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In addition to rock waste post-mining waste dump sites also contain coal grains justifying treating the dump sites as secondary mineral deposits. The article presents the results of laboratory tests aimed at determining the pos- sibility of using suspending bed technology to separate a combustible substance from post-mining waste of a 4-0 mm grain size. The test results showed the possibility of obtaining good quality coal concentrates from coal waste of a grain size of 4-1 mm. The need for desludging and densifying the feed for the classifier with an autogenic suspending bed in the case of coal waste beneficiation in a wide 4-0 mm grain size justifies the use of a two- chamber device or two separate classifiers for narrower grain size classes. Concepts of systems for the recovery of fine coal grains providing the use of the classifier with autogenous suspending bed for the density distribution of feeds with high ash content are presented. The concepts were developed for beneficiation of the material in a 4-0 mm grain class. Key words: classification, fine grains, post-mining wastes dump sites, suspending bed INTRODUCTION MAG Institute of Mining Technology are used for benefi- Natural environment contamination is the side-effect of ciation post-mining wastes of grain size > 2(3) mm. For re- mines operation. This poses a threat resulting from depo- covery of combustible substance of smaller grain size (< 2 sition of post-mining wastes in heaps . Recultivation mm). the systems consisted of hydro-cyclones and spiral and revitalization of heaps can make elimination of these classifiers [18, 22] are often used. hazards easier. TBS suspension classifiers using the autogenous suspend- In addition to rock waste from mechanical coal treatment. ing bed technology for material distribution by size or post-mining waste dump sites also often contain coal density are an alternative or complementary solution to grains justifying treating landfills as secondary deposits of the hydrocyclone – spiral classifiers system. High re- raw materials that can be used for aggregate production sistance to changes in material load and changes in feed and coal recovery. The recovery of coal from dumped ma- quality parameters is their advantage and higher separa- terial in heaps is usually carried out using technologies tion efficiency of the beneficiated material [4, 5]. typical for mechanical processing in the hard coal mining The above advantageous features of the device ensure industry. automatic control of the beneficiation process based on This article presents the results of laboratory tests aimed the stabilization of a given density of material separation at determining the possibility of using autogenic suspend- in a suspending bed . ing bed technology to beneficiate coal waste in the 4-0 In order to ensure proper operation and obtain high qual- mm class. i.e. twice the grain size range of the feed com- ity products. the feed entering the suspension classifier pared to typical applications of TBS (Teeter Bed Separa- should be desludged and concentrated. For the imple- tor) classifiers . mentation of the above task. a pump-hydrocyclone sys- tem is most often used. in which the hydrocyclone prod- LITERATURE REVIEW uct is a feed for the suspension classifier . Cyclones with a dense liquids [1, 13, 21, 23] as well as pul- The classifiers with an autogenous suspending bed have sating classifiers [9, 10, 12, 15, 16, 17] developed at KO- been used. for example. in the production of aggregate for cleaning sand from organic substances [14, 25, 27]. in D. KOWOL, H. KURAMA – Recovery of Fine Coal Grains from Post-Mining Wastes… 221 the processing of metal ores [19, 20, 24, 29] and in the and its surface was 0.05 m below the chamber overflow mechanical processing of hard coal for classification or edge. beneficiation of feed in grain classes 2-0.5 mm and 1-0.2 The approximate time of material beneficiation at a given mm [2, 3, 6, 7, 8, 22, 26]. Tests carried out at KOMAG also speed of rising water stream was about 20 minutes. showed the possibility of using the abovementioned tech- After turning off the water supply and slow emptying the nologies for beneficiation of fine-grained coal waste in a working chamber from water. the remaining material of grain size of 2-0.5 mm [9, 27, 28]. height 35 cm was divided into five layers of the following heights: 5. 