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Revista Minelor – Mining Revue ISSN-L 1220-2053 / ISSN 2247-8590 vol. 28, issue 4 / 2022, pp. 24-32 THE INFLUENCE OF THE EXPLOITATION OF MINERAL DEPOSITS AND USEFUL ROCKS ON THE ENVIRONMENTAL COMPONENTS ANALYZED IN SĂLAJ COUNTY 1* George Ionuț Răzvan FAZACAȘ University of Petroșani, Petroșani, Romania, email@example.com DOI: 10.2478/minrv-2022-0027 Abstract: Starting from the importance of the mining industry and how it influences the environment, environmental components and human settlements, this study analysed the activity of Prodănești, Moigrad and Marca quarries, from Sălaj county and how their activity influences the environmental components, air, water and noise. The analysis focuses on the interpretation of the test reports for the years 2016-2019, imposed in the regulatory acts, by the environmental protection authority. Keywords: quarries, AM, water, air, noise, environmental impact, test reports 1. Introduction Useful rocks are exploited in numerous quarries and gravel pits spread throughout the territory of the country, having national, regional and local importance , within the national economy it is necessary to capitalize on any resource especially the local ones . The mining industry exerts on the environment special influences that manifest themselves in all technological phases and exploitation processes contributing to a great extent to the pollution of the natural receptors in the area . Mainly, the sources of pollution regarding the exploitation of deposits in quarries are the emission of dust, particulate matter and noise that come mainly from the transport of cars and the handling of machinery and mineral aggregates, the detonation of explosives, affecting in particular the activity of personnel but also of nearby vegetation that leads to the diminosis of photosynthesis and implicitly the development of plant biomass . The influence of useful mineral and rock deposits have an impact on environmental components, so it is important "to monitor, forecast, warn and intervene in order to systematically assess the dynamics of the qualitative characteristics of the environmental elements, in order to know their quality status and ecological significance, the evolution and social implications of the changes produced, followed by the necessary measures" . Monitoring can be conducted for various purposes, including establishing environmental "baselines, trends and cumulative effects" . In this study are analysed according to chapter III, the environmental monitoring, from AM , , , physico-chemical, bacteriological and biological indicators emitted, pollutant emissions, the frequency of environmental factors air, water as well as noise from the mining perimeters of Prodăneşti, Moigrad and Marca quarries. The objects studied in Fig.1 are located partially in the inner city of the localities A) Prodănești locality, B) Moigrad locality, C) Marca locality, having as main activity the extraction of ornamental stone and stone for construction , , respectively the extraction of stone limestone, gypsum, chalk and slate. Corresponding author: Fazacaș George Ionuț Răzvan, PhD. Stud., University of Petroșani, Petroșani, Romania, contact details (University st. no. 20, Petroșani, Romania firstname.lastname@example.org) 24 Revista Minelor – Mining Revue vol. 28, issue 4 / 2022 ISSN-L 1220-2053 / ISSN 2247-8590 pp. 24-32 Figure 1. A) Prodănști quarry, B) Moigrad quarry, C) Marca quarry,.Salaj County 2. Materials and methods In order to determine the sources of pollution, specific equipment was used for sampling and measuring the air, water and noise environmental factors, for the period 2016-2019, carried out by REANAR accredited laboratories, namely: for the Prodănești quarry, the test reports were made by the ICIA Cluj-Napoca laboratory ,,, for the Moigrad quarry the determinations were made by the Sălaj Environmental Protection Agency , , , , Someș-Tisa Water Basin Administration Sălaj Water Management System , , , and for the Marca quarry, the determinations were made by the laboratory S.C Minesa - Institute of Research and Design Minesa S.A , , , . A. Equipment used for noise determination: - sound level meter BRUER&KJAER 2250 L; - SOLO sound level meter; - sound level meter DELTA OHM HD2010UC; - analytical balance. B. Equipment used for the determination of suspended powders, sedimentable powders: - Zamelli sampler, ZB1; - isokinetic probe and sampling pump; - filter membrane d=0.85µm, ɸ=47 mm. C. Equipment used, analysis of physical and chemical indicators of water quality: - sampling probe. Sampling and analysis methods are according to STAS and current regulations. water: SR ISO 10523/97, STAS 6953-81, STAS 9187/84, SR7587/96 air: STAS 12.574/'8 noise: STAS 10.009/'88 25 Revista Minelor – Mining Revue vol. 28, issue 4 / 2022 ISSN-L 1220-2053 / ISSN 2247-8590 pp. 24-32 3. The result of the analyses