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Purpose – The rapid development of Intelligent and Connected Vehicles (ICVs) has boomed a new round of global technological and industrial revolution in recent decades. The Technology Roadmap of Intelligent and Connected Vehicles (2020) comprehensively analyzes the technical architecture, research status and future trends of ICVs. The methodology that supports the roadmap should get studied. Design/methodology/approach – This paper interprets the roadmap from the aspects of strategic signiﬁcance, technical content and characteristics of the roadmap, and evaluates the impact of the roadmap on researchers, industries and international strategies. Findings – The technical architecture of ICVs as the “three rows and two columns” structure is studied, the methodology that supported the roadmap is explained with a case study and the inﬂuence of key technologies with proposed development routes is analyzed. Originality/value – This paper could help researchers understand both thoughts and methodologies behind the technology roadmap of ICVs. Keywords Technology roadmap, ICVs, Inﬂuence analysis Paper type Viewpoint The Technology Roadmap of Intelligent and Connected Vehicles 1. Introduction (2020) integrates the wisdom of top experts from China. It makes Characterized by intelligence and connectivity, a new round of a detailed overview of the global ICV development and makes a global technological and industrial revolution is booming targeted comparison of the development status of various nowadays. The rapid development of Intelligent and countries according to the key technologies. It is an important Connected Vehicles (ICVs) has been drawing great attention. research achievement of the international automotive industry. ICVs are equipped with advanced onboard sensors, controllers, Since China has the largest market in the world, the development actuators and other devices, and integrated with the routes of important technologies, such as ICVs, deserve communication network, artiﬁcial intelligence and other continuous attention. technologies to realize information exchange between vehicles There already exists some research on the development of and X (vehicles, roads, pedestrians, clouds, etc.). ICVs are speciﬁc ICV technology (He et al.,2019), and communication closely integrated with the transportation system, energy system, city functioning and social life, which is a national-level © Qing Xu, Keqiang Li, Jianqiang Wang, Quan Yuan, Yanding Yang and system project integrating smart city, transportation and Wenbo Chu. Published in Journal of Intelligent and Connected Vehicles. services (Li et al.,2020; Li et al.,2017). The development of Published by Emerald Publishing Limited. This article is published ICVs is not only the trend in the ﬁeld of automotive but also the under the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY 4.0) licence. Anyone general trend of the whole industry. It also plays an important may reproduce, distribute, translate and create derivative works of this role in technical breakthroughs and being the foundation of a article (for both commercial and non-commercial purposes), subject to future innovative society. full attribution to the original publication and authors. The full terms of this licence maybe seen at http://creativecommons.org/licences/by/4.0/ legalcode This paper is funded by: National Key Research and Development The current issue and full text archive of this journal is available on Emerald Program of China (2018YFE0204302), National Natural Science Insight at: https://www.emerald.com/insight/2399-9802.htm Foundation of China (52072212, 52072214), Dongfeng Automobile Co., Ltd. and China Intelligent and Connected Vehicles (Beijing) Research Institute Co., Ltd. Journal of Intelligent and Connected Vehicles Received 12 July 2021 5/1 (2022) 1–7 Revised 22 September 2021 Emerald Publishing Limited [ISSN 2399-9802] [DOI 10.1108/JICV-07-2021-0010] Accepted 21 November 2021 1 Status, challenges and trends Journal of Intelligent and Connected Vehicles Qing Xu et al. Volume 5 · Number 1 · 2022 · 1–7 infrastructure technology, such as 5G (Samdanis and Taleb, redundancy control technology. The vehicle on-board system 2020) and 6G (Letaief et al., 2019). However, few researchers will be gradually upgraded to an Ethernet-based, topology- focus on the overall design of ICVs and the supporting simpliﬁed, AUTOSAR-standard network. The further infrastructures. In this paper, the Technology Roadmap of deployment of domain controllers will also reduce the Intelligent and Connected Vehicles (2020) is interpreted in ICVs’ controller amount. status, challenges and trends. In Section 2, the strategic As for information interaction, the establishment and signiﬁcance and featured content of the roadmap are explained implementation of LTE-V2X lower the latency and improve in detail. Section 3 focuses on who the roadmap inﬂuences: the the V2X reliability. 