5. 10. 10 and 5 cm (from the upper layer). Fig. TESTING METHODOLOGY 2 presents the method of separating stratified feed into The tests were conducted on the laboratory test stand beneficiation products. equipped with the model of fluidal suspension classifier (Fig. 1). Fig. 2 The method of separating stratified feed into beneficiation products The material from layers was subjected to quantitative and qualitative analyses in grain sizes classes 4-1 mm and 1-0.2 (0) mm. To determine the quality parameters. The layer and the overflow product material was analysed for ash content and calorific value. Based on the results of the analysis of the suspending bed Fig. 1 Model of fluidal suspension classifier layers and the overflow product sludge the outputs and Source:  quality parameters of concentrate and waste products in the 4-1 mm 1-0.2 (0) mm and 4-0.2 (0) mm grain size clas- The material was separated in a working chamber of di- ses were determined. mensions (length x width x height) 0.5 x 0.1-0.2 x 0.5 m. It was based on an autogenic suspending bed obtained as a TEST RESULTS result of the rising action of a water stream on the feed. Feed desludging Water was distributed in the separation part of the classi- The analysed sample of sludge classified on a 4 mm sieve fier using a flat diffusion plate equipped with holes of a contained 9.7% oversize grains above 4 mm and in the diameter 2 mm being the bottom of the working chamber. The flow rate of fluidizing water was controlled using material with 4-0 mm grain size before desludging. the share of 4-1 mm and 1-0 mm grain sizes was 32.3% and valves and rotameters in the water supply pump system. 67.7% respectively. Water flowed from the working chamber through over- The results of the analysis of the quality parameters of the flow of a width 0.2 m. 4-1 mm and 1-0 mm grain classes showed that the mate- Process tests were preceded by a feed preparation includ- ing the dimensional classification of a material sample. rial contained therein had high ash content A and low cal- orific value Qs . Classified sludge from earth tanks obtained from mechan- In the class 4-1 mm and 1-0 mm ash content was 81.2% at ical processing of coal waste carried out by the wet gross calorific value 4130 kJ/kg but in the class 1-0 mm ash method using vibrating screens with spraying and pulsat- ing classifiers was the feed material. content was higher and was equal to 83.9% at lower gross The maximum size of the assumed feed grains was 4 mm calorific value equal to 3408 kJ/kg. The entire material in grain class 4-0 mm had ash content equal to 83.1% and and the ranges of material qualitative analyses were 4-1 gross calorific value equal to 3642 kJ/kg. mm and 1-0.2 (0) mm. In a result of the process of desludging the material After separation of grains from the material > 4 mm. the feed was desludged to remove grains < 0.2 mm. The feed of 4-0 mm grain size 36.2% of material containing clay and was desludged at a water flow rate to the classifier equal dust particles mainly with grain size less than 0.1 mm and some light grains less than 0.2 mm were separated. to Q = 2.1 m /h and the speed of the rising water stream The results of the analysis of the desludging and stratifica- in the working chamber equal to v = 0.78 cm/s. tion process are given in the Table 1. Then. the process of density stratification of the feed was carried out at the rate of bottom water inflow Q = 3.6 m /h and speed of the rising water stream v = 1.34 m/s. The height of the expanded suspending bed was 0.45 m 222 Management Systems in Production Engineering 2020, Volume 28, Issue 4 Table 1 from post-mining wastes od ash content A = 81.2% and Results of desludging and stratification process calorific value Q = 4130 kJ/kg. of the material in class 4-0 mm Grain class. mm Table 2 4-0 4-1 1-0 Qualitative parameters of density separation of grain class 4-1 mm a a a γ A Q γ A Q γ A Q s s s Feed (desludged) Concentrate Tailings % % kJ/kg % % kJ/kg % % kJ/kg a a a γ A Q Σγ A Q Σγ A Q s s s % % kJ/kg % % kJ/kg % % kJ/kg Source: . Source: . In the product from desludging process (overflow) of grain size 0.2(0.1)-0 mm the ash content A was 81.43% and cal- orific value Q was equal to 4102 kJ/kg. Average ash con- tent in the grain size class 