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The value of air purification and carbon storage ecosystem services of park trees in Warsaw, Poland

The value of air purification and carbon storage ecosystem services of park trees in Warsaw, Poland Environmental & Socio-economic Studies DOI: 10.2478/environ-2022-0012 Environ. Socio.-econ. Stud., 2022, 10, 3: 1-11 ________________________________________________________________________________________________ Original article The value of air purification and carbon storage ecosystem services of park trees in Warsaw, Poland Zbigniew Szkop Faculty of Economic Sciences, University of Warsaw, Długa Street 44/50, 00-241 Warsaw, Poland E–mail address: zszkop@wne.uw.edu.pl ORCID iD: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4102-4119 ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ A B S T R A C T This study assessed, in monetary terms, the ecosystem services provided by trees growing in public parks and garden squares in Warsaw, Poland. It focused on the valuation of two services: air purification (measured as an annual benefit stream in EUR/year) and carbon storage (measured as a fixed value at a given point in time in EUR). The study was conducted using the Avoided Cost Method with i-Tree Eco software. The initial calculations were based on data obtained from 41 selected green spaces in Warsaw. Subsequently, the results were extrapolated to all public parks and garden squares. The findings indicate that the average economic value of the NO , SO and PM pollution removal ecosystem service provided by trees in Warsaw is around 3 EUR/tree/year. 2 2 2.5 On average, one hectare of a public park in Warsaw provides this service at a value of 408 EUR/ha/year, while one hectare of a garden square provides this service at a value of 347 EUR/ha/year. With regards to the carbon storage ecosystem service, the results showed that the average economic value of this service is around 170 EUR/tree. On average, one hectare of a public park provides this service at a value of 22.4 thousand EUR/ha, and one hectare of a garden square provides this service at an average value of 18.9 thousand EUR/ha. By extrapolating these results, the total value of the air pollution removal ecosystem service provided by trees growing in all public parks and garden squares in Warsaw was estimated to range from 393 to 560 thousand EUR/year. The value of the carbon storage service ranges from 23.3 to 30.2 million EUR. KEY WORDS: urban greenery, Avoided Cost Method, i-Tree Eco ARTICLE HISTORY: received 1 May 2022; received in revised form 16 August 2022; accepted 19 August 2022 ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 1. Introduction such as Science (ROUSH, 1997). Likewise, it has been quoted by many renowned media outlets including The valuation of ecosystem services has a history the New York Times, Newsweek, Science News, dating back over a quarter of a century. The origin of National Public Radio, and the BBC (COSTANZA ET AL., this concept is usually associated with a paper by 2017). The vast popularity of this paper contributed Robert Costanza and his team (COSTANZA ET AL., to an explosion of research and debates on valuing 1997), in which the term ecosystem service was ecosystem services, that continues to this day. defined as "the benefits people derive from an Besides highlighting the importance of studying ecosystem". What the paper is arguably most famous the monetary value of ecosystem services, Costanza for is the authors’ attempt to assess, in monetary and his team also made a first attempt at classifying terms, the ecosystem services provided by nature ecosystem services – an important step in facilitating worldwide. They estimated the value of the world's the comparison of results from different valuation ecosystem services to be around 33 trillion USD studies. Their paper identified 17 types of ecosystem per year – which was more than the global GDP at services. In subsequent research projects focusing the time. The results of the study have been cited on assessing ecosystem services (e.g., MEA, 2005; in some of the most prestigious scientific journals, TEEB, 2010; CICES, 2013), the list proposed by Costanza and his team has been expanded upon the air purification and carbon storage ecosystem and made more specific. Nowadays, the CICES list services provided by urban trees growing in (Common International Classification of Ecosystem Warsaw's public parks and garden squares. Services) is the reference list used in many studies (HAINES-YOUNG & POTSCHIN, 2018). This is 2. State-of-the-art also the list officially recommended by institutions in the European Union for research purposes. The first step in the valuation of air purification The current version of the CICES list (v5.1) and carbon storage ecosystem services is to estimate includes 90 ecosystem services. Of course, not all the amount of air pollutants removed by trees per these services can be provided by all types of year (g/year), as well as the total amount of carbon ecosystems. For instance, the service "provision of stored (kg). The second step is to estimate the costs wild animals used as a source of energy " could that would have been incurred in the absence of perhaps be provided by woodlands or oceans, but these ecosystem services, i.e., how much more not urban trees. Nevertheless, the value provided by money would have to be spent on healthcare or urban trees can easily be assigned to other services fighting the harmful effects of climate change. included in the CICES. Studies assessing the monetary This Avoided Cost Method is a well-established value of these services found, among others: technique used to value ecosystem services by researchers across the globe.  Trees provide raw materials such as fruits An in situ study that aims to calculate the exact (CICES: 1.1.1.1) or wood fuels such as pellets or briquettes (CICES: 1.1.1.3) (e.g., VELÁZQUEZ- annual amount of pollutants absorbed by an MARTÍ ET AL., 2013; VON HOFFEN & SÄUMEL, individual tree growing in the city would be a very 2014); methodically complicated and capital-intensive process. The same is true for the carbon storage  Trees supply transpiration and shading (CICES ecosystem service. When estimating the amount 2.2.6.2) (e.g., PAULEIT & DUHME, 2000; SHASHUA- of carbon stored in tree tissues, it is found that BAR ET AL., 2009; BOWLER ET AL., 2010; TSIROS, about half of the dry mass of wood is made up of 2010). atmospheric carbon (NOWAK, 1994). However, when  Trees act as windbreaks (CICES 2.2.1.4) (e.g., this is calculated for an individual tree, the tree is HEISLER, 1986; DEWALLE & HEISLER, 1988; PEPER ET not removed, dried, and weighed to estimate how AL., 2007). much carbon it has stored. Instead, models which  Trees sequester and store carbon (CICES: 2.1.1.2) were developed during studies under laboratory (e.g., MOULTON & RICHARDS, 1990; PEPER ET AL., 2007; conditions are used to estimate these quantities SZKOP, 2019, 2021a). (SZKOP, 2020a). The software tool i-Tree Eco can  Trees control runoff (CICES 2.2.1.3) (e.g., XIAO be used to estimate the amount of carbon stored in ET AL., 1998; ROGERS ET AL., 2015; BERLAND ET AL., tree tissues (kg) and the annual amount of pollutants 2017; MOFFAT ET AL., 2017). removed (kg/year) by an individual tree. By linking  Trees purify the air (CICES 2.1.1.2) (e.g., NOWAK this data with the information about avoided costs ET AL., 2007; NOWAK ET AL., 2014; PEPER ET AL., due to the provision of ecosystem services, 2007; SZKOP, 2016, 2020; ZAWOJSKA ET AL., 2016). researchers can successfully estimate the economic  Trees reduce noise pollution (CICES 2.1.2.2) and value of such services. mask noise (CICES 2.1.2.3) (e.g., TAMURA, 1997). The i-Tree Eco software was developed in