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Problem of Selection of Suitable Geosynthetics for the Strengthening of Subgrade in Road Construction, Selection of Assessment Criteria

Problem of Selection of Suitable Geosynthetics for the Strengthening of Subgrade in Road... Acta Sci. Pol. Architectura 20 (2) 2021, 93–101 content.sciendo.com/aspa ISSN 1644-0633 eISSN 2544-1760 DOI: 10.22630/ASPA.2021.20.2.18 ORIGINAL P APER Received: 14.01.2021 Accepted: 07.06.2021 PROBLEM OF SELECTION OF SUITABLE GEOSYNTHETICS FOR THE STRENGTHENING OF SUBGRADE IN ROAD CONSTRUCTION, SELECTION OF ASSESSMENT CRITERIA Elżbieta Szafranko Faculty of Geoengineering, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Olsztyn, Poland ABSTRACT The introduction of geosynthetics into road construction significantly facilitated fulfilment of the set of re- quirements for modern road building technologies. The fact that geosynthetic materials can be implemented at all stages, from earthwork through land drainage to the construction of layers of roads, new, repaired or strengthened ones, means that geosynthetics now occupy an important place in contemporary road building technologies. Industry supplies numerous materials classified as geosynthetics. In line with the standard PN-EN ISO 10318:2007, we distinguish four principal groups of these products: geotextiles, geotextile deriv- atives, geosynthetic barriers and geocomposites. The industrially produced materials have various properties, which means they have different applicability. This paper analyses basic characteristics, which decide how geosynthetics can be used. Because of a large number of features and factors that could apply to an evaluation of specific solutions, it is necessary to include a large group of criteria. Their analysis might be cumbersome, and therefore an approach is suggested which will greatly facilitate making a complex assessment and selec- tion of a solution which will best meet the customer’s expectations. The assessment of the extent to which specific criteria are met by the geosynthetic materials selected for an analysis allows us to gain better under- standing of their suitability and proper choice, supported by multifactorial analytical methods. The theme of the article is a preliminary step which is to prepare and organize the relevant characteristics of geosynthetics and define the major groups of criteria and sub-criteria. Key words: geosynthetics, classification, functions of geosynthetics, assessment criteria chloride), polypropylene, polyethylene, polyesters, INTRODUCTION polyamides, etc. (Bathurst, 2007; Sobolewski, 2010; The past few years have witnessed a dynamic Shukla, 2011; Szruba, 2014a, 2014b; Polski Komitet growth of technologies of geosynthetic reinforced Normalizacyjny [PKN], 2015). The choice of a type soil technologies (Brózda & Selejdak, 2019). The and kind of a geosynthetic for a particular develop- underlying motivation was to search for new ways ment plan should be based on the expected physical to found building constructions which would be and technological properties of this material (Bugaj- less time-consuming while satisfying all technical ski & Grabowski, 1999; Keller, 2016). The classifi- requirements, as well as being economically viable cation of geosynthetics illustrates Figure 1. and technically feasible. The geosynthetics produced The materials listed in the standard PN-EN ISO today are fabricated from such plastics as poly(vinyl 10318:2007, composing the group of geotextiles, are: Elżbieta Szafranko https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1074-9317 elasz@uwm.edu.pl © Copyright by Wydawnictwo SGGW Szafranko, E. (2021). Problem of selection of suitable geosynthetics for the strengthening of subgrade in road construction, selection of assessment criteria. Acta Sci. Pol. Architectura, 20 (2), 93–101. doi: 10.22630/ASPA.2021.20.2.18 Fig. 1. Classification of geosynthetics according to the standard PN-EN ISO 10318:2007 − woven geotextiles (GTX-W) – made with the tra- − geonets (GNT) – they are polymeric products, ditional weaving method from polypropylene and presenting a regular layout of a flat, open, net like polyester fibers, yarns or tapes. These are made configuration of longitudinal and perpendicular into an orderly, compact warp and weft structure ribs, connected at intersections thermally or by by being interlaced perpendicularly to each other. extrusion, adhesion or interlacing, which typically − non-woven geotextiles (GTX-N) – are planar, creates apertures larger than the ribs. Geonets are non-woven textile