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Vibration Diagnostics of Spiroid Gear

Vibration Diagnostics of Spiroid Gear Spiroid gear is one of the progressive varieties of intersecting axis gears. It has a number of advantages: increased overlap coefficient, favourable contact conditions. Spiroid gears are notable for high loading and overloading abil- ity, increased smooth running and less sensitivity to manufacturing and assembly errors, high reliability and du- rability. The analysis of the results of experiment on research of vibration of the spiroid gear PS-124 has shown, that the vibration level at frequency 200-300 Hz is reduced on 5 dB at increase of the resistance moment up to 1000 Nm at clockwise rotation of the reducer and at increase of the resistance moment up to 800 Nm at counter- clockwise rotation of the reducer. The vibration level at frequency 700-800 Hz is also increased on 5 dB at increase of the resistance moment up to 1000 Nm at clockwise rotation of the reducer and at increase of the resistance moment up to 800 Nm. If these vibration levels are exceeded, a defect is likely to occur. Economic efficiency of application of diagnostics systems is caused by increase of reliability and quality, reduction of accidents, decrease in defects, reduction of idle time of expensive equipment, reduction of expenses for maintenance and repair. Key words: spiroid gear, vibration, diagnostics INTRODUCTION LITERATURE REVIEW Spiroid gear is one of the progressive varieties of inter- One of the leading scientific schools in the world for de- secting axis gears. Due to a number of advantages of ge- sign and manufacture of spiroid gearboxes is the school of ometry and kinematics of meshing – increased overlap co- professor Veniamin Goldfarb [2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, efficient, favourable contact conditions – spiroid gears are 12]. The diagnostic technique consists in detecting signal characterized by high load and overload capacity, in- changes caused by damage to gearbox parts [12, 13, 14, creased smooth running and less sensitivity to manufac- 15, 16, 17]. Vibration signal modulations occur in the gear- turing and assembly errors, high reliability and durability box, as gearboxes mainly operate under harsh operating [1]. conditions [17]. Their major components such as gears Spiroid gearboxes are used in various fields, including and bearings are subject to damage such as fatigue crack- pipeline equipment and oil refineries. Failure of a gearbox ing, pitting, corrosion, and wear and tear [18]. Even a leads to great economic losses and environmental disas- small failure can lead to a disaster, so condition monitor- ters. Therefore, diagnostics of spiroids reducers both at ing and diagnostic systems must be installed for gear- the stage of acceptance tests and during operation is an boxes to detect the appearance of defects in time to avoid urgent task. Nowadays the number of such researches has accidents, repairs and replacement of equipment. Faults increased, which proves the relevance of works on gear- can be detected by statistical analysis of the vibration sig- box diagnostics. nal [19]. In the last twenty years much attention has been paid to The technique of change in gearmesh stiffness is widely research in the field of vibration diagnostics. Signals are used to study the vibratory property of the gearbox in received from vibration sensors installed on the gearbox gear dynamic modeling and computer simulation. The vi- housing. 70 Management Systems in Production Engineering 2022, Volume 30, Issue 1 bration response of the gearbox arrangement can be ob- maintenance cost. In [28] it is proposed a hybrid intelli- tained analytically under various tooth fault conditions. It gent condition monitoring and fault warning system for is also used to understanding the effect of the fault and wind turbine’s gearbox. system parameters on mesh stiffness in vibration diagnos- The proposed framework encompasses the following: tic signal. To identify the condition of geared system a se- a) clustering filter – (based on power, rotor speed, blade ries of vibration signals can be generated through com- pitch angle, and wind speed signals) – using the auto- puter simulation analytically. Experiments can be con- matic clustering model and ant bee colony optimiza- ducted on single-stage and multistage gearboxes and vi- tion algorithm (ABC), bration signals recorded for different levels of faults in