amongst the triangle (1.38 Nm/kg). Although the extensor moments were three studied yoga manoeuvres in the sagittal and frontal present in the knee joint, knee extension angles could only be planes (P <0:05), ranging from 51.67% to 70.56% of the total achieved when practising the triangle pose, with 9.5 of exten- angular impulse. No signiﬁcant diﬀerence was found for the sion. Furthermore, no plantar ﬂexor moment was generated ankle joint total angular impulse in the sagittal and frontal in any of the yoga movements (P >0:05, Table 2). planes (P >0:05). However, the knee shared the load diﬀer- ently in each individual posture (Table 3). 3.2.2. Frontal Plane. The hip joint adduction moments indi- cated that no signiﬁcant diﬀerence was observed in the trian- 4. Discussion gle (0.85 Nm/kg), lunge (0.69 Nm/kg), and warrior II (0.62 Nm/kg) (P >0:05) poses. The knee joint in the triangle This study is the ﬁrst to quantitatively investigate three fun- pose travelled into slight adduction of 1.94 , expressing the damental yoga manoeuvres by characterising the kinetics 4 Applied Bionics and Biomechanics Table 2: Mean and standard deviation of bodyweight-normalised peak joint moments (Nm/kg) in the sagittal and frontal planes. Flex/ext Abd/add Max Min Max Min 1:58 ± 0:28 0:08 ± 0:02 0:07 ± 0:03 −0:72 ± 0:12 Hip Yoga averages Knee 0:24 ± 0:14 −0:50 ± 0:38 0:37 ± 0:04 −0:14 ± 0:13 0:67 ± 0:11 0:03 ± 0:01 0:03 ± 0:00 −0:07 ± 0:00 Ankle Hip 1:90 ± 0:34 0:07 ± 0:20 0:08 ± 0:09 −0:69 ± 0:46 0:16 ± 0:20 −0:31 ± 0:15 0:33 ± 0:10 −0:06 ± 0:04 Lunge Knee 0:80 ± 0:11 0:04 ± 0:04 0:03 ± 0:32 −0:07 ± 0:02 Ankle 1:45 ± 0:56 0:06 ± 0:19 0:09 ± 0:11 −0:62 ± 0:41 Hip Knee 0:40 ± 0:34 −0:25 ± 0:12 0:37 ± 0:17 −0:07 ± 0:06 Warrior II 0:61 ± 0:25 0:02 ± 0:03 0:03 ± 0:04 −0:06 ± 0:03 Ankle 1:38 ± 0:38 0:10 ± 0:10 0:03 ± 0:12 −0:85 ± 0:26 Hip 0:16 ± 0:27 −0:94 ± 0:22 0:40 ± 0:21 −0:30 ± 0:22 Triangle Knee Ankle 0:61 ± 0:15 0:04 ± 0:04 0:02 ± 0:03 −0:07 ± 0:03 Note: positive values indicate ﬂexion and abduction and negative values indicate extension and adduction. Table 3: Mean and standard deviation of the total angular impulses (Nm) in the sagittal and frontal planes. Movement Hip Percent Knee Percent Ankle Percent Flex/ext 99.54 61.02% 20.74 12.71% 42.86 26.27% Yoga averages Abd/add 40.21 64.64% 20.18 32.44% 1.82 2.93% Flex/ext 132.35 68.35% 8.51 4.39% 52.78 27.26% Lunge Abd/add 34.41 61.36% 20.01 35.68% 1.66 2.96% Flex/ext 83.64 61.56% 12.69 9.34% 39.53 29.10% Warrior II Abd/add 34.83 60.35% 21.42 37.12% 1.46 2.53% 51.67% Flex/ext 82.61 41.02 25.66% 36.26 22.68% Triangle 70.56% Abd/add 51.4 19.12 26.25% 2.33 3.20% Note: positive values indicate ﬂexion and abduction and negative values indicate extension and adduction; signiﬁcant diﬀerences ( P <0:05) are highlighted in bold. and kinematics associated with the hip, knee, and ankle joints three joints in the sagittal and frontal planes. Practising the amongst yoga practitioners. The ﬁndings demonstrated that triangle pose caused the knee to extend over its baseline by the lunge and warrior II poses followed similar joint angle, 9.5 on average, and the increased extension has been shown joint moment, and angular impulse patterns, whereas the tri- to be signiﬁcantly correlated to anterior cruciate ligament angle pose obtained the largest ROM in all joints in the sag- impingement in uninjured knees . On the contrary, the ittal and frontal planes. hyperextension of the knee also contributed to the excessive strain on the oblique popliteal ligament and posterior cruci- 4.1. Lower Limb Joint Angle. When examining the yoga ate ligament . Therefore, even for yoga experts, it is movement with regard to the joint angle pattern, limited important to avoid hyperextension and associated knee inju- ROM was observed