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The Influence Of Cereal Share In Crop Rotations On The Grain Yield And Quality Of Winter Wheat

The Influence Of Cereal Share In Crop Rotations On The Grain Yield And Quality Of Winter Wheat DOI: 10.1515/agri-2015-0006 MÁRIA BABULICOVÁ*, SOA GAVURNÍKOVÁ National Agricultural and Food Centre ­ Research Institute of Plant Production, Piesany BABULICOVÁ, M. ­ GAVURNÍKOVÁ, S.: The influence of cereal share in crop rotations on the grain yield and quality of winter wheat . Agriculture (Ponohospodárstvo), vol. 61, 2015, no. 1, pp. 12­21. The aim of our study is to find out the influence of different and various fertilisation on the grain yield and quality of winter wheat. The long-term field trial with 40, 60 and share of the cereals and two levels of fertilisation (H 1 mineral fertilisation + organic manure Veget ® ; H 2 mineral fertilisation only) were carried out in the very warm and dry area of continental weather on luvi-haplic chernozem. In the years 2010­2013, the grain yield, the wet gluten content, gluten index, the falling number and sedimentation index of winter wheat accord- ing to Zeleny were investigated. The significantly higher grain yield of winter wheat was recorded after preceding crop of common pea. The yield of cereals in crop rotation with 60% (7.00 t/ha) was significantly higher than in crop rotation with (6.78 t/ha). The statistically higher wet gluten content after pea forecrop was found out when the mineral fertilisation and organic fertiliser Veget ® were applied (33.4%) with comparison to the treatment with mineral fertilisation only (30.08%). Key words: falling number, fertilisation, gluten index, sedimentation index, preceding crop, wet gluten Crop rotations in Slovakia are constantly adapted to economic conditions and political intentions. Crop rotation is especially important in agricultural cooperative farms that are aimed at growing one or two main crops. In these farms, so-called `free crop rotation' is applied. It means that crop rotation is dependent on the market mechanism of present time. The damage by fungus diseases, strong pressure of weed infestation, the deterioration of soil structure and negative impact on soil water and air regime are reasons of grain yield depression in free crop rotation. The correct crop rotation utilises the specific ability of some species of crops to favourably influence physical, chemical and biological properties of the soil. The optimisation of grain yield and quality of winter wheat are dependent not only on the appropriate crop rotation but also on the nitrogen fertilisation. It influences the biomass, the accumulation and distribution of nitrogen in particular plan parts (Zhou et al. 2013). N fertilisation increases the total quantity of flour proteins, resulting in a rise in both gliadins and glutenins. The identical grain yield of winter wheat was reached by fertilisation with nitrogen in NH4+ form as well as by fertilisation with nitrogen in NO3- form. Nitrogen in NO3- form can be used by plants to growth stage BBCH 37 (Fuertes-Mendizabal et al. 2013). Genotype × N interactions was significant for yield, grain protein content, N concentration in straw, N utilisation, and nitrogen use efficiency (Cormier et al. 2013). The composition of protein determines the nutritional value and baking properties of wheat grain. The changes in protein composition are mainly influenced by the genotype, the environment, and the interaction among the genotype, environment and fertilisation (Stepien & Wojtkowiak 2013). Differences between hard and soft genotypes appeared to be significant, apart from grain hardness, for pro- Ing. Mgr. Mária Babulicová, PhD. (*Corresponding author), National Agricultural and Food Centre/Research Institute of Plant Production, 921 68 Piesany, Bratislavská cesta 122, Slovak Republic. E-mail: babulicova@vurv.sk tein content, Zeleny test and alveograph parameter (Surma et al. 2012). Long-term trials serve as monitoring system in solving the problem of permanent decreasing of crop productivity. The aim of our research is to investigate the influence of in crop rotations (40, 60 and ) and fertilisation ( mineral fertilisation + organic manure Veget® incorporation; H2 mineral incorporation) on the grain yield and quality of winter wheat. The research was realised in 2010­2013 in the long-term field trial. The trial was established in 1974 at Experimental station Borovce, which belongs to Research Institute of Plant Production in Piesany. the field experiment, there were crop rotations with 40, 60 and proportion of cereals. Crops in different crop rotation are presented in Table 2. The fertilisation level : fertilisation by phosphorus and potassium was carried out by balance method according to Bizík et al. (1998). Nitrogen fertilisation was used according to the content of nitrogen in soil (soil samples were taken from 0.0­0.3 m of soil profile) + organic manure Veget® in dose of 5 t/ha. The content of nitrogen in the soils and in the plants of winter wheat is presented in Table 3. In Table 4, there are doses of nitrogen applied per hectare in the form of fertiliser ammonium calcific saltpetre (content of N 27%). The composition of organic fertiliser Veget® is as follows: dry matter content min. 85% (includes combustible matter content 75%; total N content 2.5­3.0%; total P2O5 content 0.5­2.0%, and K2O content 1.5%), ratio C:N 13:1, and pH (in water) 8.5. Veget® is produced by The Cleaning device of Waste water in Cebovce. It is a branch of Biotika a.s. Slovenská upca. The fundamental crude material of Veget® is composed of sludge from threonine, penicillin and amino acids production and the concentrated sludge from waste water cleaning device following anaerobic processing. The fertilisation MATERIAL AND METHODS Long-term field trial is situated on Luvi-Haplic Chernozem, pH 5.5­7.2, the humus content 1.8­2.0%. The area has continental pattern of climate with long-term average sum of annual rainfall of 593 mm and 358 mm rainfall during vegetation period. Long-term average of annual temperature is 