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Hindawi Publishing Corporation Journal of Oncology Volume 2010, Article ID 214186, 18 pages doi:10.1155/2010/214186 Review Article N. Sithranga Boopathy and K. Kathiresan Center of Advanced Study in Marine Biology, Faculty of Marine Sciences, Annamalai University, Parangipettai 608 502, Tamil Nadu, India Correspondence should be addressed to K. Kathiresan, kathirsum@rediﬀmail.com Received 30 August 2010; Accepted 29 November 2010 Academic Editor: Dominic Fan Copyright © 2010 N. Sithranga Boopathy and K. Kathiresan. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Marine ﬂoras, such as bacteria, actinobacteria, cyanobacteria, fungi, microalgae, seaweeds, mangroves, and other halophytes are extremely important oceanic resources, constituting over 90% of the oceanic biomass. They are taxonomically diverse, largely productive, biologically active, and chemically unique oﬀering a great scope for discovery of new anticancer drugs. The marine ﬂoras are rich in medicinally potent chemicals predominantly belonging to polyphenols and sulphated polysaccharides. The chemicals have displayed an array of pharmacological properties especially antioxidant, immunostimulatory, and antitumour activities. The phytochemicals possibly activate macrophages, induce apoptosis, and prevent oxidative damage of DNA, thereby controlling carcinogenesis. In spite of vast resources enriched with chemicals, the marine ﬂoras are largely unexplored for anticancer lead compounds. Hence, this paper reviews the works so far conducted on this aspect with a view to provide a baseline information for promoting the marine ﬂora-based anticancer research in the present context of increasing cancer incidence, deprived of the cheaper, safer, and potent medicines to challenge the dreadful human disease. 1. Introduction the prevention and treatment of cancer appeared in the last three decades, and the interest on natural sources of potential Cancer is a dreadful human disease, increasing with changing chemotherapeutic agents is continuing. life style, nutrition, and global warming. Cancer treatments Antioxidants play an important role in the later stages do not have potent medicine as the currently available drugs of cancer development. There is increasing evidence that are causing side eﬀects in some instances. In this context, oxidative processes promote carcinogenesis, although the the natural products derived from medicinal plants have mechanisms for this are not well understood. The antiox- gained signiﬁcance in the treatment of cancer. According to idants may be able to cause the regression of premalig- the WHO, 80% of the world’s population primarily those nant lesions and inhibit their development into cancer. of developing countries rely on plant-derived medicines for Preliminary studies have indicated that some antioxidants, the health care . Natural products and their derivatives particularly β-carotene, may be of beneﬁt in the treatment represent more than 50% of all the drugs in clinical use of precancerous conditions such as oral leukoplakia, possibly of the world. Higher plants contribute not less than 25% a precursor of oral cancer . Several herbs and spices of the total. Almost 60% of drugs approved for cancer including rosemary, sage, thyme, nutmeg, turmeric, white treatment are of natural origin. Fruits and vegetables are pepper, chilli, pepper, ginger, and plenty of other medicinal the principal sources of vitamins C, B, E, carotenoids, and plants are reportedly exhibiting antioxidant activity [5–7]. ﬁbers, and these contribute to the apparent cancer-protective Majority of the active antioxidant compounds are ﬂavon- eﬀects of the foods. There is a positive correlation between oids, isoﬂavones, ﬂavones, anthocyanins, coumarins, lignans, the increased dietary intake of natural antioxidants and the catechins, and isocatechins. In addition to these, vitamins reduced coronary heart diseases, cancer mortality, as well as Cand E, β-carotene, and α-tocopherol present in natural longer life expectancy [2, 3]. Herbal drug formulations for foods, are known to possess antioxidant potential [8–10]. 2 Journal of Oncology Thus, potential antioxidant and anticancer properties of entities with unique biological activities that may be useful plant extracts or isolated products of plant origin can in ﬁnding the potential drugs with greater eﬃcacy and speciﬁcity for the treatment of human diseases . It cannot possibly be explored for developing the anticancer drugs . be denied that with 3.5 billion years of existence on earth and experience in biosynthesis, the marine microﬂoras remain From the past few decades, there has been an upsurge nature’s best source of chemicals. The marine organisms in the search for new plant-derived drugs. This process has produce novel chemicals to withstand extreme variations in facilitated to produce remarkably a diverse array of over pressure, salinity, temperature, and so forth, prevailing in 1,39,000 natural products, containing medicinally useful their environment, and the chemicals produced are unique terpenoid derivatives, alkaloids, glycosides, polyphenolics, in diversity, structural, and functional features . steroids, and so forth. The National Cancer Institute (NCI) The eﬀorts to extract drugs from the sea started in of the United States of America (USA) has screened about the late 1960s. However, the systematic investigation began 1,14,000 extracts from an estimated 35,000 plant samples in the mid-1970s. During the decade from 1977 to 1987, against a number of tumor systems . Of the 92 anti- about 2500 new metabolites were reported from a variety of cancer drugs commercially available prior to 1983 in the USA marine organisms. These studies have clearly demonstrated and approved world-wide between 1983 and 1994, approx- that the marine environment is an excellent source of novel imately 62% can be related to natural origin . Some chemicals, not found in terrestrial sources. So far, more examples include vinblastine and vincristine (Catharanthus than 10,000 compounds have been isolated from marine roseus), epipodophyllotoxin, an isomer of podophyllotoxin organisms with hundreds of new compounds are still being (Podophyllum peltatum roots), paclitaxel (Taxus baccata, discovered every year. About 300 patents on bioactive marine T. brevifolia, T. canadensis), camptothecin (Camptotheca natural products were issued between 1969 and 1999 . acuminata), homoharringtonine (Cephalotaxus harringtonia Some marine organisms are proved to be the potent sources var. drupacea), elliptinium (Bleekeria vitensis), ﬂavopiri- of drugs. These are mostly invertebrates that include sponges, dol (Dysoxylum