the  Trees have aesthetic (CICES 3.1.12) and recreational United States and has gained popularity abroad benefits (CICES 3.1.1.1) (e.g., BERTRAM ET AL., 2017; in recent years. Studies using this software have CHIESURA, 2004; ANDERSON & CORDELL, 1988; been performed in Canada (LEFRANÇOIS, 2015), SUMMIT & SOMMER, 1999; BORKOWSKA ET AL., Colombia (BAUTISTA & PEÑA-GUZMÁN, 2019), Mexico 2001; DONOVAN & BUTRY, 2010; GIERGICZNY & (DE LA CONCHA, 2017), Puerto Rico (MELÉNDEZ- KRONENBERG, 2012; DIMKE ET AL., 2013; CZEMBROWSKI ACKERMAN ET AL., 2018), the Dominican Republic ET AL., 2016). (BAUER ET AL., 2016), Germany (SCHOLZ ET AL., 2018), Evidently, trees provide a range of ecosystem Spain (CHAPARRO & TERRADAS, 2009; BARÓ ET AL., services and many of them are of high economic 2014), France (NOWAK, 2018), the Netherlands value. It is important to conduct valuation studies, (MEDRANO, 2019), Portugal (GRAÇA ET AL., 2017), as quantification can raise environmental awareness the United Kingdom (HUTCHINGS ET AL., 2012; ROGERS and help policymakers to better manage urban ET AL., 2015; DOICK ET AL., 2017; RAUM ET AL., 2019), greenery and achieve desired environmental Australia (BLAIR ET AL., 2017; GARDNER ET AL., 2017) improvements (RAUM ET AL., 2019). The study and China (WU ET AL., 2019). presented in this paper aimed to assess the value of Table 1. Urban green areas included in the analysis In addition to the countries listed above, this software has also been used to perform several Area Number Location name studies in Poland. Among others, it has been used (ha) of trees to estimate the value of air purification and carbon Krasinski Garden 606 9.57 storage ecosystem services provided by trees Agrykola Park 810 4.71 growing in Krasińskich Garden in Warsaw (SZKOP, J. Porazinska Park 564 4.12 2016), trees growing in the Palace Park in Wilanow K. Beyer Park 270 2.28 (ZAWOJSKA ET AL., 2016) and selected urban treen Casimir Park 436 4.29 in the Wola district of Warsaw (SZKOP, 2021a). Marshal E. Rydz-Śmigły Park 5 518 32.85 However, these were rather small-scale studies Soviet Military Cemetery - Mausoleum Park 2 110 15.63 and did not allow for the verification of obtained Mirowski Park 678 4.84 values being either significantly higher, or lower, Morskie Oko Park 1 365 than the average in the region. 17.61 Praga Park 2 237 To date, no studies to assess the economic value 17.67 R. Traugutt Park 2 219 of air purification and carbon storage ecosystem 13.05 S. Żeromski Park 834 services across all the public parks and garden 4.74 T. Mazowiecki Park 841 squares of a large city have been conducted in central 5.42 Mokotów Field 7 937 and eastern Europe – including Poland. Moreover, 73.36 A. M. Bocheński garden square 87 the results of the studies conducted in other regions 0.75 Batalion AK "Miłosz" garden square 66 of the world may not be valid for central and 0.36 Batalion AK "Ruczaj" garden square 28 eastern Europe's spatial context, e.g., due to a 0.23 F. Mitterrand garden square 9 difference in tree species composition. The presented 0.09 Fijewscy garden square 93 study aims to fill this knowledge gap. 1.19 H. Hoovera garden square 15 0.21 3. Study area J. Janicki garden square 163 0.93 J. Twardowski garden square 69 0.87 The i-Tree Eco software requires field data to B. Kontrym "Żmudzina" garden square 35 0.41 estimate the amount of air pollutants absorbed R. Reagan garden square 45 0.42 by trees per year (g/year) and the amount of Radio Matysiak Family garden square 102 0.82 carbon they store (kg). Data that relate to the S. Jankowski "Agatona" garden square 319 2.17 size, species, health condition and location of the S. Orgelbrand garden square 194 1.36 analyzed trees were obtained from the Greenery W. Stus garden square 114 0.82 Office of the Capital City of Warsaw (ZZW) (ZZW, Zgrupowanie AK "Róg" garden square 52 0.45 2021). B. Wodiczko garden square 199 2.51 Data from 29,165 trees growing in 41 selected Swiss Valley garden square 43 0.83 urban green spaces (14 public parks and 27 L. Strehl garden square 69 0.55 garden squares) in central Warsaw were used in Grzybowski square 40 0.55 the analysis. This covers an area of approximately Piaseczyński canal garden square 476 2.67 234 ha. The location of the individual analyzed trees Gnojną Górą garden square 182 2.51 within the city boundary (zoomed-out view) (Fig. 1), Dąbrowski square 22 0.47 the location of the public parks/garden squares Nike monument garden square 75 1.02 (zoomed-in view) (Fig. 2), and the names and Kawaleria street garden square 5 0.24 sizes of these areas (Table 1) are shown below. Kozia street garden square 61 0.59 Szara street garden square 36 0.16 Vistula Escarpment garden square 141 1.00 TOTAL 234.32 29 165 Fig. 1. Location of trees included in the analysis Fig. 2. Analyzed urban green areas 4. Method The value of an ecosystem service is calculated by multiplying the obtained physical value of the The amount of air pollutants absorbed by the service with the unit social cost. The unit social analyzed trees per year (g/year) and the amount cost is an estimate of the economic costs, or damages, of carbon they store (kg) were estimated using the that would result when reducing the ecosystem i-Tree Eco software. The analysis focused on three service by one unit. For example, the unit social air pollutants: SO , NO and PM , as the software cost of a certain air pollutant, or CO is equal to 2 2 2.5 2, provides reliable estimates for these compounds. the cost of emitting one additional kg, or ton, of Once the air pollution removal and carbon storage that substance into the atmosphere, indicating ecosystem services were estimated in physical terms the potential benefit of reducing emissions by the (units of mass), the ecosystem services were valuated same amount. These unit social costs depend on (expressed in monetary terms). This was performed many factors and are therefore not easy to by evaluating the social costs that would have calculate. Fortunately, many long-term research been incurred in the absence of these ecosystem projects have already determined such values for services, i.e., the Avoided Cost Method approach. the substances included in the presented study. In this study, the benefits of improving air the removal of the tree and therefore the release quality by removing SO , NO and PM were of all the carbon it has stored. For that reason, 2 2 2.5 calculated based on the unit social costs of these presenting this service as a fixed value is justified. pollutants, which were estimated for various After estimating the value of the ecosystem European research projects and summarized in the services provided by the 29,165 trees, for which EXTERNEE DATABASE (2005). ExternE's methodology the necessary parameters were available, the results determines the unit social costs using an "impact were extrapolated to all public parks and garden pathway" approach. This means analyzing a series of squares in Warsaw. According to the information events linking each activity under consideration obtained from ZZW (ZZW, 2021), Warsaw is (e.g., the emission of an additional ton of SO ) to its covered by 1013.7 ha of public parks and 207 ha "effects" (e.g., impacts on human health, plants, of garden squares. Based on the analysis carried physical assets, etc.) and then determining the out for the trees growing in the selected 14 public monetary value of those impacts (e.g., the cost of parks and 27 garden squares, the lower (first quartile) treating diseases or renovation of building facades). and upper (third quartile) estimates per hectare The value of the unit social costs of air pollutants were calculated for each of the two area types. strongly depends, among other things, on how much These values were then multiplied by the total area of the population