5G-V2X also enables ultra-reliable and researchers, industrial and international cooperation. Section 4 low latency communication to offer customized network concludes the interpretation of the roadmap. transmission ability for ICVs. Based on the development of network technology, roadside units can provide ICVs trafﬁc information like trafﬁc light signal, trafﬁc signs, accident, 2. Interpretation of the technology roadmap trafﬁc jam,etc.Furthermore, the integration of these 2.1 Interpretation of technology contents technologies helps to improve the intelligent level of the road ICVs include two technical aspects: intelligence and system. connectivity, which also classify the ICV technology Basic support technology involves various aspects. correspondingly. In terms of intelligence, organizations, such as Artiﬁcial intelligence development is one of the fundamental the US SAE (SAE International, 2014), NHTSA (Colwell, technologies, which has extensive applications in image data et al., 2018), German VDA (Yu and Kang, 2016) and China processing, cloud data clustering and decision-making. The Automobile Standards Committee have already given their current difﬁculties in AI deployment are that the classiﬁcation schemes. Taking into account the complexity of generalization ability and robustness of the algorithms China’s characteristic road trafﬁc conditions, the intelligent are still bounded by the training data, which makes it hard to classiﬁcation of this version of the roadmap adds the designed be used in particular weather conditions (storm, rain, snow) operation range (Operational Design Domain, ODD and unstructured road scenarios. With wider applications of (Fraedrich, et al., 2016), as shown in Table 1. As for network autonomous functions, a Policy Protection Detection connectivity, according to the different communication content Response-based defense technology should be designed in and the supported level of vehicle driving automation case of malicious attack. HD mapping and localization’s functions, it is divided into three levels: connected assistance accuracy should be improved to decimeter or centimeter information interaction, connected cooperative perception and level to meet the control requirements of ICV applications. connected cooperative decision-making and control, as shown What’s more, a testing and assessment database should be in Table 2. established based on typical trafﬁc scenarios of China. ICVs involve technologies in multiple ﬁelds, such as Model in the loop, hardware in the loop and vehicle in the automobiles, communications and transportation. The overall loop needs to be applied to cover all the trafﬁc scenarios. technical architecture can be divided into a “three rows and two Standards and regulations should also be established columns” structure. “Three rows” refers to the vehicle correspondingly. technologies, the information interaction technologies and basic support technologies involved in ICVs. “Two columns” 2.2 Analysis methodology refers to the on-board platforms and infrastructure supporting The most substantial contribution of the roadmap is the section the development of ICVs, as shown in Figure 1. on the ICV technologies. In the roadmap, the ICV technology In terms of vehicular technology, environment perception development is ﬁrstly planned in three main areas: vehicular involves different types of sensors, e.g. camera, millimeter-wave technology, information interaction and basic support radar, LIDAR and ultrasonic radar, etc. Except for the multi- technology, as shown in Figure 1. Then, the technology object detection and tracking algorithm, multi-sensor data roadmap of 16 technical sub-areas is explained in detail. fusion and C-V2X-based cooperative perception algorithms are Guided by ISO 42010 “Systems and software engineering – also of great importance. Nowadays, decision-making mainly Architecture description” (Emery and Hilliard, 2009), this applies rule-based method and basic AI algorithm, e.g. ﬁnite- roadmap focuses on the overall development of the ICV system state machine, decision tree model, etc. Further decision- architecture and its basic support technologies. In every making development will be focused on reinforcement learning technology and vehicle-road-cloud fused decision-making technical sub-area, the expected goals and corresponding technology. Vehicle controller and actuator development will technical targets are ﬁrst set. Second, after careful technical focus on X (driving, steering, braking, etc.)