binectariferum), and ipomeanol (Ipomoea soft corals, sea fans, sea hares, nudibranchs, bryozoans, and batatas). The two plant-derived natural products, paclitaxel tunicates. It is now believed that microbial ﬂoras present and camptothecin were estimated to account for nearly one- in the invertebrates are responsible for the production of third of the global anticancer market, respectively to the tune medicinal compounds. The search is mostly conﬁned to of about $3 and $9 billion, in the year 2002 . marine faunal species, and ﬂoral species are largely ignored. Numerous types of bioactive compounds have been Some of the compounds derived from marine organisms isolated from plant sources. Several of them are currently have antioxidant property and anticancer activities, but they in clinical trials or preclinical trials or undergoing fur- are largely unexplored. ther investigation. Although marine compounds are under- Marine ﬂoras have been used for medicinal purposes in represented in current pharmacopoeia, it is anticipated that India, China, the Near East and Europe, since ancient times. the marine environment will become an invaluable source The people of China and Japan have been using seaweeds of novel compounds in the future, as it represents 95% of for consumption. The seaweeds especially brown seaweeds the biosphere . However, development of marine ﬂoral are rich in iodine and hence there is a least incidence of compounds as therapeutic agents is still in its embryonic goiter and glandular diseases. History reveals that maritime stage due to lack of an analogous ethno-medical history as countries have been using seaweeds as vermifuge, anesthetics compared to terrestrial habitats, together with the relative and ointment as well as for the treatment of cough, wounds, technical diﬃculties in collecting the marine ﬂoral samples. gout, goiter, venereal disease, and so forth. Sterols and related Over the last few decades, signiﬁcant eﬀorts have been compounds present in seaweeds have ability to lower blood made, by both pharmaceutical companies and academic plasma cholesterol level. Seaweed dietary ﬁbers perform institutions, to isolate and identify new marine-derived, varied range of functions such as antioxidant, antimutagenic, natural products especially from faunal species. However, anticoagulant, and antitumor. The seaweeds also play an the marine ﬂoras are only little unexplored and these works important role in modiﬁcation of lipid metabolism in the arereviewed hereas a baseline data for promoting further human body. High intake of calcium, potassium, and sodium research in this ﬁeld. is associated with lower mean systolic pressure and lower risk of hypertension. All seaweeds oﬀer an extraordinary level of potassium that is very similar to our natural plasma 2. Uniqueness of Marine Floral Drugs level. Seaweed extract is interestingly similar to human blood Marine ﬂoras include microﬂora (bacteria, actinobacteria, plasma. Two Japanese surgeons have used a novel technique cyanobacteria and fungi), microalgae, macroalgae (sea- of mixing seaweed compounds with water to substitute weeds), and ﬂowering plants (mangroves and other halo- whole blood in transfusion and this has been successfully phytes). Occupying almost 71% of globe, the ocean is rich tried in over 100 operations . in biodiversity, and the microﬂora and microalgae alone Although, the use of seaweeds in medicine is not as constitute more than 90% of oceanic biomass . This vast wide spread as once it was, the use of seaweed polymer marine ﬂoral resource will oﬀer a great scope for discovery of extract in pharmacy, medicine, and biochemistry is well new drugs. It is increasingly recognized that ocean contains established. Clinical trials are also in progress to make a huge number of natural products and novel chemical diabetic patients free from injection by introducing insulin Journal of Oncology 3 secreting “jelly capsule” made of seaweed-derived alginic acid and related bioactive compounds. However, marine actino- . The capsule renders protection to white blood cells and mycetes received only very recent attention. Gutingimycin the patient’s immune system. Seaweed gums like carrageenan is a highly polar trioxacarcin derivative from Streptomyces (extracted from red seaweed) or algin (from brown seaweed) species, isolated from sediment of the Laguna de Terminos, are rich sources of soluble ﬁbers . Gulf of Mexico . The same Streptomyces species also yields trioxacarcins D–F, in addition to the known trioxacar- cins A–C . Among the antibiotic-producing microbes, 3. Anticancer Agents from Marine Floras marine actinomycetes within the family Micromonospora- ceae are very promising. These microbes are found to be a 3.1. Bacteria. Marine microorganisms are a source of new potent sources of anticancer agents that target proteasome genes, and exploitation of which is likely to lead to the function and their industrial potential is validated by several discovery of new drugs and targets. Secondary metabolites pharmaceuticals. produced by marine bacteria have yielded pharmaceutical Thiocoraline is a novel bioactive depsipeptide isolated products such as novel anti-inﬂammatory agents (e.g., pseu- from Micromonospora marina, a marine microorganism dopterosins, topsentins, scytonemin, and manoalide), anti- located in the Mozambique Strait that inhibits RNA syn- cancer agents (e.g., bryostatins, discodermolide, eleuther- thesis. The bioactive compound is also selectively cytotoxic obin, and sarcodictyin), and antibiotics (e.g., marinone). The contribution of probiotic bacteria, such as lactobacilli against lung and colon cancer cell lines as well as melanoma. Interestingly, the compound exerts preferential antiprolif- and biﬁdobacteria, is mainly in the control of pathogenic microbes, through production of antibacterial protein erative eﬀects in colon cancer cell lines with defective p53 namely, bacteriocin [20, 21] and anticancer substances systems . Thiocoraline represents a model of an an- . The dietary supplements of lactobacilli are reportedly ticancer agent acquired from marine microorganisms and decreasing the induction of experimental colon cancer . illustrates how the problems of drug supply can be overcome They stimulate and modulate the mucosal immune system by artiﬁcial culture. by reducing the production of proinﬂammatory cytokines through actions on NFκB pathways, increasing production of 3.3. Marine Fungi. A rich proﬁle of biologically active anti-inﬂammatory cytokines such as IL-10 and host defense metabolites is described from ﬁlamentous fungi of terres- peptides such as β-defensin 2, enhancing IgA defenses and trial origin, especially from just three genera: Penicillium, inﬂuencing dendritic cell maturation as well as modulation Aspergillus, and Fusarium . However, the marine fungi of cell proliferation and apoptosis through cell responses to are least studied than terrestrial counterparts and other short chain fatty acids . ecological groups. Obligate marine fungi are still an unex- Most of the marine animal phyla produce toxins and plored resource, although, marine facultative fungi, have some studies show that these marine toxins may be produced been studied due to their production of new metabolites by marine bacteria associated the animals [25–27]. The which are not found in terrestrial fungi. Recently more microbial toxins are useful in neurophysiological and neu- interest has been generated on studying biologically active ropharmacological studies. For example, bacteria present in metabolites from higher fungi (Basidiomycetes), endophytic Noctiluca scintillans are responsible for causing red tides. The fungi and ﬁlamentous fungi from marine habitats, the major metabolite, macrolactin-A, inhibits B16-F10 murine symbiotic lichens. melanoma cancer cells, mammalian herpes simplex virus In one study, the lignicolous fungus Leptosphaeria or- (HSV) (types I and II), and protects T lymphocytes against aemaris (Pleosporaceae) yielded leptosphaerin [33, 34]. A human immunodeﬁciency virus (HIV) replication . further study of the same fungal species yielded none Kahalalide F (KF) is a depsipeptide isolated from the of the previously found metabolites, but the polyketides, mollusk Elysia rubefescens from Hawaii and the compound leptosphaerolide, its o-dihydroquinone derivative, and lep- is believed to be synthesized by microbes associated with the tosphaerodione . This leads to a conclusion that the pro- animal. KF induces cytotoxicity and blocks the cell cycle in duction of secondary metabolites might be highly dependent G1 phase in a p53-independent manner. In vitro,KF displays on the culture conditions and the origin of the strains. To activity against solid tumors with an interesting pattern of produce these metabolites and to maximize the potential selectivity in prostate cancer cell lines. In addition, extensive chemical diversity, they need to be grown in various nutrient- in vivo work demonstrates that the agent has activity in breast limited media. For example, media for Penicillium spp. that and colon cancers. are deﬁcient in carbon can produce penicillins, those that are phosphorus-limited can produce cephalosphorins and Only a few marine bacteria can be isolated under vancomycin, and those that are nitrogen-limited can produce laboratory conditions and there is an urgent need to develop carbapenems . new culture techniques to isolate slow-growing bacteria and also to isolate the bacteria that are unique in production of Marine-derived fungi are known to be a source of antiox- novel natural products . idative natural products: (i) Acremonin A from Acremonium sp.  and (ii) Xanthone derivative from Wardomyces 3.2. Actinomycetes. For more than 50 years, the soil-derived anomalus . Reactions of free radicals, such as super-oxide actinomycetes of terrestrial origin have provided a major radical, hydroxyl radical, peroxyl radical and other reactive pharmaceutical resource for the discovery of antibiotics oxygen and nitrogen are associated with diseases such as 4 Journal of Oncology atherosclerosis, dementia, and cancer. Antioxidants delay or colorectal adenocarcinoma (KB) cell lines . Borophycin prevent oxidative damage and thus they may be useful as is related both to the boron containing boromycins isolated therapeutics or food additives. from a terrestrial strain of Streptomyces antibioticus and to the aplasmomycins isolated from a marine strain of Strepetomyces griseus (actinomycetes) . 3.4. Micro Algae. Marine blue-green algae (Cyanobacteria) are considered to be one of the potential organisms which Cryptophycin 1 was ﬁrst isolated from Nostoc sp. ATCC can be the richest sources of known and novel bioactive 53789 by researchers at Merck and found to be a potent compounds including toxins with potential for pharmaceu- fungicide. As it was highly toxic, it was disregarded as a tical applications [39, 40]. Some of the marine cyanobacteria natural product lead. Subsequently, the same compound iso- appear to be potential sources for large-scale production of lated from Nostoc sp. GSV 224 exhibited potent cytotoxicity vitamins (B complex, E) of commercial interest. Scytonemin against human tumor cell lines and good activity against a is a protein serine/threonine kinase inhibitor , isolated broad spectrum of drug sensitive and drug-resistant murine from the cyanobacterium Stigonema sp. and this compound and human solid tumors . Nevertheless, cryptophycin 1 is a yellow-green ultraviolet sunscreen pigment, known to again appears to be too toxic to become a clinical candidate. be present in the extracellular sheaths of diﬀerent genera This leads to a detailed structure-function study which has of aquatic and terrestrial blue-green algae. Scytonemin resulted in the isolation of cryptophycin 8, a semisynthetic regulates mitotic spindle formation as well as enzyme kinases analogue with greater therapeutic eﬃciency and lower involved in cell cycle control and the compound also inhibits toxicity than cryptophycin 14 in vivo . Although neither proliferation of human ﬁbroblasts and endothelial cells. Thus cryptophycin, nor any of its analogues have entered clinical scytonemin may provide an excellent drug as protein kinase trails to-date, but interest in these compounds continues. inhibitors to have antiproliferative and anti-inﬂammatory activities . 3.5. Macro Algae (Seaweed). Seaweeds are important sources More than 50% of the marine cyanobacteria are poten- of protein, iodine, vitamins, and minerals and hence, their tially exploitable for extracting bioactive substances which metabolites have shown promising activities against cancer are eﬀective in either killing the cancer cells by inducing incidences . The seaweeds also contain high amounts apoptotic death, or aﬀecting the cell signaling through of polyphenols such as catechin, epicatechin, epigallocate- activation of the members of protein kinase-c family of chin gallate, and gallic acid, as reported in Halimeda sp. signaling enzymes. The cell extracts of Calothrix isolates (Chlorophyceae) . In the past three decades, many inhibit the growth in vitro of a chloroquine-resistant strain of researchers have worked on the antioxidant, antitumor, the malarial parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, and of human and immunomodulating activities of seaweeds . Edible HeLa cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner . Bioassay seaweed like Palmaria palmate is shown to be eﬀective antiox- directed fractions of the extracts have led to their isolation idant, capable of inhibiting cancer cell proliferation . and structural characterization of Calothrixin A (I) and B The alcoholic extract of the red alga Acanthophora spicifera (II), pentacyclic metabolites with an indole [3, 2 – j] phenan- exhibits tumoricidal activity on Ehrlich’s ascites carcinoma thridine alkaloids which exert their growth inhibitory eﬀects cells developed in mice at a dose of 20 mg/kg, comparable at nanomolar concentrations . Another compound, to the standard drug, 5-ﬂurouracil. This is evidenced by Curacin-A, isolated from the organic extracts of Curacao increase in the mean survival time, decrease in tumor collections of Lyngbya majuscula is an exceptionally potent volume, and viable cell count. The smear study exhibits antiproliferative agent as it inhibits the polymerization of the membrane blebbing, vacuole formation, and reduction in tubulin and it also displays the inhibitory activity selectively staining intensity, which further ascertains the tumoricidal on colon, renal, and breast cancer-derived cell lines . activity. The seaweeds Acanthaphora spicifera, Ulva reticulata, Largazole is unique chemical scaﬀold with impressive Gracilaria foliifera, and Padina boergesenii of the Gulf of antiproliferative activity derived from Symploca sp. . The Mannar region are reportedly exhibiting cytotoxic activity in apratoxins are another class of cyanobacterial compounds their alcoholic extracts [56, 57]. that inhibit a variety of cancer cell lines at nanomolar con- Algae have gained special interest owing to their biologi- centrations. The parental compound, apratoxin A, isolated cal properties. There are many reports on the immunomod- from a strain of Lyngbya boulloni shows cytotoxicity to an ulating and antitumor activities of algae [54, 58–71]. An adenocarcinoma . The coibamide A is a compound extract from the brown seaweed Sargassum thunbergii has derived from a strain of Leptolyngbya , and it exhibits shown antitumour activity  and inhibition of tumour signiﬁcant cytotoxicity against NCIH460 lung and mouse metastasis in the rat mammary adeno carcinoma cell (13762 neuro-2a cells. The cytotoxicity is a common mechanism of MAT) . Moreover, low-molecular weight fucoidan iso- action for many cyanobacterial compounds . lated from Ascophyllum nodosum shows an anti-proliferative In recent times, the most signiﬁcant discoveries are of eﬀect on both normal and malignant cells, including borophycin, cryptophycin 1 & 8, and cyanovirin. Borophycin ﬁbroblasts (Hamster Kidney Fibroblast CCL39), sigmoid is a boron-containing metabolite, isolated from marine colon adenocarcinoma cells (COLO320 DM), and smooth cyanobacterial strains of Nostoc linckia and N. spongiaeforme muscle cells . Fucoidans exhibit antitumour, anticancer, var. tenue . The compound exhibits potent cytotoxicity antimetastatic, and ﬁbrinolytic properties in mice [73, 75]. against human epidermoid carcinoma (LoVo) and human Stylopoldione, isolated from Stypodium sp. is a potent Journal of Oncology 5 cytotoxic metabolite, which halts mitotic spindle formation 4. Chemical Constituents of Marine Flora . The compound Condriamide-A from Chondria sp. Marine ﬂoras are rich in biologically active and medic- exhibits cytotoxicity towards human nasopharyngeal and inally potent chemicals. Polyphenols and polysaccharides colorectal cancer cells . Caulerpenyne from Caulerpa sp. are the most predominant group of compounds which are shows its bioactivity against human cell lines and to have applicable for antioxidant and anticancer activities. There anticancer, antitumour, and antiproliferating properties. are more than 40,000 diﬀerent species of phytoplankton, Two compounds, meroterpenes and usneoidone, showing 680 species of marine algae belonging to Rhodophyta, antitumour properties have been isolated from Cystophora Phaeophyta, Chlorophyta commonly known as red, brown, sp. [78–81] Phloroglucinol and its polymers, namely, eckol and green seaweeds, respectively, and 71 mangrove plant (a trimer), phlorofucofuroeckol A (a pentamer), dieckol, and species have been documented in the global marine biotope. 8,8 -bieckol (hexamers) isolated from the brown alga Eisenia They provide essential fatty acids, ionic trace minerals, bicyclis are shown to have antioxidant activity [82, 83]. vitamins, enzymes, bioﬂavonoids, amino acids, and other The brown alga Eclonia cava has been hydrolyzed by nutrients. using ﬁve diﬀerent types of carbohydrases such as AMG, Celluclast, Termamyl, Ultraﬂo, and Viscozyme to produce 4.1. Polyphenols. Polyphenols are widely distributed in enzymatic extracts and proved them to be potential natural plants and they are reportedly acting as free radical water-soluble antioxidants with dose dependent radical scavengers, antimicrobial and anticancer agents [99, 100]. scavenging activities . Further studies have shown that a Marine plants such as seaweeds, sea grass, and mangroves sulfated polysaccharide puriﬁed from the same algal species also contain high amounts of polyphenols such as phenolic selectively and dose-dependently suppresses the proliferation acids, ﬂavonoids, anthocyanidins, lignin, tannins, catechin, of the cancer cell lines in vitro . The polysaccharide epicatechin, epigallocatechin, and gallic acid [53, 101]. is composed of fucose (82%), galactose (14%), and small These polyphenolic compounds have shown many health- amounts of xylose and mannose. Its high anticoagulant activ- beneﬁting bioactivities, such as antioxidant, anticancer, ity has also been investigated for its antiproliferative eﬀect on antiviral, anti-inﬂammatory, and an ability to inhibit human murine colon carcinoma (CT-26), human leukemic mono- platelet aggregation [102–104]. Some studies have shown cyte lymphoma (U-937), human promyelocytic leukemia a positive correlation between the increased dietary intake (HL-60), and mouse melanoma (B-16) cell lines. The growth of natural antioxidants and the reduced coronary heart inhibition rate of CT-26 cells increases consistently with the disease, cancer mortality, as well as longer life expectancy sample concentration, in which the highest activity (around −1 [2, 3]. Moreover, they are natural metal chelators with 40%) is recorded at 100 μgmL sample . The apoptosis high antioxidant activity that may be successfully used induction is conﬁrmed by the cell cycle analysis, while to prevent a variety of toxic metal ion-induced organ pronounced sub-G1 phase arrests of 9.5% and 13.8% are dysfunctions . Earlier reports suggest that polyphe- also clearly observed when the cells are treated at 15 and −1 nols may regenerate α-tocopherol through reduction of 30 μgmL of the sulphated polysaccharides in the U-937 the α-tocopheroxyl radical . A close association be- cell line. The compound dose dependently enhances the tween anticarcinogenic activity and antioxidant activity DNA fragmentation on the U-937 cell line as observed after 24-h incubation. The western blot analyses conducted with has been reported in a chemically induced mouse carci- several antibodies such as caspase-7, caspase-8, Bax, Bcl-xL, noma system with low-molecular weight polyphenols [107– and PARP and ECSP have exhibited a clear eﬀect on the 110]. caspase-7 and -8 which cleave protein substrates, including Themarinered algaelike Osmundea pinnatiﬁda has PARP, an inducer of apoptosis responsible for DNA cleavage been documented for its antimicrobial, antifungal, anti- . leishmanial, and antioxidant [111–114] activities. Scutel- larein 4 -methyl ether (Figure 1(a)) has antiallergic , 3.6. Mangroves and Other Higher Plants. Mangroves have anticancer and anticytotoxic activities in vitro and in vivo long been used in ﬁsher-folk medicine to treat diseases . [96, 97]. Sixteen plants are the possible source of anticancer Terrestrial and marine polyphenols are similar in some drugs, based on traditional knowledge and preliminary respects, but diﬀerent fundamentally in their chemical scientiﬁc work (Table 1). A sulphur containing alkaloid, structures. Terrestrial polyphenols are polymers based on 1,2-dithiolane (Brugine) isolated form Bruguiera sexan- ﬂavonoids or gallic acids. Marine algal polyphenols, phloro- gula displays antitumor activity against Sarcoma 180 and tannins, which are only known in brown algae, are restricted Lewis. Tannin from the same plant also exhibits anticancer to polymers of phloroglucinol (1,3,5-trihydroxybenzene) activity against lung carcinoma. A ribose derivative of 2- . Six phlorotannins have been detected by HPLC Benzoxazoline isolated from Acanthus ilicifolius shows anti- analysis in the brown seaweeds, Eisenia bicyclis and Eclonia cancer and antiviral activities . Tea from the mangrove kurome, and they are phloroglucinol (0.7%), an unknown plant Ceriops decandra is shown to successfully prevent the phloroglucinol tetramer (MW 478, 3.4%), eckol (7.5%), dimethyl benz[a]anthracine-induced hamster buccal pouch phlorofucofuroeckol A (21.6%), dieckol (21.9%), 8,8 - carcinogenesis; consequently it enhances beneﬁcial bacteria bieckol (24.0%), and other unknown compounds (20.9%), like lactobacilli in oral cavity of the animals . in E. bicyclis, and these compounds are also present in 6 Journal of Oncology Table 1: Some of the marine ﬂoral derivatives and their anticancer activities. Marine ﬂora Chemical Biological activity Reference Microbial ﬂora Microcystis aeruginosa MicroviridinToxin BE-4, Siatoxin Antibiotic, anticancer [84, 85] Anticancer activities on acute myeloid leukemia and Streptomyces peucetius Daunorubicin  acute lymphocytic leukemia Algal ﬂora Cyanobacteria Nostoc linckia and Nostoc Cytotoxicity against human epidermoid carcinoma Borophycin  spongiaeforme var. (LoVo) and human colorectal adenocarcinoma activity tenue Cyanobacteria Apratoxins Inhibit a variety of cancer cell lines  Cytotoxicity against human tumor cell lines and hu- Nostoc linckia Cyptophycin 1  man solid tumors Greater therapeutic eﬃciency and lower toxicity than Nostoc spongiaeforme Cryptophycin 8  cryptophycin 14 in vivo Stylopodium sp. Stypoldione Cytotoxic  Chondria sp. Condriamide A Cytotoxicity  Cytotoxicity, anticancer, antitumour, and antiprolifer- Caulerpa sp. Caulerpenyne [78–80] ating activity Cystophora sp. Meroterpenes and Usneoidone Antitumour  Symploca sp. Largazole Antiproliferative activity  Lyngbya boulloni apratoxin A Cytotoxicity to adenocarcinoma  Cytotoxicity against NCIH460 lung and mouse neuro- Leptolyngbya sp. coibamide A  2a cells Stigonema sp. Scytonemin Antiproliferative and anti-inﬂammatory activities  Tumoricidal activity on Ehrlich’s ascites carcinoma Acanthophora spicifera Crude [56, 57] cells developed in mice Acanthophora spicifera Crude Antioxidants and inhibiting cancer cell proliferation [56, 57] Phloroglucinol and its polymers, namely, eckol (a trimer), phlorofucofuroeckol A Palmaria palmata Antioxidant activity of the phlorotannins  (a pentamer), dieckol, and 8,8 -bieckol (hexamers) Phloroglucinol and its polymers, namely eckol (a trimer), phlorofucofuroeckol A Eisenia bicyclis Antioxidant activity of the phlorotannins [82, 83] (a pentamer), dieckol, and 8,8 -bieckol (hexamers) Antitumour activity, inhibition of tumour metastasis Sargassum thunbergii Crude [72, 73] in rat mammary adeno carcinoma cell (13762 MAT) Antiproliferative antitumour, anticancer, antimetastat- Ascophyllum nodosum Fucoidan [74, 75] ic, and ﬁbrinolytic Mangroves and other coastal plants Ceriops decandra Lignins Antioxidant  Ceriops decandra Mangrove tea Anticancer  Acanthus ilicifolius Ribose derivatives of benzoxazoline Anticancer [89, 90] Calophyllum Xanthone, biﬂavonoids, benzophenones, Anticancer, antitumour, and lipid peroxidation [91, 92] inophyllum neoﬂavanoids, and coumarin derivatives Diterpenes exhibited remarkable antitu- Antitumour activity of methanolic extract based on Excoecaria agallocha mour promoting activity in vivo on two- three assays: (i) DPPH radical scavenging, (ii) linoleic  stage carcinogenesis test of tumour acid oxidation assay, and (iii) oxidative cell death assay Journal of Oncology 7 CH HO HO OH HO OH O OH (a) Flavones (Scutellarein 4 -methyl (b) Phloroglucinal ether) HO OH OH OH HO OH OH OH OH HO OH OH HO OH OH (c) Ecol (d) Phlorofucofuroecol A HO OH OH OH HO OH HO OH OH OH OH OH OH OH HO OH O OH HO O HO OH OH HO OH (e) Diecol (f) 8,8 -Biecol Figure 1: Anticancer polyphenolic compounds from marine ﬂoras. E. kurome, respectively, at concentrations of 2.2, 0.6, 8.5, maximal inhibition (IC ) values of crude phlorotannins 27.6, 23.6, 6.8, and 31.7% (Figures 2(b), 2(c), 2(d), 2(e), of E. bicyclis and E. kurome, two terrestrial polyphenols and 2(f)). The crude phlorotannins extracted from brown (catechin, EGCG), inhibit four times stronger than that by algae have inhibitory eﬀects on HAase . The half an anti-allergic drug (DSCG) . 