in the knee and ankle joint angles ries during bending the knees in the triangle pose [9, 23]. between the lunge and warrior II poses. Notably, the knee Knee adduction angle could cause reduction in the patella ° ° joint reached a maximal ﬂexion angle of 73.8 and 67.7 in cartilage volume in valgus knees amongst patients with OA . We found that the knee joint in the triangle pose prac- the lunge and warrior II poses, respectively. These manoeu- vres were typically described in yoga training manuals as tice travelled into slight adduction of 1.9 , which was the only having a 90 bend; therefore, the present study found that manoeuvre that showed knee adduction. Therefore, those 16.2% to 22.3% was less than what was classically instructed who suﬀered from medial compartment knee OA should be in a yoga class. This result partially supported our hypothesis, cautioned during pursuing triangle yoga poses . No which indicated that even experts did not perform the move- increase in joint angles or moments was apparent for the ment as it was ideally described and instructed. ankle joint, indicating that the studied yoga postures did Triangle pose practice was found to be distinct from the not improve the dynamic stability amongst the healthy par- other selected poses as it expressed the largest ROM for all ticipants who utilised ankle strategies for balance . Applied Bionics and Biomechanics 5 The present study has several limitations. Firstly, the 4.2. Lower Limb Joint Moment. Practising the triangle pose may also bring a concern to vulnerable populations, such as motion pattern obtained from this study is only applicable those who suﬀer from knee OA. Lower knee abductor for the lower extremity of healthy female yoga teachers. Sec- ondly, when using eternal makers for the collection of moments could reduce knee pain, and the progression of knee OA increased 6.46 times with 1% increase in adduction motion capture, skin, clothing, and adipose tissue may cause moment . Individuals with knee OA have signiﬁcantly artifact movement, thereby creating errors in the calculation reduced isokinetic hip abductor strength. Those who suﬀered of joint centres. Despite the above-mentioned possible limi- from knee OA increased hip abductor moment to protect tations of this study, motion patterns of yoga movements could serve as a foundation for future applied research and against degeneration of the joint capsule . However, no yoga manoeuvres, which were examined in the present study, clinical applications for people with disease. showed hip abductor moments . Therefore, examining manoeuvres with hip abductor moments or exploring various 5. Conclusion instructional words to encourage hip abductor strength in the The present study proposed that the lunge and warrior II triangle pose, reduce knee adduction moment, and protect those with knee OA is recommended in future studies. poses shared similar motion patterns with regard to joint Reduced lower limb abductor and adductor joint moments angles, joint moments, and angular impulse. The triangle pose may be superior to the other two manoeuvres, which were also found to be prevalent in elderly people , and this reduced strength was associated with higher risks of falls . improves hip joint ROM, strength, and dynamic stability. However, knee injuries such as OA should be paid attention The great hip adduction moments present in the yoga move- ments may suggest that the practice of yoga can be considered to because of the large knee extensor and adductor moments. for future studies regarding training mechanisms that reduce These ﬁndings will help practitioners when practising yoga by using scientiﬁcally based evidence. falls, thereby improving dynamic stability . On average, yoga expressed greater