-by-wire and research and literature review, the roadmap compares the Table 1 Intelligence level classiﬁcation Level Intelligence classification Control Condition monitoring Malfunction dealing ODD 1 Driver Assistance, DA Driver and System Driver Driver Limited 2 Partial Automation, PA System Driver Driver Limited 3 Conditional Automation, CA System System Driver Limited 4 High Automation, HA System System System Limited 5 Full Automation, FA System System System Not limited 2 Basic Support Vehicular Information Technology Technology Interaction Status, challenges and trends Journal of Intelligent and Connected Vehicles Qing Xu et al. Volume 5 · Number 1 · 2022 · 1–7 Table 2 Connectivity level classiﬁcation Level Connectivity classification Typical information Control 1 Connected assistance information interaction Map, trafﬁc ﬂow, trafﬁc signal, fuel consumption, etc. Driver 2 Connected cooperative perception Vehicle, pedestrian, nonmotor vehicle, trafﬁc signal, etc. Driver/system 3 Connected cooperative decision-making Vehicle to vehicle, vehicle to infrastructure and vehicle to Driver/system and control cloud cooperative perception, decision-making and control ðÞ ðÞ technology gap between domestic and foreign development. a k ¼K xk (2) fdes long Third, based on the existing technical gap, the implementation With route of sub-area technologies is proposed. The ﬁnal technical roadmap is summarized based on the analysis above. ðÞ ðÞ ðÞ ðÞ xk ¼ Ddk ; Dvk ; a k (3) Take the Big-Data Cloud Fundamental Platform, which is the key supporting platform as well as the most representative 1 k k A T long0 technology road of the ICVs development in China, as an A ¼ G (4) long k! k¼0 example, technical targets are ﬁrstly designed. Considering the different requirements of the three development stages, speciﬁc 1 k1 k targets are set for a different period, among which the time X A T long0 B ¼ B (5) long long0 delay of perception and communication is an important k! k¼0 indicator. Corresponding technical targets are set based on theoretical analysis and experiment, here we demonstrate an 1 k1 k A T example of ICV longitudinal control. long0 G ¼ G (6) To study the effect of a time delay on vehicle control, a k! k¼0 simulation experiment could be conducted based on car-following scenario, where a leading vehicle sends its velocity and position to 2 3 2 3 2 3 01 t 0 the following vehicle, the follower then tracks the leader with a h 6 7 6 7 00 1 0 6 7 6 7 4 5 ﬁxed headway. A linear feedback controller is designed for the A ¼ ; B ¼ ; G ¼ 1 long0 long0 0 4 1 5 4 K 5 follower. The discrete system dynamic is shown as: 00 T T L L xkðÞ 1 1 ¼ A xkðÞ1 B a 1 Ga ðÞ k (1) (7) long long fdes p where A , B are the state vector matrix and control long long vector matrix of the follower, respectively, G is the control target input matrix, K is the linear state feedback long Figure 1 “Three rows and two columns” technical architecture of ICVs ðÞ ðÞ ðÞ controller’sgain matrix, Ddk ; Dvk ; a k are the headway error, speed error and follower’s acceleration, respectively, On-board Platform Infrastructure ðÞ ðÞ a k are the follower’s expected acceleration, a k is the fdes p Environment Perception leader’sacceleration, t is the time-to-collision, K and T h L L are the acceleration’s ﬁrst-order gain and time constant, Intelligent Decision-making respectively. Controller & Actuator The simulation is then conducted with a pre-deﬁned leading vehicle’s speed proﬁle [as shown in Figure 2(a)], and the System Architecture headway is set as 10m. To study the time delay of perception Dedicated Communication and Networking and communication, we simulate the car-following process based on different time delay setups of the leader to send Big-Data Cloud Fundamental Platform followers its speed and position information. The simulation result is shown in Figure 2(b). Vehicle-road Cooperative Systems As is demonstrated in Figure 2, the steady-state error and Smart Road Technology acceleration overshoot increase with the increase of time delay, and also increase with a higher vehicle speed. According to our Artificial Intelligence simulation scenario, a time delay of 80 ms lead to a 1:8 m steady-state error at 80 km=h and 2:8 m acceleration Security Technology overshoot. During the ﬁrst research period, we set the limit of HD Mapping & Localization 2 m and 3 m for the two