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Application of Aporrectodea caliginosa to Mitigate the Waste and the Effects of Vermicompost on the Exomorphological Features of Phaseolus vulgaris

Application of Aporrectodea caliginosa to Mitigate the Waste and the Effects of Vermicompost on... Hindawi Advances in Agriculture Volume 2021, Article ID 8363203, 9 pages https://doi.org/10.1155/2021/8363203 Research Article Applicationof Aporrectodea caliginosatoMitigatetheWasteand the Effects of Vermicompost on the Exomorphological Features of Phaseolus vulgaris 1 1 2 3 RoufAhmadMir , SaritaShrivastava, PragyaSinghPawaiya, andHemantSamadhiya Department of Zoology, Government Model Science College, Gwalior, 474011 MP, India Jiwaji University, Gwalior, 474011 MP, India School of Studies Zoology, Jiwaji University, Gwalior, India Correspondence should be addressed to Rouf Ahmad Mir; roufbio24@gmail.com Received 15 April 2021; Accepted 30 July 2021; Published 1 September 2021 Academic Editor: Suhaib Bandh Copyright © 2021 Rouf Ahmad Mir et al. (is is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Vermin biotechnology is an eco-friendly technique and economically beneficent process to mitigate organic waste. India’s agro- industrial sector contributes colossal wealth of plant materials in the form of compost. (e present study aims to publicize soil healthiness and its plant growth supplying possessions further corroborating the use of organic amendments instead of fertilizers. Plastic replicates investigation is an exercise in eighteen replicates in which fifteen were soil amendment treatments: one triplicate- control, 0% vermicompost, 50%, 25%, 12.5%, 6.25%, and 3.125% vermicompost of soil. Containers contained 2 kg soil each, in which seeds are sown, and the measurement of studied traits (length of shoot, length of internodes, flowers, leaves number and number of branches, and rate of germination) was noticed. (e earthworms (Eudrilus eugeniae and Aporrectodea caliginosa) feed on waste like broiler droppings, the dung of sheep and cow, leaves, and decomposed wood and convert it into vermicompost, which required 72 days to extenuate the waste. Each setup was conducted on plastic containers, and there would be control and the test at respective experiments. Vermicompost was prepared; obviously, it contains better farming nutrients analyzed by different scientific methods and is very efficient for plant growth and other features. (e main objective of the study was the effect of quality vermicompost produced by A. caliginosa on the exomorphology and rate of germination of Phaseolus vulgaris. Different ratios of vermicompost in respective replicates affect plant growth and external morphology, which is directly linked with nutrients present in treated and untreated soil. (e outcomes suggested that vermicompost can be overworked as an efficacious biofertilizer. moisture is near to field ability [3–6].(ese worms are used 1. Introduction in excessive amounts to perform their function efficiently on (e engrossing rate of Aporrectodea caliginosa is moderate waste like dung of animals, leaves and decomposed wood, and required more time to convert the dung of sheep, cow, etc. Worms are very significant to recycle different biode- gradable waste in our surroundings. and broiler droppings into vermicast. (is worm is used in vermicomposting as well and is native to Great Britain. (e (e exorbitant application of chemical fertilizers in endogeic species Aporrectodea caliginosa [1] is a delegate of agriculture is an effect of matter. It exalts the level of pol- cultivable fields in temperate regions and is implicated as a lutants in fruits and declines soil fertility and contamination pertinent model test species. Aporrectodea caliginosa is ca- of groundwater [7]. Replacement of chemical fertilizers by pable of outlasting in soils with abject organic matter 1.4% the organic amendments is very essential for the endurability organic carbon [2] and furthermore moisture content. In of agriculture yield and retention of soil fertility [8]. (e abstemious agricultural soils, earthworm enlargement is compost and vermicompost quality is the most important swift at soil temperatures from 15 to 20 C while the soil yardstick in reclamation of organic waste and application in 2 Advances in Agriculture agriculture as organic alterations; they can fit the nutriment it took less time in other containers that contained a single exigence of agriculture crops [9, 10]. Vermicompost is the type of waste; the overall average time required was 72 days. Weekly monitoring to detect the number of eggs produced outcome of organic matter degeneration through correla- tions between earthworms and microorganisms [11, 12]. and count the number of worms formed during this entire Vermicompost not only the root of organic matter and period is shown in Table 1. nutrient but also promote microbial population, physical, living, and chemical properties of the soil [13, 14]. 2.4. Preparation of Vermicompost. Vermimanure was pre- pared in plastic trays with height × length × breadth di- mensions of 10 cm × 20 cm × 12 cm. (e dimension of plastic 2. Materials and Methods try was length 20 cm and 12 cm in breadth and depth 10 cm, 2.1. Waste Collection. (e waste collection was done at our respectively. A green net was placed at the base of the plastic surroundings like dung of sheep and cows that were easily try to restrict the earthworms going outside the plastic try available, due to the good ratio of cattle stock present in and maintain moisture content as well; green net also helps Kulgam J&K (UT), India. Broiler droppings were collected to cover the try and avoid earthworm predators. (e plastic from the nearest poultry farm present in Kulgam district. tries were filled with different waste like cow dung, leaves, Droppings plucked also were mixed with crushed powered decomposed wood, poultry droppings, pigeon dropping, wood, because they got dry when in contact with crushed and sheep dung, respectively, in different quantity as well. At powered wood and leaves as well, besides decomposed wood initial stage, mud water was sprinkled at random intervals. taken from the dense forest area. So that the medium prepared as an essential for growing earthworms and the suitable condition is very important for earthworm biology. At least 30–40 earthworms (Aporrec- 2.2. Plastic Containers. (e experiment was carried out in todea caliginosa and Eudrilus eugeniae) were introduced in plastic bins; at least six plastic containers were used. Wastes the waste present in plastic try after the predecomposition were first weighed on a digital weighing machine and then process is over to avoid unnecessary heat, which occurs put in containers. Predecomposition was done at least 15 during microbial decomposition on the mixed waste. 3 cm days before complete bacterial decomposition occurs. After thick layer of cow dung, poultry and pigeon droppings, the predecomposition process occurs, then worms were crushed wood and leaves as well of respective weight is poured on readily available waste in containers. Earthworms mentioned in Table 1. When mud water is sprinkled on this are present in local fields in Kulgam district J&K (UT) India. waste, at the initial stage Aporrectodea caliginosa (as shown Usually, 40 worms of weight 15 g were put in each container, in Figure 1) consumed less waste. When mud water is and other triplicates contained 25 Eudrilus eugeniae. sprayed, their efficiency is modified and adopted in these media efficiently. Earthworm populations were also noticed 2.3. Experimental Design. (e experiment was conducted in different replicates in mixed, only cow dung + sheep dung, using Aporrectodea caliginosa or field worm in plastic sheep dung, respectively. After all these processes were done, containers (10 cm × 20 cm × 12 cm), and waste was kept on harvesting was started on the 72nd day, and the earthworms were separated from vermimanure. (e young worms and the net in a container to avoid worm escape and placed under the shed, to prevent any interruption of pests. And cocoons were separated from different replicates using 3 mm sometimes, these containers are put in room to imitate sieves. (e vermicompost prepared by these worms contains microclimatic conditions [15, 16]. First experimental setup macro and micronutrients as well [19]. was conducted to convert waste into vermicompost; it took Sample 1 contains different waste; all parameters were 72 days to convert 2 kg cow dung, 1 kg sheep dung, 1 kg initially analyzed like temperature. pH was