b) prediction of gearbox bearing temperature and lubri- gear tooth. The vibration response obtained from analyt- cation oil temperature signals – using variational ical model and experiments can be further analyzed by us- mode decomposition, group method of data handling ing different techniques available such as statistical and network, and multi-verse optimization algorithm, and signal processing in the spectrum and its diagnostic per- c) anomaly detection based on the Mahalanobis dis- formance is tested for comparative fault detection [20]. tances and wavelet transform denoising approach. In [21] analysed methods for vibration diagnosis of elec- The proposed condition monitoring system was evaluated trical systems and gearboxes. In the case of gears, it can using 10 min average SCADA datasets of two 2 MW on- be noted that the oscillation of the gears is determined by shore wind turbines located in the south of Sweden. The the meshing frequency and harmonics due to the variable results showed that this strategy can diagnose potential stiffness during meshing [22]. For a pair of damaged gears anomalies prior to failure and inhibit reporting alarms in in gearboxes with fixed axles symmetrically around the healthy operations [28]. meshing frequency and its harmonics, characteristic com- ponents and side bands appear in the frequency spectrum METHODOLOGY OF THE RESEARCH [23]. The vibration signal picked up by accelerometers Experimental studies of highly loaded spiroid gear PS-124 mounted on the gearbox housing contains several types were carried out at the scientific and production enter- of vibrations from gears, shafts, bearings, etc. Informative prise “Mekhanik” Ltd. of Kalashnikov Izhevsk State Tech- vibration signals can easily be masked by strong back- nical University. Figure 1 shows the gearboxes produced ground noise. Without noise reduction [24] it is therefore by “Mekhanik” Ltd. difficult to isolate faults in the low frequency range of the The tests were carried out on a test bench operating ac- signal. Moreover, if a gearbox with several gearing pairs is cording to a closed circuit. The test bench consists of an involved, diagnosis becomes more difficult [25]. electric drive with a gear reducer on the basis of a three- The informative components of the gearbox vibration phase asynchronous motor AIR80V4U2 at 1.6 kW power spectrum, consisting of gearbox speed, gearing frequency and 1395 rpm speed, the studied spiroid gear PS-124, and their harmonics, are affected by faults. Fault identifi- which has an input frequency of 45 rpm, a spuroid gear cation is associated with the appearance of a characteris- and a disk brake, which created the load torque, meas- tic frequency associated with that fault. Similarly, differ- ured by a dynamometer DPU-0,2-2. A vibration sensor ent frequencies associated with different gears can be with a frequency range of 0-2000 Hz was fitted to the equated [26]. spiro gearbox via a magnet. The vibration data was fed Gearbox vibration signals measured by accelerometers into the LTR22 data acquisition system via the LE-41 are in the time domain. If a gearbox malfunctions, the en- charge amplifier and then displayed as a graph on the lap- ergy variation can be seen in the signal. A statistical meas- top screen. urement of the energy of the vibration signal is carried out to detect a malfunction. The various diagnostic tech- niques used use the vibration amplitude and energy of the signal in the time domain [27]. Modern condition monitoring techniques employ ad- vanced technologies to evaluate the machine health and predict when and where the machine is likely to fail, thereby maximizing the machine profitability. Generally, vibration sensors are adopted for condition monitoring of rotating machinery or manufacturing processes. It is gen- erally accepted that vibration signals from a gearbox de- pend on the sensor location relative to the source and are Fig. 1 Gearboxes produced by “Mekhanik” Ltd often contaminated by structure-borne noises from other sources, leading to a low signal noise ratio [27]. Gearbox vibration was measured as the load varies from Gearbox is the major component that leads to turbine 200 Nm to 1000 Nm, in steps of 200 Nm. Experiments downtime. Its failures are mainly caused by the gearbox were performed with the motor rotating in both direc- bearings. Devising condition monitoring approaches for tions. The spiroid gear PS-124 under investigation was the gearbox bearings