Multimodal critical-scenarios search method for test of autonomous vehicles
The purpose of this paper is to search for the critical-scenarios of autonomous vehicles (AVs) quickly and comprehensively, which is essential for verification and validation (V&V).Design/methodology/approachThe author adopted the index F1 to quantitative critical-scenarios' coverage of the search space and proposed the improved particle swarm optimization (IPSO) to enhance exploration ability for higher coverage. Compared with the particle swarm optimization (PSO), there were three improvements. In the initial phase, the Latin hypercube sampling method was introduced for a uniform distribution of particles. In the iteration phase, the neighborhood operator was adapted to explore more modals with the particles divided into groups. In the convergence phase, the convergence judgment and restart strategy were used to explore the search space by avoiding local convergence. Compared with the Monte Carlo method (MC) and PSO, experiments on the artificial function and critical-scenarios search were carried out to verify the efficiency and the application effect of the method.FindingsResults show that IPSO can search for multimodal critical-scenarios comprehensively, with a stricter threshold and fewer samples in the experiment on critical-scenario search, the coverage of IPSO is 14% higher than PSO and 40% higher than MC.Originality/valueThe critical-scenarios' coverage of the search space is firstly quantified by the index F1, and the proposed method has higher search efficiency and coverage for the critical-scenarios search of AVs, which shows application potential for V&V.