initially 7.6, and predecomposed crushed wood waste and leaves, and 1 kg when vermicompost was prepared, pH 7.9 was estimated. poultry droppings and setup was based on 3 replicates. But the earthworm which consumed this mixed waste was pH � 7.2 and temperature � 25–29 C were detected before Aporrectodea caliginosa (field worm); it takes extra 12 days setup. During precomposting also called thermocomposting to mitigate the mixed waste. In the case of sample 1, the effectively inactivates pathogens [17] and averts the divul- vermicompost prepared from sample 1 is used mainly for the treatment to soils. It contains all nutrients in optimum level, gence of earthworms to exalted temperatures in the course of the incipient thermophilic degree of microbial decompo- better for plant development as well. (e cow dung + S. dung consumed by Eudrilus eugeniae brought from Gwalior was sition [18]. (e experiment was conducted on the field after 15 days; predecomposition completed and then worms were introduced in Kulgam for vermicomposting purposes. (e sheep dung consumed by Aporrectodea caliginosa took less put on the corner side of plastic containers; usually 40 adult worms start consuming the upper layer of waste. (e worms than 60 days. In sample 2, exotic vermicomposting earth- brought from the field were stacked with mud; initially they worms are used to mitigate the waste less than 60 days. (e got stagnant in mud; within few weeks, their population introduction of Aporrectodea caliginosa for vermi- increases and started to consume waste. Regular watering composting mitigates all waste as well. (e best earthworms population was seen in sample 1 was carried out to maintain proper moisture content and protect containers to get rid of ants and termites as well. In with good quantity vermimanure. In sample 2, the worms introduced belong to temperate areas, so their adaptation the containers that contained mixed waste, worms con- sumed that slowly and took more time for conversion, while was changed in a cold environment, as we know most Advances in Agriculture 3 Table 1: Earthworm species consumed waste and the changes monitored during this period. No. of Waste Initial Type No. of Days to Weight of No. of adults infant consumed by pH of of waste eggs complete waste (kg) (earthworms) worms worm waste Sample 1 Mixed waste, cow dung, 40 eggs Aporrectodea sheep dung, decomposed wood, 20 72 days 7.6 5 150 recorded Caliginosa powered wood, broiler droppings, pigeon droppings, leaves Sample 2 Eudrilus 25 25 60 7.8 5 100 Cow dung, sheep dung eugeniae Sample 3 Aporrectodea 20 15 60 7.2 5 88 Sheep dung caliginosa Figure 1: Number of Aporrectodea caliginosa. suitable food for earthworms is cow dung. Little bit of the process. (e vermicompost produced had met with changes occur in vermicompost prepared from Eudrilus secretions released from the gut of earthworms; it makes eugeniae, providing room temperature to sample 2 and vermicasts more nutrient-rich. Table 3 shows the degrada- sample 3 to avoid any disfigure and experimental loss; in tion process of two earthworms and the period time taken to sample 3, worms used were Aporrectodea caliginosa. Table 2 complete the harvest of vermicompost. indicates the quality vermicompost produced have better chemical composition; the number of eggs had been 2.5. Treatment. (e experiment was conducted when quality recorded in sample 2 which contain cow dung, but the vermicompost is prepared from Aporrectodea caliginosa and temperature was below 20 C. (e earthworms in sample 2 Eudrilus eugeniae. (e seeds of mesh beans were taken from consume waste below 60 days. the Department of Agriculture Kulgam Jammu & Kashmir (e vermicompost’s chemical and physical profile in- and were sown on each replicate with vermicompost-treated dicates that it contains all ingredients in optimum amount as soil and control without vermicompost. (e vermi- shown in Table 2; besides this its density is 0.6–0.7 and no composting was done in plastic containers and sieving the odour and macronutrients in a good amount prescribed by product and then used in 18 replicates which contain 4 kg Horticulture Department of Govt. of India; besides this soil each. (is experiment was carried out on an open field; particle size is almost 88%. Normal moisture content is 18 plastic containers were used for the study. Beans need full acceptable between 50% and 60%. Total nitrogen was esti- sun and deep, rich, well-drained soil to grow them best. mated by the Kjeldahl method; other nutrients were ana- Creating the bean pod takes photosynthesis energy along lyzed by spectrophotometer: with a generous water supply; plants use approximately 1/2 Sample 1 � vermicompost (mixed waste: cow dung, inch of water each day during the blossom and pod growth sheep dung, decomposed wood, powered wood, broiler period. Figure 2 displays the normal growth of Phaseolus droppings, pigeon droppings, leaves), WHC � water-hold- vulgaris present in a container. ing capacity, and OC � organic carbon. Table 4 depicts 18 replicates utilized in the experiment on Usually in this work, whole experiment was conducted which three plastic containers were used as control while 15 by using Aporrectodea caliginosa as an experimental worm, were put to use in experiment and different proportions of consuming waste 3 cm at least 72 days while Eudrilus vermicompost, which was applied for treating the soil. (e eugeniae feed on cow dung and sheep dung as well. It took number of results was acquired when control and experi- under 60 days to mitigate 3 cm thickness waste to complete ment data have collaborated. 4 Advances in Agriculture Table 2: Chemical profile of vermicompost made by Aporrectodea caliginosa (field worm). Containers pH Moisture (%) WHC (%) OC (%) Total N (%) Total P (%) Total K (%) Sample 1 7.5 57.11 82.54 39.21 1.40 0.58 0.99 Sample 2 7.3 40.11 41.23 29.02 1.20 0.48 0.95 Sample 3 8.1 42.24 39.99 22.02 1.09 0.21 0.28 Table 3: Waste consumed by earthworms in different replicates. Amount of Earthworm Date and Container Day of harvest earthworms Amount which was completely ready (cm) species month of release released in kg Sample 1 Aporrectodea caliginosa 11/5/2020 72 days 40 adult worms 3 Sample 2 E. eugeniae 11/5/2020 Under 60 days 25 worms 3 Sample 3 Aporrectodea caliginosa 11/5/2020 72 days 40 adult worms 3 Figure 2: Phaseolus vulgaris (mesh bean plants). Table 4: Application of vermicompost used in different replicates. Containers Soil (kg) + Vcompost Vcompost (kg-g) + soil Vermi-compost + soil % of VC Control 4 kg soil 4 kg soil 4 kg soil 0 Experimental Replicate (1) Replicate (2) Replicate (3) 1st container S 4 kg + VC 2 kg S 4 kg + VC 2 kg S 4 kg + VC 2 kg 50 2nd container S 4 kg + VC 1 kg S 4 kg + VC 1 kg S 4 kg + VC 1 kg 25 3rd container S 4 kg + VC 500 g S 4 kg + VC500 g S 4 kg + VC 500 g 12.5 4th container S 4 kg + VC 250 g S 4 kg + VC 250 g S 4 kg + VC 250 g 6.25 5th container S 4 kg + VC 125 g S 4 kg + VC 125 g S 4 kg + VC 125 g 3.125 Aporrectodea caliginosa. (e amounts of nitrate in soil from 3. Statistical Analysis replicates treated with vermicompost were significantly (e data obtained from morphological parameters were greater than in soils from untreated soil. 2 kg soil is present subjected to statistical analysis. (e 1st, 2nd, and 3rd weeks’ in each replicate whether control or experiment, and ver- data of shoot length were given as average shoot length and micompost is added in each replicate in 0 kg; vermicompost standard error, standard deviation. (e differences between is added in controlled replicate and 2 kg, 1 kg, 500 g, 250 g, the experimental groups and controls were statistically and 125 g are added in experimental replicates, respectively. analyzed. (e level of significance was set at P< 0.05. Replicates treated with vermicompost of different weight had significantly more microbial biomass N than replicates treated without vermicompost shown in Table 4. (ere was a 4. Results trend for greater dehydrogenase activity to occur in soils 4.1. Effects of Vermicomposts in Soil Present in Replicates. treated with vermicomposts, compared to that in soils treated with 0% kg vermicompost. Particularly soils treated (e soil in replicates was weighed, and then the soil was treated with a different ratio of vermicompost prepared by with mixed cow manure had significantly more Advances in Agriculture 5 4.3. Measurement of Plant Growth Parameters dehydrogenase activity than soils treated with 0% vermi- compost. (e replicates treated with different quantities of 4.3.1. Length of the Shoot. (ere is a significant difference in