indicators, and thus generate a total time delay limit of 80 ms, which is then divided as 20 ms of Testing & Assessment upload/download communication, 30 ms of computation and Standards & Regulations 10 ms of jitter. Further studies are also conducted considering different scenarios and lateral control functions such as lane- 3 Status, challenges and trends Journal of Intelligent and Connected Vehicles Qing Xu et al. Volume 5 · Number 1 · 2022 · 1–7 Figure 2 Simulation result of car-following control keeping. The limits of time delay in the roadmap are then As for the implementation route, the roadmap determines the designed, considering the application requirements during the priority of technology implementation by comprehensively different development period. comparing development demands and technology gaps. In the As for the analysis of technology gaps in the ﬁeld of Big-Data ﬁeld of the cloud control platform, the technology is expected Cloud Fundamental Platform, between the current situation and to be realized through the following four steps: the expected future, the roadmap gets the conclusion through Standard setting. Complete vehicle-road-cloud data acquisition the following steps: standards, platform architecture standards and related technical Demand analysis. The necessity of development is ﬁrstly standards need to be developed in priority to ensure that the analyzed. Since the cloud control platform can provide data of different manufacturers can be quickly accessed to the ICVs with better capability of centralized computing and platform and processed to reduce redundant work. global optimization, which will be an ideal solution to the Infrastructure development. Second, edge computing trafﬁcefﬁciency and energy economy, the development is technology of multi-access needs to be developed. This of great importance and necessity. will promote cooperation among operators, management Investigation of current technology. The roadmap carries out departments and equipment suppliers, and solve common a detailed investigation and analysis of the existing vehicle- basic problems through testing. road-cloud integration technology and concludes the main Cloud fusion. Then, we need to vigorously develop the end gaps between the existing technology and the expectation. cloud fusion technology to solve the main technical Case analysis. Through the speciﬁc analysis of the actual problems of single-vehicle automatic driving and intelligent implementation cases, more problems of engineering transportation. applications are exposed. Construction of edge-cloud architecture.Through the construction of hierarchical cloud control system architecture, According to the main gaps obtained from the process above, the the global data management in large scope and real-time data roadmap obtains several key problems that need to be solved carding work in small scope are solved, respectively, which urgently through comprehensive comparison. The urgency will effectively support the realization of perception, decision- analysis process is shown in Table 3, where S1 represents the making and control technology of ICVs. expected development level, S2 represents the current development level and S3 represents the fundamentality level of a According to the case study relating to the Big-Data Cloud technology item. Fundamental Platform, main aspects are analyzed, including 4 Status, challenges and trends Journal of Intelligent and Connected Vehicles Qing Xu et al. Volume 5 · Number 1 · 2022 · 1–7 Table 3 Urgency analysis of the main gaps S1 (1–5): S2 (1–5): S3 (1–5): Comprehensive score Technology item expected development score current development score fundamentality score (S1S21S3) Data standards 51 5 9 Perception accuracy 53 4 6 Communication quality 53 4 6 Evaluation criterion 52 3 6 technical targets, technology gap as well as implementation path, the technology roadmap integrates the concept of “smart car” the roadmap is ﬁnally generated as a summary and guidance for and “smart road,” which has become an industry consensus. With the development of 5G communication technology, the the society to refer to. And a similar analysis methodology is intelligent infrastructure has more powerful abilities for applied to other sub-area technologies (as shown in Figure 3). In environment perception and edge computing, which makes general, scientiﬁc and practical roadmap is obtained. the infrastructure able to cooperate with vehicles to perform coordinated perception, decision-making and control, and to 2.3 Features of the technology roadmap coordinately support the realization of automatic