total hip ROM and hip ﬂexor moments compared with activities of daily life (ADL) Data Availability [3, 32], suggesting that yoga should be studied further as a potential training modality to improve daily gait [28, 33, 34]. The datasets used and/or analysed during the current study are available from the corresponding authors upon reason- In addition, the knee abduction angle and abductor moments were greater in yoga than in ADL . Thus, this point should able request. be kept in mind when considering yoga as a therapeutic or rehabilitation approach for knee joint disorders [35, 36]. Conflicts of Interest Yoga solicits the hip joint moment in the frontal plane, No potential conﬂict of interest was reported by the authors. which is associated with knee health and dynamic stability . Future studies should focus on soliciting more abduc- tion moments to promote overall knee health. Authors’ Contributions Elizabeth Whissell and Lin Wang are co-ﬁrst authors. 4.3. Lower Limb Angular Impulses. The hip contributed 51.67%–70.56% of the angular impulse in the lower limb in all three yoga movements compared with the knee and ankle, Acknowledgments suggesting that yoga may have a strong training eﬀect on the This work was supported by the National Natural Science hip and may improve hip strength and ROM. Higher hip load- Foundation of China (11572202). ing in yoga could be beneﬁcial to those who rely on hip strat- egies for dynamic stability in gait [38, 39]. It is characterised by larger perturbation to the body movement, particularly by the References sway in the hips. The ﬁnding is particularly interesting for  K. P. Roland, J. M. Jakobi, and G. R. Jones, “Does yoga engen- elderly people who utilise the hip strategy during gait rather der ﬁtness in older adults? A critical review,” Journal of Aging than ankle strategies . Therefore, practising yoga should & Physical Activity, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 62–79, 2011. be recommended to the elderly to maintain postural stability  B. Forseth, M. Polfuss, M. Brondino, M. W. Lawlor, and J. A. , to those with the high possibility of fall , and to those Lyons, “Association between yoga, physiologic and psycho- with diabetes and peripheral neuropathy who suﬀer from logic health: a cross sectional study,” Complementary Thera- impaired sensation in the ankles and feet [36, 41]. pies in Clinical Practice, vol. 43, no. 101350, pp. 1–7, 2021. The ankle contribution in the sagittal plane represented  R. Govindaraj, S. Karmani, S. Varambally, and B. N. Gangad- approximately 26.27% of the contribution of the angular har, “Yoga and physical exercise - a review and comparison,” impulse. Ankle dorsiﬂexion and plantarﬂexion strength is International Review of Psychiatry, vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 242– negatively correlated with a history of falls in the elderly 253, 2016. [26, 32, 39]. This ﬁnding further suggests that the elderly  H. Bucht and L. Donath, “Sauna yoga superiorly improves should consider practising yoga to improve postural stability ﬂexibility, strength, and balance: a two-armed randomized for its potential application in hip and ankle strengthening controlled trial in healthy older adults,” International Journal amongst the elderly; however, it may not be suﬃcient in of Environmental Research and Public, vol. 16, no. 19, pp. 1– healthy individuals. 11, 2019. 6 Applied Bionics and Biomechanics American Journal of Sports Medicine, vol. 38, no. 3, pp. 550–  S. C. Mears, S. A. Tackett, M. C. Elkins, A. C. Severin, and R. D. Martin, “Ankle motion in common yoga poses,” The Foot, 557, 2010. vol. 39, pp. 55–59, 2019.  