The results of the laboratory analysis for the air, water and noise environmental components are described in the tables: 1, 2, 3 and 4, it is found that there are no exceedances of the maximum allowed limits and the environmental legislation in force is respected. Table 1. Average concentrations of suspended dust in the period 2016-2019 Maximum No. Garndemar Prodănești Marca addmited Quality Indicators M.U. Crt. Quarry Quarry Quarry limits Stas 12574/87 1 mg/dm 0.1 0.03 0.15 0.5 2 mg/dm 0.2 0.07 0.08 0.5 3 powder in suspension mg/dm 0.1 0.07 0.068 0.5 4 mg/dm 0.4 0.09 0.1 0.5 mg/dm 0.1 0.03 0.15 0.5 sedimentable powder g/m (30 days) 7.81 17 Table 2. Average concentrations of water quality indicators in the period 2016-2019 No. Moigrad Marca Maximum Quality Indicators M.U. Crt. Quarry Quarry addmited limits 1 PH unit pH 7.02 7.8 6.5-8.5 2 suspended matter mg/dm 16.2 50 60 3 fixed residue mg/dm 118 113 2000 4 extra-attainable substances mg/dm 8.8 <20 20 Table 3. Average noise level for the period 2016-2019 Average of measurement values Maximum No. LAeq addmited limits Analysis point M.U. Crt. STAS Prodănești Marca Quarry* Quarry** 10.009/’88 1 52.7 59.06 crushing activity* 2 the main gate of the factory* 56.0 46.5 boundary* 3 dB(A) 54.2 51.83 65 the southern boundary of the 4 40.0 58.29 access perimeter to the quarry** Table 4. Average noise level for the Moigrad quarry period 2016-2019 Maximum Average of No. addmited limits Analysis point M.U. measurement values Crt. STAS Laeq 10.009/’88 1 to the north towards the dwelling houses 58.4 2 to east at career entry, treadmill 59.7 dB(A) 65 3 to south of entry into the quarry 63.6 4 to the west stage of the exploitation quarry 57.6 4. Environmental impact assessment for the Prodăneşti, Moigrad and Marca quarries 4.1 Matrix environmental impact assessment for the environmental factors air, water and noise In order to report the environmental components affected by the quarrying activity, the MERI (Rapid Impact Assessment Matrix) method was applied . The MERI method is based on a standard definition of the important evaluation criteria and the means by which quasi-quantitative values can be deduced for each of these criteria Table 5  26 Revista Minelor – Mining Revue vol. 28, issue 4 / 2022 ISSN-L 1220-2053 / ISSN 2247-8590 pp. 24-32 The calculation procedure for MERI assumes the following equations: 𝐴𝐴 1 ×𝐴𝐴 2 = 𝐵𝐵 1 +𝐵𝐵 2 +𝐵𝐵 3 = 𝐴𝐴𝐵𝐵 (1) ×𝐴𝐴𝐵𝐵 = 𝑆𝑆𝑆𝑆 where: A1, A2, B1, B2, B3 – evaluation criteria by the MERI method At, Bt – marks obtained by multiplying, respectively, adding the values of the evaluation criteria SM - average score for the analyzed factor The established standard evaluation criteria fall into two broad types: A – criteria that can individually change the environmental score obtained B – criteria that individually cannot change the average score Table 5. Evaluation criteria and stages by the MERI method Criterion Scale Description 4 Important for national/international interests 3 Important for regional / national interests A1 Importance of environmental 2 Important also for areas in the immediate vicinity of the site area change (effect) 1 Important only for local conditions 0 Without importance 3 Important major benefit 2 Significant improvement of the actual / current state 1 Improving the current state A2 Magnitude of environmental 0 Unchanging the current state change -1 Negative change of fact -2 Disadvantages or significant negative changes -3 Disadvantages or major negative changes B1 1 No changes Residence 2 Temporary 3 Permanent B2 1 No changes Reversibility 2 Reversible 3 Irreversible B3 1 No changes Cumulativeness 2 Non-cumulative / unique 3 Cumulative / synergistic After obtaining the environmental scores, they are transformed into impact categories (IC), based on the conversion scale in table 6  Table 6. Conversion of environmental scores into impact categories Environmental score (ES) Categories (Code) Description of the impact category (IC) + 72 → + 108 + E Major positive impact + 36 → + 71 + D Significant positive impact + 19 → + 35 + C Moderate positive impact + 10 → + 18 + B Positive impact + 1 → + 9 + A Slightly positive impact 0 N Lack of change / status quo / Not applicable - 1 → - 9 - A Slightly negative impact - 10 → - 18 - B Negative impact - 19 → - 35 - C Moderate negative impact - 36 → - 71 - D Significant negative impact - 72 → - 108 - E Major negative impact The result of the calculation of the impact on the environmental component air, water and noise for the Prodăneşti, Moigrad and Marca quarries, evaluated by the MERI method, was carried out according to the input data and calculation formulas from Table 5, are presented in Tables 7; 8; 9  𝐴𝐴𝐴𝐴 𝐴𝐴𝐴𝐴 Revista Minelor – Mining Revue vol. 28, issue 4 / 2022 ISSN-L 1220-2053 / ISSN 2247-8590 pp. 24-32 Table 7. Evaluation by the MERI method Prodănești quarry Environment Evaluation criteria Environmental Categories