8 Journal of Oncology H C –O SOH C 3 2 –OOC H C HO O O O O O OSO – HO HO NHSO – OSO – OSO – –O SO n n (a) Fucoidan (b) Heparin/Heparan HOH C HO HO –OOC –O SO O O NHCOCH –O SO OSO – –O SO 3 OSO – 3 3 3 HO OH n n (c) Pentosan polysulphate (d) Chondroitin 4 sulphate –O SOH C 3 2 –OOC HO N N N NH NHCOCH NH HO O 2 OH n LO A LO B (e) Chondroitin 6 sulphate (f) (g) Figure 2: Anticancer polysaccharides from marine ﬂoras. Edible seaweeds contain a range of potentially bioactive division during mitosis at the telophase stage. Phenolics components including polyphenols and phlorotannins [120– reduce the amount of cellular protein and mitotic index, and 123]. Edible seaweed like Palmaria palmate is shown to be the colony formation during cell proliferation of cancer cells an eﬀective antioxidant, capable of inhibiting cancer cell . Several studies exhibit a close relationship between proliferation . The enzymatic hydrolysis of the brown antioxidant activities and total phenolic content [127–129]. seaweed Ecklonia cava yields high amount of compounds Use of phytosubstances to improve or enhance their with enhanced biological activities as compared with water eﬀects with safety in foods is signiﬁcantly focused in daily and organic extract counterparts . Phloroglucinol and its food. The activities of diverse constituents vary in their polymers, namely, eckol (a trimer), phlorofucofuroeckol A ability by quenching eﬀects against active free radical oxygen (a pentamer), dieckol, and 8,8 -bieckol (hexamers) isolated by carotenes and cryptoxanthins, and polyphenols and from Eisenia bicyclis, have a potential antioxidant activity ﬂavonoids, by inhibition of absorption into small intestine . The phlorotannins isolated from Ecklonia kurome act by dietary ﬁbres, or by regulation on eﬄux and inﬂux of ions as antiplasmin inhibitor; however, other bioactivities of in cell membranes by minerals to inhibit tumors [130–132]. phlorotannins, from a human physiological viewpoint, are The uses of saponins are natural detergents, well known still obscure . to primitive people as ﬁsh poisons. The interesting phar- Polyphenolic compounds inhibit cancer cells by xenobi- macological properties associated with the Chinese drug otic metabolizing enzymes that alter metabolic activation of “giwieng” are considered a panacea and other interesting potential carcinogens, while some ﬂavonoids can also alter biological activities such as spermicidal , molluscicidal hormone production and inhibit aromatase to prevent the , antimicrobial, anti-inﬂammatory, and cytotoxic activ- development of cancer cells . The mechanism of action ities . Avicennia oﬃcinalis produces pharmacologically of anticancer activity of phenolics is by disturbing the cellular signiﬁcant steroidal saponins, sapogenisis, and sapogenins. Journal of Oncology 9 Liomonds (modiﬁed terpenes) have attracted much atten- diverse biological properties, ranging from relatively simple tion recently because of their remarkable insect antifeedent mechanical support functions to more intricate eﬀects on cellular processes  and binding proteins such as adhe- and growth-regulating activities . There are many types of ﬂavonoids such as ﬂavones, catechins, chalcones, ﬂavanols sion proteins , growth factors , cytokines , and a variety of enzymes, including coagulation proteases and isoﬂavonoids which exhibit antioxidant activity towards . As a result, they can participate like glycosaminogly- a variety of oxidizable compounds . cans (GAGs) in cell adhesion, migration, proliferation, and diﬀerentiation. They can also modulate clinically relevant 4.2. Polysaccharides. Over the last few years, medical and phenomena such as angiogenesis, tumor metastasis, and pharmaceutical industries have shown an increased inter- atherosclerosis . For the past decade, fucoidans isolated est in seaweed-derived polysaccharides. Polysaccharides or from diﬀerent species have been extensively studied due glycans are a group of major chemical compounds with to their varied biological activities, including anticoagulant, the most common constituents of monosaccharide like antithrombotic, antivirus, antitumor, immunomodulatory, D-glucose, but D-fructose, D-galactose, L-galactose, D- anti-inﬂammatory, blood lipids reducing, antioxidant, and mannose, L-arabinose, and D-xylose are also frequently anticomplementary activities against hepatopathy, uropathy present. Some monosaccharide derivatives found in polysac- and renalpathy, gastric protective eﬀects, and therapeutic charides include the amino sugars (D-glucosamine and D- potential in surgery. Compared with other sulfated polysac- galactosamine) as well as their derivatives (N-acetylneura- charides, fucoidans have been increasingly investigated in minic acid and N-acetylmuramic acid) and simple sugar recent years to develop the drugs or functional foods . acids (glucuronic and iduronic acids). Polysaccharides of The type of fucoidan, its sulphation and molecular weight, algal origin include alginates, agar, and carrageenans. Agar is and the conformation of its sugar residues vary with the an unbranched polysaccharide present in the cell membranes seaweed species [151, 159]. of red algae, primarily from the genera Gelidium and Sulphation is critical for fucoidan activity in vivo.In par- Gracilaria, and it is the primary structural support for the ticular, desulphated fucoidan fails to promote angiogenesis in algal cell walls. Chemically, it is constituted by galactose sugar vitro  or to induce immature CD34+ cell mobilization molecules. Carrageenans are polysaccharides of galactan in vivo . Native fucoidan-induced mobilization is abol- with alternating 1,3- and 1,4-linked galactose residues, ished in the presence of protamine . The predominant which ﬁll spaces between the cellulosic plant structure of sulphation pattern consists of a trisulphated disaccharide seaweeds. repeat similar to that found in heparin [163, 164]. Yet The active components contained in algal polysaccha- heparin has no eﬀect on angiogenesis induced by HUVEC in rides are mainly sulfated ones [63–67, 69, 70]. Most studies vitro  and does not induce signiﬁcant immature CD34+ support that sulfated polysaccharides can enhance the innate cell mobilization . Furthermore, heparan sulphate immune response by promoting the tumoricidal activities (Figure 2(b)), pentosan sulphate (Figure 2(c)), and chon- of macrophages and natural killer cells [138–141]. Antigen- droitin sulphate (Figures 2(d) and 2(e)), which exhibit anti- presenting cells migrate into and out of tumour tissue to coagulant activities, inhibit angiogenesis in vitro. Fucoidan present tumour antigen to T-helper cells, as well as to can disrupt heparan sulphate-growth factor/cytokine com- produce cytokines, such as interleukin-1 beta and TNF- plexes and can substitute for cell-surface heparan sulphates alpha that stimulate T-helper cells. As a result, T-helper cells in stabilizing the growth factor/growth factor receptor promote the activity of cytotoxic T-cell, which has the strong interaction. Fucoidan may mediate growth factor-induced cytotoxic eﬀect on tumour cells. Sulfated polysaccharides can EPC diﬀerentiation by interacting with a “receptor” that enhance the adaptive