products, made with chemical used for reinforcement in the construction of earth and thermal adhesion methods. They come in two retaining structures; variants: for filtration and for separation and fil- − geogrids (GGR) – consist of two-parallel sets of ribs, tration. permanently connected and intersecting each other − knitted geotextiles (GTX-K) – are produced by in- at any angle. They are usually applied in combina- terloping one or more yarns. They are highly ela- tion with geotextiles in drainage geocomposites; stic. They can be made as planar materials or in the − geocells (GCE) – are three-dimensional, permeable shape of pipes. products with a honeycomb structure. Other names Geotextiles are the products composing the major given to geocells are cellular confinement systems group of permeable materials (Ajdukiewicz, 2004; or cellular geosynthetics; Czarnecka, 2016; Keller, 2016). − geostrips (GST) – are planar products of the thick- The second most numerous group of products, de- ness of no more than 200 mm, most often used in scribed in the aforementioned standard, are geotextile- combination with other geosynthetics; -related products (GTP). The group comprises quite − geomats (GMA) – are made from polypropy- diverse products, such as: lene filaments arranged in a three-dimensional 94 architectura.actapol.net Szafranko, E. (2021). Problem of selection of suitable geosynthetics for the strengthening of subgrade in road construction, selection of assessment criteria. Acta Sci. Pol. Architectura, 20 (2), 93–101. doi: 10.22630/ASPA.2021.20.2.18 configuration of the thickness up to 20 mm. Geo- − protection of protective coating for a protected mats are used for permanent or temporary protec- object – a layer which receives external impacts, e.g. mechanical stresses, or the effects of wind, tion of slopes against erosion until natural vegeta- tion cover develops; rain, waves, rock debris, etc.; − geospacers (GSP) – polymeric products used to − reinforcement – using a geosynthetic to improve create air spaces in soil (Szafranko, 2014a; Szruba, the mechanical properties of soil or other constru- 2014a; Cristelo, Vieira & de Lurdes Lopes, 2016; ction materials; − separation – separating layers in order to prevent Zornberg, 2017). The third group of geosynthetics distinguished in the mixing of different soils or other materials; the PL-EN ISO 10318:2007 standard are geosynthetic − superficial protection – protecting the surface against barriers (Gradkowski, 2007; Lawson, 2008; Huang, erosion, including soil erosion, landslide, etc.; Han & Oztoprak, 2009), that is non-permeable materi- − barriers – using a geosynthetic in order to prevent the passage of fluids (water). als, known as geomembranes. Examples are: − polymeric geosynthetic barriers (GBR-P) – com- Examples of applications of geosynthetics are pletely impermeable products, including geo- (Bhatia, Smith & Christopher, 1996): membranes, popular in Poland; − separation of weak subgrade under a slope or em- − clay geosynthetic barriers (GBR-C) – known main- bankment in order to improve stability and accele- rate consolidation; ly as bentonite mats, bent mats, etc., where the fun- ction of a barrier is performed by a clay material; − construction of makeshift roads, as well as roads − bituminous geosynthetic barriers (GBR-B) where in woodlands or on farmlands, construction of car the role of a barrier is played by a bituminous ma- parks and parking spaces in sites with difficult soil terial. and water conditions; − making separating and dividing layers in fine- The last group encompasses geocomposites – they are products composed of two or more interconnected -grained soils; materials having properties which can satisfy the set − making subgrade layers which retain soil under of requirements in order to achieve the best possible geonets or geogrids in the construction of rein- effect in the range of functions performed by a given forced slopes and embankments; − protection of drainage systems in order to prevent composite material. Depending on the dominant func- tion of a geocomposites, it can be a combination of their silting with fine-grained soils; geogrids, geonets, geomats, geotextiles or geomem- − protection of geomembrane seals against mechani- branes with non-woven geotextiles (Koerner, Hsuan cal damage. & Koerner, 2007; Szczygielski & Stopa, 2014). When roads are built on embankments, geosyn- thetics enables to decrease the thickness of an embank- ment while maintaining the bearing capacity. Geosyn- FUNCTIONS AND APPLICATIONS thetics are most often used in a subgrade