1-0 mm was equal to 83.94% and calorific value was equal to 3408 MJ/kg. Share of grain size classes 4-1 mm and 1-0.2(0) mm in the desludged feed was 50.7% and 49.3% respectively. Parameters of the beneficiation products Fig. 3 Curves of density separation of grain class 4-1 mm The results of the analysis of the quality parameters of Source: . beneficiation products in the 4-1 mm and 1-0.2 (0) mm grain classes showed their significant differentiation for Based on the test results it was assumed that the top layer the assumed process parameters. (layer I) or combined layers I and II would make the con- centrate product. Grain class 4-1 mm At the product output from 4.89% to 9.55% ash content Results of analysis of parameters of the layers obtained a A was within the range from 12% to 29% and calorific during beneficiation of 4-1 mm grains size material pre- value Q from 28872 kJ/kg to 22799 kJ/kg. At the separa- sented in Table 2 and in Fig. 3 showed the possibility of a tion tailings output from 95.11% to 90.45% ash content A obtaining the relatively high quality concentrate products Classification Total/Average* Overflow Layer V Layer IV Layer III Layer II Layer I products 100.00 36.20 5.73 22.48 19.90 8.87 6.82 83.05* 81.43 88.60 88.68 87.87 81.25 56.81 3642* 4102 1637 1550 2087 4502 13196 32.33 - 4.44 17.81 6.99 1.51 1.58 81.19* - 88.73 88.05 81.74 47.87 11.99 4130* - 1616 1667 3754 16426 28872 67.67 36.20 1.29 4.67 12.91 7.36 5.24 83.94* 81.43 88.17 91.08 91.10 88.09 70.33 3408* 4102 1710 1103 1183 2061 8466 Material Total/Average* Layer V Layer IV Layer III Layer II Layer I layers 100.00 13.74 55.08 21.63 4.66 4.89 81.19* 88.73 88.05 81.74 47.87 11.99 4130* 1616 1667 3754 16426 28872 100.00 86.26 31.18 9.55 4.89 81.19 79.99 65.74 29.50 11.99 4130 4530 9587 22799 28872 13.74 68.82 90.45 95.11 100.00 88.73 88.19 86.64 84.74 81.19 1616 1657 2158 2857 4130 D. KOWOL, H. KURAMA – Recovery of Fine Coal Grains from Post-Mining Wastes… 223 was from 84.7% to 86.6% and calorific value Q was from 2857 kJ/kg to 2158 kJ/kg. Increase of concentrate output up to 31.18% (sum of lay- ers I. II. III) caused significant reduce in the concentrate quality. Ash content increased to 65.74% and gross calo- rific value reduced to 9587 kJ/kg. When considering the total amount of post-mining wastes of grain size 4-0 mm before desludging. the concentrate output in grain class 4-1 mm during tests was from 1.58% to 3.09% for the above qualitative parameters. Grain class 1-0.2(0) mm The results of the analysis of layer parameters obtained during the separation of grains class Fig. 4 Curves of density separation of grain class 1-0.2(0) mm 1-0.2 (0) mm presented in Table 3 and Fig. 4 showed the Source: . inability to obtain high-quality concentrate products from desludged post-mining wastes of ash content A = 86.8% At the concentrate output from 16.65% to 40.04% ash and calorific value Qs = 2611 kJ/kg. content A was within the range from 70.3% to 80.7% and calorific value Q from 8466 kJ/kg to 4724kJ/kg. At the Table 3 separation tailings output from 83.35% to 59.96% ash Qualitative parameters of density separation content A was from 90.1% to 90.90% and calorific value of grain class 1-0.2(0) mm Q from 1441 kJ/kg to 1199 kJ/kg. Feed (desludged) Concentrate Tailings When considering the total amount of post-mining wastes a a a γ A Q Σγ A Q Σγ A Q of grain size 4-0 mm before desludging. the concentrate s s s % % kJ/kg % % kJ/kg % % kJ/kg output in grain class 1-0.2(0) mm during tests was from 5.24% to 12.60% for the above qualitative parameters. The quality parameters of the concentrate obtained dur- ing tests were significantly influenced by the low quality of the feed material in the grain class 1-0.2 (0) mm result- ing with a low content of carbon grains. Reduced class quality of the feed material in the class 1-0.2 (0) mm in relation to feed in the 4-1 mm class could have been caused by the loss in carbonaceous material during the desludging process. Grain class 4-0.2 (0) mm Results of analyses of coal layers parameters during clas- sification of feed of grains class 4-0.2(0) mm presented in Table 4 and Fig. 5 showed. similar to the 1-0.2 (0) mm class lack of possibility to obtain the concentrate of high quality from the post-mining wastes of as content A = 84.0% and calorific value Q = 3381 kJ/kg. Use of autogenic suspending