immune response by promoting such promotes endothelial cell adhesion, migration, proliferation process [140, 142–144]. Recent studies have implicated that and diﬀerentiation, and that cooperates with a growth factor sulfated polysaccharides recognize a range of cell adhesion receptor, transducing the intracellular signals required to systems. Sulfated polysaccharide can bind to CD2, CD3, induce the angiogenic phenotype. This putative fucoidan and CD4 in T lymphocytes and enhance the proliferative receptor might contain a carbohydrate-binding domain response of T lymphocytes [145–147]. B-1, a sulfated that interacts with the fucoidan carbohydrate backbone polysaccharide isolated from the culture ﬁltrate of marine . Pseudomonas sp., induces apoptosis of human leukaemic cells (U937) . PI-88, a sulfated oligosaccharide, induces apoptosis of pancreatic islet carcinoma . Internalized 4.2.1. Alkaloids. The term alkaloid was ﬁrst proposed by sulfated glycosaminoglycans interfere with transcription Meissner in 1819 to characterize these “alkali-like” com- function and subsequently induce apoptosis of murine pounds found in plants , but itwas notprecisely melanoma cells . deﬁned . With time, the deﬁnition has changed  Fucoidan is one of the representative sulfated polysac- to a compound that has nitrogen atom(s) in a cyclic charides (sulphated L-fucose) derived from cell wall of ring. Numerous biological amines and halogenated cyclic brown algae [65, 66, 151]. Fucoidan-induced apoptosis in nitrogen-containing substances are included in the term human lymphoma HS-Sultan cell lines is accompanied by alkaloid. The latter could not be found in terrestrial plants the activation of caspase-3 and down-regulation of extracel- and is speciﬁc from marine organisms including marine lular signal-regulated kinase pathway . Fucoidans have algae. Alkaloid chemistry and its anticancer activities have 10 Journal of Oncology CH been widely studied in terrestrial plants, but the number 3 of studies in marine plants are insigniﬁcant. Morphine was the ﬁrst alkaloid extracted from a terrestrial plant in 1805 NH as reported by Kappelmeier , and hordenine was the S S ﬁrst alkaloid isolated from marine algae in 1969 [170, 171]. Today approximately two thousand alkaloids are known. They occur abundantly in terrestrial plants and rarely in (a) Brugine (b) Benzoxazolinone marine algae. Figure 3: Anticancer alkaloids from marine ﬂoras. Among several types of compounds obtained from plants, alkaloids have traditionally been of interest due to their pronounced physiological activities in animals and humans . The most famous examples of anticancer will be useful in the estimation of cancer risk of various pop- alkaloids are taxol (clinically available since 1994) from ulations and in monitoring the eﬀects of chemoprevention. the western yew, Taxus brevifolia,and camptothecin and Much of this damage is oxidative in nature. It is estimated derivatives, currently in clinical trials, from Camptotheca that a typical human cell experiences about 10.000 oxidative acuminata [14, 173, 174]. The alkaloid taspine hydrochloride “hits” to its DNA each day. DNA repair enzymes remove founded in Sangre de Grado plant is also considered a most of the damage. Oxidative lesions to DNA accumulate potential anticancer agent , and homoharringtonine, an with age and so does the risk of cancer . alkaloid isolated from the Chinese tree Cephalotaxus harring- tonia (Cephalotaxacea), has shown eﬃcacy against various Antioxidants. Several mechanisms are defending against leukemias . The isolation of vinca alkaloids such as free radicals and other reactive oxygen species (ROS) in vinblastine and vincristine from the Madagascar periwinkle, human system. Various defenses are complementary to one Catharanthus roseus G. Don. (Apocynaceae), has opened a another because they act on diﬀerent oxidants or in diﬀerent new era of the use of alkaloids as anticancer agents. They cellular compartments. One important line of defense is a were theﬁrst agents entered to clinical usefor thetreatment system of enzymes, including superoxide dismutase (SOD), of cancer . Vinblastine and vincristine are primarily glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and catalase as well as several used in combination with other cancer chemotherapeutic exogenously acquired radical-scavenging substances such drugs for the treatment of a variety of cancers, including as vitamins E and C and carotenoids . Under normal leukemias, lymphomas, advanced testicular cancer, breast conditions, the high concentrations of SOD maintain and lung cancers, and Kaposi’s sarcoma . superoxide concentrations at a level too low to allow the The alkaloids found in marine algae may be divided into formation of peroxynitrite. It is also important to mention three groups: Phenylethylamine alkaloids, Indole and halo- that the antioxidant reduces glutathione (GSH). GSH is genated indole alkaloids, and other alkaloids. Structurally, ubiquitous in aerobic tissues, and although it is not a the alkaloids isolated from marine algae mostly belong to nutrient, it is synthesized from sulfhydryl-containing amino the phenylethylamine and indole groups. Biological activities acids and is highly important in intermediary antioxidant of these alkaloids were not fully investigated. Alkaloids of metabolism . Nutrition plays a key role in maintaining marine algae are relatively rare, when compared with terres- the body’s enzymatic defences against free radicals. Several trial plant alkaloids. Research on marine drugs has largely essential minerals including selenium, copper, manganese, focused on ﬁnding drugs for cancer treatment. There are two and zinc are involved in the structure or catalytic activity of derivatives: lophocladine A (Figure 2(f)) and lophocladine these enzymes . B(Figure 2(g)) isolated from a red alga Lophocladia sp., Unlike other vitamins, vitamin E is not shown to be collected from Fijian Island, New Zealand and their directly associated with the function of any enzyme system anticancer activity has been proved successfully in various . Its only established role is that of an antioxidant cancer cell lines . and a scavenger of free radicals, making it eﬀective as a Coastal mangroves do contain alkaloids of anticancer protector of the integrity of lipids and phospholipid mem- activity . “Rhizophrine” is an alkaloid, a major con- branes. As an antioxidant, vitamin E is strongly interactive stituent of the leaves of Rhizophora mucronata and R. stylosa. with other dietary systemic antioxidants such as vitamin Similarly the presence of acanthicifolin in Acanthus illici- C and glutathione. Accumulating evidence suggests that folius, brugine (a sulphur