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„Z”-scores of anthropometric and motor parameters of girls in aerobic gymnastics

„Z”-scores of anthropometric and motor parameters of girls in aerobic gymnastics Keywords Kúcové slová: aerobic gymnastics, sport preparation, girls, junior competitors, testing, anthropometric parameters, motor parameters, Z-scores sportový aerobik, sportová príprava, dievcatá, juniorské pretekárky, testovanie, somatické ukazovatele, motorické ukazovatele, Z-hodnoty INTRODUCTION Aerobic gymnastics belongs to the disciplines performed with maximum intensity, with duration of competition set-up 1 minute 30 seconds (tolerance ± 5 seconds). Realization of sports performance in aerobic gymnastics engages to a great degree neuromuscular, cardiovascular and respiratory system with predominantly lactic energy coverage (Kyselovicová, 2007). By its motor structure and exercise forms, this sports discipline contemporary belongs to coordination demand* tibenska@fpharm.uniba.sk © Acta Facultatis Pharmaceuticae Universitatis Comenianae ing technical aesthetic disciplines. Development of sport performance here, as in other sports, is limited by the level of specific fitness and coordination abilities in mutual harmony with rational technique of each separate move and exercise forms of various difficulties, since every sport performance is presented with competition set-up, making of which falls under the specific rules of International Gymnastics Federation (Mineva, 2006). Acta Fac. Pharm. Univ. Comen. LXI, 2014 (2), p. 55­58 Current research was focused on complex evaluation of level ,,Ladder of successfulness" of probands has been made on the of anthropometric and motor parameters by means of cal- basis of determined level of motor performance expressed by culated Z-scores throughout the period of two 1-year sport the Z-score. Complex evaluation of two 1-year sport preparation cycles forms an average performance of probands preparation cycles of female aerobic gymnastic competitors. These findings could be regarded as preliminary research, a characterised by null Z-score on axis. All positive Z-scores dispart of VEGA 1/0882/14 grant project, which could serve as a played above the null value are considered as above-average performance within the observed group of girls. On the other basis for further exploration. hand, all negative values, which are displayed under the null value are to be considered below average within the investiMETHODOLOGY gated group of girls. The chosen group consisted of 12 girls ­ competitors of junior category. Their average age at the beginning of observation RESULTS was 14.08 years, ± 1.19 years, the lowest calendar age was 13 and the highest 17 years. Probands undertook sport prepara- The group of girls was divided into three categories on the bation five times a week for a duration of 120 minutes. sis of motor parameters Z-scores. The first category consisted of All anthropometric measurements (body height, body five probands (F.N., M.Z., P.M., M.D. and K.N., respectively Tab. 1 weight, body mass index [BMI], percentage of body fat, act- and achieved above-average level of motor parameters that ing body weight percentage and kg) were conducted by were displayed in the positive section of Z-scores axis. Three standard methodology and conforming to compliant meth- probands were close to the average mark (V.M.; O.M. and L.S., odology of multiple authors (Riegerová & Ulbrichová, 1993, respectively Tab. 1) out of which two were on the positive side Riegerová, 1994, 2002). The BMI was calculated from body and one on the negative side of the axis. The last category conweight and body height values, which is considered as the sisted of four girls (K.L., G.V., S.K. and F.M, respectively Tab. 1) most commonly featured indicator for measurement of rela- whose motor performance was below average within the obtive amount of body fat. It was calculated as body weight served group and was expressed by negative Z-score. (kg) and body height (m2) ratio, as published by Riegerová Anthropometric parameters were evaluated by the same and Ulbrichová (1993) and Riegerová (1994). The thickness principle as level of motor parameters by means of Z-scores. of skinfold was measured by Harpenden brand calipers. Per- Average value, the same as with evaluation of motor perforcentage of body fat was calculated according to the method- mance, was expressed by null value on the axis (Fig. 1). All the ology by Drinkwater & Ross (1980). Furthermore, the ABW in positive