bed technology for density separation of grain class 4-0.2(0) mm despite slightly bet- ter results in relation to class 1-0.2(0) mm did not allow for obtaining the concentrate product of expected high quality. Quality of the concentrate product in the 4-0.2 (0) mm class reduced in relation to the concentrate product in the 4-1 mm class was due to both twice the grain size range and the low quality of the material in the 1-0.2 (0) mm class with a low content of carbonaceous substance. Source: . Material Total/Average* Layer V Layer IV Layer III Layer II Layer I layers 100.00 4.10 14.84 41.02 23.39 16.65 86.81* 88.17 91.08 91.10 88.09 70.33 2611* 1710 1103 1183 2061 8466 100.00 95.90 81.06 40.04 16.65 86.81 86.76 85.97 80.77 70.33 2611 2649 2932 4724 8466 4.10 18.94 59.96 83.35 100.00 88.17 90.45 90.89 90.11 86.81 1710 1234 1199 1441 2611 224 Management Systems in Production Engineering 2020, Volume 28, Issue 4 Table 4 4-0.2 (0) was from 6.82% to 15.69% 5 for the above qual- Qualitative parameters of density separation itative parameters. of grain class 4-0.2(0) mm a Comparison of curves for ash content A and calorific Feed (desludged) Concentrate Tailings a value Qs in the concentrate for the analysed grains clas- a a a ses is presented in Fig. 6 and 7. γ A Q Σγ A Q Σγ A Q s s s % % kJ/kg % % kJ/kg % % kJ/kg Fig. 6 Comparison of curves for ash content A in the concen- trate Source: . Source: . Fig. 7 Comparison of curves for calorific value Q in the concen- trate Source: . CONCEPTS OF SYSTEMS FOR RECOVERY OF FINE CARBO- NACEOUS GRAINS Potential possibilities of using autogenous suspending bed technology separation of feeds of an increased grain size range from 2-0 mm to 4-0 mm are shown in Fig. 8 and Post-mining wastes of 4-0 mm class in the form of sludge deposited in earth tanks occurs e.g. during mechanical processing of 30-0 mm class using a pulsating classifier separating the material in 30-3 mm class. Fig. 5 Curves of density separation of grain class 4-0.2(0) mm Material of class 3(4)-0 mm is obtained by classifying 30-0 Source: . mm feed on a vibrating screen using the wet method. by dewatering the concentrate and tailings from the pulsat- At the concentrate output from 10.69% to 24.59% ash ing classifier and discharge hydraulically of the flow content A was within the range from 56.8% to 70.6% and through the sieves. calorific value Qs from 13196 kJ/kg to 8282 kJ/kg. At the Due to the oversize grains in the sludge deposited in earth separation tailings output from 89.31% to 75.41% ash tanks. obtaining the proper grain size range of the 4-0 mm content A was from 87.2% to 88.3% and calorific value class feed for the node for separation of fine post-mining Q from 2206 kJ/kg do 1782 kJ/kg kJ/kg. wastes requires the use of a vibrating screen with water When considering the total amount of post-mining wastes spraying stream to classify sludge material. of grain size 4-0 mm the concentrate output in grain class Material Total/Average* Layer V Layer IV Layer III Layer II Layer I layers 100.00 8.98 35.24 31.19 13.90 10.69 83.96* 88.60 88.68 87.81 81.25 56.81 3381* 1637 1550 2087 4502 13196 100.00 91.02 55.78 24.59 10.69 83.96 83.50 80.23 70.63 56.81 3381 3553 4818 8282 13196 8.98 44.22 75.41 89.31 100.00 88.60 88.66 88.31 87.21 83.96 1637 1568 1782 2206 3381 D. KOWOL, H. KURAMA – Recovery of Fine Coal Grains from Post-Mining Wastes… 225 Variant I – Fig. 8 cess water of suspension classifier overflow is more exten- After classification of the material on the screen. it is de- sive than that shown in Fig. 7 and consists of an arch fixed sludged and densified in a hydrocyclone or a pack of hy- sieve vibrating screen hydrocyclone and a spiral classifier. drocyclones. The product of the hydrocyclone outflow is a As in Variant 1 dewatering and pre-classification of the feed for a two-chamber suspension classifier. In contrast light product is the task of the fixed sieve and classification to single-chamber structures classifying the 2-0 mm class and dewatering of 4-0.5 mm class coal concentrate is the materials at the same water stream rising speed. in a two- task of the vibrating screen. chamber classifiers it is possible to change this parameter Contrary to the solutions presented in Variant 1 where the depending on the differences in the speed of sedimenta- bottom product of the light product