vermicompost as shown in Table 4 like 2 kg, 1 kg, 500 g, shoot length between control and treated plants. Length of 250 g, and 125 g have a different ratio of phosphate, po- the shoot at the beginning of the 1st week and 3rd week tassium, and nitrogen as well and their effect on the plant changes, respectively, and based on total average length and also varies greatly than soils treated with 0% vermicompost. standard error, our results show 95% correctness. A con- (e 3rd replicate which contained 500 g vermicompost has siderable increase in shoot length was recorded in treated more sophisticated outcomes regarding plants’ external plants; when compared to control plants shoot length to morphology than other treatments of vermicompost. vermicompost-treated plants 50%, 25%, 12.5%, 6.25%, In a nutshell, amounts of nitrates in different replicates 3.125% was significantly higher than in control (12.45) did not vary significantly among treatments. But the rep- plants, as shown in Tables 6–8. licates treated with good quality vermicompost prepared ASL stands for average shoot length; if the average shoot from Aporrectodea caliginosa and traditional compost had length is more and the value of standard error is less, the results significantly more microbial biomass N than those replicates show normalcy. (is fits all in container 3 shown in Table 6. treated with 0 kg vermicompost. Adequate amounts of As per data obtained from second week ASL and nutrients are definitely present in replicates that have more standard error in case of control shoot length is less but quantity of vermicompost. But the reason as per Table 4 standard error is also less, 3rd container ASL is more but shows that 2 kg and 1 kg vermicompost replicates in which standard error is less; hence, our data is accurate, as shown in nutrient quantity is more, the mesh bean plants show more Table 7. ASL stands for average shoot length. growth and there is the probability of logging problem is Similarly, all results suit in 3rd container, in Table 8. associated with the plants. While the other two replicates Shoot length shows acceptable result in vermicompost contained 250 g and 125 g of vermicompost, plants show 12.5%, and external morphological and flowers, leaves are stunted growth with decreased yield as well. significantly well in containers when comparison was done. Average variability in data shows how far each score lies from the average value. 4.2. Growth and Yield. Growth and yields of Phaseolus vulgaris are significantly good in soils treated with vermi- compost compared to those soils which have 0% vermi- 4.3.2. Length of Internodes. Usually, gibberellic acid is used compost yields less. (e better outcome is obtained when to increase internodes length. Usually, intermodal length 2 kg soils was treated with 500 g vermicompost; average was seen in a plant which was treated with 50% vermi- shoot was maximum but standard error was less than rest of compost (maximum (2.88 cm), followed by 25% length treatments. (e other containers treated with different doses (2.28), but the moderate length of internodes was seen in soil of vermicompost; their average growth shoot growth is treated with 12.5% vermicompost (2.16). slightly more or less than container, but their standard error is slightly more than other treated containers as well as control. As per standard analysis of shoot length of 1st, 2nd, 4.3.3. Number of Leaves. (e number of leaves from ger- and 3rd weeks is concerned, when treated soils are compared mination stage to mature stage shows variations and dif- with each other, more value of standard error occurs, but 3rd ferent containers had a different amount of vermicompost container showed 95% accuracy in terms of shoot length, like 50%, 25%,12.5%, 6.25%, and 3.125% treated soil, number of leaves, flowers, and pod yield as well. To enhance showing a maximum number of leaves, respectively (Fig- efficient flowering because the experiment was conducted in ure 3). Definitely, the maximum number of leaves was open field, temperature was not favorable usually in autumn. present on plants treated with 2 kg vermicompost but shows To avoid this hindrance, green house is constructed under scarcity in yield. But appropriate outcomes would be ana- which all replicates were put, with the consequences of lyzed on plants treated with 500 g vermicompost, shown in efficient flowering and later pods formation occurring, re- Table 5. Other replicates such as 4th replicate treated with spectively. Soils treated with different amounts of vermi- 6.25% vermicompost leave size was normal and plant shows compost; the controlled container that was with 0% optimum growth, but results comparison like the number of vermicompost had less yield and external structure of their leaves show variation. (e minimum number of leaves was mature pods was not fit for market while those plants are recorded in control which contained no vermicompost as treated with vermicompost; mostly the 3rd container had well shown in Table 5. good yield and was fit for market. (e data are present in (e data present in Table 5 was analyzed, when climatic Table 5 during 4th week, 5th week, and 6th week; great conditions were not favorable for flowering then greenhouse variation was shown when control is compared with treated arrangement was constructed, put all 18 replicates under and containers in yield, shoot length, flowers leaves, and normal flowering and pod formation occurs, all variations branches; all these external parameters were seen in ver- can be seen in Table 5. More yields were obtained from micompost-treated soils. When treated containers are vermicompost-treated soil than control containers without compared with each other, in terms of yield that was seen in vermicompost. In between vermicompost-treated con- 3rd container, all parameters fit in containers which con- tainers, best flowering and pods formation occurs in ver- tained vermicompost 500 g. micompost-treated soil of 12.5%. 6 Advances in Agriculture Table 5: Exomorphological parameters obtained during the 4th, 5th, and 6th weeks. Total leaves Total branches Total flowers Avg. leaves Avg. branches Avg. flowers Control 80 24 108 26.66 8 36 Exp. Con. 1st 200 43 179 66.66 14.33 59.66 Con. 2nd 192 42 178 64 14 59.33 Con. 3rd 190 44 180 63.33 14.66 60 Con. 4th 160 34 159 53.33 11.33 53 th Con. 5 140 33 140 46.66 11 46.66 Table 6: (e shoot length of a plant at the first week. Containers ASL SD SE CI (95%) VC (%) Rate ger. (%) Control 3.41 1.24 0.50 1.30 0 75 Experiment 1st container 4.75 1.04 0.52 1.65 50 75 2nd container 4.4 1.47 0.65 1.83 25 75 3rd container 3.9 0.96 0.43 1.19 12.5 75 4th container 3.83 1.04 0.60 2.58 6.25 75 5th container — — — — 3.125 0 Table 7: Shoot length at the second week. Containers ASL SD SE CI (95%) Days VC (%) Control 9.53 0.97 0.28 0.61 14 0 Experiment 1st container 15.6 2.32 0.67 1.47 14 50 2nd container 12.6 1.67 0.48 1.06 14 25 3rd container 15 1.32 0.30 0.84 14 12.5 4th container 12.2 1.04 0.38 0.66 14 6.25 5th container 11.8 1.71 0.49 1.08 14 3.125 4.3.4. Maturity after Blooms. (e experimental fieldwork was conducted in September and October months where the conditions of weather is not much favorable; so to avoid this barrier, the mesh bean plants was put under greenhouse for 20 days to occurred green pods on each plant as soon as the blooms drop and grow rapidly under greenhouse. Slender pods must be ready within 9 days, while it may take 15 extra 50 or more for the pods to fill completely. Checking the pods daily insures that they do not become overgrown and toughen. Beans need full sun and deep, rich, well-drained soil to grow their best. Creating the bean pod takes pho- tosynthesis energy along with a generous water supply; plants use approximately 1/2 inch of water each day during the blossom and pod growth period. 