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Formal credit usage and gender income gap: the case of farmers in Cambodia

Formal credit usage and gender income gap: the case of farmers in Cambodia The purpose of this article is to analyze the factors that drive gender income differences among farmers in Cambodia with a focus on the role of formal credit.Design/methodology/approachTo decompose the gender income gap, this article employs the Blinder–Oaxaca decomposition technique, while a two-stage least square (2SLS) regression is also employed to check the causal effect of formal credit usage on earnings.FindingsResults show a positive effect of formal credit on farmers' earnings and the gender gap in formal credit usage is not found. Despite that, formal credit still contributes to the gender earnings gap with a higher return to credit usage for male farmers. This can be due to the difference in the level of education, financial literacy and other dimensions in favor of men, allowing them to use credit more effectively than women.Research limitations/implicationsThe findings underline the importance of boosting general and financial education among female farmers in Cambodia. Meanwhile, the expansion of access to financial services for women must be accompanied by policies addressing gender gaps in other economic and social dimensions, so that women are able to reap the potential benefit of using those financial services.Originality/valueLack of research focuses on the link between the gender gap in the use of financial services and the gender income gap. The significant gender gap in returns to formal credit usage found in this study demonstrates that the benefits of gender equity in access to and usage of financial services also depend on the effects of other indicators that policymakers must be aware of. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Agricultural Finance Review Emerald Publishing

Formal credit usage and gender income gap: the case of farmers in Cambodia

Agricultural Finance Review , Volume 81 (5): 27 – Sep 29, 2021

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Publisher
Emerald Publishing
Copyright
© Emerald Publishing Limited
ISSN
0002-1466
DOI
10.1108/afr-05-2020-0062
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

The purpose of this article is to analyze the factors that drive gender income differences among farmers in Cambodia with a focus on the role of formal credit.Design/methodology/approachTo decompose the gender income gap, this article employs the Blinder–Oaxaca decomposition technique, while a two-stage least square (2SLS) regression is also employed to check the causal effect of formal credit usage on earnings.FindingsResults show a positive effect of formal credit on farmers' earnings and the gender gap in formal credit usage is not found. Despite that, formal credit still contributes to the gender earnings gap with a higher return to credit usage for male farmers. This can be due to the difference in the level of education, financial literacy and other dimensions in favor of men, allowing them to use credit more effectively than women.Research limitations/implicationsThe findings underline the importance of boosting general and financial education among female farmers in Cambodia. Meanwhile, the expansion of access to financial services for women must be accompanied by policies addressing gender gaps in other economic and social dimensions, so that women are able to reap the potential benefit of using those financial services.Originality/valueLack of research focuses on the link between the gender gap in the use of financial services and the gender income gap. The significant gender gap in returns to formal credit usage found in this study demonstrates that the benefits of gender equity in access to and usage of financial services also depend on the effects of other indicators that policymakers must be aware of.

Journal

Agricultural Finance ReviewEmerald Publishing

Published: Sep 29, 2021

Keywords: Gender income gap; Formal credit usage; Agriculture; Blinder–Oaxaca decomposition; J16; J31; J43; J71

References