classification on the tion of the material in two grain classes. fixed sieve and the vibrating screen is a waste product. in As a result of the two-stage classification process the discussed solution it is the subject to secondary clas- of the 4-0 mm class a coarse-grained and fine-grained tail- sification in the hydrocyclone – spiral classifier system. ings and a concentrated light product are obtained. The material of 0.5-0.15 mm class after densifying and de- In the proposed solution. the light product collecting sys- sludging in the hydrocyclone undergoes density separa- tem consists of an arc sieve and a vibrating screen. tion in the spiral classifier to reduce the ash content by Drained hydraulically. by overflow from a suspension clas- destoning. A light product of the 0.5-0.15 mm class from sifier the light product is dewatered and classified on a the spiral classifier is combined with a 4-0.5 mm class coal fixed sieve and then on the screen. where the final sepa- concentrate from the suspension classifier which allows ration of the smallest grain grades with a high ash content obtaining the final carbon concentrate with a relatively that can excessively reduce the quality parameters of the wide grain size range of 4-0.15 mm. concentrated product occurs. Waste products from suspension classifier are combined with the hydrocyclone overflow product and the bottom products from classification of the light product and then directed to the water and mud circulation. Fig. 9 Diagram of the system for classification of fine grains in class 4-0 mm – Variant II Source: . Fig. 8 Diagram of the system for classification of fine grains in class 4-0 mm – Variant I Tailings from the suspension classifier are combined with Source: . the hydrocyclones overflow product of desludging the feed for the suspension and spiral classifiers with the The water-sludge circuit of tailings may include sedimen- heavy product from the spiral classifier and then hydrau- tation earth tanks radial thickeners and filter presses. The lically directed and transported to the tailings water-mud partition size during classification of a light product from circuit. a suspension classifier is one of the important factors af- Possibility of coal recovery from the post-mining wastes in fecting the quality parameters of the coal concentrate. Ex- a broad grain class using the suspension and spiral classi- cessive reduction of the partition size in the light product fiers which allows to increase the production output of classification can significantly reduce the quality parame- coal concentrates compared to the solutions presented in ters of the coal concentrate. Variant 1 is the advantage of the two-stage classification of the material of 4-0 mm class. Variant 2 Complexity of the classification node arrangement in two In the solutions presented in Fig. 9 the collecting system different classifiers and the high investment and operat- of light product discharged hydraulically along with pro- ing costs are disadvantages of two-stage material separa- tion. 226 Management Systems in Production Engineering 2020, Volume 28, Issue 4  Kowol D.. Matusiak P. „Możliwości zastosowania klasyfika- CONCLUSIONS tora pulsacyjnego do rewitalizacji składowisk odpadów ko- Analysis of the results of classification of sediments from palnianych”. Innowacyjne rozwiązania rewitalizacji tere- earth tanks obtained during laboratory tests showed the nów zdegradowanych. t. 8. Praca zbiorowa pod redakcją possibility of using the technology of autogenic suspend- naukową Jana Skowronka. Instytut Ekologii Terenów ing bed for the density distribution of desludged post- Uprzemysłowionych. 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Vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 107-115, Daniel Kowol ORCID ID: 0000-0001-5547-376X KOMAG Institute of Mining Technology Division of Preparation Systems Pszczyńska 37, 44-101 Gliwice, Poland e-mail: email@example.com Haldun Kurama ORCID ID: 0000-0002-2773-8326 Eskisehir Osmangazi University Mining Engineering Department 26480 Eskisehir, Turkey e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Management Systems in Production Engineering – de Gruyter
Published: Dec 1, 2020
Keywords: classification; fine grains; post-mining wastes dump sites; suspending bed
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