composed of OF GEOSYNTHETICS aggregate. The exact location of a geosynthetic in the As suggested in the above standard, geosynthetics can subgrade depends on the bearing capacity of the soil and the quality of aggregate. When good quality aggre- play the folwing roles (Horodecki & Duszyńska, 2017; Gołoś, 2019; Miszkowska, 2019): gate is used and the bearing capacity of the subgrade is − dewatering – when a geosynthetic is to drain and large, one layer of a geosynthetic is sufficient. If both discharge ground water within the layer whe- the aggregate and subgrade are poor, it is necessary to re a geotextile or geotextile-related material is use two layers of a geosynthetic. Poor aggregate on a strong subgrade will necessitate the application of placed; − filtration – when a geosynthetic enables the flow of a geosynthetic reinforcement within the layer. Geotex- fluids through a geotextile layer while preventing tiles, geocomposites or nets placed on geotextiles can the passage of soil particles; be introduced at the contact zone of the foundation and architectura.actapol.net 95 Szafranko, E. (2021). Problem of selection of suitable geosynthetics for the strengthening of subgrade in road construction, selection of assessment criteria. Acta Sci. Pol. Architectura, 20 (2), 93–101. doi: 10.22630/ASPA.2021.20.2.18 subgrade (Palmeira, Tatsuoka, Bathurst, Stevenson & mended to pay attention to several properties of such Zornberg, 2008). The internal reinforcement in the products, including: layer of aggregate is always made of geonet. It is also − physical properties: mass per unit area, thickness, possible to reinforce the foundation by using geocells specific density, porosity; on geotextiles. Geonets and geotextiles can also be ap- − mechanical properties: tensile strength (longitudi- plied as reinforcement in the road pavement (Brózda, nal and transverse), elongation at failure, creep at Selejdak & Koteš, 2017). tension and compression, static and dynamic punc- ture strength; − hydraulic properties: longitudinal and transverse THE PROBLEM OF SELECTION OF THE RIGHT water permeability, size of pores; GEOSYNTHETIC – METHODOLOGY − rheological properties: resistance to atmo spheric Materials employed to strengthen the subgrade using conditions, gradual change in parameters with a geosynthetic should respond to the requirements time; specified in the design. The durability of geosynthetics − implementation (technological and economic) pro- under average conditions is very good, but it depends perties: time needed to implement, use of specialist on the resistance to atmospheric (climatic) factors equipment, prices for hiring equipment, qualified as well as to chemical and biological effects (Frost staff needed to be employed, availability of mate- & Lee, 2001; Koerner, 2012). In road construction, rials, prices of materials; durability tests are only required under specific con- − environmental considerations: the impact on the ditions, for example when it is not planned to cover natural environment, reduction in emissions of the product directly with soil or when particular envi- harmful substances and exhaust gases, the impact ronmental risks are present. In general, a geosynthetic on the soil and water balance on a local scale and should be protected from UV radiation, for example globally. by using certain additives, such as soot, which makes The correct choice of geosynthetics can be guided geosynthetics resistant even to long-term exposure by the information comprised in the table, which is (Gradkowski & Żurawski, 2003; Gradkowski, 2008). based on general guidelines and functions intended However, it is recommended to incorporate geosyn- for groups of products to be performed, although thetics into a construction promptly and to cover them specific characteristics, typical of each product, with ground. must be in agreement with the specific requirements When selecting the type of a geosynthetic for set by a building designer in each case (Szafranko, strengthening a construction, in each case it is recom- 2014a). Table. Functions of the geosynthetics and their types Function Type of geosynthetic separation filtration drainage reinforcement protection barrier Geotextiles x x x x x Geogrids x x Geonets x x Geomembranes x x x Gemmates x x x Geocomposites x x x x x x Source: Own elaboration based on Brózda and Selejdak (2019). 