Description of the component A1 A2 B1 B2 B3 score (Code) impact category (IC) AIR 1 -1 2 3 2 -7 –A Slightly negative impact NOISE 1 -1 2 3 2 -7 –A Slightly negative impact Table 8. Evaluation by the MERI method Moigrad quarry Environment Evaluation criteria Environmental Categories Description of the component A1 A2 B1 B2 B3 score (Code) impact category (IC) AIR 1 -1 2 3 2 -7 - A Slightly negative impact WATER 1 -1 2 3 2 -7 - A Slightly negative impact NOISE 1 -1 2 3 2 -7 - A Slightly negative impact Table 9. Evaluation by the MERI method Marca quarry Evaluation criteria Environment Environmental Categories Description of the component score (Code) impact category (IC) A1 A2 B1 B2 B3 AIR 1 -1 2 3 1 -7 - A Slightly negative impact WATER 1 -1 2 3 1 -7 - A Slightly negative impact NOISE 1 -1 2 3 1 -7 - A Slightly negative impact After calculating the assessment using the MERI method, it results that the exploitation activity in quarries has a slight negative impact for all environmental factors WATER, AIR and NOISE, 4.2. Assessment of the impact of the risk produced on the environmental components air, water and noise The environmental impact and risk assessment process is an important tool in the decision-making process , in this case for the studied quarries Prodănești, Moigrad and Marca using a method of evaluation MERI method (Rapid Impact Assessment Matrix)  In the first step, the degree of GI importance is established, for the environmental components air, water and noise in order to be able to assess the impact and the environmental risk to which it is granted on a scale from 0 to 1, where the value 1 represents the highest importance , then the units of importance of the UI are calculated for each environmental component example Table 10  Table 10. Calculation of the importance of each environmental component CM environmental Units of importance GIi degree of importance component UI =1000*GIi/GI Air 1,00 333 Water 1,00 333 Noise 1,00 333 Total GI= ∑GIi=3 GI= ∑GIi=1000 In order to assess the environmental impact and risk, it is necessary to analyse the three water, air and noise environmental components described in Table 12, where the quality of the assessed environmental component (Q) is determined as the ratio of the maximum permissible concentration (AQC), according to the legislation in force, to the concentration determined in the environment (Cdet) at a given time for a given pollutant  Q = CMA/ C (2) det The induced impact on each assessed environmental component (IM) is given by the product between the quality of the environmental component (Q) and the units of importance (UI) obtained by each environmental component according to the relationship:  IM=Q×UI (3) IM= ∑ IM/n (4) n – total number of quality indicators analysed. 28 Revista Minelor – Mining Revue vol. 28, issue 4 / 2022 ISSN-L 1220-2053 / ISSN 2247-8590 pp. 24-32 For each environmental component, an environmental risk is associated and is calculated by the relationship: RM=IM ×P (5) P- the calculated probability that the impact will occur on the environmental component The probability of an impact on the environmental components analysed is described in Table 11  and correlated with the values in Table 10. Table 11. Description of probability Probability Description Units of probability For sure is carried out in 99% of cases 0,91-1,0 Almost certainly it could be done in 90% of cases 0,61-0,9 Probable it can happen in 50% of cases 0,31-0,6 Unlikely it happens sometimes in 10% of cases 0,05-0,3 Rar it can happen in exceptional cases,1% <0,05 Table 12. Calculation of environmental impacts and risks Environment The objective 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Quality Indicators CMA Cdet Q UI IM P RM component under analysis Moigrad quarry powder in suspension 0.5 0.2 2.5 832.5 249.8 Prodănești quarry sedimentable powder 17 7.8 2.2 333 724.8 0.3 217.5 Air Marca quarry powder in suspension 0.5 0.1 4.5 1513.6 454.1 Induced environmental impact and risk ∑ IM/n 1023.7 307.1 PH 6.5-8.5 7.0 0.9 309.2 92.8 suspended matter 60 16.2 3.7 1233.3 370.0 Prodănești quarry fixed residue 2000 118 16.9 5644.1 1693.2 extra-attainable substances 20 8.8 2.3 333 756.8 0.3 227.0 Water PH 6.5-8.5 7.8 0.8 277.5 83.3 Marca quarry suspended matter 60 50.0 1.2 399.6 119.9 fixed residue 2000 113.0 17.7 5893.8 1768.1 Induced environmental impact and risk ∑ IM/n 2073.5 622.0 crushing activity 52.7 1.2 410.7 123.2 the main gate of the factory 56.0 1.2 386.5 116.0 Prodănești quarry 65 54.2 1.2 399.4 119.8 boundary 40.0 1.6 541.1 162.3 59.1 1.1 366.5 109.9 the southern boundary of 46.5 1.4 465.5 139.6 Marca quarry the access perimeter to the 65 51.8 1.3 417.6 125.3 quarry 58.3 1.1 371.3 111.4 333 0.3 Noise to the north towards the 58.4 1.1 370.6 111.2 dwelling houses to east at career entry, 59.7 1.1 362.6 108.8 treadmill Moigrad quarry 65 to south of entry into the 63.6 1.0 340.3 102.1 quarry to the west stage of the 57.6 1.1 375.8 112.7 exploitation quarry Induced environmental impact and risk ∑ IM/n 400.7 120.2 1– maximum permissible concentration under the national legislation in force, 2 – concentration determined, 3 – quality of the environmental component, depending on indicator "i" from "n" quality indicators; 4 – the unit of importance obtained by the environmental component; 5 – the environmental impact calculated according to the parameter "environmental quality", 6 – the calculated probability that the impact will occur on the environmental component; 7 – the environmental risk associated with each impact. 