4.3.5. Number of Branches. During the experimental period, the number of branches was increased in all the treated control c1 c2 c3 c4 c5 plants when compared to the control plants at the end of the Avg.leaves 5th week. (e maximum number of branches was recorded Avg.branches in vermicompost 50%, 25%, 12.5%, 6.25%, and 3.125% Avg.flowers (Figure 3). (e number of branches was less significant in the control plants (Figure 3). NPK percentage in vermicompost Figure 3: (e overall average morphology of Phaseolus vulgaris. Advances in Agriculture 7 Table 8: Shoot length at the 3rd week. Containers ASL SD SE CI (95%) Days VC (%) Control 12.45 1.03 0.29 0.65 21 0 Experiment 1st container 26 1.70 0.49 1.08 21 50 2nd container 24.6 1.32 0.38 0.84 21 25 3rd container 21.10 1.60 0.28 1.02 21 12.5 4th container 18.60 1.10 0.31 0.69 21 6.25 5th container 15.92 1.21 0.35 0.77 21 3.125 is seen in Table 2. (e minimum NPK percentage was growth than control which contained no vermicompost [22]. observed in the control soil samples, N (0.06), P (0.002), It was reported that the use of vermicompost obtained from and K (0.03). (e number of branches was seen in vermi- grape marc, which was cover under grapevines and spread compost-treated soils, but appropriate results were seen in with straw and paper mulches enhanced the productivity of 3rd replicate vermicompost which contained 500 g grapes variety by up to 55%. (e outcomes in the present vermicompost. endeavor are in correspondence with earlier investigations Table 5 explains external parameters of different weeks; [23]. An amplification in the acquiesce of indubitable vege- aggregated data was collected and a number of leaves, table crops such as brinjal, okra, and tomato has been flowers, and branches of control as well as treated soils, show recorded by [24], respectively. Tritium aestivum plants are variations with each other; also there occurred differences in treated with vermimanure, plants’ morphology is modified parameters among treated plants as well (Figure 3). As like the length of the plant, number of leaves, early ear statistical tool applied on shoot length shows the shoot heading, and dry matter of each plant was endowed to be modified when compared with control plants. (e appearance length is more and standard error has less value is acceptable and 5% chances of experimental inaccuracy. Similarly, the of tomato, cabbage, and radish sapling was important in parameters like leaves, flowers, and branches show moderate vermicomposted soil than in thermophilically composted outcomes in vermicompost-treated soil of 12.5%. animal waste [12]. Organic biofertilizers contain a rich Figure 3 indicates the average number of flowers, amount of nutrients which are very beneficial for plant branches, and leaves. In 3rd container (c3), all columns maintenance. (e nutrients like NPK content present in touch line 60 while c1 container shows that the number of vermicompost-treated soil were found to improve when leaves was more but the other two parameters show the compared with other compost treated soil [25]. slight decline and another factor which indicates its growth, (e byproducts of microbial activities may include vermicompost quantity is more while in case of 3rd con- polysaccharides that are involved directly in the aggregation tainer, all exomorphological characteristics are perfect and of soil particles, which could also have some influence on plant growth. It is also possible that humic acids in the vermicompost amount was moderate usually 12.5%. vermicomposts used in the experiment could also have direct positive influences on the growth and yields of the mesh 5. Discussion beans. In laboratory and greenhouse experiments by [26], definitive evidence of the positive growth effects of humic (e enlargement of mesh plants (Phaseolus vulgaris) was built to be notably increased in plants treated with vermicompost. acids, extracted from cattle manure and food waste vermi- Plants treated with 50%, 25%, 12.5%, 6.25%, and 3.125% of composts, was demonstrated. In their experiments, a range of different replicates showed increased shoot length compared doses of humic acid were extracted from vermicomposts acids to plants treated with 0% vermicompost. An investigation by classic acid/alkali fractionation [27] and applied to tomato conducted by [20] proclaimed the advantages of vermi- and cucumber seedlings grown in a soil-less medium. compost as cover media to boost seed germination, seedling References [28, 29] concluded that the growth responses were due either to the ability of humic acids to have hor- growth, and productivity of plants. To add organic waste to the soil in the form of vermicompost and vermiwash increases mone-like effects on plant growth or because the humic acids may have plant growth, regulators adsorbed onto the yield and growth of plants. (e experiment was conducted at an open place; both the waste of cassava peel and guava them, and that these influenced the growth. (eir hypothesis was confirmed by an investigation by [29], which identified leaves were mixed or vermicompost prepared from poultry droppings. Mba (1983) noted more shoot biomass and auxin groups incorporated in humic acids that had been marked up seed yields of cowpeas in rejoinder to vermi- extracted from cattle manure vermicompost. (e effects of compost [21]. Examined straight uses of vermicomposts, humic acid applications to maize plants resulted in increased created from sewage sludge to soils and noted a larger growth growth of the maize roots and stem which they attributed to index of garden cress (Lepidium sativum), in vermicompost- the humic/auxin combination. It seems likely that humic treated soils, compared with those soils where no use of acids produced in the vermicomposts used in our experi- ment might have also increased growth and yields of mesh vermicompost occurred. (e present study deals with soil treated 50%, 25%, 12.5%, 6.25%, and 3.125% showing good beans (Phaseolus vulgaris). 8 Advances in Agriculture 6. Conclusions References [1] J. C. Savingy, “Memoire sur les,” in Analyse des travaux de (e results of this study showed that 12.5% or 500 g ver- I’Academia royale des sciences pendent I’ anee 1821,partie micompost-treated showed great potential to increase the physique, M. Cuvier and G. Baron, Eds., Mem., Acad., Sci., growth of the bean plant and improved soil quality. (e Inst., Fr., (HIST.), France, 1826. study positively highlights the importance of organic [2] J. P. McDaniel, M. E. Stromberger, K. A. Barbarick, and farming; therefore, vermicompost may be put to good use as W. Cranshaw, “Survival of Aporrectodea caliginosa and its a natural fertilizer for cereals and vegetable crops for in- effects on nutrient availability in biosolids amended soil,” creased production and for sustainable agricultural systems. Applied Soil Ecology, vol. 71, pp. 1–6, 2013. (e NPK was more in vermicompost-treated soils and hence [3] H. G. Baker and W. A. Whitby, “Soil pH preferences and the made soil healthy. In our experiment, the amount of ni- influences of soil type and temperature on the survival and trogen present in the soil is quite low than vermicompost- growth of Aporrectodea longa (Lumbricidae),” Pedobiologia, treated soils; it was observed by many workers when vol. 47, no. 5, pp. 745–753, 2003. earthworms consumed waste the amount of nitrogen will [4] M. Holmstrup and H. P. Krogh, Effects and Risk Assessment of decrease with the passage of time but still remains nitrogen Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonates in Agricultural Soil. 3. Sub- in vermicompost and also contains enzymes, hormones, lethal Effects on Soil Invertebrates, 2009. [5] L. A. Wever, T. J. Lysyk, and M. J. Clapperton, “(e influence vitamins, and other minerals as well. Besides this, phosphate of soil moisture and temperature on the survival, aestivation, and potassium also present in vermicompost-treated soils growth and development of juvenile Aporrectodea tuber- play a crucial role in plant growth and flowering processes as culata (Eisen) (Lumbricidae),” Pedobiologia, vol. 45, no. 2, well. Results obtained when triplicate as control is without pp. 121–133, 2001. vermicompost shows great variation as compared with [6] Q. Xu and B. Huang, “Growth and physiological responses of triplicates treated with different % of vermicompost like creeping bentgrass to changes in air and soil temperatures,” 50%, 25%, 12.5%, 6.5%, and 3.125%, respectively. Among Crop Science, vol. 40, no. 5, pp. 1363–1368, 2000. these triplicates treated with vermicompost, the better result [7] T. Hernandez, I. J. Moreno, and F. 