96 architectura.actapol.net Szafranko, E. (2021). Problem of selection of suitable geosynthetics for the strengthening of subgrade in road construction, selection of assessment criteria. Acta Sci. Pol. Architectura, 20 (2), 93–101. doi: 10.22630/ASPA.2021.20.2.18 a detailed assessment of the factors which in various RESULTS AND DISCUSSION ways influence the final decision, and to identify a few In order to make the right choice of a geosynthetic, feasible variants of the planned development. The list a well-ordered system approach is necessary. There of assessment criteria and their importance depend on are many ways in which the selection procedure can a goal to be attained and what investment actions have been planned. be ordered. In practice, it amounts to the separation of decision-making process stages (Fig. 2). Although the One set of criteria will apply to a task of strengthen- chosen method supporting making a decision when ing the soil under an embankment, another one when a large group of criteria must be considered is usually the foundation is to be reinforced, and yet another one one of the multifactorial analysis methods, one of the when the planned project is to make the wearing course of a road pavement. The same criterion could be con- most significant stages is the one when a list of criteria to be assessed is being prepared, with each param- sidered as very important in one case, but shown to eter assigned its weight of importance in the light of be unimportant in another one (Szafranko, 2017). The a given design plan. evaluation of the project variants and a selection of the The first step in the diagram (Fig. 2) is to make best solution may seem to be a relatively straightfor- ward task, yet when making a list of criteria and subse- a list of criteria for the subsequent assessment, which in our case means an evaluation of various material quently evaluating them, errors may occur which will (geosynthetics) solutions and an appraisal of their bear an impact on the ultimate outcome of the analysis. value (Szafranko, 2013). The objective is to achieve Hence, this stage requires particular attention and care. Determination of assessment criteria applied to geosynthetics (identification of the goal, making a list) Analysis of variants of the performance of a project (preliminary analysis of variants) Selection of a method for the assessment of prepared variants (selecting an assessment method, selecting an approach to the evaluation of the importance of criteria) Making calculations, evaluation of variants (making a ranking list of variants, selecting the best variant) Analysis and verification of the results (checking the correctness of the procedure, verification) Making the choice of a geosynthetic for a specific design solution Fig. 2. Diagram of the decision-making procedure (own elaboration) architectura.actapol.net 97 Re-evaluation, setting criteria, choice of analysis method Szafranko, E. (2021). Problem of selection of suitable geosynthetics for the strengthening of subgrade in road construction, selection of assessment criteria. Acta Sci. Pol. Architectura, 20 (2), 93–101. doi: 10.22630/ASPA.2021.20.2.18 The geosynthetics described and classified accord- Criteria arranged according to Figure 3 can be sub- ing to the standard PN-EN ISO 10318:2007 demon- mitted to further analysis. In order to determine their strate certain features and are characterized by specific importance, it is necessary to obtain opinions from ex- technical, mechanical and other properties. Due to their perts. To carry out this stage, experts are requested to large diversity, it is recommended to divide them into complete specially prepared research questionnaires. main criteria and subcriteria. A suggestion which cri- Questionnaires must be adjusted to the planned teria could be distinguished as useful ones in the con- analytical method and the assessments given by inter- secutive stages of an assessment is given in Figure 3. viewed experts should be based on a suitably chosen • mass per unit area • thickness • specific density • porosity • tensile strength (longitudinal and transverse) • elongation at failure • creep at tension and compression • static and dynamic puncture strength • longitudinal and transverse water permeability • size of pores • resistance to atmospheric conditions • gradual change in parameters with time • time needed to implement • use of specialist equipment • prices for hiring equipment • qualified staff needed to be employed • availability of materials • prices of materials • impact on the natural environment, • reduction of harmful emissions • the impact on the soil and water balance on a local and global scale Fig. 3. Proposed criteria for assessing geosynthetics (own elaboration) 98 architectura.actapol.net Assessment