containing alkaloid; Figure 3(a)) vitamin E may have several other functions, including in Bruguiera sexangula, and benzoquinones (Figure 3(b)) modulation of gene expression and inﬂammatory responses in Aegiceras corniculatum and Kandelia kandel has been . recorded. Vitamin C is a powerful antioxidant because it can donate ahydrogenatomand form arelativelystableascorbylfree 5. Mechanisms for the Anticancer Activity of radical (i.e., L-ascorbate anion). As a scavenger of ROS, ascorbate is shown to be eﬀective against the superoxide Marine Plants radical anion, hydrogen peroxide, the hydroxyl radical, DNA damage is considered to be one of the most important and singlet oxygen [183, 184]. Vitamin C also scavenges steps leading to cancer. A marker of mutagenic DNA damage reactive nitrogen oxide species to prevent nitrosation of Journal of Oncology 11 target molecules . Theascorbylfreeradical can be Tlymphocyte . It can also promote the recovery of converted back to reduced ascorbate by accepting another immunologic function in irradiated rats. The mechanism hydrogen atom or it can undergo further oxidation to is associated with the arrest of lymphocyte apoptosis by dehydroascorbate. Dehydroascorbate is unstable but is more fucoidan [196, 197]. Fucoidan can induce the production fat soluble than ascorbate and is taken up 10–20 times of interleukin-1 (IL-1) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) in vitro.It more rapidly by erythrocytes, where it will be reduced enhances the functions of T lymphocyte, B cell, macrophage, back to ascorbate by GSH or NADPH from the hexose and natural killer cell (NK cell) and also promotes the monophosphate shunt . Thus, mechanism exists to primary antibody response to sheep red blood cell (SRBC) in recycle vitamin C, which is similar to vitamin E. vivo . High molecular-weight fucoidan prepared from Okinawa mozuku promotes an increase in the proportion Free radicals are a product of tissue metabolism, and the of murine cytotoxic T cells . Fucoidan from Fucus potential damage which they can cause is minimized by the vesiculosus has immunostimulating and maturing eﬀects on antioxidant capacity and repair mechanisms within the cell. dendritic cells (DCs), which are powerful antigen-presenting Thus in a metabolically active tissue cell in a healthy subject cells, via a pathway involving nuclear factor-κB(NF-κB) with an adequate dietary intake, damage to tissue will be . minimal and most of the damage, if it does occur, will be repaired . Despite the fact that the marine plants possess application in food and in the pharmaceutical industry, the Nutritional Values and Anticancer Eﬀects. Marine plants play antioxidant and anticancer activities of many types of plants an important role to fulﬁll the requirement of food and are still unexplored. nutrition for rectifying the human ailments. Most diets that are protective against cancer are mainly made up from Immunomodulation and Apoptosis. Apoptosis is a complex foods of plant origin. Higher consumption of several plant process that involves many diﬀerent signaling pathways and foods probably protects against cancers. The “plant-based” results in a multitude of changes in the dying cells. The diets give more emphasis to those plant foods that are high apoptotic machinery is triggered as a result of a shift in the in nutrients, high in dietary ﬁber (and so in non-starch balance of anti- and proapoptotic proteins. Up regulation polysaccharides), and low in energy density. Non-starchy of antiapoptotic proteins, down regulation of proapoptotic vegetables, and fruits, probably protect against some cancers proteins, and decreased expression of caspases may lead . to decreased apoptosis. Evasion of apoptosis is recognized Seaweeds are used extensively for human consumption to facilitate cancer development by blocking diﬀerentia- and they contain other interesting components or traditional tion, promoting angiogenesis, and increasing cell motility, medicinal value with curative powers for a variety of diseases invasion, and metastasis . Dysregulation of apoptotic (tuberculosis, arthritis, colds, inﬂuenza, cancer, etc.). Most signaling can play a vital role in diseases with insuﬃcient people unknowingly utilize seaweed products daily in the apoptosis leading to cancer. form of processed food items like processed dairy, meat, The proapoptotic member of the Bcl-2 family such as and fruit products and domestic commodities like paint, Bim, a BH3 induces apoptosis by binding to and inhibiting toothpaste, solid air fresheners, cosmetics, and so forth. the function of antiapoptotic proteins such as Bcl-XL and Seaweeds are excellent source of vitamins A, Bl, B12, C, D Bcl-w. In addition, Bim is reportedly inducing cytochrome & E, riboﬂavin, niacin, pantothenic acid and folic acid 3, 4 C release from the mitochondria . The release of cyto- as well as minerals such as Ca, P, Na, K. Their amino acid chrome C from the mitochondria is also induced by caspase content is well balanced, containing most of the essential 8, an initiator caspase that links the death receptor and amino acids needed for life and health. They have more than mitochondrial pathways of apoptosis. Caspase 3 is an eﬀector 54 trace elements required for human body’s physiological caspase that executes cell death by cleavage of proteins, vital functions in quantities greatly exceeding vegetables and other for cell survival . land plants . Induction of apoptosis is one of the active strategies to arrest proliferation of cancer cells. Radiation and chemical 6. Conclusion agents like tamoxifen, capable of inducing apoptosis, have been used to treat cancer [191, 192]. Many chemopreven- Increasing global warming, malnutrition, and various envi- tive agents exert their anticarcinogenic eﬀects by inducing ronmental insults continue to increase the incidences of apoptosis . The apoptosis inducing eﬀect of plant cancer. According to the American Cancer Society, the global extracts may be attributed to up regulated immune surveil- burden is expected to grow as 27 million new cancer cases lance, increased macrophage, and activations of death- and 17.5 million cancer deaths simply due to the growth inducing signal complex. Natural dietary constituents such and aging of the population by 2050. Natural derivatives as curcumin and resveratrol have been reported to induce play an important role to prevent the cancer incidences apoptosis in malignant cells in vitro . Themarinephy- as synthetic drug formulations cause various harmful side tochemicals also can activate the macrophages and induce eﬀects to human beings. Marine ﬂoras are potential source apoptosis. 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