driving. The ﬁrst version of the technology roadmap (China, SAE, 2016) In terms of the promotion of industrialization, the technology proposed a comprehensive technical framework of ICVs for the roadmap extends the research targets to the year 2035, with ﬁrst time in the world. It refers to the relevant technical standards 2025, 2030 and 2035 as milestones. For example, the proposed by Europe, the USA and Japan, and is closely combined industrialization goals of ICVs are divided into three stages: with the actual characteristics of the development of ICVs in the development period (2020–2025), the promotion period China. After several years of modiﬁcation and updating, the (2026–2030) and the maturity period (2031–2035). The current version of the technology roadmap is more authoritative technology roadmap also studies the implementation and with being reviewed and revised by experts in the automotive development trend of industrialization of intelligent and industry. Compared with the existing technical standards and connected technologies of passenger vehicles, freight vehicles development plans of other countries, the current version of the and passenger vehicles, mainly analyzing the schedule of technology roadmap has the following characteristics: technology industrialization, marketization and In terms of technical content, the development status and commercialization of ICVs within urban roads, suburban future technology route of key technologies related to ICVs roads, highways and limited scenarios. are comprehensively analyzed. For each key technology, the In terms of Chinese characteristic content, ICV development technology roadmap analyzes its expected goals, the gap is involved with multiple domestic industries, such as compared with current technologies of other countries, the automobiles, transportation and information and implementation path and the roadmap. Besides, the communications. Communication, maps and data are of technology roadmap revises the technical architecture and great importance to national security, thus need uniﬁed system of ICVs. For example, system design technology is national-level supervision, which also means that the foreign added to the key technology part of the vehicle, including development path cannot be copied directly. Chinese electronic and electrical architecture, human-machine characteristic route will adhere to full integration of interaction and AI-based computing platform. intelligence and connectivity and will use ﬁve fundamental In terms of concept and architecture, the technology roadmap platforms as the development carrier: on-board computing proposed the connectivity classiﬁcation standards for the ﬁrst platform, smart terminal platform, cloud control platform, time in the world, which is referred to later-published HD dynamic map platform and information security standards of other countries, like the “ISAD levels.” Besides, platform. Some of the key technologies are shown in Table 4. Figure 3 Roadmap analysis methodology 2.4 Strategic signiﬁcance Expected Goals The technology roadmap explains the signiﬁcance of the Demand Analysis development of ICVs. As a combination of the automobile, information, communications, artiﬁcial intelligence and other Standard Setting technologies, ICVs directly promote a new round of revolution in Technical Research Gap Analysis science, technology and the automobile industry. At present, Europe, the USA and Japan have strong advantages in speciﬁc Infrastructure ﬁelds of ICVs’ technology. China needs to accelerate the Development innovation and development of ICVs. The roadmap describes the Case Analysis Implementation Route strategic signiﬁcance of the developmentof ICVsfor China from Cloud Fusion three aspects: economic, social and comprehensive national strength development. The development of ICVs builds a new economic growth Roadmap Summary Edge-cloud trend. In the era of intelligence, ICVs are the application Construction platform of artiﬁcial intelligence, mobile internet, information 5 Status, challenges and trends Journal of Intelligent and Connected Vehicles Qing Xu et al. Volume 5 · Number 1 · 2022 · 1–7 Table 4 Five fundamental platforms Fundamental Platforms Key technologies On-board computing platform Low-energy high-performance microchip, parallel computing Smart terminal platform Controller and actuator design, smart road technology, HMI design Cloud control platform Intelligent decision-making, Big-data cloud processing, vehicle-road cooperative systems HD dynamic map platform Environment perception, HD mapping and localization, simultaneous localization and