criteria Environmental Implementation Hydraulic and Mechanical criteria Physical criteria criteria criteria rheological criteria Szafranko, E. (2021). Problem of selection of suitable geosynthetics for the strengthening of subgrade in road construction, selection of assessment criteria. Acta Sci. Pol. Architectura, 20 (2), 93–101. doi: 10.22630/ASPA.2021.20.2.18 scale while the provided responses ought to be given selecting geosynthetics, the author proposes a method- in line with the proposed method. Various scales are ology for supporting the decision-making process. The applicable (different ranges and specificity), in ad- suggested procedure can be summarized on Figure 4. dition to which there could be different methods of The procedure described above makes it possible giving answers (statistical, descriptive, linguistic) or enables to choose the correct geosynthetic for a given methods for giving score evaluations of non-measur- purpose, and to take into account all significant cri- able events. teria while considering the requirements specific for The assessments of criteria achieved as explained a given design plan. beforecan serve as a reliable database to make an analy- sis supported by the previously chosen multifactorial REFERENCES analytical method. Such methods are very useful when Ajdukiewicz, J. (2004). Projektowanie z geosyntetykami an evaluation must take into account large groups of – możliwe zagrożenia dla projektantów – cz. I. Magazyn factors that decide about the final selection of the op- Autostrady, 5, 84–90. timal solution. 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Problem of selection of suitable geosynthetics for the strengthening of subgrade in road construction, selection of assessment criteria. Acta Sci. Pol. Architectura, 20 (2), 93–101. doi: 10.22630/ASPA.2021.20.2.18 PROBLEM WYBORU GEOSYNTETYKÓW DO WZMOCNIENIA PODŁOŻA W BUDOWNICTWIE DROGOWYM, DOBÓR KRYTERIÓW OCENY STRESZCZENIE Wprowadzenie do budownictwa drogowego geosyntetyków w znacznym stopniu ułatwiło spełnienie wymo- gów stawianych nowoczesnym technologiom drogowym. Możliwość zastosowania materiałów geosynte- tycznych począwszy od robót ziemnych przez odwodnienie aż do konstrukcji warstw nawierzchni (zarówno nowych, jak i remontowanych lub wzmacnianych) sprawia, że geosyntetyki zajmują ważne miejsce pośród nowoczesnych technologii drogowych. Przemysł dostarcza bardzo dużo materiałów kwalifikowanych jako geosyntetyki. Zgodnie z normą PN-EN ISO 10318:2007 wyróżniamy cztery zasadnicze grupy tych pro- duktów: geotekstylia, geotekstylne wyroby pokrewne, bariery geosyntetyczne i geokompozyty. Materiały dostarczane przez przemysł mają różne właściwości, a co za tym idzie wielorakie zastosowania. W artyku- le przeanalizowano podstawowe cechy decydujące o możliwości wykorzystania geosyntetyków w różnych rozwiązaniach inżynierskich. Ze względu na dużą liczbę cech i czynników do oceny wybranych rozwiązań konieczne jest uwzględnienie znacznej grupy kryteriów. Ich analiza może przysparzać wiele problemów, dlatego też w artykule zaproponowano podejście pozwalające na kompleksową ocenę i wybór rozwiązania w najwyższym stopniu spełniającego oczekiwania klienta. Ocena stopnia spełnienia określonych kryteriów przez wybrane materiały geosyntetyczne pozwala na lepszą ocenę ich przydatności i dobór z zastosowaniem metod analizy wielokryterialnej. Tematem artykułu jest etap wstępny, czyli przygotowanie i uporządkowanie istotnych cech geosyntetyków i zdefiniowanie grup kryteriów głównych i podkryteriów. Słowa kluczowe: geosyntetyki, klasyfikacja, zastosowanie geosyntetyków, kryteria oceny architectura.actapol.net 101 http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Acta Scientiarum Polonorum Architectura de Gruyter

Problem of Selection of Suitable Geosynthetics for the Strengthening of Subgrade in Road Construction, Selection of Assessment Criteria

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Acta Sci. Pol. Architectura 20 (2) 2021, 93–101 content.sciendo.com/aspa ISSN 1644-0633 eISSN 2544-1760 DOI: 10.22630/ASPA.2021.20.2.18 ORIGINAL P APER Received: 14.01.2021 Accepted: 07.06.2021 PROBLEM OF SELECTION OF SUITABLE GEOSYNTHETICS FOR THE STRENGTHENING OF SUBGRADE IN ROAD CONSTRUCTION, SELECTION OF ASSESSMENT CRITERIA Elżbieta Szafranko Faculty of Geoengineering, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Olsztyn, Poland ABSTRACT The introduction of geosynthetics into road construction significantly facilitated fulfilment of the set of re- quirements for modern road building technologies. The fact that geosynthetic materials