Z. Wu, J. Zhang, K. Chen, and C. Fu, “Yoga posture recogni-  J. V. Bastille and K. M. Gill-Body, “A yoga-based exercise pro- tion and quantitative evaluation with wearable sensors based gram for people with chronic poststroke hemiparesis,” Physi- on two-stage classiﬁer and prior Bayesian network,” Sensors cal Therapy, vol. 84, no. 1, pp. 33–48, 2004. (Basel), vol. 19, no. 23, pp. 1–19, 2019.  A. B. Kuntz, J. N. Chopp-Hurley, E. C. Brenneman et al., “Eﬃ-  A. J. Teichtahl, A. E. Wluka, and F. M. Cicuttini, “Frontal plane knee alignment is associated with a longitudinal reduction in cacy of a biomechanically-based yoga exercise program in knee osteoarthritis: a randomized controlled trial,” PLoS One, patella cartilage volume in people with knee osteoarthritis,” Osteoarthritis and Cartilage, vol. 16, no. 7, pp. 851–854, 2008. vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 1–18, 2018.  T. Miyazaki, “Dynamic load at baseline can predict radio-  L. Fishman, E. Saltonstall, and S. Genis, “Understanding and graphic disease progression in medial compartment knee oste- preventing yoga injuries,” International journal of yoga ther- oarthritis,” Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, vol. 61, no. 7, apy, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 47–53, 2009. pp. 617–622, 2002.  S. C. Patel and D. A. Parker, “Isolated rupture of the lateral col-  G. J. Salem, S. Y. Yu, M. Y. Wang et al., “Physical demand pro- lateral ligament during yoga practice: a case report,” Journal of ﬁles of hatha yoga postures performed by older adults,” Evi- Orthopaedic Surgery, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 378–380, 2008. dence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine,  J. A. Raub, “Psychophysiologic eﬀects of Hatha yoga on mus- vol. 2013, no. 165763, pp. 1–29, 2013. culoskeletal and cardiopulmonary function: a literature  A. Chang, K. Hayes, D. Dunlop et al., “Hip abduction moment review,” Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine, and protection against medial tibiofemoral osteoarthritis pro- vol. 8, no. 6, pp. 797–812, 2002. gression,” Arthritis and Rheumatism, vol. 52, no. 11,  B. K. S. Iyengar, The Concise Light on Yoga: Yoga Dipika, pp. 3515–3519, 2005. Schocken Books, 1982.  C. O. Kean, K. L. Bennell, T. V. Wrigley, and R. S. Hinman,  S. N. Omkar, M. Mour, and D. A. Das, “A mathematical model “Relationship between hip abductor strength and external of eﬀects on speciﬁc joints during practice of the sun salutation hip and knee adduction moments in medial knee osteoar- – a sequence of yoga postures,” Journal of Bodywork & Move- thritis,” Clinical biomechanics, vol. 30, no. 3, pp. 226–230, ment Therapies, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 201–208, 2011.  M. Kirk, B. Boon, and D. DiTuro, Hatha Yoga Illustrated,  M. E. Johnson, M. L. Mille, K. M. Martinez, G. Crombie, and Human Kinetics Publishers, Inc.,, Champaign, IL, 2005. M. W. Rogers, “Age-related changes in hip abductor and  H. David, “Anatomy of Hatha yoga: a manual for students, adductor joint torques,” Archives of Physical Medicine & Reha- teachers, and practitioners,” Choice, vol. 4, p. 716, 2010. bilitation, vol. 85, no. 4, pp. 593–597, 2004.  D. Mueller, “Yoga therapy,” ACSM's Health & Fitness Journal,  M. J. Hilliard, K. M. Martinez, I. Janssen et al., “Lateral balance vol. 6, no. 1, 2002. factors predict future falls in community-living older adults,”  Vicon documentation2020, https://docs.vicon.com/display/ Archives of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, vol. 89, no. 9, Nexus25/Plug-in+Gait+kinematic+variables. pp. 1708–1713, 2008.  K. M. Chen, H. H. Wang, C. H. Li, and M. H. Chen, “Commu-  R. Mullerpatan, B. Agarwal, T. Shetty, G. Nehete, and nity vs. institutional elders' evaluations of and preferences for O. Narasipura, “Kinematics of Suryanamaskar using three- yoga exercises,” Journal of Clinical Nursing, vol. 20, no. 7-8, dimensional motion capture,” International Journal of Yoga, pp. 1000–1007, 2011. vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 124–131, 2019.  