values displayed above the axis null value were, conpercentage (100 - % of fat) and in kilograms (percentage of trary to motor performance evaluation, considered as a negafat × body weight/100) was calculated out of the percentage tive phenomenon and on the other hand, negative values displayed below the null value of the axis were to be regarded as of probands' body fat. Level of motor performance was assessed by 8-entry motor a positive phenomenon (Fig. 1). The group of girls, the same as test battery (sit-ups in 30s and 60s, pull-ups to bar, modified with evaluation of motor parameters, was divided into three push-ups, standing long jump, backwards tandem walking, groups. First group consisted of probands (F.N., M.D., K.L. and shuttle run 4 × 10 m, Jacík's test). Its basis (five tests) consisted V.M., respectively; Tab. 2) who achieved above-average level of Eurofit tests (Moravec et al., 2002), supplemented by three of anthropometric dispositions within the observed group of tests, which respect specific requirements of aerobic gymnas- girls and it was expressed by negative Z-score (Tab. 2, Fig. 1). tics (Jacík, 1985, Mineva, 2006). The used battery is included Two probands were close to the average mark (O.M. and S.K., in general motor performance control system of junior repre- respectively Tab. 2), both on the negative side of the axis. The sentation in aerobic gymnastics, which has been extended by most represent category is six-member group of probands (P.M., K.N., M.Z., L.S., F.M. and G.V., respectively Tab. 2), whose dynamic balance test. The Z-score of chosen parameters has been calculated for level of anthropometric parameters was below average within the observed group of girls, which corresponded with their every proband (Reisenauer, 1970) using the equation: positive Z-scores (Tab.2, Fig. 1). Complex evaluation of motor and anthropometric param(xi ­ x) / decisive deviation eters of probands by means of Z-scores allowed dividing the probands into three groups. The first group consisted of xi ­ proband's measured individual value Table 1. The Z-score of performances in motor tests of probands after 2-year sport preparation in aerobics gymnastics Ordinal number of proband on the basis of her Z-score Name of proband Z-Score 1 F.N. 4.28 2 M.Z. 3.86 3 P.M. 3.24 4 M.D. 2.84 5 K.N. 1.73 6 V.M. 0.81 7 O.M. 0.53 8 L.S. -0.11 9 K.L. -2.05 10 G.V. -4.50 11 S.K. -4.93 12 F.M. -5.70 Tibenská, M., Medeková, H. 10,0 9,0 8,0 7,0 6,0 5,0 4,0 3,0 2,0 1,0 0,0 -1,0 -2,0 -3,0 -4,0 -5,0 -6,0 -7,0 -8,0 -9,0 -10,0 Ordinal number of proband Name of proband 1 F.N. 2 M.Z. 3 P.M. 4 M.D. 5 K.N. 6 V.M. 7 O.M. 8 L.S. 9 K.L. 10 G.V. 11 S.K. 12 F.M. Figure 1. The Z-scores of chosen anthropometric and motor parameters of probands after 2-year sport preparation in aerobic gymnastics the probands (F.N., M.D., V.M. and O.M., respectively; Fig. 1) whose above-average motor performance within the observed group of girls was supported by above-average anthropometric disposition. The second group consisted of the probands (M.Z., P.M. and K.N., respectively; Fig. 1) whose anthropometric disposition were lagging behind the aboveaverage motor performance and the last one consisted of the probands (G.V., F.M., S.K. and L.S., respectively; Fig. 1) whose below-average level of motor performance was in accordance with below-average level of anthropometric parameters, alternatively was at the average mark. Complex Z-score evaluation of anthropometric parameters, motor parameters and sport performance in the group of girls has revealed their coherence with all the probands (Tab. 1­3, Fig. 1), most significantly with two probands (F.N. and F.M., respectively; Tab. 3, Fig. 1) those were on the extreme side of performance. It was identified that one proband (L.S., Tab. 3, Fig. 2) had incoherence between Z-scores' results of observed parameters and her sport performance. These observations are in conformity with the statement made by Hatiar et al. (1998) and confirm the fact that every talent needs to be looked at in a complex manner and the limiting factors of performance and their correlation analyzed profoundly. According to Fec (2000), talent in aerobic gymnastics is individual, whose inherent predispositions mainly in anthropometric, physiologic, motor, psychic and social areas allow for continued growth of sport performance. CONCLUSION Ideal polarised ratio of motor performance Z-scores and, on the other hand, Z-scores of anthropometric parameters was identified in one proband (F.N., Tab. 3, Fig. 2) whose Z-score of both