can be implemented at all stages, from earthwork through land drainage to the construction of layers of roads, new, repaired or strengthened ones, means that geosynthetics now occupy an important place in contemporary road building technologies. Industry supplies numerous materials classified as geosynthetics. In line with the standard PN-EN ISO 10318:2007, we distinguish four principal groups of these products: geotextiles, geotextile deriv- atives, geosynthetic barriers and geocomposites. The industrially produced materials have various properties, which means they have different applicability. This paper analyses basic characteristics, which decide how geosynthetics can be used. Because of a large number of features and factors that could apply to an evaluation of specific solutions, it is necessary to include a large group of criteria. Their analysis might be cumbersome, and therefore an approach is suggested which will greatly facilitate making a complex assessment and selec- tion of a solution which will best meet the customer’s expectations. The assessment of the extent to which specific criteria are met by the geosynthetic materials selected for an analysis allows us to gain better under- standing of their suitability and proper choice, supported by multifactorial analytical methods. The theme of the article is a preliminary step which is to prepare and organize the relevant characteristics of geosynthetics and define the major groups of criteria and sub-criteria. Key words: geosynthetics, classification, functions of geosynthetics, assessment criteria chloride), polypropylene, polyethylene, polyesters, INTRODUCTION polyamides, etc. (Bathurst, 2007; Sobolewski, 2010; The past few years have witnessed a dynamic Shukla, 2011; Szruba, 2014a, 2014b; Polski Komitet growth of technologies of geosynthetic reinforced Normalizacyjny [PKN], 2015). The choice of a type soil technologies (Brózda & Selejdak, 2019). The and kind of a geosynthetic for a particular develop- underlying motivation was to search for new ways ment plan should be based on the expected physical to found building constructions which would be and technological properties of this material (Bugaj- less time-consuming while satisfying all technical ski & Grabowski, 1999; Keller, 2016). The classifi- requirements, as well as being economically viable cation of geosynthetics illustrates Figure 1. and technically feasible. The geosynthetics produced The materials listed in the standard PN-EN ISO today are fabricated from such plastics as poly(vinyl 10318:2007, composing the group of geotextiles, are: Elżbieta Szafranko https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1074-9317 elasz@uwm.edu.pl © Copyright by Wydawnictwo SGGW Szafranko, E. (2021). Problem of selection of suitable geosynthetics for the strengthening of subgrade in road construction, selection of assessment criteria. Acta Sci. Pol. Architectura, 20 (2), 93–101. doi: 10.22630/ASPA.2021.20.2.18 Fig. 1. Classification of geosynthetics according to the standard PN-EN ISO 10318:2007 − woven geotextiles (GTX-W) – made with the tra- − geonets (GNT) – they are polymeric products, ditional weaving method from polypropylene and presenting a regular layout of a flat, open, net like polyester fibers, yarns or tapes. These are made configuration of longitudinal and perpendicular into an orderly, compact warp and weft structure ribs, connected at intersections thermally or by by being interlaced perpendicularly to each other. extrusion, adhesion or interlacing, which typically − non-woven geotextiles (GTX-N) – are planar, creates apertures larger than the ribs. Geonets are non-woven textile products, made with chemical used for reinforcement in the construction of earth and thermal adhesion methods. They come in two retaining structures; variants: for filtration and for separation and fil- − geogrids (GGR) – consist of two-parallel sets of ribs, tration. permanently connected and intersecting each other − knitted geotextiles (GTX-K) – are produced by in- at any angle. They are usually applied in combina- terloping one or more yarns. They are highly ela- tion with geotextiles in drainage geocomposites; stic. They can be made as planar materials or in the − geocells (GCE) – are three-dimensional, permeable shape of pipes. products with a honeycomb structure. Other names Geotextiles are the products composing the major given to geocells are cellular confinement systems group of permeable materials (Ajdukiewicz, 2004; or cellular geosynthetics; Czarnecka, 2016; Keller, 2016). − geostrips (GST) – are planar products