is an effective predictive mainte- subjected to 3000 running cycles: 2 revolutions, pause, 2 nance measure that can reduce downtime and cut revolutions in the other direction and pause, which made Y. NIKITIN et al. – Vibration Diagnostics of Spiroid Gear 71 12 000 revolutions. The output speed of the spiroid gear was 21 rpm. The structure of the test bench is shown in Fig. 2. Asynchronous three-phase motor Gearbox Spiroid gearbox Vibration sensor Fig. 3 General view of the stand: PS-124 1 - gearbox; 2 - asynchronous three-phase motor AIR 80V4U2; 3 - spiroid gear; 4 - dynamometer DPU-0,2-2; 5 - spur gearbox; 6 - disc brake; 7 - vibration sensor; 8 - charge amplifier LE-41; 9 - laptop; 10 - modular data acquisition system LTR Charge amplifier Helical gearbox LE-41 Fig. 4 shows the locations of the vibration sensors. Data collection Disc brake system LTR Personal computer Fig. 2 Block diagram of the test bench Fig. 4 Vibration sensor installation locations When carrying out an experimental vibration analysis, the type and technical characteristics of the sensors and their RESULTS OF EXPERIMENT ON VIBRATION MEASURE- installation methods must be selected correctly. The way MENT in which the sensors are mounted must not distort their Figures 5, 6 show examples of spiroid gear vibration meas- specifications. urements with a 4000 Nm load when the motor rotates in The locations for installing the vibration sensors (piezo ac- different directions. celerometers) should be selected so that the vibration Fig. 7 shows an example of 600 Nm spiroid gear vibration sensor is as close to the gear zone as possible. Install the measurements on the LTR Modular Data Acquisition Sys- sensor in a location where the attenuation of the gear vi- tem. bration is as low as possible. The distance between the vi- bration signals recorded from the gear zone and the vibra- tion sensor should be as small as possible, especially in the case of gaps. The use of styli to mount the vibration sen- sors is not desirable, at least strong, rare-earth, perma- nent magnets should be used to mount the sensors on the gearbox. The vibration sensor must be mounted in the direction of the line connecting the centres of the gearbox shafts or perpendicular to it. For express diagnostics of gearboxes during acceptance tests it is reasonable to use magnetic fixing method with investigated frequency interval 0-2000 Hz, providing fast installation, for stationary diagnostics systems – pin con- nection with investigated frequency interval 0-10000 Hz, providing precise orientation at good machining. Fig. 5 Example oscilloscope of vibration for a spiroid gear with 4000 Nm load, clockwise rotation The overall view of the stand is shown in Fig. 3. 72 Management Systems in Production Engineering 2022, Volume 30, Issue 1 CONCLUSIONS Spiroid gears are notable for high loading and overloading ability, increased smooth running and less sensitivity to manufacturing and assembly errors, high reliability and durability. The analysis of results of the experiment on investigation of vibration of the spiro gearbox PS-124 shows that the vibration level at frequency 200-300 Hz is reduced by 5 dB with an increase of the resistance moment up to 1000 Nm by clockwise rotation of the gearbox and an increase of the resistance moment up to 800 Nm by counter-clock- wise rotation of the gearbox. The vibration level at frequency 700-800 Hz is increased Fig. 6 Example oscilloscope of vibration for a spiroid gear with by 5 dB with an increase of the resistance moment up to 4000 Nm load, anti-clockwise rotation 1000 Nm by clockwise rotation of the gearbox and an in- crease of the resistance moment up to 800 Nm by clock- wise rotation of the gearbox. At excess of the given vibra- tion levels the probability of occurrence of defect is high. Economic efficiency of application of diagnostic systems is conditioned by increase of reliability and quality, reduc- tion of accidents, decrease in defects, reduction of down- time of expensive equipment, reduction of maintenance and repair costs. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This article was supported by the scientific grant agency of the Slovak Republic under the grant Accurate calculations, modeling and simulation of new surfaces based on physi- cal causes of machined surfaces and additive technology surfaces in machinery and robotical machining conditions Fig. 7 Example of oscillogram and vibration spectrum for spi- no. 1/0097/20 and Progressive form of interdisciplinary roid gear with 600 Nm load torque education and support for the development of the study of vocational subjects in the university environment no. Table 1 shows the experimental results for the low fre- 006STU-4/2021. quency vibration of the spiroid gear PS-124. REFERENCES Table 1 [1] Y.G. Lei, J. Lin, M.J. Zou, Z.J. He. “Condition monitoring and Results of experiment on measurement of low-frequency fault diagnosis of planetary gearboxes: a review ”. Meas- vibration (200-300 Hz) of the spiroid gear PS-124 urement, 48, 2014, pp. 292-305. Load torque, Nm 200 400 600 800 1000 [2] Е.S. Trubachev, V.N. Anferov, I.V. Shishlova. “Calculation of Amplitude of low-frequency vibra- Forces in Spiroid Gearing Using the Results of Physical tion 200-300 Hz with clockwise rota- -60 -60 -60 -60 -65 Modeling”. Vestnik IzhGTU imeni M.T. Kalashnikova, 2021, tion of the gearbox, dB vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 77-84 (in Russ.). doi: 10.22213/2413- Amplitude of low-frequency vibra- 1172-2021-2-77-84. tion 200-300 Hz with counter-clock- -60 -60 -60 -70 -70 [3] S. Maláková, P. Frankovský, D. Harachová, V. Neumann. wise rotation of the gearbox, dB “Design of construction optimisation determined for mixed truck gearbox”. Ad Alta: Journal of Interdisciplinary Table 2 shows the experimental results for the medium Research, 9(2), 2019. frequency vibration of the spiroid gear PS-124. [4] S. Maláková, M. Puškár, P. Frankovský, S. Sivák, M. Palko, M. Palko. “Meshing Stiffness – A Parameter Affecting the Table 2 Emission of Gearboxes”. Applied Sciences, 10(23), 2020, Results of experiment to measure mid-frequency vibration (700-800 Hz) of the spiroid gear PS-124 [5] M. Saga, V. Bulej, N. Cubonova, I. Kuric, I. Virgala, M. Load torque, Nm 200 400 600 800 1000 Eberth. “Case study: Performance analysis and develop- Amplitude of mid-frequency vibration ment of robotized screwing application with integrated vi- 700-800 Hz with clockwise rotation of -70 -60 -60 -60 -55 sion sensing system for automotive industry” International the gearbox, dB Journal of Advanced Robotic Systems, Vol. 17, Issue 3, doi: Amplitude of mid-frequency vibration 10.1177/1729881420923997 700-800 Hz with counter-clockwise ro- -60 -60 -60 -55 -55 [6] I.A. Pushkarev, A.V.Ovsyannikov. “Research of Load Distri- tation of the gearbox, dB bution on Rollers of the K-H-V Planetary Gear”. Vestnik IzhGTU imeni M.T. Kalashnikova, 2021, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 31-37 (in Russ.). doi: 10.22213/2413-1172-2021-1-31-37. Y. NIKITIN et al. – Vibration Diagnostics of Spiroid Gear 73 [7] V. Goldfarb, E. Trubachev, N. Barmina (Eds.) Advanced [18] A.W Lees. Vibration Problems in Machines: Diagnosis and Gear Engineering. Springer International Publishing AG Resolution. CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group, 2016. XVI, Switzerland, Vol. 51, 2018, 497 p. doi: 10.1007/978-3-319- 321 p. ISBN 978-1-4987-2675-7. 60399-5. [19] B. Cai. Bayesian Networks in Fault Diagnosis Practice and [8] V. Goldfarb, E. Trubachev, N. Barmina (Eds.) New ap- Application. Singapore: World Scientific, 2019. 418 p. proaches to gear design and production. Springer Interna- [20] H. Malik, A. Iqbal, K.A. Yadav (Eds.) Soft Computing in Con- tional Publishing AG Switzerland, Vol. 81, 2020, 529 p. doi: dition Monitoring and Diagnostics of Electrical and Me- 10.1007/978-3-030-34945-5. chanical Systems: Novel Methods for Condition. Springer, [9] V. Goldfarb, E. Trubachev, N. Barmina. “Innovations in de- 2020, 499 p. Advances in Intelligent Systems and Compu- sign and production of spiroid gears in the XXI century”. ting 1096. ISBN 981151531X. MATEC Web of Conferences 287, 01002, 2019, doi: [21] S. Trefilov, P. Bozek, Nikitin Y, Martinovic J., Peterka J. Di- 10.1051/matecconf/201928701002. agnostics of actuators of machine tools drives according to [10] V. Goldfarb, E. Trubachev, T. Pushkareva, T. Savelyeva. the identifiability criterion by the state space. MM Science “Comparative investigation of worm and spiroid gears Journal, 2021, pp. November, pp. 5291-5296. doi: with cylindrical worms”. In: Advances in Mechanism and 10.17973/MMSJ.2021_11_2021131. Machine Science. IFToMM WC 2019. Mechanisms and Ma- [22] Mustafa D., Muhammet U. (eds.) Fault Diagnosis and De- chine Science, vol 73. Springer, Cham. 2019, pp. 925-935. tection. ExLi4EvA, 2017, 35 p. ISBN-13 978-953-51-3203-5. doi: 10.1007/978-3-030-20131-9_92. [23] P. Božek, Yu. Nikitin, T. Krenicky. “Diagnostics of Mecha- [11] V.I. Goldfarb, E.S. Trubachev, K.V. Bogdanov et al. “Pro- tronic Systems”. Series: Studies in Systems, Decision and spects of manufacturing spiroid gears with small gear ra- Control 345. Springer Nature, Switzerland AG. 2021, 79 p. tios”. Forsch Ingenieurwes, 2019, 83, pp. 781-791. doi: doi: 10.1007/978-3-030-67055-9. 