observed parameters was in conformity with her sport performance. Conformity between the Z-score results of observed parameters and performance at competitions was also identified with proband F.M. (Tab. 3, Fig. 2); these results, however, belonged to the weakest compared to the group's performance. Sport performance is a result of multifactorial influences, each of which has its merit, that has been confirmed by results from our previous studies; there was confirmed important relationship between anthropometric and motor parameters (Palovicova, 2004; Tibenská & Kyselovicová, 2007, Tibenská et al., 2009, Lenková, 2010). Human organism has the ability to compensate certain deficiencies in some factors, the image of which also is a discrepancy between the values of Z-scores of observed parameters and performance at competitions of proband L.S. (Tab. 3, Fig. 2), whose case, as can be assumed on the basis of long-time coach practice in testing her anthropometric and motor parameters, was the case of insufficient motivation to achieve maximum performance. Leading with this discrepancy, there comes realisation that in individual sports, too little attention is being paid to mental predispositions of sportsmen to achieve maximum and stable sport performances. Acta Fac. Pharm. Univ. Comen. LXI, 2014 (2), p. 55­58 Table 2. The Z-scores of chosen anthropometric parameters of probands after 2-year sport preparation in aerobic gymnastics Ordinal number of proband on the basis of her Z-score Name of proband Z-Score 1 F.N -8.72 2 M.D. -8.23 3 K.L. -4.64 4 V.M. -2.95 5 O.M. -0.63 6 S.K. -0.32 7 P.M. 1.33 8 K.N. 1.45 9 M.Z. 3.94 10 L.S. 4.70 11 F.M. 6.11 12 G.V. 7.96 Table 3. Competition positioning of probands at competitions in aerobic gymnastics in years 2003­2005 (x ­ average value; y. ­ years) Ordinal number of proband out of complex evaluation (Fig. 1) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Name of proband F.N. M.Z. P.M. M.D. K.N. V.M. O.M. L.S. K.L. G.V. S.K. F.M. Points score y. 2003 ­ 2005 [x] 17.71 16.72 16.44 15.35 16.12 16.14 14.63 17.84 13.55 13.39 12.14 8.73 Position at competitions y. 2003 ­ 2005/position[x] 2 3 4 7 6 5 8 1 9 10 11 12 http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Acta Facultatis Pharmaceuticae Universitatis Comenianae de Gruyter

„Z”-scores of anthropometric and motor parameters of girls in aerobic gymnastics

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Abstract

Keywords Kúcové slová: aerobic gymnastics, sport preparation, girls, junior competitors, testing, anthropometric parameters, motor parameters, Z-scores sportový aerobik, sportová príprava, dievcatá, juniorské pretekárky, testovanie, somatické ukazovatele, motorické ukazovatele, Z-hodnoty INTRODUCTION Aerobic gymnastics belongs to the disciplines performed with maximum intensity, with duration of competition set-up 1 minute 30 seconds (tolerance ± 5 seconds). Realization of sports performance in aerobic gymnastics engages to a great degree neuromuscular, cardiovascular and respiratory system with predominantly lactic energy coverage (Kyselovicová, 2007). By its motor structure and exercise forms, this sports discipline contemporary belongs to coordination demand* tibenska@fpharm.uniba.sk © Acta Facultatis Pharmaceuticae Universitatis Comenianae ing technical aesthetic disciplines. Development of sport performance here, as in other sports, is limited by the level of specific fitness and coordination abilities in mutual harmony with rational technique of each separate move and exercise forms of various difficulties, since every sport performance is presented with competition set-up, making of which falls under the specific rules of International Gymnastics Federation (Mineva, 2006). Acta Fac. Pharm. Univ. Comen. LXI, 2014 (2), p. 55­58 Current research was focused on complex evaluation of level ,,Ladder of successfulness" of probands has been made on the of anthropometric and motor parameters by means of cal- basis of determined level of motor performance expressed by culated Z-scores throughout the period of two 1-year sport the Z-score. Complex evaluation of two 1-year sport preparation cycles forms an average performance of probands preparation cycles of female aerobic gymnastic competitors. These findings could be regarded as preliminary research, a characterised by null Z-score on axis. All positive Z-scores dispart of VEGA 1/0882/14 grant project, which could serve as a played above the null value are considered as above-average performance within the observed group of girls. On the