9.2ºC, in vegetation period 15.5ºC (Table 1). In T a b l e 1 Weather conditions in the experimental years 2010­2013 on the stand Borovce n (1951­1980) Month January February March April May June July August September October November December 2010 2011 [mm] 60.6 38.0 19.5 65.0 168.3 95.0 98.0 99.5 101.5 25.0 76.0 48.8 2012 [mm] 32.4 8.0 29.0 30.4 93.2 2013 z [mm] 78.8 39.2 4.5 20.3 16.2 108.1 94.1 10.6 41.5 88.5 22.6 46.5 [mm] 32 33 32 43 54 80 76 68 38 42 51 46 [mm] 69.8 90.3 75.3 17.4 67.4 70.1 3.0 112.9 75.6 29.1 59.7 9.9 -1.8 0.2 4.2 9.4 14.1 17.7 18.9 18.4 14.5 9.6 4.6 0.3 9.2 -2.22 1.39 4.82 9.91 15.41 19.47 23.02 19.65 13.42 8.04 7.36 -2.23 9.84 -1.87 -2.06 4.31 11.6 14.68 19.15 18.14 20.48 16.41 7.77 1.37 0.03 9.17 -0.48 -4.59 5.07 9.07 15.43 18.88 20.73 20.12 14.76 8.02 4.88 -2.81 9.09 -2.55 -0.77 0.84 9.15 13.52 17.51 20.71 20.12 11.59 8.71 3.33 -0.57 8.47 z [mm] 595 895.2 561.9 570.9 n long-term (30-year) normal; x td average air temperature; sum of precipitation ? level H2: fertilisation of phosphorus, potassium and nitrogen was applied at the same level as except organic manure Veget®. Winter wheat variety Petrana was used. Wet gluten content and gluten index were determined according to ICC Standard No.155 (Glutomatic 2200, Perten Instruments, Sweden). The gluten index (GI) is a method of analysing wheat protein that provides simultaneous determination of gluten quality and quantity. The GI value expresses a weight percentage of the wet gluten remaining on sieves after automatic washing in salt solution and centrifugation (Centrifuge 2015, Perten Instruments, Sweden). GI allows a reliable prediction of bread-making quality. Zeleny sedimentation index was determined according to STN ISO 5529, 2008 (Shaker Brabender, Germany) and falling number according to STN EN ISO 3093, 2010 (falling number 1800, Perten Instruments, Sweden). Analyses of all parameters were realised in two replications. The data was computed by multi-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the least significant difference (LSD) multiple range test was used at the 0.05% level. STATISTICA 6. 1 (StatSoft Inc., Tulsa, USA) software was used. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION In 2010­2013, average monthly temperatures and monthly sum of monthly rainfall (Table 1) differed from the long-term average (1951­1980). In T a b l e 2 The crop rotations with 40, 60 and share of the cereals Crop rotation 40% share of cereal 1. Pea 2. Winter wheat 3. Silage maize 4. Spring barley 5. Grain maize 60% share of cereal 1. Pea 2. Winter wheat 3. Winter barley 4. Silage maize 5. Spring barley share of cereal 1. Winter wheat 2. Spring barley 3. Pea 4. Winter wheat 5. Winter barley T a b l e 3 The content of nitrogen in the soil and the plant of winter wheat in years 2009­2013 2009 Autumn soil [mg/kg] 7.1 8.3 12.4 11.8 6.3 7.4 3.7 2010 Autumn soil [mg/kg] 6.3 7.1 4.7 4.9 3.2 3.4 3.3 2011 Autumn soil [mg/kg] 4.52 3.07 3.98 5.44 4.77 3.61 3.86 2012 Autumn soil [mg/kg] 7.6 8.0 3.8 2.3 2.7 2.2 2.5 2013 Spring plants [g/kg] 31.9 30.2 27.9 30.3 28.1 29.5 31.1 SCCR [%] PC F H2 H2 H2 Spring plants [g/kg] 25.4 23.2 23.9 25.2 22.9 24.5 23.8 Spring plants [g/kg] 30.2 28.7 29.6 31.4 25.4 23.2 23.2 Spring plants [g/kg] 30.6 23.9 22.4 31.8 28.0 25.1 22.2 pea pea pea 80 WB H2 4.5 25.1 3.5 22.9 4.97 30.2 2.3 28.5 SCCR in crop rotation; PC preceding crop; F fertilisation; H 1 ­ mineral fertilisation + organic manure Veget ® ; H 2 ­ mineral fertilisation; WB winter barley 2010, the growth of winter wheat was negatively influenced by the abnormal rainfall in May (sum of rainfall in May was by 114.3 mm higher than in the long-term average). In 2011, the monthly sum of rainfall in May was higher by 39.2 mm than longterm average. The monthly sum of rainfall in June was higher by 85.2 mm than long-term average. Year 2012 was unfavourable for winter wheat growth, too. After strong freezing temperatures in February, three very dry months (March, April, May) followed (Table 1). In February, the average monthly temperature was lower by 4.61ºC than long-term average. The monthly sum of rainfall in March was lower by 27.5 mm than long-term average. The monthly sum of rainfall in April was lower by 22.7 mm than longterm average. The monthly sum of rainfall in May 7.09c 8.29d 7.30b 8.28c 7.07c 7.29c 7.19c 7.25c 6.09a 7.05b 5.86a 6.94b 5.90a 6.94b 7.20d 6.88c 7.42c 8.24d 5.76a 6.82b 6.93d 5.67a 6.58b 5.38a 6.57b 6.61c 5.64b [t/ha] 2.00 1.00 0.00 40% pea 60% pea 60% pea H2 2011 pea 2013 pea WB WB H2 H2 Figure 1. The grain yield of winter wheat [t/ha] in crop rotations with different (abbreviations see Table 4) 36.9b 40.2c 35.3b 39.7c 34.8c 38.7d 36.2c 38.3d 28.9b 27.2a 28.6b 22.9a [%] 40% pea 60% pea 60% pea H2 22.9a 26.6b pea 2013 pea H2 WB Figure 2. The wet content [%] of winter wheat grain in crop rotations with different (abbreviations see Table 4) 29.5b 25.9a 32.2c 32.9c 26.4b 22.1a 31.4c 36.4d 35.7c 34.5c 29.3a 30.4a 29.3a 29.3a 32.4a 33.2ab 34.6b 39.4d 5.24a 5.09b 5.99c 4.65a 5.96c H2 WB was lower by 37.8 mm than long-term average. Years 2011 and 2013 were more favourable than 2010 and 2012 from the point of winter wheat development stand. Weather conditions of particular years were the most important factor affecting the grain yield of winter wheat. The difference in average grain yield in 2011 and 2012 constituted 1.52 t/ha. Similarly, Buresová and Palík (2009) observed the dependence of grain yield and baking quality from the progress of weather in vegetation period. Quality of winter wheat grain was better in years with higher temperature and lower precipitation during the vegetation period. They mentioned that the highest dependence from the weather progress was found out by following parameters: falling number, volume weight and the content of nitrogen substances. Volume weight was influenced by temperature more than by precipitation. The negative influence of precipitation to falling number was manifested in the period of full maturity. The content of nitrogen substances was influenced by the temperature and precipitation in June and July. Garrido-Lestache