is exposed to the concentration of public parks and garden squares in Warsaw to of a given pollutant or what the costs of treating air estimate the total value of air purification and pollution-related diseases are in a specific country. carbon storage ecosystem services provided by To take these factors into account, the ExternE all its urban trees. project values calculated for urbanized areas in Poland were used in this study. These were: 18.26 5. Results EUR/kg of NO2, 12.05 EUR/kg of SO2, and 56.70 EUR/kg of PM (at 2021 prices) . The study showed that the 29,165 examined trees 2.5 The benefit of the carbon storage ecosystem remove an estimated 3,503 kg of NO , 504 kg of service, as presented in the study, was calculated PM , and 375 kg of SO from the air each year. 2.5 2 based on the unit social cost of carbon (SCC). This SCC This service can be valued at approximately 91 value was determined by the Interagency Working thousand EUR/year. The average value of this service Group on Social Cost of Greenhouse Gases, United per tree is slightly more than 3 EUR/year. These States Government (IWG) (IWG, 2021). It shows urban trees store about 30 thousand tons of carbon the marginal cost of the impact caused by emitting in their tissues. If all the trees were cut down and one extra ton of CO and is equal to 51.00 EUR/ton of the carbon stored in their tissues returned to the 2,3 CO (162.22 EUR/ton of C) . atmosphere as CO , it would result in a social cost 2 2 In this study, the air purification service is estimated at approximately 5 million EUR. The estimated as a stream of benefits (EUR/year or average value of this service per tree is around EUR/ha/year) and the carbon storage service as a 170 EUR. It should be noted that, unlike the fixed value (EUR or EUR/ha). This is a deliberate pollution removal ecosystem service, this is not decision by the authors, as trees remove air pollution the value of an annual stream of avoided costs (or each year and these pollutants will never return benefits), but rather a fixed benefit of avoiding to the atmosphere in the same form. Therefore, the cost of tree removal at a given point in time. presenting this value as a stream of benefits is Detailed valuation results are presented in Table 2. justified. The value of ecosystem services such as air The matter is more complex when it comes to the purification and carbon storage is related to the carbon storage ecosystem service. Trees sequester size of a tree, which is related to the age of a tree. carbon every year, but all, or most, of that carbon As a rule, the age of trees in urban areas does not will return to the atmosphere when they die and have a normal distribution. Warsaw is no exception, decompose. Thus, how much carbon a tree has as there are a lot more younger trees than old sequestered in a given year is less important than ones. This is because many newly planted trees the total amount of carbon stored in its tissues. do not survive to maturity, due to harsh urban The carbon storage social cost is estimated for conditions. Therefore, presenting the data by referring to the median, first and third quartiles (Q1 and Q3) may be more informative. This information The costs, originally estimated at 2010 rates, were recalculated in 2021 using the consumer price index (CPI). If the producer is presented in Table 3. price index (PPI) was used, values would be 1.2% lower. The conversion factor used is: EUR 1 = USD 1.125 After taking the atomic mass proportions of C and CO into account Table 2. Total and average economic values of the analyzed ecosystem services for the n=29,165 trees included in the analysis Total Average C NO SO PM C NO SO PM 2 2 2.5 2 2 2.5 (thous. of (thous. of (thous. of (thous. of (EUR/tree) (EUR/tree/ (EUR/tree/ (EUR/tree/ EUR) EUR /year) EUR /year) EUR /year) year) year) year) 4 964.3 64.0 6.1 21.3 170.2 2.2 0.2 0.7 Table 3. Economic value of the analyzed ecosystem services for the trees included in the n=29,165 analysis, expressed by quartiles C NO2 SO2 PM2.5 (EUR/tree) (EUR/tree/year) (EUR/tree/year) (EUR/tree/year) Q1 0.6 0.1 0.2 27.1 Median 2.1 0.2 0.7 96.8 Q3 3.2 0.3 1.1 213.5 The median value of the air purification ecosystem public park areas in Warsaw, is around 83 thousand service provided by the analyzed trees is very similar EUR/year. On average, one hectare of the public to the average value of 3 EUR/year. The value of this park areas in Warsaw provides an air purification ecosystem service for half of the analyzed trees service to the estimated value of 408 EUR/ha/year. ranged from 0.9 to 4.6 EUR/year. The median value is 392 EUR/ha/year. The value The median value of the carbon storage service for half of the analyzed public parks ranged between provided by the analyzed trees is almost 97 EUR, 340 (Q1) and 489 EUR/ha/year (Q3). therefore it is different from the average value. The carbon storage ecosystem service provided The value of this service for half of the analyzed by the trees growing in these parks has a total trees ranged from 27.1 to 213.5 EUR. estimated value of around 4.5 million EUR. On These ecosystem service results were also average, one hectare of public park area in Warsaw investigated by type of area, and this is shown in provides this service to the estimated value of Table 4 (public parks) and Table 5 (garden squares). 22.4 thousand EUR/ha. The median value is 22.2 The study showed that the total value of the thousand EUR/ha. The value for half of the analyzed NO , SO and PM pollution removal ecosystem public parks ranged between 20.3 (Q1) and 25.9 2 2 2.5 service provided by all trees growing in the analyzed thousand EUR/ha (Q3). Table 4. Economic value of the analyzed ecosystem services across 14 public parks in Warsaw NO SO PM 2 2 2.5 C NO2 SO2 PM2.5 C (thous. of (thous. of (thous. of Public park name (thous. of (EUR/ (EUR/ (EUR/ (thous. of EUR/ EUR/ EUR/ EUR) year) year) year) EUR/ha) ha/year) ha/year) ha/year) Krasinski Garden 139.6 1 669 158.4 555 14.6 174.4 16.6 58 Agrykola Park 98.4 1 293 122.6 430 20.9 275 26 91.3 J. Porazinska Park 107.9 1 123 106.6 374 26.2 273 25.9 90.7 K. Beyer Park 53.1 626 59.4 208.1 23.3 274 26.1 91.3 Casimir Park 70.4 905 85.9 301 16.4 211 20 70.1 Marshal E. Rydz-Śmigły Park 896.3 11 900 1 129 3 957 27.3 362 34.4 120.5 Soviet Military Cemetery - 474.5 6 097 578 2 028 30.4 390 37 129.7 Mausoleum Park Mirowski Park 107.4 1 803 171.1 600 22.2 373 35.4 123.9 Morskie Oko Park 388.5 4 002 380 1 331 22.1 227 21.6 75.6 Praga Park 439.4 4 768 452 1 586 24.9 270 25.6 89.7 R. Traugutt Park 262.4 4 061 385 1 350 20.1 311 29.5 103.5 S. Żeromski Park 105.1 1 325 125.8 441 22.2 280 26.5 93 T. Mazowiecki Park 146.6 1 914 181.5 636 27.0 353 33.5 117.4 Mokotów Field 1205.6 16 514 1 567 5 491 16.4 225 21.4 74.9 TOTAL 4495.1 58 000 5 503 19 286 Table 5. Economic value of the studied ecosystem services across 27 garden squares in Warsaw NO SO PM 2 2 2.5 C NO2 SO2 PM2.5 C (thous. of (thous. of (thous. of Garden sqare name (thous. of (EUR/ (EUR/ (EUR/ (thous. of EUR/ EUR/ EUR/ EUR) year) year) year) EUR/ha) ha/year ) ha/year ) ha/year ) A. M. Bocheński garden square 14.5 195.6 18.6 65.1 19.4 261 24.8 86.8 Batalion AK "Miłosz" garden square 7.6 132.5 12.6 44 21.1 368 35 122.2 Batalion AK "Ruczaj" garden square 3.7 51.1 4.8 17 15.9 222 20.9 73.9 F. Mitterrand garden square 2.5 36.9 3.5 12.3 27.4 410 38.9 136.7 Fijewscy garden square 8 91.5 8.7 30.4 6.7 76.9 7.3 25.5 H. Hoovera garden square 2.7 36.8 3.5 12.2 13 175.2 16.7 58.1 J. Janicki garden square 18.4 266 25.3 88.5 19.8 286 27.2 95.2 J. Twardowski garden square 19.6 169.3 16.1 56.3 22.5 194.6 18.5 64.7 B. Kontrym "Żmudzina" garden square 5.5 70.9 6.7 23.6 13.3 172.9 16.3 57.6 R. Reagan garden square 13.3 151.5 14.4 50.4 31.6 361 34.3 120 Radio Matysiak Family garden square 16.8 