other basis for further exploration. hand, all negative values, which are displayed under the null value are to be considered below average within the investiMETHODOLOGY gated group of girls. The chosen group consisted of 12 girls ­ competitors of junior category. Their average age at the beginning of observation RESULTS was 14.08 years, ± 1.19 years, the lowest calendar age was 13 and the highest 17 years. Probands undertook sport prepara- The group of girls was divided into three categories on the bation five times a week for a duration of 120 minutes. sis of motor parameters Z-scores. The first category consisted of All anthropometric measurements (body height, body five probands (F.N., M.Z., P.M., M.D. and K.N., respectively Tab. 1 weight, body mass index [BMI], percentage of body fat, act- and achieved above-average level of motor parameters that ing body weight percentage and kg) were conducted by were displayed in the positive section of Z-scores axis. Three standard methodology and conforming to compliant meth- probands were close to the average mark (V.M.; O.M. and L.S., odology of multiple authors (Riegerová & Ulbrichová, 1993, respectively Tab. 1) out of which two were on the positive side Riegerová, 1994, 2002). The BMI was calculated from body and one on the negative side of the axis. The last category conweight and body height values, which is considered as the sisted of four girls (K.L., G.V., S.K. and F.M, respectively Tab. 1) most commonly featured indicator for measurement of rela- whose motor performance was below average within the obtive amount of body fat. It was calculated as body weight served group and was expressed by negative Z-score. (kg) and body height (m2) ratio, as published by Riegerová Anthropometric parameters were evaluated by the same and Ulbrichová (1993) and Riegerová (1994). The thickness principle as level of motor parameters by means of Z-scores. of skinfold was measured by Harpenden brand calipers. Per- Average value, the same as with evaluation of motor perforcentage of body fat was calculated according to the method- mance, was expressed by null value on the axis (Fig. 1). All the ology by Drinkwater & Ross (1980). Furthermore, the ABW in positive values displayed above the axis null value were, conpercentage (100 - % of fat) and in kilograms (percentage of trary to motor performance evaluation, considered as a negafat × body weight/100) was calculated out of the percentage tive phenomenon and on the other hand, negative values displayed below the null value of the axis were to be regarded as of probands' body fat. Level of motor performance was assessed by 8-entry motor a positive phenomenon (Fig. 1). The group of girls, the same as test battery (sit-ups in 30s and 60s, pull-ups to bar, modified with evaluation of motor parameters, was divided into three push-ups, standing long jump, backwards tandem walking, groups. First group consisted of probands (F.N., M.D., K.L. and shuttle run 4 × 10 m, Jacík's test). Its basis (five tests) consisted V.M., respectively; Tab. 2) who achieved above-average level of Eurofit tests (Moravec et al., 2002), supplemented by three of anthropometric dispositions within the observed group of tests, which respect specific requirements of aerobic gymnas- girls and it was expressed by negative Z-score (Tab. 2, Fig. 1). tics (Jacík, 1985, Mineva, 2006). The used battery is included Two probands were close to the average mark (O.M. and S.K., in general motor performance control system of junior repre- respectively Tab. 2), both on the negative side of the axis. The sentation in aerobic gymnastics, which has been extended by most represent category is six-member group of probands (P.M., K.N., M.Z., L.S., F.M. and G.V., respectively Tab. 2), whose dynamic balance test. The Z-score of chosen parameters has been calculated for level of anthropometric parameters was below average within the observed group of girls, which corresponded with their every proband (Reisenauer, 1970) using the equation: positive Z-scores (Tab.2, Fig. 1). Complex evaluation of motor and anthropometric param(xi ­ x) / decisive deviation eters of probands by means of Z-scores allowed dividing the probands into three groups. The first group consisted of xi ­ proband's measured individual value Table 1. The Z-score of performances in motor tests of probands after 2-year sport preparation in aerobics gymnastics Ordinal number of proband on the basis of her Z-score Name of proband Z-Score 1 F.N. 4.28 2 M.Z. 3.86 3 P.M. 3.24 4 M.D. 2.84 5 K.N. 1.73 6 V.M. 