10.1007/s10010-019-00343-8. [24] A. Felkaoui, F. Chaari., M. Haddar (eds.) Rotating Machin- [12] K. Sentyakov, J. Peterka, V. Smirnov, P. Božek, V. Sviatskii. ery and Signal Processing. New York: Springer, 2019, 142 “Modeling of Boring Mandrel Working Process with Vibra- p. tion Damper”. Materials. Vol. 13, iss. 8, 2020, pp. 1-13. [25] B.H. Chudnovsky. Transmission, Distribution, and Renewa- ISSN 1996-1944. doi: 10.3390/ma13081931. ble Energy Generation Power Equipment: Aging and Life [13] O. Matsushita, M. Tanaka, M. Kobayashi, P. Keogh, H. Extension Techniques. CRC Press, Taylor & Francis, 2017, Kanki. Vibrations of Rotating Machinery. Vol. 2. Advanced 677 p. (Second edition). ISBN 101498754759/ISBN 13 978- Rotordynamics: Applications of Analysis, Troubleshooting 1-4987-5475-0. and Diagnosis. 2019. Springer Japan KK. 577 p. doi: [26] E. Kuzin, B. Gerike, M. Mamaeva, K. Singh. “Diagnostics of 10.1007/978-4-431-55453-0. Gearboxes of Mining Belt Conveyors Using Floating Spec- [14] Yu. Nikitin, P. Bozek, J. Peterka. “Logical-linguistic Model of tral Masks”. In E3S Web of Conferences, Jan. 2019, Diagnostics of Electric Drivers with Sensors Support”. Sen- 105:03011. doi: 10.1051/e3sconf/201910503011. sors, 2020, 20, 4429. doi: 10.3390/s20164429. [27] K. Lu, J.X. Gu, H. Fan., X. Sun, B. Li., F. Gu. “Acoustics Based [15] V. Sharmaa, A. Pareya. “A review of gear fault diagnosis Monitoring and Diagnostics for the Progressive Deteriora- using various condition indicators”. Procedia Engineering, tion of Helical Gearboxes”. Dec. 2021, Chinese Journal of 144, 2016, pp. 253-263. Mechanical Engineering, 34(1). doi: 10.1186/s10033-021- [16] A. Hammami, M. Iglesias, A. Fernandez, F. Chaari, F. Vi- 00603-1. adero, M. Haddar. “Load sharing behavior in planetary [28] A. Heydari, D.A. Garcia, A. Fekih, F. Keynia., L.B. Tjernberg, gear set”. In: Multiphysics Modelling and Simulation for L.D. Santoli. “A Hybrid Intelligent Model for the Condition Systems Design and Monitoring Applied Condition Moni- Monitoring and Diagnostics of Wind Turbines Gearbox”. toring, vol. 2, 2017, pp. 459-468. doi: 10.1007/978-3-319- Jun. 2021, IEEE Access PP(99):1-1. doi: 10.1109/AC- 14532-7_47. CESS.2021.3090434. [17] J. Peterka, P. Bozek, Yu. Nikitin. “Diagnostics of automated technological devices”. MM Science Journal, oct. 2020, pp. 4027-4034. doi: 10.17973/MMSJ.2020_10_2020051. Yury Nikitin Alexander Turygin Kalashnikov Izhevsk State Technical University Kostroma State Agricultural Academy Student Street 7, Izhevsk, 426069 Department Repair and Basics of Machine Design Udmurt republic, Russia Training town 34, Kostroma region, e-mail: nikitin@istu.ru Karavaevo 156530, Russia e-mail: ab.turygin@yandex.ru Pavol Božek Slovak University of Technology Faculty of Materials Science and Technology Institute of Applied Informatics, Automation and Mechatronics Jána Bottu č. 2781/25, 917 24 Trnava, Slovak Republic e-mail: pavol.bozek@stuba.sk http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Management Systems in Production Engineering de Gruyter

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Abstract

Spiroid gear is one of the progressive varieties of intersecting axis gears. It has a number of advantages: increased overlap coefficient, favourable contact conditions. Spiroid gears are notable for high loading and overloading abil- ity, increased smooth running and less sensitivity to manufacturing and assembly errors, high reliability and du- rability. The analysis of the results of experiment on research of vibration of the spiroid gear PS-124 has shown, that the vibration level at frequency 200-300 Hz is reduced on 5 dB at increase of the resistance moment up to 1000 Nm at clockwise rotation of the reducer and at increase of the resistance moment up to 800 Nm at counter- clockwise rotation of the reducer. The vibration level at frequency 700-800 Hz is also increased on 5 dB at increase of the resistance moment up to 1000 Nm at clockwise rotation of the reducer and at increase of the resistance moment up to 800 Nm. If these vibration levels are exceeded, a defect is likely to occur. Economic efficiency of