T a b l e 4 The fertilisation of winter wheat [kg/ha] foundation fertilisation in the autumn and additional fertilisation (regeneration and production) in the spring SCCR [%] 40 60 PC pea pea pea 80 WB F H2 H2 H2 2009 GF 30 30 15 15 30 30 45 RF 45 45 30 30 45 45 45 2010 PF 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 GF 30 30 45 45 45 45 45 RF 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 2011 PF 30 30 30 30 45 45 45 GF 45 45 45 30 45 45 45 RF 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 2012 PF 30 45 45 30 30 45 45 GF 30 30 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 2013 RF PF 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 H2 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 30 45 45 30 SCCR in crop rotation; PC preceding crop; F fertilisation; GF ground fertilisation; RF regeneration fertilisation; PF production fertilisation; H 1 ­ mineral fertilisation + organic manure Veget ® ; H 2 ­ mineral fertilisation; WB winter barley T a b l e 5 The influence of fertilisation and on the grain yield of winter wheat (analysis of variance) Factor Fertilisation (A) SCCR (B) A×B Years (C) A×C B×C Total Error Grain yield [t/ha] df 1 2 2 3 3 6 95 69 MS 4.66 0.37 0.07 16.14 1.30 0.13 0.69 0.93 F 3.99 3.14 3.14 2.75 2.75 2.24 P ++ + ++ ++ ++ LSD0.05 0.12 0.18 0.23 0.39 0.52 SCCR in crop rotation; df degrees of freedom; MS average squares, F F-test; P effect of a factor significant at the level 0.05; LSD 0.05 least significant difference at the level = 0.05 et al. (2004) reported that a close correlation was observed between rainfall over the September­May period and both grain yield and grain protein content (optimum values for both being recorded in the rainfall range 500­550 mm) as well as the alveogram index. López-Bellido et al. (2001) mentioned that grain protein content increased with rainfall in the month of May (when grain protein accumulation occurs) up to a maximum of 80 mm. Grain protein content peaked at average mean temperatures of around 26­27ºC. The highest grain yield of winter wheat (8.29 t/ha) was reached in 2011 in crop rotation with 40% with the level of fertilisation (Figure 1). The grain yield of winter wheat growing after preceding crop pea, was statistically significantly influenced by fertilisation, in crop rotations, weather in particular years, by interac- 91.0d 90.8c 94.0c 80.3c 78.3c 69.5c 74.0d 75.3c 51.3a 63.5b 58.0c 42.0a 54.0b 43.8a 55.8b 50.3a 47.8b 44.0a 43.0a 42.5a 41.3a 40% pea 35.5a 60% pea 40.3b 60% pea H2 pea 41.3a pea WB WB H2 H2 2010 2011 2012 2013 Figure 3. Gluten index of winter wheat grain in crop rotations with different (abbreviations see Table 4) 360a 349a 399c 396b 344a 336a 394c 335a 334a 385b 379b 357a 368a 387b 330a 319a 379b 378b 370b 378a 377a 378a 393a 379b 400 350 300 [s] 250 200 150 100 50 0 40% pea 60% pea 60% pea pea H2 2011 2012 2013 pea H2 WB Figure 4. The falling number [s] of winter wheat grain in crop rotations with different (abbreviations see Table 4) 352b 332a 349b 365b H2 WB 368a 359a 378ab 417c 45.0a 47.0a 49.7a 59.3b 67.0c 65.0b 62.3b 89.8d tion between fertilisation and particular years and the interaction between the and particular years (Table 5). In 2010­2013, the average grain yield of winter wheat after crop pea in treatment (a combination of mineral fertilisation with the use of organic fertiliser Veget®) was statistically significantly higher 7.10 t/ha than in treatment H2 (6.66 t/ha). Similarly, Wozniak and Gos (2014) observed the enhancing of grain yield of winter wheat by the amount of 150 kg/ha compared to the amount of nitrogen 90 kg/ha. Uzík et al. (2009) indicated that the modern cultivars of winter wheat require a minimal rate from 80 to 120 kg/ha N to guarantee quality parameters for food utilisation. The positive effect of higher doses of nitrogen on higher yield of dry matter of winter wheat was confirmed by Zák et al. (2012). Similarly, Hejcman and Kunzová (2010) recorded the positive annual yield growth of grain from 7.1 to 72.8 kg/ha following the application of 46 to 121 kg/ha N. Tanács et al. (2010) introduced that increasing fertiliser doses tendentiously improved the values of wet gluten, baking value and T a b l e 6 The influence of fertilisation and on wet gluten content and GI and of winter wheat (analysis of variance) Factor Fertilisation (A) SCCR (B) A×B Year (C) A×C B×C Error Wet gluten content [%] df 1 2 2 3 3 6 69 MS 264.0 13.4 9.0 778.1 24.4 10.0 32.1 F 73.19 3.71 2.49 215.72 6.76 2.77 P ++ + ++ ++ + LSD0.05 0.77 1.14 1.45 2.43 0.77 df 1 2 2 3 3 6 69 MS 753.8 168.5 113.0 9,136.3 218.8 108.8 339.6 Gluten index F 3.99 3.14 3.14 2.75 2.75 2.24 P ++ ++ + ++ ++ ++ LSD0.05 2.18 3.21 5.56 4.08 6.85 9.07 Total 95 3.6 95 28.7 SCCR in crop rotation; df degrees of freedom; MS average squares, F F-test; P effect of a factor significant at the level 0.05; LSD 0.05 least significant difference at the level = 0.05; GI gluten index T a b l e 7 The influence of fertilisation and on falling number and sedimentation index of winter wheat (analysis of variance) Factor Fertilisation (A) SCCR (B) A×B Year (C) A×C B×C Error Falling number [%] df 1 1 1 3 3 3 63 MS 9204.2 184.8 495.1 13,080.4 873.5 553.4 969.4 F 3.99 3.14 3.14 2.75 2.75 2.24 P ++ ++ LSD0.05 8.86 16.55 Sedimentation index according Zeleny [ml] df 1 1 1 3 3 3 63 MS 137.76 16.53 5.95 1 266 24.15 8.77 48.28 F 24.32 2.92 1.05 223.48 4.26 1.55 P ++ ++ ++ LSD0.05 0.97 1.81 3.04 Total 45 472.4 45 5.67 SCCR in crop rotation; df degrees of freedom; MS average squares, F F-test; P effect of a factor significant at the level 0.05; LSD 0.05 least significant difference at the level = 0.05 technological water absorbance. By 60% in crop rotation, the grain yield was statistically significantly higher (7.00 t/ha) than by after preceding crop pea (6.78 t/ha). In 2011, the grain yield of winter wheat after pea was statistically significantly higher (7.71 t/ha) than in 2010 (7.21 t/ha), 2012 (5.78 t/ha) and 2013 (6.82 t/ha). In crop rotation with , winter wheat was grown after two preceding crops: pea and winter barley (Figure 1). The grain yield after pea was