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Pterin function in bacteria

Pterin function in bacteria AbstractPterins are widely conserved biomolecules that play essential roles in diverse organisms. First described as enzymatic cofactors in eukaryotic systems, bacterial pterins were discovered in cyanobacteria soon after. Several pterin structures unique to bacteria have been described, with conjugation to glycosides and nucleotides commonly observed. Despite this significant structural diversity, relatively few biological functions have been elucidated. Molybdopterin, the best studied bacterial pterin, plays an essential role in the function of the Moco cofactor. Moco is an essential component of molybdoenzymes such as sulfite oxidase, nitrate reductase, and dimethyl sulfoxide reductase, all of which play important roles in bacterial metabolism and global nutrient cycles. Outside of the molybdoenzymes, pterin cofactors play important roles in bacterial cyanide utilization and aromatic amino acid metabolism. Less is known about the roles of pterins in nonenzymatic processes. Cyanobacterial pterins have been implicated in phenotypes related to UV protection and phototaxis. Research describing the pterin-mediated control of cyclic nucleotide metabolism, and their influence on virulence and attachment, points to a possible role for pterins in regulation of bacterial behavior. In this review, we describe the variety of pterin functions in bacteria, compare and contrast structural and mechanistic differences, and illuminate promising avenues of future research. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Pteridines de Gruyter

Pterin function in bacteria

Pteridines , Volume 28 (1): 14 – May 1, 2017

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Publisher
de Gruyter
Copyright
©2017 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston
ISSN
2195-4720
eISSN
2195-4720
DOI
10.1515/pterid-2016-0012
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

AbstractPterins are widely conserved biomolecules that play essential roles in diverse organisms. First described as enzymatic cofactors in eukaryotic systems, bacterial pterins were discovered in cyanobacteria soon after. Several pterin structures unique to bacteria have been described, with conjugation to glycosides and nucleotides commonly observed. Despite this significant structural diversity, relatively few biological functions have been elucidated. Molybdopterin, the best studied bacterial pterin, plays an essential role in the function of the Moco cofactor. Moco is an essential component of molybdoenzymes such as sulfite oxidase, nitrate reductase, and dimethyl sulfoxide reductase, all of which play important roles in bacterial metabolism and global nutrient cycles. Outside of the molybdoenzymes, pterin cofactors play important roles in bacterial cyanide utilization and aromatic amino acid metabolism. Less is known about the roles of pterins in nonenzymatic processes. Cyanobacterial pterins have been implicated in phenotypes related to UV protection and phototaxis. Research describing the pterin-mediated control of cyclic nucleotide metabolism, and their influence on virulence and attachment, points to a possible role for pterins in regulation of bacterial behavior. In this review, we describe the variety of pterin functions in bacteria, compare and contrast structural and mechanistic differences, and illuminate promising avenues of future research.

Journal

Pteridinesde Gruyter

Published: May 1, 2017

References