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Potter, compost is 6.25% and 3.125% of treated soils show growth “Transgenic crops, biotechnology and ownership rights: what less than 500 g replicate and flowering, number of pods as scientists need to know,” >e Plant Journal, vol. 31, no. 4, well and leaves was so much healthy as compared to 12.5% pp. 407–421, 2002. vermicompost-treated soils. Overall as per the results ob- [10] S. Mavaddati, M. H. Kianmehr, I. Allahdadi, and tained the better yield and normal exomorphological G. R. Chegini, “Preparation of pellets by urban waste com- characters were obtained from soil treated with 500 g ver- post,” International Journal of Environmental Research, vol. 4, micompost prepared by Aporrectodea caliginosa. no. 4, pp. 665–672, 2010. [11] N. Q. Arancon, C. A. Edwards, P. Bierman, C. Welch, and J. D. Metzger, “Influences of vermicomposts on field straw- Data Availability berries: 1. Effects on growth and yields,” Bioresource Tech- nology, vol. 93, no. 2, pp. 145–153, 2004. (e data that support the findings of this study are available [12] C. A. Edwards and J. E. Bater, “(e use of earthworms in from the corresponding author upon reasonable request. environmental management,” Soil Biology and Biochemistry, vol. 24, no. 12, pp. 1683–1689, 1992. [13] R. Albiach, R. Canet, F. Pomares, and F. Ingelmo, “Microbial Conflicts of Interest biomass content and enzymatic activities after the application of organic amendments to a horticultural soil,” Bioresource (e authors declare no conflicts of interest regarding the Technology, vol. 75, no. 1, pp. 43–48, 2000. publication of this paper. [14] R. Baziramakenga, R. R. Lalande, and R. Lalande, “Effect of de-inking paper sludge compost application on soil chemical Acknowledgments and biological properties,” Canadian Journal of Soil Science, vol. 81, no. 5, pp. 561–575, 2001. (is research was made possible with the support of Dr. O.P. [15] A. B. Azizi, M. P. M. Lim, Z. M. Noor, and N. 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Dwivedi, “Effect of vermi- compost, farm yard manure and chemical fertilizers on growth and yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum),” Plant Ar- chives, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 9–14, 2003. [24] S. K. Sinha and J. C. White, “Assay-dependent phytotoxicity of nanoparticles to plants,” Environmental Science & Tech- nology, vol. 43, no. 24, pp. 9473–9479, 2009. [25] A. A. Ansari and S. A. Ismail, “Relamation of sodic soils through vermitechnology,” Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Research, vol. 21, pp. 92–97, 2008. [26] R. M. Atiyeh, N. Q. Arancon, C. A. Edwards, and J. D. Metzger, “(e influence of earthworm-processed pig manure on the growth and productivity of marigolds,” Bio- resource Technology, vol. 81, pp. 103–108, 2001. [27] M. M. Valdrighi, A. Pera, M. Agnolucci, S. Frassinetti, D. Lunardi, and G. 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Application of Aporrectodea caliginosa to Mitigate the Waste and the Effects of Vermicompost on the Exomorphological Features of Phaseolus vulgaris

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Hindawi Advances in Agriculture Volume 2021, Article ID 8363203, 9 pages https://doi.org/10.1155/2021/8363203 Research Article Applicationof Aporrectodea caliginosatoMitigatetheWasteand the Effects of Vermicompost on the Exomorphological Features of Phaseolus vulgaris 1 1 2 3 RoufAhmadMir , SaritaShrivastava, PragyaSinghPawaiya, andHemantSamadhiya Department of Zoology, Government Model Science College, Gwalior, 474011 MP, India Jiwaji University, Gwalior, 474011 MP, India School of Studies Zoology, Jiwaji University, Gwalior, India Correspondence should be addressed to Rouf Ahmad Mir; roufbio24@gmail.com Received 15 April 2021; Accepted 30 July 2021; Published 1 September 2021 Academic Editor: Suhaib Bandh Copyright © 2021 Rouf Ahmad Mir et al. (is is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Vermin biotechnology is an eco-friendly technique and economically beneficent process to mitigate organic waste. India’s agro- industrial sector contributes colossal wealth of plant materials in the form of compost. (e present study aims to publicize soil healthiness and its plant growth supplying possessions further corroborating the use of organic amendments instead of fertilizers. Plastic replicates investigation is an exercise in eighteen replicates in which fifteen were soil amendment treatments: one triplicate- control, 0% vermicompost, 50%, 25%, 12.5%, 6.25%, and 3.125% vermicompost of soil. Containers contained 2 kg soil each, in which seeds are sown, and the measurement of studied traits (length of shoot, length of internodes, flowers, leaves number and number of branches, and rate of germination) was noticed. (e earthworms (Eudrilus eugeniae and Aporrectodea caliginosa) feed on waste like broiler droppings, the dung of sheep and cow, leaves, and decomposed wood and convert it into vermicompost, which required 72 days to extenuate the waste. Each setup was conducted on plastic containers, and there would be control and the test at respective experiments. Vermicompost was prepared; obviously, it contains better farming nutrients analyzed by different scientific methods and is very efficient for plant growth and other features. (e main objective of the study was the effect of quality vermicompost produced by A. caliginosa on the exomorphology and rate of germination of Phaseolus vulgaris. Different ratios of vermicompost in respective replicates affect plant growth and external morphology, which is directly linked with nutrients present in treated and untreated soil. (e outcomes suggested that vermicompost can be overworked as an efficacious biofertilizer. moisture is near to field ability [3–6].(ese worms are used 1. Introduction in excessive amounts to perform their function efficiently on (e engrossing rate of Aporrectodea caliginosa is moderate waste like dung of animals, leaves and decomposed wood, and required more time to convert the dung of sheep, cow, etc. Worms are very significant to recycle different biode- gradable waste in our surroundings. and broiler droppings into vermicast. (is worm is used in vermicomposting as well and is native to Great Britain. (e (e exorbitant application of chemical fertilizers in endogeic species Aporrectodea caliginosa [1] is a delegate of agriculture is an effect of matter. It exalts the level of pol- cultivable fields in temperate regions and is implicated as a lutants in fruits and declines soil fertility and contamination pertinent model test species. Aporrectodea caliginosa is ca- of groundwater [7]. Replacement of chemical fertilizers by pable of outlasting in soils with abject organic matter 1.4% the organic amendments is very essential for the endurability organic carbon [2] and furthermore moisture content. In of agriculture yield and retention of soil fertility [8]. (e abstemious agricultural soils, earthworm enlargement is compost and vermicompost quality is the most important swift at soil temperatures from 15 to 20 C while the soil yardstick in reclamation of organic waste and application in 2 Advances in Agriculture agriculture as organic alterations; they can fit the nutriment it took less time in other containers that contained a single exigence of agriculture crops [9, 10]. Vermicompost is the type of waste; the overall average time required was 72 days. Weekly monitoring to detect the number of eggs produced outcome of organic matter degeneration through correla- tions between earthworms and microorganisms [11, 12]. and count the number of worms formed during this entire Vermicompost not only the root of organic matter and period is shown in Table 1. nutrient but also promote microbial population, physical, living, and chemical properties of the soil [13, 14]. 2.4. Preparation of Vermicompost. Vermimanure was pre- pared in plastic trays with height × length × breadth di- mensions of 10 cm × 20 cm × 12 cm. (e dimension of plastic 2. Materials and Methods try was length 20 cm and 12 cm in breadth and depth 10 cm, 2.1. Waste Collection. (e waste collection was done at our respectively. A green net was placed at the base of the plastic surroundings like dung of sheep and cows that were easily try to restrict the earthworms going outside the plastic try available, due to the good ratio of cattle stock present in and maintain moisture content as well; green net also helps Kulgam J&K (UT), India. Broiler droppings were collected to cover the try and avoid earthworm predators. (e plastic from the nearest poultry farm present in Kulgam district. tries were filled with different waste like cow dung, leaves, Droppings plucked also were mixed with crushed powered decomposed wood, poultry droppings, pigeon dropping, wood, because they got dry when in contact with crushed and sheep dung, respectively, in different quantity as well. At powered wood and leaves as well, besides decomposed wood initial stage, mud water was sprinkled at random intervals. taken from the dense forest area. So that the medium prepared as an essential for growing earthworms and the suitable condition is very important for earthworm biology. At least 30–40 earthworms (Aporrec- 2.2. Plastic Containers. (e experiment was carried out in todea caliginosa and Eudrilus eugeniae) were introduced in plastic bins; at least six plastic containers were used. Wastes the waste present in plastic try after the predecomposition were first weighed on a digital weighing machine and then process is over to avoid unnecessary heat, which occurs put in containers. Predecomposition was done at least 15 during microbial decomposition on the mixed waste. 