statistically significantly higher (6.78 t/ha) than after preceding crop of winter barley (5.76 t/ha). The importance of crop rotation on the grain yield and quality of wheat was confirmed the findings of Borgi et al. (1995). In the wheat­maize rotation, maximum yield and quality was achieved with the highest rate of fertilisers even in the absence of manure. In the rotation that included alfalfa, maximum yield was obtained with the lowest rate of fertilisers but, to optimise the quality, it appeared necessary to apply the highest rate of nitrogen (200 kg/ha). The highest values of wet gluten content were recorded in 2013 (Figure 2). The content of wet gluten in grain was statistically significantly influenced by fertilisation, in crop rotations, weather conditions in particular years, interaction between fertilisation and particular years and the interaction between the and particular years (Table 6). In our experiment, the wet gluten content growing after pea was statistically significantly higher in treatment (33.4%) than in treatment H2 (30.1%). Our results correspond to the affirmation of López-Bellindo et al. (2001) that protein content also improved with rising N fertiliser rates. N fertiliser proved to be a key factor in determining bread-making quality, and the best strategy available to the farmer for optimising wheat quality. Rieux et al. (2013) mentioned that the content of protein and gluten in grain was higher by fertilisation with mineral fertilizers containing nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (NPK) than by fertilisation with manure. In crop rotation with 60% , statistically higher wet gluten content was found out (32.5%) than in crop rotation with after pea (31.2%). According to Sip et al. (2013), the wet gluten content is influenced by the level of inputs. They came to the conclusion that the increase of wet gluten content was 5.0% by conventional tillage and high level of inputs. Recommended gluten index (GI) value of 70 for wheat bakery products was not achieved in any crop rotation (Figure 3). GI of winter wheat was statistically significantly influenced by fertilisation, in crop rotations, climatic conditions in particular years, the interaction between fertilisation 49.8d 50.5d 49.5d 50.8d 42.3c 35.3b 47.3d 44.0c 37.5b 47.5d 46.0c 48.5c 60.0 50.0 40.0 [ml] 39.8c 35.3b 44.5d 38.5c 34.8b 38.5c 35.3b 37.0b 33.0a 36.0a 32.8a 31.0a 32.0a 29.8a 30.0 20.0 10.0 0,0 40% pea 60% pea 60% pea pea pea H2 H2 2010 2011 2012 2013 29.8a WB 33.0a Figure 5. The sedimentation index according to Zeleny of winter wheat grain in crop rotations with different (abbreviations see Table 4) 43.8 c 38.0b 43.5c H2 WB 38.8b and in crop rotation, the interaction between fertilisation and particular years and the interaction between the and particular years (Table 6). By 60% in crop rotations, the substantially lower GI was reached (55.6) than by 40% (59.3) and after pea (59.8). GI of winter wheat in treatment H2 after pea forecrop was statistically significantly higher (61.0) than in treatment (55.4). The falling number of winter wheat was statistically significantly influenced by fertilisation and climatic conditions in particular years (Table 7). The falling number after pea (Figure 4) was statistically significantly higher (376 s) in treatment than in treatment H2 (357 s). Dencic et al. (2013) investigated the effects of dry and wet pre-harvest periods on Hagberg falling number (HFN), a parameter of alpha-amylase activity, and rheological properties including farinograph dough development time, farinograph absorption, resistance to extension, loaf volume and baking score in 30 hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars. They mentioned that in the dry pre-harvest period, HFN was not correlated with rheological properties whereas in the wet pre-harvest period, HFN showed a highly significant positive correlation with farinograph dough development time and baking score. Guarienti et al. (2000) declared that conventional tillage with disc and moldboard plough reduced the falling number compared to no-tillage system and minimum tillage. The sedimentation index according to Zeleny of winter wheat was statistically significantly influenced by fertilisation, weather conditions in particular years, the interaction between fertilisation and particular years (Table 7). The sedimentation index after preceding crop pea (Figure 5) was statistically significantly higher in treatment (40.4 ml) than in treatment H2 (38.0 ml). Similarly, Sip et al. (2013) observed increase of the sedimentation index according to Zeleny by 6.2% under conventional tillage with a high input level of nutrients. winter wheat. Despite unfavourable climatic conditions in 2010­2013, the increase of winter wheat grain yield by 1.68 t/ha was due to the inclusion of pea as preceding crop of winter wheat and fertilisation (mineral of fertilisers + manure Veget®). The grain yield by fertilisation level H2 (mineral fertilisation without addition of organic fertiliser Veget®) after winter barley forecrop was statistically lower (5.42 t/ha) than the average grain yield of winter wheat by fertilisation (a combination of mineral fertilisation with the use of organic fertiliser Veget®) and after preceding crop pea (7.10 t/ha). The statistically significantly influenced the grain yield, the wet gluten content and GI. In crop rotation with 60% , statistically higher wet gluten content was found out (32.5%) than in crop rotation with after pea (31.2%). With 40 and in crop rotations, the statistically higher GI was reached (59.3 and 59.8, respectively) than in crop rotation with 60% (55.6). The fertilisation statistically significantly influenced the wet gluten content, GI, falling number and sedimentation index according Zeleny. Acknowledgements. The study was supported by the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development of the Slovak Republic, Project `Innovation of growing systems in sustainable plant production in variable conditions of environment'(Acronym IPESYS). http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Agriculture de Gruyter