0.81 7 O.M. 0.53 8 L.S. -0.11 9 K.L. -2.05 10 G.V. -4.50 11 S.K. -4.93 12 F.M. -5.70 Tibenská, M., Medeková, H. 10,0 9,0 8,0 7,0 6,0 5,0 4,0 3,0 2,0 1,0 0,0 -1,0 -2,0 -3,0 -4,0 -5,0 -6,0 -7,0 -8,0 -9,0 -10,0 Ordinal number of proband Name of proband 1 F.N. 2 M.Z. 3 P.M. 4 M.D. 5 K.N. 6 V.M. 7 O.M. 8 L.S. 9 K.L. 10 G.V. 11 S.K. 12 F.M. Figure 1. The Z-scores of chosen anthropometric and motor parameters of probands after 2-year sport preparation in aerobic gymnastics the probands (F.N., M.D., V.M. and O.M., respectively; Fig. 1) whose above-average motor performance within the observed group of girls was supported by above-average anthropometric disposition. The second group consisted of the probands (M.Z., P.M. and K.N., respectively; Fig. 1) whose anthropometric disposition were lagging behind the aboveaverage motor performance and the last one consisted of the probands (G.V., F.M., S.K. and L.S., respectively; Fig. 1) whose below-average level of motor performance was in accordance with below-average level of anthropometric parameters, alternatively was at the average mark. Complex Z-score evaluation of anthropometric parameters, motor parameters and sport performance in the group of girls has revealed their coherence with all the probands (Tab. 1­3, Fig. 1), most significantly with two probands (F.N. and F.M., respectively; Tab. 3, Fig. 1) those were on the extreme side of performance. It was identified that one proband (L.S., Tab. 3, Fig. 2) had incoherence between Z-scores' results of observed parameters and her sport performance. These observations are in conformity with the statement made by Hatiar et al. (1998) and confirm the fact that every talent needs to be looked at in a complex manner and the limiting factors of performance and their correlation analyzed profoundly. According to Fec (2000), talent in aerobic gymnastics is individual, whose inherent predispositions mainly in anthropometric, physiologic, motor, psychic and social areas allow for continued growth of sport performance. CONCLUSION Ideal polarised ratio of motor performance Z-scores and, on the other hand, Z-scores of anthropometric parameters was identified in one proband (F.N., Tab. 3, Fig. 2) whose Z-score of both observed parameters was in conformity with her sport performance. Conformity between the Z-score results of observed parameters and performance at competitions was also identified with proband F.M. (Tab. 3, Fig. 2); these results, however, belonged to the weakest compared to the group's performance. Sport performance is a result of multifactorial influences, each of which has its merit, that has been confirmed by results from our previous studies; there was confirmed important relationship between anthropometric and motor parameters (Palovicova, 2004; Tibenská & Kyselovicová, 2007, Tibenská et al., 2009, Lenková, 2010). Human organism has the ability to compensate certain deficiencies in some factors, the image of which also is a discrepancy between the values of Z-scores of observed parameters and performance at competitions of proband L.S. (Tab. 3, Fig. 2), whose case, as can be assumed on the basis of long-time coach practice in testing her anthropometric and motor parameters, was the case of insufficient motivation to achieve maximum performance. Leading with this discrepancy, there comes realisation that in individual sports, too little attention is being paid to mental predispositions of sportsmen to achieve maximum and stable sport performances. Acta Fac. Pharm. Univ. Comen. LXI, 2014 (2), p. 55­58 Table 2. The Z-scores of chosen anthropometric parameters of probands after 2-year sport preparation in aerobic gymnastics Ordinal number of proband on the basis of her Z-score Name of proband Z-Score 1 F.N -8.72 2 M.D. -8.23 3 K.L. -4.64 4 V.M. -2.95 5 O.M. -0.63 6 S.K. -0.32 7 P.M. 1.33 8 K.N. 1.45 9 M.Z. 3.94 10 L.S. 4.70 11 F.M. 6.11 12 G.V. 7.96 Table 3. Competition positioning of probands at competitions in aerobic gymnastics in years 2003­2005 (x ­ average value; y. ­ years) Ordinal number of proband out of complex evaluation (Fig. 1) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Name of proband F.N. M.Z. P.M. M.D. K.N. V.M. O.M. L.S. K.L. G.V. S.K. F.M. Points score y. 2003 ­ 2005 [x] 17.71 16.72 16.44 15.35 16.12 16.14 14.63 17.84 13.55 13.39 12.14 8.73 Position at competitions y. 2003 ­ 2005/position[x] 2 3 4 7 6 5 8 1 9 10 11 12

Journal

Acta Facultatis Pharmaceuticae Universitatis Comenianaede Gruyter

Published: Dec 30, 2014

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