214 20.3 71.1 20.5 261 24.8 86.7 S. Jankowski "Agatona" garden square 57.7 836.5 79.4 278 26.6 386 36.6 128.2 S. Orgelbrand garden square 16.6 168.5 16 56 12.2 123.9 11.8 41.2 W. Stus garden square 25.1 372 35.3 123.7 30.6 454 43 150.9 Zgrupowanie AK "Róg" garden square 13.5 142 13.5 47.2 30.1 316 30 104.9 B. Wodiczko garden square 61.8 528 50.1 175.5 24.6 210.2 20 69.9 Swiss Valley garden square 15.1 163.9 15.5 54.5 18.2 197.5 18.7 65.7 L. Strehl garden square 11.6 155.4 14.7 51.7 21.1 283 26.7 94 Grzybowski square 2.8 48.4 4.6 16.1 5.2 88 8.4 29.3 Piaseczyński canal garden square 68 1 222 115.9 406 25.5 458 43.4 152.2 Gnojną Górą garden square 31.3 299 28.4 99.5 12.5 119.3 11.3 39.6 Dąbrowski square 3.8 52 4.9 17.3 8.1 110.6 10.4 36.8 Nike monument garden square 18.2 162 15.4 53.9 17.8 158.8 15.1 52.8 Kawaleria street garden square 0 0.4 0 0.1 0 1.7 0 0.4 Kozia street garden square 9.8 99.6 9.5 33.1 16.5 168.8 16.1 56.1 Szara street garden square 5.2 76.7 7.3 25.5 32.8 479.4 45.6 159.4 Vistula Escarpment garden square 16.1 217 20.6 72.2 16.1 217 20.6 72.2 TOTAL 469 5 960 566 1 982 It was found that the total value of the NO , SO analyzed public parks ranged between 13.1 (Q1) 2 2 and PM pollution removal ecosystem service and 25.1 thousand EUR/ha (Q3). 2.5 provided by all trees growing on the analyzed garden The study covered an area of 14 public parks squares in Warsaw, is around 9.4 thousand EUR/year. and 27 garden squares with a total size of around On average, one hectare of garden squares in Warsaw 234.3 ha. This constitutes less than 20% of the provides this service to the estimated value of 347 total area of Warsaw's public parks and garden EUR/ha/year. The median value is 310 EUR/ha/year. squares, as public parks in Warsaw cover 1013.7 The value for half of the analyzed garden squares ha and garden squares cover 207.0 ha (ZZW, 2021). ranged between 234 (Q1) and 483 EUR/ha/year (Q3). The values (EUR/ha or EUR/ha/year) obtained The carbon storage ecosystem service provided for the selected public parks and garden squares by the trees growing on these squares has a total were thus extrapolated to represent the total area of estimated value of around 0.5 million EUR. On public parks and garden squares in Warsaw, as average, one hectare of garden squares in Warsaw shown in Table 6. provides a carbon storage service to the estimated value of 18.9 thousand EUR/ha. The median value is First and third quartiles (Q1 and Q3) were used to set a 19.4 thousand EUR/ha. The value for half of the range for a lower and upper estimate Table 6. Results of data extrapolation for the whole of the Warsaw area All public parks in Warsaw All garden squares in Warsaw C NO2 SO2 PM2.5 C NO2 SO2 PM2.5 (millions (thous. of (thous. of (thous. of (millions (thous. of (thous. of (thous. of of EUR) EUR/year) EUR/year) EUR/year) of EUR) EUR/year) EUR/year) EUR/year) Lower estimate (Q1) 20.6 241.1 22.9 80.2 2.7 33.9 3.2 11.3 Upper estimate (Q2) 26.2 347.2 32.9 115.5 4.0 44.9 4.3 15.0 Average of Q1 and Q2 23.4 294.2 27.9 97.9 3.4 39.4 3.8 13.1 The results suggest that the total value of the these results to represent the entire city, it was NO , SO and PM air purification ecosystem service estimated that the total monetary value of the air 2 2 2.5 provided by all trees growing in public parks and purification ecosystem service provided by trees garden squares in Warsaw, is between 393 and growing in all public parks and garden squares in 560 thousand EUR/year. The value of the carbon Warsaw, ranges from 393 to 560 thousand EUR/year. storage service provided by these trees is between The value of the carbon storage service ranges EUR 23.3 million and EUR 30.3 million. from 23.3 to 30.2 million EUR. To date, no previous studies have estimated 6. Conclusions and recommendations the economic value of air purification and carbon storage ecosystem services for such a large urban This study assessed the monetary value of area. This applies not only to Poland, but also to ecosystem services provided by trees growing in the entire region of central and eastern Europe. public parks and garden squares in Warsaw. It This knowledge gap was identified and filled by the focused on two ecosystem services: carbon storage results of the presented study. Other researchers and air purification. To conduct the valuation, the and decision-makers can now successfully use these Avoided Cost Method together with i-Tree Eco findings to estimate the approximate monetary software was used. This approach to valuation has value of selected ecosystem services provided by been used in many studies across the globe, as public parks and garden squares in other central well as in Poland. Among others, it has been used and eastern European cities. To facilitate this to estimate the value of air purification and carbon application, the results presented in this study storage ecosystem services provided by trees were given values in units per hectare (EUR/ha growing in: the Krasińskich Garden in Warsaw or EUR/ha/year) and lower and upper estimates (SZKOP, 2016), the Palace Park in Wilanów (ZAWOJSKA (Q1 and Q3) were also shown. ET AL., 2016) and selected urban trees in the When interpreting the results of the conducted Wola district of Warsaw (SZKOP, 2021a). The monetary valuation, one should bear in mind the results obtained in this study are consistent, in study's main limitation. Though it is the largest of order of magnitude, with these previous studies. its kind to be conducted in Poland and in central Unfortunately, the previous studies were small- and eastern Europe, the results provide only scale and did not allow for the verification of fragmentary information on the value of ecosystem values being either significantly higher, or lower, services provided by urban trees in a large city. than the average for the region. The presented This is because: study improves on this, by conducting valuations 1) The study did not cover the air purification on a much larger sample of 41 areas with trees ecosystem service fully. It focused on NO , SO 2 2 (14 public parks and 27 garden squares) in Warsaw. and PM pollutant removal, while the removal of 2.5 The findings presented here showed that, on other pollutants such as O or PM was not 3 10 average, one hectare of the public park in Warsaw investigated. This is due to the methodological provides an air purification ecosystem service to the issues of such an investigation, i.e., the lack of value of 408 EUR/ha/year, while one hectare of reliable pollutant removal models and information garden square provides this service to the value on the pollutants' unit social costs – both of which of 347 EUR/ha/year. Regarding the carbon storage are needed to perform the Avoided Cost Method ecosystem service, it was found that one hectare valuation process. of public park provides this service at an average 2) The study focused only on public parks and value of 22.4 thousand EUR/ha and one hectare garden squares, when many other urban green of garden square provides this service at an average spaces were omitted. These include street trees, value of 18.9 thousand EUR/ha. By extrapolating housing estate greenery, urban forests, cemeteries, Bertram C., Meyerhoff J., Rehdanz K., Wüstemann H. 2017. allotment gardens and private gardens, to name a Differences in the recreational value of urban parks few. This means that the total value of air purification between weekdays and weekends: A discrete choice analysis. and carbon storage ecosystem services would be Landscape and Urban Planning, 159: 5–14. much higher if calculated for all green spaces in Blair J., Roldan C., Ghosh S., Yung S.H. 2017. 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The value of air purification and carbon storage ecosystem services of park trees in Warsaw, Poland