3 cm days before complete bacterial decomposition occurs. After thick layer of cow dung, poultry and pigeon droppings, the predecomposition process occurs, then worms were crushed wood and leaves as well of respective weight is poured on readily available waste in containers. Earthworms mentioned in Table 1. When mud water is sprinkled on this are present in local fields in Kulgam district J&K (UT) India. waste, at the initial stage Aporrectodea caliginosa (as shown Usually, 40 worms of weight 15 g were put in each container, in Figure 1) consumed less waste. When mud water is and other triplicates contained 25 Eudrilus eugeniae. sprayed, their efficiency is modified and adopted in these media efficiently. Earthworm populations were also noticed 2.3. Experimental Design. (e experiment was conducted in different replicates in mixed, only cow dung + sheep dung, using Aporrectodea caliginosa or field worm in plastic sheep dung, respectively. After all these processes were done, containers (10 cm × 20 cm × 12 cm), and waste was kept on harvesting was started on the 72nd day, and the earthworms were separated from vermimanure. (e young worms and the net in a container to avoid worm escape and placed under the shed, to prevent any interruption of pests. And cocoons were separated from different replicates using 3 mm sometimes, these containers are put in room to imitate sieves. (e vermicompost prepared by these worms contains microclimatic conditions [15, 16]. First experimental setup macro and micronutrients as well [19]. was conducted to convert waste into vermicompost; it took Sample 1 contains different waste; all parameters were 72 days to convert 2 kg cow dung, 1 kg sheep dung, 1 kg initially analyzed like temperature. pH was initially 7.6, and predecomposed crushed wood waste and leaves, and 1 kg when vermicompost was prepared, pH 7.9 was estimated. poultry droppings and setup was based on 3 replicates. But the earthworm which consumed this mixed waste was pH � 7.2 and temperature � 25–29 C were detected before Aporrectodea caliginosa (field worm); it takes extra 12 days setup. During precomposting also called thermocomposting to mitigate the mixed waste. In the case of sample 1, the effectively inactivates pathogens [17] and averts the divul- vermicompost prepared from sample 1 is used mainly for the treatment to soils. It contains all nutrients in optimum level, gence of earthworms to exalted temperatures in the course of the incipient thermophilic degree of microbial decompo- better for plant development as well. (e cow dung + S. dung consumed by Eudrilus eugeniae brought from Gwalior was sition [18]. (e experiment was conducted on the field after 15 days; predecomposition completed and then worms were introduced in Kulgam for vermicomposting purposes. (e sheep dung consumed by Aporrectodea caliginosa took less put on the corner side of plastic containers; usually 40 adult worms start consuming the upper layer of waste. (e worms than 60 days. In sample 2, exotic vermicomposting earth- brought from the field were stacked with mud; initially they worms are used to mitigate the waste less than 60 days. (e got stagnant in mud; within few weeks, their population introduction of Aporrectodea caliginosa for vermi- increases and started to consume waste. Regular watering composting mitigates all waste as well. (e best earthworms population was seen in sample 1 was carried out to maintain proper moisture content and protect containers to get rid of ants and termites as well. In with good quantity vermimanure. In sample 2, the worms introduced belong to temperate areas, so their adaptation the containers that contained mixed waste, worms con- sumed that slowly and took more time for conversion, while was changed in a cold environment, as we know most Advances in Agriculture 3 Table 1: Earthworm species consumed waste and the changes monitored during this period. No. of Waste Initial Type No. of Days to Weight of No. of adults infant consumed by pH of of waste eggs complete waste (kg) (earthworms) worms worm waste Sample 1 Mixed waste, cow dung, 40 eggs Aporrectodea sheep dung, decomposed wood, 20 72 days 7.6 5 150 recorded Caliginosa powered wood, broiler droppings, pigeon droppings, leaves Sample 2 Eudrilus 25 25 60 7.8 5 100 Cow dung, sheep dung eugeniae Sample 3 Aporrectodea 20 15 60 7.2 5 88 Sheep dung caliginosa Figure 1: Number of Aporrectodea caliginosa. suitable food for earthworms is cow dung. Little bit of the process. (e vermicompost produced had met with changes occur in vermicompost prepared from Eudrilus secretions released from the gut of earthworms; it makes eugeniae, providing room temperature to sample 2 and vermicasts more nutrient-rich. Table 3 shows the degrada- sample 3 to avoid any disfigure and experimental loss; in tion process of two earthworms and the period time taken to sample 3, worms used were Aporrectodea caliginosa. Table 2 complete the harvest of vermicompost. indicates the quality vermicompost produced have better chemical composition; the number of eggs had been 2.5. Treatment. (e experiment was conducted when quality recorded in sample 2 which contain cow dung, but the vermicompost is prepared from Aporrectodea caliginosa and temperature was below 20 C. (e earthworms in sample 2 Eudrilus eugeniae. (e seeds of mesh beans were taken from consume waste below 60 days. the Department of Agriculture Kulgam Jammu & Kashmir (e vermicompost’s chemical and physical profile in- and were sown on each replicate with vermicompost-treated dicates that it contains all ingredients in optimum amount as soil and control without vermicompost. (e vermi- shown in Table 2; besides this its density is 0.6–0.7 and no composting was done in plastic containers and sieving the odour and macronutrients in a good amount prescribed by product and then used in 18 replicates which contain 4 kg Horticulture Department of Govt. of India; besides this soil each. (is experiment was carried out on an open field; particle size is almost 88%. Normal moisture content is 18 plastic containers were used for the study. Beans need full acceptable between 50% and 60%. Total nitrogen was esti- sun and deep, rich, well-drained soil to grow them best. mated by the Kjeldahl method; other nutrients were ana- Creating the bean pod takes photosynthesis energy along lyzed by spectrophotometer: with a generous water supply; plants use approximately 1/2 Sample 1 � vermicompost (mixed waste: cow dung, inch of water each day during the blossom and pod growth sheep dung, decomposed wood, powered wood, broiler period. Figure 2 displays the normal growth of Phaseolus droppings, pigeon droppings, leaves), WHC � water-hold- vulgaris present in a container. ing capacity, and OC � organic carbon. Table 4 depicts 18 replicates utilized in the experiment on Usually in this work, whole experiment was conducted which three plastic containers were used as control while 15 by using Aporrectodea caliginosa as an experimental worm, were put to use in experiment and different proportions of consuming waste 3 cm at least 72 days while Eudrilus vermicompost, which was applied for treating the soil. (e eugeniae feed on cow dung and sheep dung as well. It took number of results was acquired when control and experi- under 60 days to mitigate 3 cm thickness waste to complete ment data have collaborated. 