29 Revista Minelor – Mining Revue vol. 28, issue 4 / 2022 ISSN-L 1220-2053 / ISSN 2247-8590 pp. 24-32 Calculate simultaneously the impact as well as the associated environmental risk for each environmental component air, water and noise for the oebictives analysed after the relationship:  IM =∑IM /m și RM =∑RM /m (6) med j med j m- number of environmental components j- analyzed The quantification of the environmental impact and risk for each environmental component analyzed water, air and noise is classified according to the Table 12 . Table 13. Classification of environmental impact and risk Environmental Environmental Description Description impact risk degraded environment, unsuitable for life <100 forms major risks, preventive measures <200 environment severely affected by human are needed 100-250 activities environment subject to the effects of medium risks, preventive measures 250-350 activities human causing disorders of life 200-350 are needed forms environment exposed to the effects of human average risks at an acceptable level, 350-500 350-700 activities causing discomfort must be monitored environment subject to the effects of risks, but must be 500-1000 700-1000 activities human within permissible limits considered/monitored unaffected by activities >1000 >1000 negligible/insignificant risks human/natural quality By calculating the average value for the three environmental components air, water and noise, an average impact IM=1166 is obtained, which is classified in the environment unaffected by human activities/natural quality and an average risk RM=350 is classified into average risks at an acceptable level, prevention and monitoring measures. After calculating the IM and RM at the activities carried out at the Prodănești quarries. Moigrad and Marca draw the following conclusions regarding the environmental components air, water and noise after the classification in Table 13. - by air environment component = > an environment unaffected by human activities/natural quality - by water environment component = > an environment unaffected by human activities/natural quality - after the environmental component noise = > medium exposed to the effects of human activities causing discomfort 4.3. Remedial measures for environmental factors and the way the quarries are operated • Maintenance of guard ditches by unclogging in order to ensure their optimal functionality. • Slope of the berms at the fertile soil dump and tailings dump in order to prevent the appearance of ravines on their slope. • Maintenance of the existing decanters in the quarries in order to operate at the designed parameters. • Permanent spraying of access roads to minimize the entrainment of suspended dust. 5. Conclusions The activity of the quarries analyzed has both local and national economic importance. Analyzing only the environmental components affected by these exploitations, namely air, water and noise using the MERI method and based on the data provided by the verified operators, resulted in a slightly negative impact for the three environmental components analyzed. Periodic monitoring of the affected environmental components is required, as well as the implementation of the works provided for in the environmental restoration plan and the approved exploitation technology, respectively the geometric elements of the quarries (surface, slope angles, berm width). 30 Revista Minelor – Mining Revue vol. 28, issue 4 / 2022 ISSN-L 1220-2053 / ISSN 2247-8590 pp. 24-32 References  Fodor D., Baican G., 2001 The impact of the mining industry on the environment, Infomin Publishing House  Fodor D., 2011 Ballasts and quarries A.G.I.R. Publishing House, Deva: Corvin Publishing House  ***, 2005 Emergency Ordinance no. 195 of December 22 2005 regarding environmental protection  Radu M., 2014 Integrated environmental monitoring Cluj-Napoca 2014  Greek. A, Balint G., 2012 The Sălaj Environmental Protection Agency environmental authorization No. 19/2012  Greek. 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Authors retain all copyrights and agree to the terms of the above-mentioned CC BY SA 4.0 license.
Mining Revue – de Gruyter
Published: Dec 1, 2022
Keywords: quarries; AM; water; air; noise; environmental impact; test reports
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