Environmental & Socio-economic Studies , Volume 10 (3): 11 – Sep 1, 2022

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Environmental & Socio-economic Studies DOI: 10.2478/environ-2022-0012 Environ. Socio.-econ. Stud., 2022, 10, 3: 1-11 ________________________________________________________________________________________________ Original article The value of air purification and carbon storage ecosystem services of park trees in Warsaw, Poland Zbigniew Szkop Faculty of Economic Sciences, University of Warsaw, Długa Street 44/50, 00-241 Warsaw, Poland E–mail address: zszkop@wne.uw.edu.pl ORCID iD: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4102-4119 ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ A B S T R A C T This study assessed, in monetary terms, the ecosystem services provided by trees growing in public parks and garden squares in Warsaw, Poland. It focused on the valuation of two services: air purification (measured as an annual benefit stream in EUR/year) and carbon storage (measured as a fixed value at a given point in time in EUR). The study was conducted using the Avoided Cost Method with i-Tree Eco software. The initial calculations were based on data obtained from 41 selected green spaces in Warsaw. Subsequently, the results were extrapolated to all public parks and garden squares. The findings indicate that the average economic value of the NO , SO and PM pollution removal ecosystem service provided by trees in Warsaw is around 3 EUR/tree/year. 2 2 2.5 On average, one hectare of a public park in Warsaw provides this service at a value of 408 EUR/ha/year, while one hectare of a garden square provides this service at a value of 347 EUR/ha/year. With regards to the carbon storage ecosystem service, the results showed that the average economic value of this service is around 170 EUR/tree. On average, one hectare of a public park provides this service at a value of 22.4 thousand EUR/ha, and one hectare of a garden square provides this service at an average value of 18.9 thousand EUR/ha. By extrapolating these results, the total value of the air pollution removal ecosystem service provided by trees growing in all public parks and garden squares in Warsaw was estimated to range from 393 to 560 thousand EUR/year. The value of the carbon storage service ranges from 23.3 to 30.2 million EUR. KEY WORDS: urban greenery, Avoided Cost Method, i-Tree Eco ARTICLE HISTORY: received 1 May 2022; received in revised form 16 August 2022; accepted 19 August 2022 ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 1. Introduction such as Science (ROUSH, 1997). Likewise, it has been quoted by many renowned media outlets including The valuation of ecosystem services has a history the New York Times, Newsweek, Science News, dating back over a quarter of a century. The origin of National Public Radio, and the BBC (COSTANZA ET AL., this concept is usually associated with a paper by 2017). The vast popularity of this paper contributed Robert Costanza and his team (COSTANZA ET AL., to an explosion of research and debates on valuing 1997), in which the term ecosystem service was ecosystem services, that continues to this day. defined as "the benefits people derive from an Besides highlighting the importance of studying ecosystem". What the paper is arguably most famous the monetary value of ecosystem services, Costanza for is the authors’ attempt to assess, in monetary and his team also made a first attempt at classifying terms, the ecosystem services provided by nature ecosystem services – an important step in facilitating worldwide. They estimated the value of the world's the comparison of results from different valuation ecosystem services to be around 33 trillion USD studies. Their paper identified 17 types of ecosystem per year – which was more than the global GDP at services. In subsequent research projects focusing the time. The results of the study have been cited on assessing ecosystem services (e.g., MEA, 2005; in some of the most prestigious scientific journals, TEEB, 2010; CICES, 2013), the list proposed by Costanza and his team has been expanded upon the air purification and carbon storage ecosystem and made more specific. Nowadays, the CICES list services provided by urban trees growing in (Common International Classification of Ecosystem Warsaw's public parks and garden squares. Services) is the reference list used in many studies (HAINES-YOUNG & POTSCHIN, 2018). This is 2. State-of-the-art also the list officially recommended by institutions in the European Union for research purposes. The first step in the valuation of air purification The current version of the CICES list (v5.1) and carbon storage ecosystem services is to estimate includes 90 ecosystem services. Of course, not all the amount of air pollutants removed by trees per these services can be provided by all types of year (g/year), as well as the total amount of carbon ecosystems. For instance, the service "provision of stored (kg). The second step is to estimate the costs wild animals used as a source of energy " could that would have been incurred in the absence of perhaps be provided by woodlands or oceans, but these ecosystem services, i.e., how much more not urban trees. Nevertheless, the value provided by money would have to be spent on healthcare or urban trees can easily be assigned to other services fighting the harmful effects of climate change. included in the CICES. Studies assessing the monetary This Avoided Cost Method is a well-established value of these services found, among others: technique used to value ecosystem services by researchers across the globe.  Trees provide raw materials such as fruits An in situ study that aims to calculate the exact (CICES: 1.1.1.1) or wood fuels such as pellets or briquettes (CICES: 1.1.1.3) (e.g., VELÁZQUEZ- annual amount of pollutants absorbed by an MARTÍ ET AL., 2013; VON HOFFEN & SÄUMEL, individual tree growing in the city would be a very 2014); methodically complicated and capital-intensive process. The same is true for the carbon storage  Trees supply transpiration and shading (CICES ecosystem service. When estimating the amount 2.2.6.2) (e.g., PAULEIT & DUHME, 2000; SHASHUA- of carbon stored in tree tissues, it is found that BAR ET AL., 2009; BOWLER ET AL., 2010; TSIROS, about half of the dry mass of wood is made up of 2010). atmospheric carbon (NOWAK, 1994). However, when  Trees act as windbreaks (CICES 2.2.1.4) (e.g., this is calculated for an individual tree, the tree is HEISLER, 1986; DEWALLE & HEISLER, 1988; PEPER ET not removed, dried, and weighed to estimate how AL., 2007). much carbon it has stored. Instead, models which  Trees sequester and store carbon (CICES: 2.1.1.2) were developed during studies under laboratory (e.g., MOULTON & RICHARDS, 1990; PEPER ET AL., 2007; conditions are used to estimate these quantities SZKOP, 2019, 2021a). (SZKOP, 2020a). The software tool i-Tree Eco can  Trees control runoff (CICES 2.2.1.3) (e.g., XIAO be used to estimate the amount of carbon stored in ET AL., 1998; ROGERS ET AL., 2015; BERLAND ET AL., tree tissues (kg) and the annual amount of pollutants 2017; MOFFAT ET AL., 2017). removed (kg/year) by an individual tree. By linking  Trees purify the air (CICES 2.1.1.2) (e.g., NOWAK this data with the information about avoided costs ET AL., 2007; NOWAK ET AL., 2014; PEPER ET AL., due to the provision of ecosystem services, 2007; SZKOP, 2016, 2020; ZAWOJSKA ET AL., 2016). researchers can successfully estimate the economic  Trees reduce noise pollution (CICES 2.1.2.2) and value of such services. mask noise (CICES 2.1.2.3) (e.g., TAMURA, 1997). The i-Tree Eco software was developed in the  Trees have aesthetic (CICES 3.1.12) and recreational United States and has gained popularity abroad benefits (CICES 3.1.1.1) (e.g., BERTRAM ET AL., 2017; in recent years. Studies using this software have CHIESURA, 2004; ANDERSON & CORDELL, 1988; been performed in Canada (LEFRANÇOIS, 2015), SUMMIT & SOMMER, 1999; BORKOWSKA ET AL., Colombia (BAUTISTA & PEÑA-GUZMÁN, 2019), Mexico 2001; DONOVAN & BUTRY, 2010; GIERGICZNY & (DE LA CONCHA, 2017), Puerto Rico (MELÉNDEZ- KRONENBERG, 2012; DIMKE ET AL., 2013; CZEMBROWSKI ACKERMAN ET AL., 2018), the Dominican Republic ET AL., 2016). (BAUER ET AL., 2016), Germany (SCHOLZ ET AL., 2018), Evidently, trees provide a range of ecosystem Spain (CHAPARRO & TERRADAS, 2009; BARÓ ET AL., services and many of them are of high economic 2014), France (NOWAK, 2018), the Netherlands value. It is important to conduct valuation studies, (MEDRANO, 2019), Portugal (GRAÇA ET AL., 2017), as quantification can raise environmental awareness the United Kingdom (HUTCHINGS ET AL., 2012; ROGERS and help policymakers to better manage urban ET AL., 2015; DOICK ET AL., 2017; RAUM ET AL., 2019), greenery and achieve desired environmental Australia (BLAIR ET AL., 2017; GARDNER ET AL., 2017) improvements (RAUM ET AL., 2019). The study and China (WU ET AL., 2019). presented in this paper aimed to assess the value of Table 1. Urban green areas included in the analysis In addition to the countries listed above, this software has also been used to perform several Area Number Location name studies in Poland. Among others, it has been used (ha) of trees to estimate the value of air purification and carbon Krasinski Garden 606 9.57 storage ecosystem services provided by trees Agrykola Park 810 4.71 growing in Krasińskich Garden in Warsaw (SZKOP, J. Porazinska Park 564 4.12 2016), trees growing in the Palace Park in Wilanow K. Beyer Park 270 2.28 (ZAWOJSKA ET AL., 2016) and selected urban treen Casimir Park 436 4.29 in the Wola district of Warsaw (SZKOP, 2021a). Marshal E. Rydz-Śmigły Park 5 518 32.85 However, these were rather small-scale studies Soviet Military Cemetery - Mausoleum Park 2 110 15.63 and did not allow for the verification of obtained Mirowski Park 678 4.84 values being either significantly higher, or lower, Morskie Oko Park 1 365 than the average in the region. 17.61 Praga Park 2 237 To date, no studies to assess the economic value 17.67 R. Traugutt Park 2 219 of air purification and carbon storage ecosystem 13.05 S. Żeromski Park 834 services across all the public parks and garden 4.74 T. Mazowiecki Park 841 squares of a large city have been conducted in central 5.42 Mokotów Field 7 937 and eastern Europe – including Poland. Moreover, 73.36 A. M. Bocheński garden square 87 the results of the studies conducted in other regions 0.75 Batalion AK "Miłosz" garden square 66 of the world may not be valid for central and 0.36 Batalion AK "Ruczaj" garden square 28 eastern Europe's spatial context, e.g., due to a 0.23 F. Mitterrand garden square 9 difference in tree species composition. The presented 0.09 Fijewscy garden square 93 study aims to fill this knowledge gap. 1.19 H. Hoovera garden square 15 0.21 3. Study area J. Janicki garden square 163 0.93 J. Twardowski garden square 69 0.87 The i-Tree Eco software requires field data to B. Kontrym "Żmudzina" garden square 35 0.41 estimate the amount of air pollutants absorbed R. Reagan garden square 45 0.42 by trees per year (g/year) and the amount of Radio Matysiak Family garden square 102 0.82 carbon they store (kg). Data that relate to the S. Jankowski "Agatona" garden square 319 2.17 size, species, health condition and location of the S. Orgelbrand garden square 194 1.36 analyzed trees were obtained from the Greenery W. Stus garden square 114 0.82 Office of the Capital City of Warsaw (ZZW) (ZZW, Zgrupowanie AK "Róg" garden square 52 0.45 2021). B. Wodiczko garden square 199 2.51 Data from 29,165 trees growing in 41 selected Swiss Valley garden square 43 0.83 urban green spaces (14 public parks and 27 L. Strehl garden square 69 0.55 garden squares) in central Warsaw were used in Grzybowski square 40 0.55 the analysis. This covers an area of approximately Piaseczyński canal garden square 476 2.67 234 ha. The location of the individual analyzed trees Gnojną Górą garden square 182 2.51 within the city boundary (zoomed-out view) (Fig. 1), Dąbrowski square 22 0.47 the location of the public parks/garden squares Nike monument garden square 75 1.02 (zoomed-in view) (Fig. 2), and the names and Kawaleria street garden square 5 0.24 sizes of these areas (Table 1) are shown below. Kozia street garden square 61 0.59 Szara street garden square 36 0.16 Vistula Escarpment garden square 141 1.00 TOTAL 234.32 29 165 Fig. 1. Location of trees included in the analysis Fig. 2. Analyzed urban green areas 4. Method The value of an ecosystem service is calculated by multiplying the obtained physical value of the The amount of air pollutants absorbed by the service with the unit social cost. The unit social analyzed trees per year (g/year) and the amount cost is an estimate of the economic costs, or damages, of carbon they store (kg) were estimated using the that would result when reducing the ecosystem i-Tree Eco software. The analysis focused on three service by one unit. For example, the unit social air pollutants: SO , NO and PM , as the software cost of a certain air pollutant, or CO is equal to 2 2 2.5 2, provides reliable estimates for these compounds. the cost of emitting one additional kg, or ton, of Once the air pollution removal and carbon storage that substance into the atmosphere, indicating ecosystem services were estimated in physical terms the potential benefit of reducing emissions by the (units of mass), the ecosystem services were valuated same amount. These unit social costs depend on (expressed in monetary terms). This was performed many factors and are therefore not easy to by evaluating the social costs that would have calculate. Fortunately, many long-term research been incurred in the absence of these ecosystem projects have already determined such values for services, i.e., the Avoided Cost Method approach. the substances included in the presented study. In this study, the benefits of improving air the removal of the tree and therefore the release quality by removing SO , NO and PM were of all the carbon it has stored. For that reason, 2 2 2.5 calculated based on the unit social costs of these presenting this service as a fixed value is justified. pollutants, which were estimated for various After estimating the value of the ecosystem European research projects and summarized in the services provided by the 29,165 trees, for which EXTERNEE DATABASE (2005). ExternE's methodology the necessary parameters were available, the results determines the unit social costs using an "impact were extrapolated to all public parks and garden pathway" approach. This means analyzing a series of squares in Warsaw. According to the information events linking each activity under consideration obtained from ZZW (ZZW, 2021), Warsaw is (e.g., the emission of an additional ton of SO ) to its covered by 1013.7 ha of public parks and 207 ha "effects" (e.g., impacts on human health, plants, of garden squares. Based on the analysis carried physical assets, etc.) and then determining the out for the trees growing in the selected 14 public monetary value of those impacts (e.g., the cost of parks and 27 garden squares, the lower (first quartile) treating diseases or renovation of building facades). and upper (third quartile) estimates per hectare The value of the unit social costs of air pollutants were calculated for each of the two area types. strongly depends, among other things, on how much These values were then multiplied by the total area of the population is exposed to the concentration of public parks and garden squares in Warsaw to of a given pollutant or what