The Influence Of Cereal Share In Crop Rotations On The Grain Yield And Quality Of Winter Wheat

Agriculture , Volume 61 (1) – Mar 1, 2015

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Abstract

DOI: 10.1515/agri-2015-0006 MÁRIA BABULICOVÁ*, SOA GAVURNÍKOVÁ National Agricultural and Food Centre ­ Research Institute of Plant Production, Piesany BABULICOVÁ, M. ­ GAVURNÍKOVÁ, S.: The influence of cereal share in crop rotations on the grain yield and quality of winter wheat . Agriculture (Ponohospodárstvo), vol. 61, 2015, no. 1, pp. 12­21. The aim of our study is to find out the influence of different and various fertilisation on the grain yield and quality of winter wheat. The long-term field trial with 40, 60 and share of the cereals and two levels of fertilisation (H 1 mineral fertilisation + organic manure Veget ® ; H 2 mineral fertilisation only) were carried out in the very warm and dry area of continental weather on luvi-haplic chernozem. In the years 2010­2013, the grain yield, the wet gluten content, gluten index, the falling number and sedimentation index of winter wheat accord- ing to Zeleny were investigated. The significantly higher grain yield of winter wheat was recorded after preceding crop of common pea. The yield of cereals in crop rotation with 60% (7.00 t/ha) was significantly higher than in crop rotation with (6.78 t/ha). The statistically higher wet gluten content after pea forecrop was found out when the mineral fertilisation and organic fertiliser Veget ® were applied (33.4%) with comparison to the treatment with mineral fertilisation only (30.08%). Key words: falling number, fertilisation, gluten index, sedimentation index, preceding crop, wet gluten Crop rotations in Slovakia are constantly adapted to economic conditions and political intentions. Crop rotation is especially important in agricultural cooperative farms that are aimed at growing one or two main crops. In these farms, so-called `free crop rotation' is applied. It means that crop rotation is dependent on the market mechanism of present time. The damage by fungus diseases, strong pressure of weed infestation, the deterioration of soil structure and negative impact on soil water and air regime are reasons of grain yield depression in free crop rotation. The correct crop rotation utilises the specific ability of some species of crops to favourably influence physical, chemical and biological properties of the soil. The optimisation of grain yield and quality of winter wheat are dependent not only on the appropriate crop rotation but also on the nitrogen fertilisation. It influences the biomass, the accumulation and distribution of nitrogen in particular plan parts (Zhou et al. 2013). N fertilisation increases the total quantity of flour proteins, resulting in a rise in both gliadins and glutenins. The identical grain yield of winter wheat was reached by fertilisation with nitrogen in NH4+ form as well as by fertilisation with nitrogen in NO3- form. Nitrogen in NO3- form can be used by plants to growth stage BBCH 37 (Fuertes-Mendizabal et al. 2013). Genotype × N interactions was significant for yield, grain protein content, N concentration in straw, N utilisation, and nitrogen use efficiency (Cormier et al. 2013). The composition of protein determines the nutritional value and baking properties of wheat grain. The changes in protein composition are mainly influenced by the genotype, the environment, and the interaction among the genotype, environment and fertilisation (Stepien & Wojtkowiak 2013). Differences between hard and soft genotypes appeared to be significant, apart from grain hardness, for pro- Ing. Mgr. Mária Babulicová, PhD. (*Corresponding author), National Agricultural and Food Centre/Research Institute of Plant Production, 921 68 Piesany, Bratislavská cesta 122, Slovak Republic. E-mail: babulicova@vurv.sk tein content, Zeleny test and alveograph parameter (Surma et al. 2012). Long-term trials serve as monitoring system in solving the problem of permanent decreasing of crop productivity. The aim of our research is to investigate the influence of in crop rotations (40, 60 and ) and fertilisation ( mineral fertilisation + organic manure Veget® incorporation; H2 mineral incorporation) on the grain yield and quality of winter wheat. The research was realised in 2010­2013 in the long-term field trial. The trial was established in 1974 at Experimental station Borovce, which belongs to Research Institute of Plant Production in Piesany. the field experiment, there were crop rotations with 40, 60 and proportion of cereals. Crops in different crop rotation are presented in Table 2. The fertilisation level : fertilisation by phosphorus and potassium was carried out by balance method according to Bizík et al. (1998). Nitrogen fertilisation was used according to the content of nitrogen in soil (soil samples were taken from 0.0­0.3 m of soil profile) + organic manure Veget® in dose of 5 t/ha. The content of nitrogen in the soils and in the plants of winter wheat is presented in Table 3. In Table 4, there are doses of nitrogen applied per hectare in the form of fertiliser ammonium calcific saltpetre (content of N 27%). The composition of organic fertiliser Veget® is as follows: dry matter content min. 85% (includes combustible matter content 75%; total N content 2.5­3.0%; total P2O5 content 0.5­2.0%, and K2O content 1.5%), ratio C:N 13:1, and pH (in water) 8.5. Veget® is produced by The Cleaning device of Waste water in Cebovce. It is a branch of Biotika a.s. Slovenská upca. The fundamental crude material of Veget® is composed of sludge from threonine, penicillin and amino acids production and the concentrated sludge from waste water cleaning device following anaerobic processing. The fertilisation MATERIAL AND METHODS Long-term field trial is situated on Luvi-Haplic Chernozem, pH 5.5­7.2, the humus content 1.8­2.0%. The area has continental pattern of climate with long-term average sum of annual rainfall of 593 mm and 358 mm rainfall during vegetation period. Long-term average of annual temperature is 9.2ºC, in vegetation period 15.5ºC (Table 1). In T a b l e 1 Weather conditions in the experimental years 2010­2013 on the stand Borovce n (1951­1980) Month January February March April May June July August September October November December 2010 2011 [mm] 60.6 38.0 19.5 65.0 168.3 95.0 98.0 99.5 101.5 25.0 76.0 48.8 2012 [mm] 32.4 8.0 29.0 30.4 93.2 2013 z [mm] 78.8 39.2 4.5 20.3 16.2 108.1 94.1 10.6 41.5 88.5 22.6 46.5 [mm] 32 33 32 43 54 80 76 68 38 42 51 46 [mm] 69.8 90.3 75.3 17.4 67.4 70.1 3.0 112.9 75.6 29.1 59.7 9.9 -1.8 0.2 4.2 9.4 14.1 17.7 18.9 18.4 14.5 9.6 4.6 0.3 9.2 -2.22 1.39 4.82 9.91 15.41 19.47 23.02 19.65 13.42 8.04 7.36 -2.23 9.84 -1.87 -2.06 4.31 11.6 14.68 19.15 18.14 20.48 16.41 7.77 1.37 0.03 9.17 -0.48 -4.59 5.07 9.07 15.43 18.88 20.73 20.12 14.76 8.02 4.88 -2.81 9.09 -2.55 -0.77 0.84 9.15 13.52 17.51 20.71 20.12 11.59 8.71 3.33 -0.57 8.47 z [mm] 595 895.2 561.9 570.9 n long-term (30-year) normal; x td average air temperature; sum of precipitation ? level H2: fertilisation of phosphorus, potassium and nitrogen was applied at the same level as except organic manure Veget®. Winter wheat variety Petrana was used. Wet gluten content and gluten index were determined according to ICC Standard No.155 (Glutomatic 2200, Perten Instruments, Sweden). The gluten index (GI) is a method of analysing wheat protein that provides simultaneous determination of gluten quality and quantity. The GI value expresses a weight percentage of the wet gluten remaining on sieves after automatic washing in salt solution and centrifugation (Centrifuge 2015, Perten Instruments, Sweden). GI allows a reliable prediction of bread-making quality. Zeleny sedimentation index was determined according to STN ISO 5529, 2008 (Shaker Brabender, Germany) and falling number according to STN EN ISO 3093, 2010 (falling number 1800, Perten Instruments, Sweden). Analyses of all parameters were realised in two replications. The data was computed by multi-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the least significant difference (LSD) multiple range test was used at the 0.05% level. STATISTICA 6. 1 (StatSoft Inc., Tulsa, USA) software was used. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION In 2010­2013, average monthly temperatures and monthly sum of monthly rainfall (Table 1) differed from the long-term average (1951­1980). In T a b l e 2 The crop rotations with 40, 60 and share of the cereals Crop rotation 40% share of cereal 1. Pea 2. Winter wheat 3. Silage maize 4. Spring barley 5. Grain maize 60% share of cereal 1. Pea 2. Winter wheat 3. Winter barley 4. Silage maize 5. Spring barley share of cereal 1. Winter wheat 2. Spring barley 3. Pea 4. Winter wheat 5. Winter barley T a b l e 3 The content of nitrogen in the soil and the plant of winter wheat in years 2009­2013 2009 Autumn soil [mg/kg] 7.1 8.3 12.4 11.8 6.3 7.4 3.7 2010 Autumn soil [mg/kg] 6.3 7.1 4.7 4.9 3.2 3.4 3.3 2011 Autumn soil [mg/kg] 4.52 3.07 3.98 5.44 4.77 3.61 3.86 2012 Autumn soil [mg/kg] 7.6 8.0 3.8 2.3 2.7 2.2 2.5 2013 Spring plants [g/kg] 31.9 30.2 27.9 30.3 28.1 29.5 31.1 SCCR [%] PC F H2 H2 H2 Spring plants [g/kg] 25.4 23.2 23.9 25.2 22.9 24.5 23.8 Spring plants [g/kg] 30.2 28.7 29.6 31.4 25.4 23.2 23.2 Spring plants [g/kg] 30.6 23.9 22.4 31.8 28.0 25.1 22.2 pea pea pea 80 WB H2 4.5 25.1 3.5 22.9 4.97 30.2 2.3 28.5 SCCR in crop rotation; PC preceding crop; F fertilisation; H 1 ­ mineral fertilisation + organic manure Veget ® ; H 2 ­ mineral fertilisation; WB winter barley 2010, the growth of winter wheat was negatively influenced by the abnormal rainfall in May (sum of rainfall in May was by 114.3 mm higher than in the long-term average). In 2011, the monthly sum of rainfall in May was higher by 39.2 mm than longterm average. The monthly sum of rainfall in June was higher by 85.2 mm than long-term average. Year 2012 was unfavourable for winter wheat growth, too. After strong freezing temperatures in February, three very dry months (March, April, May) followed (Table 1). In February, the average monthly temperature was lower by 4.61ºC than long-term average. The monthly sum of rainfall in March was lower by 27.5 mm than long-term average. The monthly sum of rainfall in April was lower by 22.7 mm than longterm average. The monthly sum of rainfall in May 7.09c 8.29d 7.30b 8.28c 7.07c 7.29c 7.19c 7.25c 6.09a 7.05b 5.86a 6.94b 5.90a 6.94b 7.20d 6.88c 7.42c 8.24d 5.76a 6.82b 6.93d 5.67a 6.58b 5.38a 6.57b 6.61c 5.64b [t/ha] 2.00 1.00 0.00 40% pea 60% pea 60% pea H2 2011 pea 2013 pea WB WB H2 H2 Figure 1. The grain yield of winter wheat [t/ha] in crop rotations with different (abbreviations see Table 4) 36.9b 40.2c 35.3b 39.7c 34.8c 38.7d 36.2c 38.3d 28.9b 27.2a 28.6b 22.9a [%] 40% pea 60% pea 60% pea H2 22.9a 26.6b pea 2013 pea H2 WB Figure 2. The wet content [%] of winter wheat grain in crop rotations with different (abbreviations see Table 4) 29.5b 25.9a 32.2c 32.9c 26.4b 22.1a 31.4c 36.4d 35.7c 34.5c 29.3a 30.4a 29.3a 29.3a 32.4a 33.2ab 34.6b 39.4d 5.24a 5.09b 5.99c 4.65a 5.96c H2 WB was lower by 37.8 mm than long-term average. Years 2011 and 2013 were more favourable than 2010 and 2012 from the point of winter wheat development stand. Weather conditions of particular years were the most important factor affecting the grain yield of winter wheat. The difference in average grain yield in 2011 and 2012 constituted 1.52 t/ha. Similarly, Buresová and Palík (2009) observed the dependence of grain yield and baking quality from the progress of weather in vegetation period. Quality of winter wheat grain was better in years with higher temperature and lower precipitation during the vegetation period. They mentioned that the highest dependence from the weather progress was found out by following parameters: falling number, volume weight and the content of nitrogen substances. Volume weight was influenced by temperature more than by precipitation. The negative influence of precipitation to falling number was manifested in the period of full maturity. The content of nitrogen substances was influenced by the temperature and precipitation in June and July. Garrido-Lestache T a b l e 4 The fertilisation of