E. Whissell, Motion pattern of the healthy yoga practitioner–  J. Dempster, F. Dutheil, and U. C. Ugbolue, “The prevalence of lower extremity injuries in running and associated risk factors: kinetics and kinematics of the lower extremity during three yoga postures and comparison to three activitiesm of daily living, a systematic review,” Physical Activity and Health, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 133–145, 2021. [Master's Thesis], University of Ottawa, Ottawa, 2015.  X. Jiang, X. Yang, H. Zhou, J. S. Baker, and Y. Gu, “Prolonged  D. R. Ghena, “Torque characteristics of the quadriceps and running using bionic footwear inﬂuences lower limb biome- hamstring muscles during concentric and eccentric loading,” chanics,” Healthcare (Basel), vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 1–12, 2021. The Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 149–154, 1991.  M. Dibenedetto, K. E. Innes, A. G. Taylor et al., “Eﬀect of a gentle Iyengar yoga program on gait in the elderly: an explor-  R. M. Seneli, K. E. Beschorner, K. M. O'Connor, K. G. Keenan, atory study,” Archives of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, and S. C. Cobb, “Foot joint coupling variability diﬀerences vol. 86, no. 9, pp. 1830–1837, 2005. between habitual rearfoot and forefoot runners prior to and following an exhaustive run,” Journal of Electromyography  K. F. Boehnke, C. Lamore, P. Hart, and S. M. Zick, “Feasibility and Kinesiology, vol. 57, no. 102514, pp. 1–8, 2021. study of a modiﬁed yoga program for chronic pain among elderly adults in assisted and independent living,” Explore,  M. Jagodzinski, G. M. Richter, and H. H. PSsler, “Biomechan- pp. 1–4, 2020. ical analysis of knee hyperextension and of the impingement of the anterior cruciate ligament: a cinematographic MRI study  P. Faragó, L. Grama, M. A. Farago, and S. Hintea, “A novel with impact on tibial tunnel positioning in anterior cruciate wearable foot and ankle monitoring system for the assessment ligament reconstruction,” Knee Surgery Sports Traumatology of gait biomechanics,” Applied Sciences, vol. 11, no. 1, p. 268, Arthroscopy, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 11–19, 2000. 2020.  P. M. Morgan, R. F. Laprade, F. A. Wentorf, J. W. Cook, and  H. Tateuchi, S. Shiratori, and N. Ichihashi, “The eﬀect of angle A. Bianco, “The role of the oblique popliteal ligament and and moment of the hip and knee joint on iliotibial band hard- other structures in preventing knee hyperextension,” The ness,” Gait & Posture, vol. 41, no. 2, pp. 522–528, 2015. Applied Bionics and Biomechanics 7  C. F. Runge, C. L. Shupert, F. B. Horak, and F. E. Zajac, “Ankle and hip postural strategies deﬁned by joint torques,” Gait & Posture, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 161–170, 1999.  L. Keay, D. Praveen, A. Salam, K. V. Rajasekhar, and R. Q. Ivers, “A mixed methods evaluation of yoga as a fall prevention strategy for older people in India,” Pilot and Feasibility Studies, vol. 4, no. 1, p. 74,, 2018.  F. B. Horak, “Postural orientation and equilibrium: what do we need to know about neural control of balance to prevent falls?,” Age and Ageing, vol. 35, 2, pp. ii7–ii11, 2006.  J. Kurian, V. Vijayakumar, A. Mooventhan, and R. Mavathur, “Eﬀect of yoga on plasma glucose, lipid proﬁle, blood pressure and insulin requirement in a patient with type 1 diabetes mel- litus,” Journal of Complementary & Integrative Medicine, 2020.
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics – Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Published: Aug 13, 2021