application of diagnostics systems is caused by increase of reliability and quality, reduction of accidents, decrease in defects, reduction of idle time of expensive equipment, reduction of expenses for maintenance and repair. Key words: spiroid gear, vibration, diagnostics INTRODUCTION LITERATURE REVIEW Spiroid gear is one of the progressive varieties of inter- One of the leading scientific schools in the world for de- secting axis gears. Due to a number of advantages of ge- sign and manufacture of spiroid gearboxes is the school of ometry and kinematics of meshing – increased overlap co- professor Veniamin Goldfarb [2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, efficient, favourable contact conditions – spiroid gears are 12]. The diagnostic technique consists in detecting signal characterized by high load and overload capacity, in- changes caused by damage to gearbox parts [12, 13, 14, creased smooth running and less sensitivity to manufac- 15, 16, 17]. Vibration signal modulations occur in the gear- turing and assembly errors, high reliability and durability box, as gearboxes mainly operate under harsh operating [1]. conditions [17]. Their major components such as gears Spiroid gearboxes are used in various fields, including and bearings are subject to damage such as fatigue crack- pipeline equipment and oil refineries. Failure of a gearbox ing, pitting, corrosion, and wear and tear [18]. Even a leads to great economic losses and environmental disas- small failure can lead to a disaster, so condition monitor- ters. Therefore, diagnostics of spiroids reducers both at ing and diagnostic systems must be installed for gear- the stage of acceptance tests and during operation is an boxes to detect the appearance of defects in time to avoid urgent task. Nowadays the number of such researches has accidents, repairs and replacement of equipment. Faults increased, which proves the relevance of works on gear- can be detected by statistical analysis of the vibration sig- box diagnostics. nal [19]. In the last twenty years much attention has been paid to The technique of change in gearmesh stiffness is widely research in the field of vibration diagnostics. Signals are used to study the vibratory property of the gearbox in received from vibration sensors installed on the gearbox gear dynamic modeling and computer simulation. The vi- housing. 70 Management Systems in Production Engineering 2022, Volume 30, Issue 1 bration response of the gearbox arrangement can be ob- maintenance cost. In [28] it is proposed a hybrid intelli- tained analytically under various tooth fault conditions. It gent condition monitoring and fault warning system for is also used to understanding the effect of the fault and wind turbine’s gearbox. system parameters on mesh stiffness in vibration diagnos- The proposed framework encompasses the following: tic signal. To identify the condition of geared system a se- a) clustering filter – (based on power, rotor speed, blade ries of vibration signals can be generated through com- pitch angle, and wind speed signals) – using the auto- puter simulation analytically. Experiments can be con- matic clustering model and ant bee colony optimiza- ducted on single-stage and multistage gearboxes and vi- tion algorithm (ABC), bration signals recorded for different levels of faults in b) prediction of gearbox bearing temperature and lubri- gear tooth. The vibration response obtained from analyt- cation oil temperature signals – using variational ical model and experiments can be further analyzed by us- mode decomposition, group method of data handling ing different techniques available such as statistical and network, and multi-verse optimization algorithm, and signal processing in the spectrum and its diagnostic per- c) anomaly detection based on the Mahalanobis dis- formance is tested for comparative fault detection [20]. tances and wavelet transform denoising approach. In [21] analysed methods for vibration diagnosis of elec- The proposed condition monitoring system was evaluated trical systems and gearboxes. In the case of gears, it can using 10 min average SCADA datasets of two 2 MW on- be noted that the oscillation of the gears is determined by shore wind turbines located in the south of Sweden. The the meshing frequency and harmonics due to the variable results showed that this strategy can diagnose potential stiffness during meshing [22]. For a pair of damaged gears anomalies prior to failure and inhibit reporting