winter wheat [kg/ha] foundation fertilisation in the autumn and additional fertilisation (regeneration and production) in the spring SCCR [%] 40 60 PC pea pea pea 80 WB F H2 H2 H2 2009 GF 30 30 15 15 30 30 45 RF 45 45 30 30 45 45 45 2010 PF 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 GF 30 30 45 45 45 45 45 RF 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 2011 PF 30 30 30 30 45 45 45 GF 45 45 45 30 45 45 45 RF 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 2012 PF 30 45 45 30 30 45 45 GF 30 30 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 2013 RF PF 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 H2 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 30 45 45 30 SCCR in crop rotation; PC preceding crop; F fertilisation; GF ground fertilisation; RF regeneration fertilisation; PF production fertilisation; H 1 ­ mineral fertilisation + organic manure Veget ® ; H 2 ­ mineral fertilisation; WB winter barley T a b l e 5 The influence of fertilisation and on the grain yield of winter wheat (analysis of variance) Factor Fertilisation (A) SCCR (B) A×B Years (C) A×C B×C Total Error Grain yield [t/ha] df 1 2 2 3 3 6 95 69 MS 4.66 0.37 0.07 16.14 1.30 0.13 0.69 0.93 F 3.99 3.14 3.14 2.75 2.75 2.24 P ++ + ++ ++ ++ LSD0.05 0.12 0.18 0.23 0.39 0.52 SCCR in crop rotation; df degrees of freedom; MS average squares, F F-test; P effect of a factor significant at the level 0.05; LSD 0.05 least significant difference at the level = 0.05 et al. (2004) reported that a close correlation was observed between rainfall over the September­May period and both grain yield and grain protein content (optimum values for both being recorded in the rainfall range 500­550 mm) as well as the alveogram index. López-Bellido et al. (2001) mentioned that grain protein content increased with rainfall in the month of May (when grain protein accumulation occurs) up to a maximum of 80 mm. Grain protein content peaked at average mean temperatures of around 26­27ºC. The highest grain yield of winter wheat (8.29 t/ha) was reached in 2011 in crop rotation with 40% with the level of fertilisation (Figure 1). The grain yield of winter wheat growing after preceding crop pea, was statistically significantly influenced by fertilisation, in crop rotations, weather in particular years, by interac- 91.0d 90.8c 94.0c 80.3c 78.3c 69.5c 74.0d 75.3c 51.3a 63.5b 58.0c 42.0a 54.0b 43.8a 55.8b 50.3a 47.8b 44.0a 43.0a 42.5a 41.3a 40% pea 35.5a 60% pea 40.3b 60% pea H2 pea 41.3a pea WB WB H2 H2 2010 2011 2012 2013 Figure 3. Gluten index of winter wheat grain in crop rotations with different (abbreviations see Table 4) 360a 349a 399c 396b 344a 336a 394c 335a 334a 385b 379b 357a 368a 387b 330a 319a 379b 378b 370b 378a 377a 378a 393a 379b 400 350 300 [s] 250 200 150 100 50 0 40% pea 60% pea 60% pea pea H2 2011 2012 2013 pea H2 WB Figure 4. The falling number [s] of winter wheat grain in crop rotations with different (abbreviations see Table 4) 352b 332a 349b 365b H2 WB 368a 359a 378ab 417c 45.0a 47.0a 49.7a 59.3b 67.0c 65.0b 62.3b 89.8d tion between fertilisation and particular years and the interaction between the and particular years (Table 5). In 2010­2013, the average grain yield of winter wheat after crop pea in treatment (a combination of mineral fertilisation with the use of organic fertiliser Veget®) was statistically significantly higher 7.10 t/ha than in treatment H2 (6.66 t/ha). Similarly, Wozniak and Gos (2014) observed the enhancing of grain yield of winter wheat by the amount of 150 kg/ha compared to the amount of nitrogen 90 kg/ha. Uzík et al. (2009) indicated that the modern cultivars of winter wheat require a minimal rate from 80 to 120 kg/ha N to guarantee quality parameters for food utilisation. The positive effect of higher doses of nitrogen on higher yield of dry matter of winter wheat was confirmed by Zák et al. (2012). Similarly, Hejcman and Kunzová (2010) recorded the positive annual yield growth of grain from 7.1 to 72.8 kg/ha following the application of 46 to 121 kg/ha N. Tanács et al. (2010) introduced that increasing fertiliser doses tendentiously improved the values of wet gluten, baking value and T a b l e 6 The influence of fertilisation and on wet gluten content and GI and of winter wheat (analysis of variance) Factor Fertilisation (A) SCCR (B) A×B Year (C) A×C B×C Error Wet gluten content [%] df 1 2 2 3 3 6 69 MS 264.0 13.4 9.0 778.1 24.4 10.0 32.1 F 73.19 3.71 2.49 215.72 6.76 2.77 P ++ + ++ ++ + LSD0.05 0.77 1.14 1.45 2.43 0.77 df 1 2 2 3 3 6 69 MS 753.8 168.5 113.0 9,136.3 218.8 108.8 339.6 Gluten index F 3.99 3.14 3.14 2.75 2.75 2.24 P ++ ++ + ++ ++ ++ LSD0.05 2.18 3.21 5.56 4.08 6.85 9.07 Total 95 3.6 95 28.7 SCCR in crop rotation; df degrees of freedom; MS average squares, F F-test; P effect of a factor significant at the level 0.05; LSD 0.05 least significant difference at the level = 0.05; GI gluten index T a b l e 7 The influence of fertilisation and on falling number and sedimentation index of winter wheat (analysis of variance) Factor Fertilisation (A) SCCR (B) A×B Year (C) A×C B×C Error Falling number [%] df 1 1 1 3 3 3 63 MS 9204.2 184.8 495.1 13,080.4 873.5 553.4 969.4 F 3.99 3.14 3.14 2.75 2.75 2.24 P ++ ++ LSD0.05 8.86 16.55 Sedimentation index according Zeleny [ml] df 1 1 1 3 3 3 63 MS 137.76 16.53 5.95 1 266 24.15 8.77 48.28 F 24.32 2.92 1.05 223.48 4.26 1.55 P ++ ++ ++ LSD0.05 0.97 1.81 3.04 Total 45 472.4 45 5.67 SCCR in crop rotation; df degrees of freedom; MS average squares, F F-test; P effect of a factor significant at the level 0.05; LSD 0.05 least significant difference at the level = 0.05 technological water absorbance. By 60% in crop rotation, the grain yield was statistically significantly higher (7.00 t/ha) than by after preceding crop pea (6.78 t/ha). In 2011, the grain yield of winter wheat after pea was statistically significantly higher (7.71 t/ha) than in 2010 (7.21 t/ha), 2012 (5.78 t/ha) and 2013 (6.82 t/ha). In crop rotation with , winter wheat was grown after two preceding crops: pea and winter barley (Figure 1). The grain yield after pea was statistically significantly higher (6.78 