4 Advances in Agriculture Table 2: Chemical profile of vermicompost made by Aporrectodea caliginosa (field worm). Containers pH Moisture (%) WHC (%) OC (%) Total N (%) Total P (%) Total K (%) Sample 1 7.5 57.11 82.54 39.21 1.40 0.58 0.99 Sample 2 7.3 40.11 41.23 29.02 1.20 0.48 0.95 Sample 3 8.1 42.24 39.99 22.02 1.09 0.21 0.28 Table 3: Waste consumed by earthworms in different replicates. Amount of Earthworm Date and Container Day of harvest earthworms Amount which was completely ready (cm) species month of release released in kg Sample 1 Aporrectodea caliginosa 11/5/2020 72 days 40 adult worms 3 Sample 2 E. eugeniae 11/5/2020 Under 60 days 25 worms 3 Sample 3 Aporrectodea caliginosa 11/5/2020 72 days 40 adult worms 3 Figure 2: Phaseolus vulgaris (mesh bean plants). Table 4: Application of vermicompost used in different replicates. Containers Soil (kg) + Vcompost Vcompost (kg-g) + soil Vermi-compost + soil % of VC Control 4 kg soil 4 kg soil 4 kg soil 0 Experimental Replicate (1) Replicate (2) Replicate (3) 1st container S 4 kg + VC 2 kg S 4 kg + VC 2 kg S 4 kg + VC 2 kg 50 2nd container S 4 kg + VC 1 kg S 4 kg + VC 1 kg S 4 kg + VC 1 kg 25 3rd container S 4 kg + VC 500 g S 4 kg + VC500 g S 4 kg + VC 500 g 12.5 4th container S 4 kg + VC 250 g S 4 kg + VC 250 g S 4 kg + VC 250 g 6.25 5th container S 4 kg + VC 125 g S 4 kg + VC 125 g S 4 kg + VC 125 g 3.125 Aporrectodea caliginosa. (e amounts of nitrate in soil from 3. Statistical Analysis replicates treated with vermicompost were significantly (e data obtained from morphological parameters were greater than in soils from untreated soil. 2 kg soil is present subjected to statistical analysis. (e 1st, 2nd, and 3rd weeks’ in each replicate whether control or experiment, and ver- data of shoot length were given as average shoot length and micompost is added in each replicate in 0 kg; vermicompost standard error, standard deviation. (e differences between is added in controlled replicate and 2 kg, 1 kg, 500 g, 250 g, the experimental groups and controls were statistically and 125 g are added in experimental replicates, respectively. analyzed. (e level of significance was set at P< 0.05. Replicates treated with vermicompost of different weight had significantly more microbial biomass N than replicates treated without vermicompost shown in Table 4. (ere was a 4. Results trend for greater dehydrogenase activity to occur in soils 4.1. Effects of Vermicomposts in Soil Present in Replicates. treated with vermicomposts, compared to that in soils treated with 0% kg vermicompost. Particularly soils treated (e soil in replicates was weighed, and then the soil was treated with a different ratio of vermicompost prepared by with mixed cow manure had significantly more Advances in Agriculture 5 4.3. Measurement of Plant Growth Parameters dehydrogenase activity than soils treated with 0% vermi- compost. (e replicates treated with different quantities of 4.3.1. Length of the Shoot. (ere is a significant difference in vermicompost as shown in Table 4 like 2 kg, 1 kg, 500 g, shoot length between control and treated plants. Length of 250 g, and 125 g have a different ratio of phosphate, po- the shoot at the beginning of the 1st week and 3rd week tassium, and nitrogen as well and their effect on the plant changes, respectively, and based on total average length and also varies greatly than soils treated with 0% vermicompost. standard error, our results show 95% correctness. A con- (e 3rd replicate which contained 500 g vermicompost has siderable increase in shoot length was recorded in treated more sophisticated outcomes regarding plants’ external plants; when compared to control plants shoot length to morphology than other treatments of vermicompost. vermicompost-treated plants 50%, 25%, 12.5%, 6.25%, In a nutshell, amounts of nitrates in different replicates 3.125% was significantly higher than in control (12.45) did not vary significantly among treatments. But the rep- plants, as shown in Tables 6–8. licates treated with good quality vermicompost prepared ASL stands for average shoot length; if the average shoot from Aporrectodea caliginosa and traditional compost had length is more and the value of standard error is less, the results significantly more microbial biomass N than those replicates show normalcy. (is fits all in container 3 shown in Table 6. treated with 0 kg vermicompost. Adequate amounts of As per data obtained from second week ASL and nutrients are definitely present in replicates that have more standard error in case of control shoot length is less but quantity of vermicompost. But the reason as per Table 4 standard error is also less, 3rd container ASL is more but shows that 2 kg and 1 kg vermicompost replicates in which standard error is less; hence, our data is accurate, as shown in nutrient quantity is more, the mesh bean plants show more Table 7. ASL stands for average shoot length. growth and there is the probability of logging problem is Similarly, all results suit in 3rd container, in Table 8. associated with the plants. While the other two replicates Shoot length shows acceptable result in vermicompost contained 250 g and 125 g of vermicompost, plants show 12.5%, and external morphological and flowers, leaves are stunted growth with decreased yield as well. significantly well in containers when comparison was done. Average variability in data shows how far each score lies from the average value. 4.2. Growth and Yield. Growth and yields of Phaseolus vulgaris are significantly good in soils treated with vermi- compost compared to those soils which have 0% vermi- 4.3.2. Length of Internodes. Usually, gibberellic acid is used compost yields less. (e better outcome is obtained when to increase internodes length. Usually, intermodal length 2 kg soils was treated with 500 g vermicompost; average was seen in a plant which was treated with 50% vermi- shoot was maximum but standard error was less than rest of compost (maximum (2.88 cm), followed by 25% length treatments. (e other containers treated with different doses (2.28), but the moderate length of internodes was seen in soil of vermicompost; their average growth shoot growth is treated with 12.5% vermicompost (2.16). slightly more or less than container, but their standard error is slightly more than other treated containers as well as control. As per standard analysis of shoot length of 1st, 2nd, 4.3.3. Number of Leaves. (e number of leaves from ger- and 3rd weeks is concerned, when treated soils are compared mination stage to mature stage shows variations and dif- with each other, more value of standard error occurs, but 3rd ferent containers had a different amount of vermicompost container showed 95% accuracy in terms of shoot length, like 50%, 25%,12.5%, 6.25%, and 3.125% treated soil, number of leaves, flowers, and pod yield as well. To enhance showing a maximum number of leaves, respectively (Fig- efficient flowering because the experiment was conducted in ure 3). Definitely, the maximum number of leaves was open field, temperature was not favorable usually in autumn. present on plants treated with 2 kg vermicompost but shows To avoid this hindrance, green house is constructed under scarcity in yield. But appropriate outcomes would be ana- which all replicates were put, with the consequences of lyzed on plants treated with 500 g vermicompost, shown in efficient flowering and later pods formation occurring, re- Table 5. Other replicates such as 4th replicate treated with spectively. Soils treated with different amounts of vermi- 6.25% vermicompost leave size was normal and plant shows compost; the controlled container that was with 0% optimum growth, but results comparison like the number of vermicompost had less yield and external structure of their leaves show variation. (e minimum number of leaves was mature pods was not fit for market while those plants are recorded in control which contained no vermicompost as treated with vermicompost; mostly the 3rd container had well shown in Table 5. good yield and was fit for market. (e data are present in (e data present in Table 5 was analyzed, when climatic Table 5 during 4th week, 5th week, and 6th week; great conditions were not favorable for flowering then greenhouse variation was shown when control is compared with treated arrangement was constructed, put all 18 replicates under and containers in yield, shoot length, flowers leaves, and normal flowering and pod formation occurs, all variations branches; all these external parameters were seen in ver- can be seen in Table 5. More yields were obtained from micompost-treated soils. When treated containers are vermicompost-treated soil than control containers without compared with each other, in terms of yield that was seen in vermicompost. In between vermicompost-treated con- 3rd container, all parameters fit in containers which con- tainers, best flowering and pods formation occurs in ver- tained vermicompost 500 g. micompost-treated soil of 12.5%. 