alarms in in gearboxes with fixed axles symmetrically around the healthy operations [28]. meshing frequency and its harmonics, characteristic com- ponents and side bands appear in the frequency spectrum METHODOLOGY OF THE RESEARCH [23]. The vibration signal picked up by accelerometers Experimental studies of highly loaded spiroid gear PS-124 mounted on the gearbox housing contains several types were carried out at the scientific and production enter- of vibrations from gears, shafts, bearings, etc. Informative prise “Mekhanik” Ltd. of Kalashnikov Izhevsk State Tech- vibration signals can easily be masked by strong back- nical University. Figure 1 shows the gearboxes produced ground noise. Without noise reduction [24] it is therefore by “Mekhanik” Ltd. difficult to isolate faults in the low frequency range of the The tests were carried out on a test bench operating ac- signal. Moreover, if a gearbox with several gearing pairs is cording to a closed circuit. The test bench consists of an involved, diagnosis becomes more difficult [25]. electric drive with a gear reducer on the basis of a three- The informative components of the gearbox vibration phase asynchronous motor AIR80V4U2 at 1.6 kW power spectrum, consisting of gearbox speed, gearing frequency and 1395 rpm speed, the studied spiroid gear PS-124, and their harmonics, are affected by faults. Fault identifi- which has an input frequency of 45 rpm, a spuroid gear cation is associated with the appearance of a characteris- and a disk brake, which created the load torque, meas- tic frequency associated with that fault. Similarly, differ- ured by a dynamometer DPU-0,2-2. A vibration sensor ent frequencies associated with different gears can be with a frequency range of 0-2000 Hz was fitted to the equated [26]. spiro gearbox via a magnet. The vibration data was fed Gearbox vibration signals measured by accelerometers into the LTR22 data acquisition system via the LE-41 are in the time domain. If a gearbox malfunctions, the en- charge amplifier and then displayed as a graph on the lap- ergy variation can be seen in the signal. A statistical meas- top screen. urement of the energy of the vibration signal is carried out to detect a malfunction. The various diagnostic tech- niques used use the vibration amplitude and energy of the signal in the time domain [27]. Modern condition monitoring techniques employ ad- vanced technologies to evaluate the machine health and predict when and where the machine is likely to fail, thereby maximizing the machine profitability. Generally, vibration sensors are adopted for condition monitoring of rotating machinery or manufacturing processes. It is gen- erally accepted that vibration signals from a gearbox de- pend on the sensor location relative to the source and are Fig. 1 Gearboxes produced by “Mekhanik” Ltd often contaminated by structure-borne noises from other sources, leading to a low signal noise ratio [27]. Gearbox vibration was measured as the load varies from Gearbox is the major component that leads to turbine 200 Nm to 1000 Nm, in steps of 200 Nm. Experiments downtime. Its failures are mainly caused by the gearbox were performed with the motor rotating in both direc- bearings. Devising condition monitoring approaches for tions. The spiroid gear PS-124 under investigation was the gearbox bearings is an effective predictive mainte- subjected to 3000 running cycles: 2 revolutions, pause, 2 nance measure that can reduce downtime and cut revolutions in the other direction and pause, which made Y. NIKITIN et al. – Vibration Diagnostics of Spiroid Gear 71 12 000 revolutions. The output speed of the spiroid gear was 21 rpm. The structure of the test bench is shown in Fig. 2. Asynchronous three-phase motor Gearbox Spiroid gearbox Vibration sensor Fig. 3 General view of the stand: PS-124 1 - gearbox; 2 - asynchronous three-phase motor AIR 80V4U2; 3 - spiroid gear; 4 - dynamometer DPU-0,2-2; 5 - spur gearbox; 6 - disc brake; 7 - vibration sensor; 8 - charge amplifier LE-41; 9 - laptop; 10 - modular data acquisition system LTR Charge amplifier Helical gearbox LE-41 Fig. 4 shows the locations of the vibration sensors. Data collection Disc brake system LTR Personal computer Fig. 2 Block diagram of the test bench Fig. 4 Vibration sensor installation locations When carrying out an experimental vibration analysis, the type and technical characteristics of the sensors and their RESULTS OF EXPERIMENT ON VIBRATION MEASURE- installation methods must