t/ha) than after preceding crop of winter barley (5.76 t/ha). The importance of crop rotation on the grain yield and quality of wheat was confirmed the findings of Borgi et al. (1995). In the wheat­maize rotation, maximum yield and quality was achieved with the highest rate of fertilisers even in the absence of manure. In the rotation that included alfalfa, maximum yield was obtained with the lowest rate of fertilisers but, to optimise the quality, it appeared necessary to apply the highest rate of nitrogen (200 kg/ha). The highest values of wet gluten content were recorded in 2013 (Figure 2). The content of wet gluten in grain was statistically significantly influenced by fertilisation, in crop rotations, weather conditions in particular years, interaction between fertilisation and particular years and the interaction between the and particular years (Table 6). In our experiment, the wet gluten content growing after pea was statistically significantly higher in treatment (33.4%) than in treatment H2 (30.1%). Our results correspond to the affirmation of López-Bellindo et al. (2001) that protein content also improved with rising N fertiliser rates. N fertiliser proved to be a key factor in determining bread-making quality, and the best strategy available to the farmer for optimising wheat quality. Rieux et al. (2013) mentioned that the content of protein and gluten in grain was higher by fertilisation with mineral fertilizers containing nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (NPK) than by fertilisation with manure. In crop rotation with 60% , statistically higher wet gluten content was found out (32.5%) than in crop rotation with after pea (31.2%). According to Sip et al. (2013), the wet gluten content is influenced by the level of inputs. They came to the conclusion that the increase of wet gluten content was 5.0% by conventional tillage and high level of inputs. Recommended gluten index (GI) value of 70 for wheat bakery products was not achieved in any crop rotation (Figure 3). GI of winter wheat was statistically significantly influenced by fertilisation, in crop rotations, climatic conditions in particular years, the interaction between fertilisation 49.8d 50.5d 49.5d 50.8d 42.3c 35.3b 47.3d 44.0c 37.5b 47.5d 46.0c 48.5c 60.0 50.0 40.0 [ml] 39.8c 35.3b 44.5d 38.5c 34.8b 38.5c 35.3b 37.0b 33.0a 36.0a 32.8a 31.0a 32.0a 29.8a 30.0 20.0 10.0 0,0 40% pea 60% pea 60% pea pea pea H2 H2 2010 2011 2012 2013 29.8a WB 33.0a Figure 5. The sedimentation index according to Zeleny of winter wheat grain in crop rotations with different (abbreviations see Table 4) 43.8 c 38.0b 43.5c H2 WB 38.8b and in crop rotation, the interaction between fertilisation and particular years and the interaction between the and particular years (Table 6). By 60% in crop rotations, the substantially lower GI was reached (55.6) than by 40% (59.3) and after pea (59.8). GI of winter wheat in treatment H2 after pea forecrop was statistically significantly higher (61.0) than in treatment (55.4). The falling number of winter wheat was statistically significantly influenced by fertilisation and climatic conditions in particular years (Table 7). The falling number after pea (Figure 4) was statistically significantly higher (376 s) in treatment than in treatment H2 (357 s). Dencic et al. (2013) investigated the effects of dry and wet pre-harvest periods on Hagberg falling number (HFN), a parameter of alpha-amylase activity, and rheological properties including farinograph dough development time, farinograph absorption, resistance to extension, loaf volume and baking score in 30 hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars. They mentioned that in the dry pre-harvest period, HFN was not correlated with rheological properties whereas in the wet pre-harvest period, HFN showed a highly significant positive correlation with farinograph dough development time and baking score. Guarienti et al. (2000) declared that conventional tillage with disc and moldboard plough reduced the falling number compared to no-tillage system and minimum tillage. The sedimentation index according to Zeleny of winter wheat was statistically significantly influenced by fertilisation, weather conditions in particular years, the interaction between fertilisation and particular years (Table 7). The sedimentation index after preceding crop pea (Figure 5) was statistically significantly higher in treatment (40.4 ml) than in treatment H2 (38.0 ml). Similarly, Sip et al. (2013) observed increase of the sedimentation index according to Zeleny by 6.2% under conventional tillage with a high input level of nutrients. winter wheat. Despite unfavourable climatic conditions in 2010­2013, the increase of winter wheat grain yield by 1.68 t/ha was due to the inclusion of pea as preceding crop of winter wheat and fertilisation (mineral of fertilisers + manure Veget®). The grain yield by fertilisation level H2 (mineral fertilisation without addition of organic fertiliser Veget®) after winter barley forecrop was statistically lower (5.42 t/ha) than the average grain yield of winter wheat by fertilisation (a combination of mineral fertilisation with the use of organic fertiliser Veget®) and after preceding crop pea (7.10 t/ha). The statistically significantly influenced the grain yield, the wet gluten content and GI. In crop rotation with 60% , statistically higher wet gluten content was found out (32.5%) than in crop rotation with after pea (31.2%). With 40 and in crop rotations, the statistically higher GI was reached (59.3 and 59.8, respectively) than in crop rotation with 60% (55.6). The fertilisation statistically significantly influenced the wet gluten content, GI, falling number and sedimentation index according Zeleny. Acknowledgements. The study was supported by the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development of the Slovak Republic, Project `Innovation of growing systems in sustainable plant production in variable conditions of environment'(Acronym IPESYS).

Journal

Agriculturede Gruyter

Published: Mar 1, 2015

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