of the thick- The second most numerous group of products, de- ness of no more than 200 mm, most often used in scribed in the aforementioned standard, are geotextile- combination with other geosynthetics; -related products (GTP). The group comprises quite − geomats (GMA) – are made from polypropy- diverse products, such as: lene filaments arranged in a three-dimensional 94 architectura.actapol.net Szafranko, E. (2021). Problem of selection of suitable geosynthetics for the strengthening of subgrade in road construction, selection of assessment criteria. Acta Sci. Pol. Architectura, 20 (2), 93–101. doi: 10.22630/ASPA.2021.20.2.18 configuration of the thickness up to 20 mm. Geo- − protection of protective coating for a protected mats are used for permanent or temporary protec- object – a layer which receives external impacts, e.g. mechanical stresses, or the effects of wind, tion of slopes against erosion until natural vegeta- tion cover develops; rain, waves, rock debris, etc.; − geospacers (GSP) – polymeric products used to − reinforcement – using a geosynthetic to improve create air spaces in soil (Szafranko, 2014a; Szruba, the mechanical properties of soil or other constru- 2014a; Cristelo, Vieira & de Lurdes Lopes, 2016; ction materials; − separation – separating layers in order to prevent Zornberg, 2017). The third group of geosynthetics distinguished in the mixing of different soils or other materials; the PL-EN ISO 10318:2007 standard are geosynthetic − superficial protection – protecting the surface against barriers (Gradkowski, 2007; Lawson, 2008; Huang, erosion, including soil erosion, landslide, etc.; Han & Oztoprak, 2009), that is non-permeable materi- − barriers – using a geosynthetic in order to prevent the passage of fluids (water). als, known as geomembranes. Examples are: − polymeric geosynthetic barriers (GBR-P) – com- Examples of applications of geosynthetics are pletely impermeable products, including geo- (Bhatia, Smith & Christopher, 1996): membranes, popular in Poland; − separation of weak subgrade under a slope or em- − clay geosynthetic barriers (GBR-C) – known main- bankment in order to improve stability and accele- rate consolidation; ly as bentonite mats, bent mats, etc., where the fun- ction of a barrier is performed by a clay material; − construction of makeshift roads, as well as roads − bituminous geosynthetic barriers (GBR-B) where in woodlands or on farmlands, construction of car the role of a barrier is played by a bituminous ma- parks and parking spaces in sites with difficult soil terial. and water conditions; − making separating and dividing layers in fine- The last group encompasses geocomposites – they are products composed of two or more interconnected -grained soils; materials having properties which can satisfy the set − making subgrade layers which retain soil under of requirements in order to achieve the best possible geonets or geogrids in the construction of rein- effect in the range of functions performed by a given forced slopes and embankments; − protection of drainage systems in order to prevent composite material. Depending on the dominant func- tion of a geocomposites, it can be a combination of their silting with fine-grained soils; geogrids, geonets, geomats, geotextiles or geomem- − protection of geomembrane seals against mechani- branes with non-woven geotextiles (Koerner, Hsuan cal damage. & Koerner, 2007; Szczygielski & Stopa, 2014). When roads are built on embankments, geosyn- thetics enables to decrease the thickness of an embank- ment while maintaining the bearing capacity. Geosyn- FUNCTIONS AND APPLICATIONS thetics are most often used in a subgrade composed of OF GEOSYNTHETICS aggregate. The exact location of a geosynthetic in the As suggested in the above standard, geosynthetics can subgrade depends on the bearing capacity of the soil and the quality of aggregate. When good quality aggre- play the folwing roles (Horodecki & Duszyńska, 2017; Gołoś, 2019; Miszkowska, 2019): gate is used and the bearing capacity of the subgrade is − dewatering – when a geosynthetic is to drain and large, one layer of a geosynthetic is sufficient. If both discharge ground water within the layer whe- the aggregate and subgrade are poor, it is necessary to re a geotextile or geotextile-related material is use two layers of a geosynthetic. Poor aggregate on a strong subgrade will necessitate the application of placed; − filtration – when a geosynthetic enables the flow of a geosynthetic reinforcement within the layer. Geotex- fluids through a geotextile layer while preventing tiles, geocomposites