be selected correctly. The way MENT in which the sensors are mounted must not distort their Figures 5, 6 show examples of spiroid gear vibration meas- specifications. urements with a 4000 Nm load when the motor rotates in The locations for installing the vibration sensors (piezo ac- different directions. celerometers) should be selected so that the vibration Fig. 7 shows an example of 600 Nm spiroid gear vibration sensor is as close to the gear zone as possible. Install the measurements on the LTR Modular Data Acquisition Sys- sensor in a location where the attenuation of the gear vi- tem. bration is as low as possible. The distance between the vi- bration signals recorded from the gear zone and the vibra- tion sensor should be as small as possible, especially in the case of gaps. The use of styli to mount the vibration sen- sors is not desirable, at least strong, rare-earth, perma- nent magnets should be used to mount the sensors on the gearbox. The vibration sensor must be mounted in the direction of the line connecting the centres of the gearbox shafts or perpendicular to it. For express diagnostics of gearboxes during acceptance tests it is reasonable to use magnetic fixing method with investigated frequency interval 0-2000 Hz, providing fast installation, for stationary diagnostics systems – pin con- nection with investigated frequency interval 0-10000 Hz, providing precise orientation at good machining. Fig. 5 Example oscilloscope of vibration for a spiroid gear with 4000 Nm load, clockwise rotation The overall view of the stand is shown in Fig. 3. 72 Management Systems in Production Engineering 2022, Volume 30, Issue 1 CONCLUSIONS Spiroid gears are notable for high loading and overloading ability, increased smooth running and less sensitivity to manufacturing and assembly errors, high reliability and durability. The analysis of results of the experiment on investigation of vibration of the spiro gearbox PS-124 shows that the vibration level at frequency 200-300 Hz is reduced by 5 dB with an increase of the resistance moment up to 1000 Nm by clockwise rotation of the gearbox and an increase of the resistance moment up to 800 Nm by counter-clock- wise rotation of the gearbox. The vibration level at frequency 700-800 Hz is increased Fig. 6 Example oscilloscope of vibration for a spiroid gear with by 5 dB with an increase of the resistance moment up to 4000 Nm load, anti-clockwise rotation 1000 Nm by clockwise rotation of the gearbox and an in- crease of the resistance moment up to 800 Nm by clock- wise rotation of the gearbox. At excess of the given vibra- tion levels the probability of occurrence of defect is high. Economic efficiency of application of diagnostic systems is conditioned by increase of reliability and quality, reduc- tion of accidents, decrease in defects, reduction of down- time of expensive equipment, reduction of maintenance and repair costs. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This article was supported by the scientific grant agency of the Slovak Republic under the grant Accurate calculations, modeling and simulation of new surfaces based on physi- cal causes of machined surfaces and additive technology surfaces in machinery and robotical machining conditions Fig. 7 Example of oscillogram and vibration spectrum for spi- no. 1/0097/20 and Progressive form of interdisciplinary roid gear with 600 Nm load torque education and support for the development of the study of vocational subjects in the university environment no. Table 1 shows the experimental results for the low fre- 006STU-4/2021. quency vibration of the spiroid gear PS-124. REFERENCES Table 1 [1] Y.G. Lei, J. Lin, M.J. Zou, Z.J. 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Yury Nikitin Alexander Turygin Kalashnikov Izhevsk State Technical University Kostroma State Agricultural Academy Student Street 7, Izhevsk, 426069 Department Repair and Basics of Machine Design Udmurt republic, Russia Training town 34, Kostroma region, e-mail: nikitin@istu.ru Karavaevo 156530, Russia e-mail: ab.turygin@yandex.ru Pavol Božek Slovak University of Technology Faculty of Materials Science and Technology Institute of Applied Informatics, Automation and Mechatronics Jána Bottu č. 2781/25, 917 24 Trnava, Slovak Republic e-mail: pavol.bozek@stuba.sk

Journal

Management Systems in Production Engineeringde Gruyter

Published: Mar 1, 2022

Keywords: spiroid gear; vibration; diagnostics

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