the costs of treating air estimate the total value of air purification and pollution-related diseases are in a specific country. carbon storage ecosystem services provided by To take these factors into account, the ExternE all its urban trees. project values calculated for urbanized areas in Poland were used in this study. These were: 18.26 5. Results EUR/kg of NO2, 12.05 EUR/kg of SO2, and 56.70 EUR/kg of PM (at 2021 prices) . The study showed that the 29,165 examined trees 2.5 The benefit of the carbon storage ecosystem remove an estimated 3,503 kg of NO , 504 kg of service, as presented in the study, was calculated PM , and 375 kg of SO from the air each year. 2.5 2 based on the unit social cost of carbon (SCC). This SCC This service can be valued at approximately 91 value was determined by the Interagency Working thousand EUR/year. The average value of this service Group on Social Cost of Greenhouse Gases, United per tree is slightly more than 3 EUR/year. These States Government (IWG) (IWG, 2021). It shows urban trees store about 30 thousand tons of carbon the marginal cost of the impact caused by emitting in their tissues. If all the trees were cut down and one extra ton of CO and is equal to 51.00 EUR/ton of the carbon stored in their tissues returned to the 2,3 CO (162.22 EUR/ton of C) . atmosphere as CO , it would result in a social cost 2 2 In this study, the air purification service is estimated at approximately 5 million EUR. The estimated as a stream of benefits (EUR/year or average value of this service per tree is around EUR/ha/year) and the carbon storage service as a 170 EUR. It should be noted that, unlike the fixed value (EUR or EUR/ha). This is a deliberate pollution removal ecosystem service, this is not decision by the authors, as trees remove air pollution the value of an annual stream of avoided costs (or each year and these pollutants will never return benefits), but rather a fixed benefit of avoiding to the atmosphere in the same form. Therefore, the cost of tree removal at a given point in time. presenting this value as a stream of benefits is Detailed valuation results are presented in Table 2. justified. The value of ecosystem services such as air The matter is more complex when it comes to the purification and carbon storage is related to the carbon storage ecosystem service. Trees sequester size of a tree, which is related to the age of a tree. carbon every year, but all, or most, of that carbon As a rule, the age of trees in urban areas does not will return to the atmosphere when they die and have a normal distribution. Warsaw is no exception, decompose. Thus, how much carbon a tree has as there are a lot more younger trees than old sequestered in a given year is less important than ones. This is because many newly planted trees the total amount of carbon stored in its tissues. do not survive to maturity, due to harsh urban The carbon storage social cost is estimated for conditions. Therefore, presenting the data by referring to the median, first and third quartiles (Q1 and Q3) may be more informative. This information The costs, originally estimated at 2010 rates, were recalculated in 2021 using the consumer price index (CPI). If the producer is presented in Table 3. price index (PPI) was used, values would be 1.2% lower. The conversion factor used is: EUR 1 = USD 1.125 After taking the atomic mass proportions of C and CO into account Table 2. Total and average economic values of the analyzed ecosystem services for the n=29,165 trees included in the analysis Total Average C NO SO PM C NO SO PM 2 2 2.5 2 2 2.5 (thous. of (thous. of (thous. of (thous. of (EUR/tree) (EUR/tree/ (EUR/tree/ (EUR/tree/ EUR) EUR /year) EUR /year) EUR /year) year) year) year) 4 964.3 64.0 6.1 21.3 170.2 2.2 0.2 0.7 Table 3. Economic value of the analyzed ecosystem services for the trees included in the n=29,165 analysis, expressed by quartiles C NO2 SO2 PM2.5 (EUR/tree) (EUR/tree/year) (EUR/tree/year) (EUR/tree/year) Q1 0.6 0.1 0.2 27.1 Median 2.1 0.2 0.7 96.8 Q3 3.2 0.3 1.1 213.5 The median value of the air purification ecosystem public park areas in Warsaw, is around 83 thousand service provided by the analyzed trees is very similar EUR/year. On average, one hectare of the public to the average value of 3 EUR/year. The value of this park areas in Warsaw provides an air purification ecosystem service for half of the analyzed trees service to the estimated value of 408 EUR/ha/year. ranged from 0.9 to 4.6 EUR/year. The median value is 392 EUR/ha/year. The value The median value of the carbon storage service for half of the analyzed public parks ranged between provided by the analyzed trees is almost 97 EUR, 340 (Q1) and 489 EUR/ha/year (Q3). therefore it is different from the average value. The carbon storage ecosystem service provided The value of this service for half of the analyzed by the trees growing in these parks has a total trees ranged from 27.1 to 213.5 EUR. estimated value of around 4.5 million EUR. On These ecosystem service results were also average, one hectare of public park area in Warsaw investigated by type of area, and this is shown in provides this service to the estimated value of Table 4 (public parks) and Table 5 (garden squares). 22.4 thousand EUR/ha. The median value is 22.2 The study showed that the total value of the thousand EUR/ha. The value for half of the analyzed NO , SO and PM pollution removal ecosystem public parks ranged between 20.3 (Q1) and 25.9 2 2 2.5 service provided by all trees growing in the analyzed thousand EUR/ha (Q3). Table 4. Economic value of the analyzed ecosystem services across 14 public parks in Warsaw NO SO PM 2 2 2.5 C NO2 SO2 PM2.5 C (thous. of (thous. of (thous. of Public park name (thous. of (EUR/ (EUR/ (EUR/ (thous. of EUR/ EUR/ EUR/ EUR) year) year) year) EUR/ha) ha/year) ha/year) ha/year) Krasinski Garden 139.6 1 669 158.4 555 14.6 174.4 16.6 58 Agrykola Park 98.4 1 293 122.6 430 20.9 275 26 91.3 J. Porazinska Park 107.9 1 123 106.6 374 26.2 273 25.9 90.7 K. Beyer Park 53.1 626 59.4 208.1 23.3 274 26.1 91.3 Casimir Park 70.4 905 85.9 301 16.4 211 20 70.1 Marshal E. Rydz-Śmigły Park 896.3 11 900 1 129 3 957 27.3 362 34.4 120.5 Soviet Military Cemetery - 474.5 6 097 578 2 028 30.4 390 37 129.7 Mausoleum Park Mirowski Park 107.4 1 803 171.1 600 22.2 373 35.4 123.9 Morskie Oko Park 388.5 4 002 380 1 331 22.1 227 21.6 75.6 Praga Park 439.4 4 768 452 1 586 24.9 270 25.6 89.7 R. Traugutt Park 262.4 4 061 385 1 350 20.1 311 29.5 103.5 S. Żeromski Park 105.1 1 325 125.8 441 22.2 280 26.5 93 T. Mazowiecki Park 146.6 1 914 181.5 636 27.0 353 33.5 117.4 Mokotów Field 1205.6 16 514 1 567 5 491 16.4 225 21.4 74.9 TOTAL 4495.1 58 000 5 503 19 286 Table 5. Economic value of the studied ecosystem services across 27 garden squares in Warsaw NO SO PM 2 2 2.5 C NO2 SO2 PM2.5 C (thous. of (thous. of (thous. of Garden sqare name (thous. of (EUR/ (EUR/ (EUR/ (thous. of EUR/ EUR/ EUR/ EUR) year) year) year) EUR/ha) ha/year ) ha/year ) ha/year ) A. M. Bocheński garden square 14.5 195.6 18.6 65.1 19.4 261 24.8 86.8 Batalion AK "Miłosz" garden square 7.6 132.5 12.6 44 21.1 368 35 122.2 Batalion AK "Ruczaj" garden square 3.7 51.1 4.8 17 15.9 222 20.9 73.9 F. Mitterrand garden square 2.5 36.9 3.5 12.3 27.4 410 38.9 136.7 Fijewscy garden square 8 91.5 8.7 30.4 6.7 76.9 7.3 25.5 H. Hoovera garden square 2.7 36.8 3.5 12.2 13 175.2 16.7 58.1 J. Janicki garden square 18.4 266 25.3 88.5 19.8 286 27.2 95.2 J. Twardowski garden square 19.6 169.3 16.1 56.3 22.5 194.6 18.5 64.7 B. Kontrym "Żmudzina" garden square 5.5 70.9 6.7 23.6 13.3 172.9 16.3 57.6 R. Reagan garden square 13.3 151.5 14.4 50.4 31.6 361 34.3 120 Radio Matysiak Family garden square 16.8 214 20.3 71.1 20.5 261 24.8 86.7 S. Jankowski "Agatona" garden square 57.7 836.5 79.4 278 26.6 386 36.6 128.2 S. Orgelbrand garden square 16.6 168.5 16 56 12.2 123.9 11.8 41.2 W. Stus garden square 25.1 372 35.3 123.7 30.6 454 43 150.9 Zgrupowanie AK "Róg" garden square 13.5 142 13.5 47.2 30.1 316 30 104.9 B. Wodiczko garden square 61.8 528 50.1 175.5 24.6 210.2 20 69.9 Swiss Valley garden square 15.1 163.9 15.5 54.5 18.2 197.5 18.7 65.7 L. Strehl garden square 11.6 155.4 14.7 51.7 21.1 283 26.7 94 Grzybowski square 2.8 48.4 4.6 16.1 5.2 88 8.4 29.3 Piaseczyński canal garden square 68 1 222 115.9 406 25.5 458 43.4 152.2 Gnojną Górą garden square 31.3 299 28.4 99.5 12.5 119.3 11.3 39.6 Dąbrowski square 3.8 52 4.9 17.3 8.1 110.6 10.4 36.8 Nike monument garden square 18.2 162 15.4 53.9 17.8 158.8 15.1 52.8 Kawaleria street garden square 0 0.4 0 0.1 0 1.7 0 0.4 Kozia street garden square 9.8 99.6 9.5 33.1 16.5 168.8 16.1 56.1 Szara street garden square 5.2 76.7 7.3 25.5 32.8 479.4 45.6 159.4 Vistula Escarpment garden square 16.1 217 20.6 72.2 16.1 217 20.6 72.2 TOTAL 469 5 960 566 1 982 It was found that the total value of the NO , SO analyzed public parks ranged between 13.1 (Q1) 2 2 and PM pollution removal ecosystem service and 25.1 thousand EUR/ha (Q3). 