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The Expanding Definition of Refugee in Early Modern Hesse-Kassel and Württemberg

The Expanding Definition of Refugee in Early Modern Hesse-Kassel and Württemberg The Expanding Definition of Refugee in Early Modern Hesse-Kassel and Württemberg By Maximilian Miguel Scholz InDecember1685,LandgraveKarlofHesse-Kasselinvitedrefugeeswho“pro- fess the Protestant religion” to his lands, where he permitted them to build their own churches and elect their own ministers, provided these ministers would first be interviewed by his religious commissioners. Five years later, Karlwelcomed“refugeesirrespectiveofnationality”andomittedreligiousstip- ulations (other than that the religion of the newcomers should be recorded). Farther south in the Holy Roman Empire, Duke Eberhard Ludwig of Würt- temberg issued an invitation to refugees “of the Reformed religion” in 1685 before expanding his generosity thirteen years later to include all Protestants. Inspired by such efforts at refugee accomodation, Karl’s cousin, Landgrave Friedrich II of Hesse-Homburg, invited Protestants, Catholics, and even Jews tosettleinhislandsin1698.Wheredidthisbroadgenerositytowardsrefugees comefrom?Andhowdid Germanprinces overcomefierceopposition torefu- gee accommodation (the legal admission and financial support of displaced people) from clergymen and universities? A century earlier, the ancestors of Karl and Eberhard Ludwig had only invited a very narrow category of people tosettleinHesse-KasselandWürttemberg.Thecategoryofrefugee,thosepeo- pledeservingaccommodation,hadexpandedsincethesixteenthcentury,andit would expand still further in the eighteenth century, when German rulers in- cludedCatholicsandJewsinthecategoryofpeopledeservingaccommodation. The term refugee emerged in French in 1572 to describe those displaced individuals deserving of protection. Yet there was no universal understanding 1. “Text39:DiePrivilegienvonHessen-Kassel.12.12.1685,”inDiePrivilegiendernach Deutschland gekommenen http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archiv für Reformationsgeschichte - Archive for Reformation History de Gruyter

The Expanding Definition of Refugee in Early Modern Hesse-Kassel and Württemberg

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Publisher
de Gruyter
Copyright
© 2021 by Gütersloher Verlagshaus
eISSN
2198-0489
DOI
10.14315/arg-2021-1120114
Publisher site
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Abstract

The Expanding Definition of Refugee in Early Modern Hesse-Kassel and Württemberg By Maximilian Miguel Scholz InDecember1685,LandgraveKarlofHesse-Kasselinvitedrefugeeswho“pro- fess the Protestant religion” to his lands, where he permitted them to build their own churches and elect their own ministers, provided these ministers would first be interviewed by his religious commissioners. Five years later, Karlwelcomed“refugeesirrespectiveofnationality”andomittedreligiousstip- ulations (other than that the religion of the newcomers should be recorded). Farther south in the Holy Roman Empire, Duke Eberhard Ludwig of Würt- temberg issued an invitation to refugees “of the Reformed religion” in 1685 before expanding his generosity thirteen years later to include all Protestants. Inspired by such efforts at refugee accomodation, Karl’s cousin, Landgrave Friedrich II of Hesse-Homburg, invited Protestants, Catholics, and even Jews tosettleinhislandsin1698.Wheredidthisbroadgenerositytowardsrefugees comefrom?Andhowdid Germanprinces overcomefierceopposition torefu- gee accommodation (the legal admission and financial support of displaced people) from clergymen and universities? A century earlier, the ancestors of Karl and Eberhard Ludwig had only invited a very narrow category of people tosettleinHesse-KasselandWürttemberg.Thecategoryofrefugee,thosepeo- pledeservingaccommodation,hadexpandedsincethesixteenthcentury,andit would expand still further in the eighteenth century, when German rulers in- cludedCatholicsandJewsinthecategoryofpeopledeservingaccommodation. The term refugee emerged in French in 1572 to describe those displaced individuals deserving of protection. Yet there was no universal understanding 1. “Text39:DiePrivilegienvonHessen-Kassel.12.12.1685,”inDiePrivilegiendernach Deutschland gekommenen

Journal

Archiv für Reformationsgeschichte - Archive for Reformation Historyde Gruyter

Published: Oct 1, 2021

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