mapping Information security platform Dedicated communication and networking, security technology technology, cloud computing, renewable energy and multiple technology and the more forward technology, such as 6G technologies. The application of those new technologies, on for ICVs (Tang et al., 2019). In addition to directly- one hand, breaks the conventional industry chain and related researchers, researchers from other ﬁelds or basic technology chain of the automobile industry and provide a big science have a better understanding of China’s ICV policy opportunity for China’s automobile industry. On the other and potential future demands. hand, it promotes innovation, breakthroughs and The roadmap clariﬁes the respective responsibilities, as well as industrialization of new technologies. It also drives the priorities for the industry and academia at all stages, which can upgrade, iteration and integration of related industries. promote better integration of industry, university and research. The development of ICVs helps to build a smart city and society. With the continuous improvement of the intelligent 3.2 Inﬂuence on the industry level of vehicles, the vehicle is changing from a simple tool of The technical roadmap has conducted an in-depth analysis of transportation to an intelligent mobile terminal and becomes the current development stage of ICVs, analyzed the current an important part of a smart city. ICVs strengthen the industry status of ICVs and pointed out that ICV-related connection and coordination among the vehicle, road-side industries own a very promising future. The inﬂuence on the infrastructure and users, help to form a safe, efﬁcient and industry can be summarized as follows: energy-saving intelligent transportation system. Besides, ICVs The technology roadmap plays an important guiding role will gradually replace human drivers, which will not only for OEMs and other related companies. It can help these provide support for shared travel services but also will companies deeply analyze the future market’s demand for effectively solve the mobility problems for senior people. new products and technologies for ICVs. It clariﬁes the The development of ICVs enhances the national strength of key and fundamental technologies that need to be broken China. The difﬁculties with ICV technology make it a through at the same time. symbol of national scientiﬁc-technical advancement, and the Similar to academia, the technology roadmap clearly potential market demand for ICVs could provide ﬁnancial deﬁnes the key technologies of various companies in support, as well as application scenarios, to promote the various industries under the overall strategy of automotive research into scientiﬁc ﬁelds of computer science, basic and helps companies to better establish technology mathematics, IC-design, etc. ICVs constantly generate and barriers under the new situation and command. collect multiple kinds of valuable data, which will become The technology roadmap helps the technical speciﬁcations of strategic resource in the era of intelligence. The development related sub-ﬁelds to be implemented as soon as possible and of independent and transparent ICVs’ technologies, thus accelerates the establishment of ICVs’ standard and also has signiﬁcant meaning to national security. speciﬁcation system, such as interface standard of cloud control. Based on these standards, more effective cooperation will be guaranteed between upstream and downstream 3. Inﬂuence analysis industries. 3.1 Inﬂuence on the academia ICVs have been risen to China’s national development strategy. The roadmap points out the research directions and priorities for 3.3 International inﬂuence researchers directly engaged in related areas. For other researchers The technology roadmap indicates Chinese explorations as who is not directly-related, it can deepen their understanding of the well as characteristics of the global development of intelligent development trend of Chinese ICV as well as automobile industry. road transportation. Chinese achievements of ICV technology In detail, the inﬂuence on academia can be summarized as follows: have drawn global attention. The International inﬂuence of this The technology roadmap provides researchers with more roadmap is summarized as follows: instructive research directions. There are many different ICV The roadmap provides an important reference for global ICV technical roadmaps around the world, such as the USA’s researchers in terms of standard-setting and market strategy. CARMA project (US Department of Transportation Federal As a pioneer of ICVs, China published the