2.5 provided by all trees growing on the analyzed garden The study covered an area of 14 public parks squares in Warsaw, is around 9.4 thousand EUR/year. and 27 garden squares with a total size of around On average, one hectare of garden squares in Warsaw 234.3 ha. This constitutes less than 20% of the provides this service to the estimated value of 347 total area of Warsaw's public parks and garden EUR/ha/year. The median value is 310 EUR/ha/year. squares, as public parks in Warsaw cover 1013.7 The value for half of the analyzed garden squares ha and garden squares cover 207.0 ha (ZZW, 2021). ranged between 234 (Q1) and 483 EUR/ha/year (Q3). The values (EUR/ha or EUR/ha/year) obtained The carbon storage ecosystem service provided for the selected public parks and garden squares by the trees growing on these squares has a total were thus extrapolated to represent the total area of estimated value of around 0.5 million EUR. On public parks and garden squares in Warsaw, as average, one hectare of garden squares in Warsaw shown in Table 6. provides a carbon storage service to the estimated value of 18.9 thousand EUR/ha. The median value is First and third quartiles (Q1 and Q3) were used to set a 19.4 thousand EUR/ha. The value for half of the range for a lower and upper estimate Table 6. Results of data extrapolation for the whole of the Warsaw area All public parks in Warsaw All garden squares in Warsaw C NO2 SO2 PM2.5 C NO2 SO2 PM2.5 (millions (thous. of (thous. of (thous. of (millions (thous. of (thous. of (thous. of of EUR) EUR/year) EUR/year) EUR/year) of EUR) EUR/year) EUR/year) EUR/year) Lower estimate (Q1) 20.6 241.1 22.9 80.2 2.7 33.9 3.2 11.3 Upper estimate (Q2) 26.2 347.2 32.9 115.5 4.0 44.9 4.3 15.0 Average of Q1 and Q2 23.4 294.2 27.9 97.9 3.4 39.4 3.8 13.1 The results suggest that the total value of the these results to represent the entire city, it was NO , SO and PM air purification ecosystem service estimated that the total monetary value of the air 2 2 2.5 provided by all trees growing in public parks and purification ecosystem service provided by trees garden squares in Warsaw, is between 393 and growing in all public parks and garden squares in 560 thousand EUR/year. The value of the carbon Warsaw, ranges from 393 to 560 thousand EUR/year. storage service provided by these trees is between The value of the carbon storage service ranges EUR 23.3 million and EUR 30.3 million. from 23.3 to 30.2 million EUR. To date, no previous studies have estimated 6. Conclusions and recommendations the economic value of air purification and carbon storage ecosystem services for such a large urban This study assessed the monetary value of area. This applies not only to Poland, but also to ecosystem services provided by trees growing in the entire region of central and eastern Europe. public parks and garden squares in Warsaw. It This knowledge gap was identified and filled by the focused on two ecosystem services: carbon storage results of the presented study. Other researchers and air purification. To conduct the valuation, the and decision-makers can now successfully use these Avoided Cost Method together with i-Tree Eco findings to estimate the approximate monetary software was used. This approach to valuation has value of selected ecosystem services provided by been used in many studies across the globe, as public parks and garden squares in other central well as in Poland. Among others, it has been used and eastern European cities. To facilitate this to estimate the value of air purification and carbon application, the results presented in this study storage ecosystem services provided by trees were given values in units per hectare (EUR/ha growing in: the Krasińskich Garden in Warsaw or EUR/ha/year) and lower and upper estimates (SZKOP, 2016), the Palace Park in Wilanów (ZAWOJSKA (Q1 and Q3) were also shown. ET AL., 2016) and selected urban trees in the When interpreting the results of the conducted Wola district of Warsaw (SZKOP, 2021a). The monetary valuation, one should bear in mind the results obtained in this study are consistent, in study's main limitation. Though it is the largest of order of magnitude, with these previous studies. its kind to be conducted in Poland and in central Unfortunately, the previous studies were small- and eastern Europe, the results provide only scale and did not allow for the verification of fragmentary information on the value of ecosystem values being either significantly higher, or lower, services provided by urban trees in a large city. than the average for the region. The presented This is because: study improves on this, by conducting valuations 1) The study did not cover the air purification on a much larger sample of 41 areas with trees ecosystem service fully. It focused on NO , SO 2 2 (14 public parks and 27 garden squares) in Warsaw. and PM pollutant removal, while the removal of 2.5 The findings presented here showed that, on other pollutants such as O or PM was not 3 10 average, one hectare of the public park in Warsaw investigated. This is due to the methodological provides an air purification ecosystem service to the issues of such an investigation, i.e., the lack of value of 408 EUR/ha/year, while one hectare of reliable pollutant removal models and information garden square provides this service to the value on the pollutants' unit social costs – both of which of 347 EUR/ha/year. Regarding the carbon storage are needed to perform the Avoided Cost Method ecosystem service, it was found that one hectare valuation process. of public park provides this service at an average 2) The study focused only on public parks and value of 22.4 thousand EUR/ha and one hectare garden squares, when many other urban green of garden square provides this service at an average spaces were omitted. These include street trees, value of 18.9 thousand EUR/ha. By extrapolating housing estate greenery, urban forests, cemeteries, Bertram C., Meyerhoff J., Rehdanz K., Wüstemann H. 2017. allotment gardens and private gardens, to name a Differences in the recreational value of urban parks few. This means that the total value of air purification between weekdays and weekends: A discrete choice analysis. and carbon storage ecosystem services would be Landscape and Urban Planning, 159: 5–14. much higher if calculated for all green spaces in Blair J., Roldan C., Ghosh S., Yung S.H. 2017. 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Journal

Environmental & Socio-economic Studiesde Gruyter

Published: Sep 1, 2022

Keywords: urban greenery; Avoided Cost Method; i-Tree Eco

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