6 Advances in Agriculture Table 5: Exomorphological parameters obtained during the 4th, 5th, and 6th weeks. Total leaves Total branches Total flowers Avg. leaves Avg. branches Avg. flowers Control 80 24 108 26.66 8 36 Exp. Con. 1st 200 43 179 66.66 14.33 59.66 Con. 2nd 192 42 178 64 14 59.33 Con. 3rd 190 44 180 63.33 14.66 60 Con. 4th 160 34 159 53.33 11.33 53 th Con. 5 140 33 140 46.66 11 46.66 Table 6: (e shoot length of a plant at the first week. Containers ASL SD SE CI (95%) VC (%) Rate ger. (%) Control 3.41 1.24 0.50 1.30 0 75 Experiment 1st container 4.75 1.04 0.52 1.65 50 75 2nd container 4.4 1.47 0.65 1.83 25 75 3rd container 3.9 0.96 0.43 1.19 12.5 75 4th container 3.83 1.04 0.60 2.58 6.25 75 5th container — — — — 3.125 0 Table 7: Shoot length at the second week. Containers ASL SD SE CI (95%) Days VC (%) Control 9.53 0.97 0.28 0.61 14 0 Experiment 1st container 15.6 2.32 0.67 1.47 14 50 2nd container 12.6 1.67 0.48 1.06 14 25 3rd container 15 1.32 0.30 0.84 14 12.5 4th container 12.2 1.04 0.38 0.66 14 6.25 5th container 11.8 1.71 0.49 1.08 14 3.125 4.3.4. Maturity after Blooms. (e experimental fieldwork was conducted in September and October months where the conditions of weather is not much favorable; so to avoid this barrier, the mesh bean plants was put under greenhouse for 20 days to occurred green pods on each plant as soon as the blooms drop and grow rapidly under greenhouse. Slender pods must be ready within 9 days, while it may take 15 extra 50 or more for the pods to fill completely. Checking the pods daily insures that they do not become overgrown and toughen. Beans need full sun and deep, rich, well-drained soil to grow their best. Creating the bean pod takes pho- tosynthesis energy along with a generous water supply; plants use approximately 1/2 inch of water each day during the blossom and pod growth period. 4.3.5. Number of Branches. During the experimental period, the number of branches was increased in all the treated control c1 c2 c3 c4 c5 plants when compared to the control plants at the end of the Avg.leaves 5th week. (e maximum number of branches was recorded Avg.branches in vermicompost 50%, 25%, 12.5%, 6.25%, and 3.125% Avg.flowers (Figure 3). (e number of branches was less significant in the control plants (Figure 3). NPK percentage in vermicompost Figure 3: (e overall average morphology of Phaseolus vulgaris. Advances in Agriculture 7 Table 8: Shoot length at the 3rd week. Containers ASL SD SE CI (95%) Days VC (%) Control 12.45 1.03 0.29 0.65 21 0 Experiment 1st container 26 1.70 0.49 1.08 21 50 2nd container 24.6 1.32 0.38 0.84 21 25 3rd container 21.10 1.60 0.28 1.02 21 12.5 4th container 18.60 1.10 0.31 0.69 21 6.25 5th container 15.92 1.21 0.35 0.77 21 3.125 is seen in Table 2. (e minimum NPK percentage was growth than control which contained no vermicompost [22]. observed in the control soil samples, N (0.06), P (0.002), It was reported that the use of vermicompost obtained from and K (0.03). (e number of branches was seen in vermi- grape marc, which was cover under grapevines and spread compost-treated soils, but appropriate results were seen in with straw and paper mulches enhanced the productivity of 3rd replicate vermicompost which contained 500 g grapes variety by up to 55%. (e outcomes in the present vermicompost. endeavor are in correspondence with earlier investigations Table 5 explains external parameters of different weeks; [23]. An amplification in the acquiesce of indubitable vege- aggregated data was collected and a number of leaves, table crops such as brinjal, okra, and tomato has been flowers, and branches of control as well as treated soils, show recorded by [24], respectively. Tritium aestivum plants are variations with each other; also there occurred differences in treated with vermimanure, plants’ morphology is modified parameters among treated plants as well (Figure 3). As like the length of the plant, number of leaves, early ear statistical tool applied on shoot length shows the shoot heading, and dry matter of each plant was endowed to be modified when compared with control plants. (e appearance length is more and standard error has less value is acceptable and 5% chances of experimental inaccuracy. Similarly, the of tomato, cabbage, and radish sapling was important in parameters like leaves, flowers, and branches show moderate vermicomposted soil than in thermophilically composted outcomes in vermicompost-treated soil of 12.5%. animal waste [12]. Organic biofertilizers contain a rich Figure 3 indicates the average number of flowers, amount of nutrients which are very beneficial for plant branches, and leaves. In 3rd container (c3), all columns maintenance. (e nutrients like NPK content present in touch line 60 while c1 container shows that the number of vermicompost-treated soil were found to improve when leaves was more but the other two parameters show the compared with other compost treated soil [25]. slight decline and another factor which indicates its growth, (e byproducts of microbial activities may include vermicompost quantity is more while in case of 3rd con- polysaccharides that are involved directly in the aggregation tainer, all exomorphological characteristics are perfect and of soil particles, which could also have some influence on plant growth. It is also possible that humic acids in the vermicompost amount was moderate usually 12.5%. vermicomposts used in the experiment could also have direct positive influences on the growth and yields of the mesh 5. Discussion beans. In laboratory and greenhouse experiments by [26], definitive evidence of the positive growth effects of humic (e enlargement of mesh plants (Phaseolus vulgaris) was built to be notably increased in plants treated with vermicompost. acids, extracted from cattle manure and food waste vermi- Plants treated with 50%, 25%, 12.5%, 6.25%, and 3.125% of composts, was demonstrated. In their experiments, a range of different replicates showed increased shoot length compared doses of humic acid were extracted from vermicomposts acids to plants treated with 0% vermicompost. An investigation by classic acid/alkali fractionation [27] and applied to tomato conducted by [20] proclaimed the advantages of vermi- and cucumber seedlings grown in a soil-less medium. compost as cover media to boost seed germination, seedling References [28, 29] concluded that the growth responses were due either to the ability of humic acids to have hor- growth, and productivity of plants. To add organic waste to the soil in the form of vermicompost and vermiwash increases mone-like effects on plant growth or because the humic acids may have plant growth, regulators adsorbed onto the yield and growth of plants. (e experiment was conducted at an open place; both the waste of cassava peel and guava them, and that these influenced the growth. (eir hypothesis was confirmed by an investigation by [29], which identified leaves were mixed or vermicompost prepared from poultry droppings. Mba (1983) noted more shoot biomass and auxin groups incorporated in humic acids that had been marked up seed yields of cowpeas in rejoinder to vermi- extracted from cattle manure vermicompost. (e effects of compost [21]. Examined straight uses of vermicomposts, humic acid applications to maize plants resulted in increased created from sewage sludge to soils and noted a larger growth growth of the maize roots and stem which they attributed to index of garden cress (Lepidium sativum), in vermicompost- the humic/auxin combination. It seems likely that humic treated soils, compared with those soils where no use of acids produced in the vermicomposts used in our experi- ment might have also increased growth and yields of mesh vermicompost occurred. (e present study deals with soil treated 50%, 25%, 12.5%, 6.25%, and 3.125% showing good beans (Phaseolus vulgaris). 8 Advances in Agriculture 6. Conclusions References [1] J. C. Savingy, “Memoire sur les,” in Analyse des travaux de (e results of this study showed that 12.5% or 500 g ver- I’Academia royale des sciences pendent I’ anee 1821,partie micompost-treated showed great potential to increase the physique, M. Cuvier and G. Baron, Eds., Mem., Acad., Sci., growth of the bean plant and improved soil quality. (e Inst., Fr., (HIST.), France, 1826. study positively highlights the importance of organic [2] J. P. McDaniel, M. E. Stromberger, K. A. Barbarick, and farming; therefore, vermicompost may be put to good use as W. Cranshaw, “Survival of Aporrectodea caliginosa and its a natural fertilizer for cereals and vegetable crops for in- effects on nutrient availability in biosolids amended soil,” creased production and for sustainable agricultural systems. Applied Soil Ecology, vol. 71, pp. 1–6, 2013. (e NPK was more in vermicompost-treated soils and hence [3] H. G. Baker and W. A. Whitby, “Soil pH preferences and the made soil healthy. 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Advances in AgricultureHindawi Publishing Corporation

Published: Sep 1, 2021

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