world’s ﬁrst Highway Administration, 2020), Germany’sKo-HAF project guidance document for the construction of ICV industry, (Andree, 2020) and EU’s5GCAR project(Fernandez et al., “Roadmap of Intelligent and Connected Vehicle (2016)” 2017). The roadmap complies with its characteristics in (Ministry of Industry and Information Technology of China, China and points out the key technologies of each stage of 2016), which is thenfollowedby a set of speciﬁcations for China’sICVdomain. functional tests and road tests. While the EU conducted its The research progress of ICV is a long-term and complex 5G-CAR (Fernandez et al.,2017) research from 2017 to project. Researchers need to consider both the near-future 2019, the Chinese documents were the main references for 6 Status, challenges and trends Journal of Intelligent and Connected Vehicles Qing Xu et al. Volume 5 · Number 1 · 2022 · 1–7 this project. “ISAD levels,” published with EU Connected Fernandez, A.E., Fallgren, M. and Brahmi, N. (2017), “5GCAR Automated Driving Roadmap in 2019 (ERTRAC Working scenarios, use cases, requirements and KPIs. Fifth generation Group, 2019), applied the same connectivity classiﬁcation communication automotive research and innovation”, standards as the Chinese roadmap in 2016. Besides, as the Technical Support - D-Tech International,Vol.2. world’s largest automobile production and consumption Fraedrich, E., Cyganski, R., Wolf, I. and Lenz, B. (2016), country, China owns a large potential market for ICV-related “User perspectives on autonomous driving: a use-case- equipment and service. Global suppliers have been studying driven study in Germany”. Chinese demands, and this roadmap will be the latest and He, J., Tang, Z., Fu, X., Leng, S., Wu, F., Huang, K., .. . most important reference. Xiong, Z. (2019), “Cooperative connected autonomous To support the development of Chinese ICV, and prepare for vehicles (CAV): research, applications and challenges”, 2019 the future global competition, the roadmap instructs IEEE 27th International Conference on Network Protocols opportunities, as well as tasks for Chinese industry, research (ICNP), IEEE, pp. 1-6. and government. From the perspective of the three-period Letaief, K.B., Chen, W., Shi, Y., Zhang, J. and Zhang, Y.J.A. ICV development steps (development, promotion and (2019), “The roadmap to 6G: AI empowered wireless maturity), China should develop core technologies and networks”, IEEE Communications Magazine,Vol.57 No. 8, abilities for collaborative innovation, forming a healthy pp. 84-90. industrial ecology and participate in international competition Li, K., Dai, Y., Li, S. and Bian, M. (2017), “State-of-the- with our leading enterprises. To reach these targets, this art and technical trends of intelligent and connected roadmap proposes three main strategies: stick to the vehicles”, Journal of Automotive Safety and Energy,Vol.8 development path with Chinese characteristics and take the No.1,p.1. advantages of our leading industries and governing system; Li, K., Li, J., Chang, X., C., Gao, B., Xu, Q. and Li, S. (2020), take the historical opportunity of industry transformation and “Principles and typical applications of cloud control system promote the research of automotive software; strengthen the for intelligent and connected vehicles”, Journal of Automotive research relating to safety technology of ICV, which should be Safety and Energy, Vol. 11 No. 3, p. 261. the core value among every aspect of ICV development. Ministry of Industry and Information Technology of China (2016), “Roadmap of intelligent and connected vehicle”. 4. 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Emery, D. and Hilliard, R. (2009), “Every architecture Further reading description needs a framework: expressing architecture frameworks using ISO/IEC 42010”, 2009 Joint Working Hohm, A. (2020), “Safety-by-Cooperation. Ko-HAF project IEEE/IFIP Conference on Software Architecture & European web”, available at: www.ko-haf.de (accessed 10 October 2020). Conference on Software Architecture, IEEE, pp. 31-40. Corresponding author ERTRAC Working Group (2019), “Connected automated driving roadmap”, version, Vol. 8, pp. 2019-2008. Keqiang Li can be contacted at: email@example.com For instructions on how to order reprints of this article, please visit our website: www.emeraldgrouppublishing.com/licensing/reprints.htm Or contact us for further details: firstname.lastname@example.org
Journal of Intelligent and Connected Vehicles – Emerald Publishing
Published: Feb 17, 2022
Keywords: Technology roadmap; ICVs; Influence analysis
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