or nets placed on geotextiles can the passage of soil particles; be introduced at the contact zone of the foundation and architectura.actapol.net 95 Szafranko, E. (2021). Problem of selection of suitable geosynthetics for the strengthening of subgrade in road construction, selection of assessment criteria. Acta Sci. Pol. Architectura, 20 (2), 93–101. doi: 10.22630/ASPA.2021.20.2.18 subgrade (Palmeira, Tatsuoka, Bathurst, Stevenson & mended to pay attention to several properties of such Zornberg, 2008). The internal reinforcement in the products, including: layer of aggregate is always made of geonet. It is also − physical properties: mass per unit area, thickness, possible to reinforce the foundation by using geocells specific density, porosity; on geotextiles. Geonets and geotextiles can also be ap- − mechanical properties: tensile strength (longitudi- plied as reinforcement in the road pavement (Brózda, nal and transverse), elongation at failure, creep at Selejdak & Koteš, 2017). tension and compression, static and dynamic punc- ture strength; − hydraulic properties: longitudinal and transverse THE PROBLEM OF SELECTION OF THE RIGHT water permeability, size of pores; GEOSYNTHETIC – METHODOLOGY − rheological properties: resistance to atmo spheric Materials employed to strengthen the subgrade using conditions, gradual change in parameters with a geosynthetic should respond to the requirements time; specified in the design. The durability of geosynthetics − implementation (technological and economic) pro- under average conditions is very good, but it depends perties: time needed to implement, use of specialist on the resistance to atmospheric (climatic) factors equipment, prices for hiring equipment, qualified as well as to chemical and biological effects (Frost staff needed to be employed, availability of mate- & Lee, 2001; Koerner, 2012). In road construction, rials, prices of materials; durability tests are only required under specific con- − environmental considerations: the impact on the ditions, for example when it is not planned to cover natural environment, reduction in emissions of the product directly with soil or when particular envi- harmful substances and exhaust gases, the impact ronmental risks are present. In general, a geosynthetic on the soil and water balance on a local scale and should be protected from UV radiation, for example globally. by using certain additives, such as soot, which makes The correct choice of geosynthetics can be guided geosynthetics resistant even to long-term exposure by the information comprised in the table, which is (Gradkowski & Żurawski, 2003; Gradkowski, 2008). based on general guidelines and functions intended However, it is recommended to incorporate geosyn- for groups of products to be performed, although thetics into a construction promptly and to cover them specific characteristics, typical of each product, with ground. must be in agreement with the specific requirements When selecting the type of a geosynthetic for set by a building designer in each case (Szafranko, strengthening a construction, in each case it is recom- 2014a). Table. Functions of the geosynthetics and their types Function Type of geosynthetic separation filtration drainage reinforcement protection barrier Geotextiles x x x x x Geogrids x x Geonets x x Geomembranes x x x Gemmates x x x Geocomposites x x x x x x Source: Own elaboration based on Brózda and Selejdak (2019). 96 architectura.actapol.net Szafranko, E. (2021). Problem of selection of suitable geosynthetics for the strengthening of subgrade in road construction, selection of assessment criteria. Acta Sci. Pol. Architectura, 20 (2), 93–101. doi: 10.22630/ASPA.2021.20.2.18 a detailed assessment of the factors which in various RESULTS AND DISCUSSION ways influence the final decision, and to identify a few In order to make the right choice of a geosynthetic, feasible variants of the planned development. The list a well-ordered system approach is necessary. There of assessment criteria and their importance depend on are many ways in which the selection procedure can a goal to be attained and what investment actions have been planned. be ordered. In practice, it amounts to the separation of decision-making process stages (Fig. 2). Although the One set of criteria will apply to a task of strengthen- chosen method supporting making a decision when ing the soil under an embankment, another one when a large group of criteria must be considered is usually the foundation is to be reinforced, and yet another one one of the multifactorial analysis methods, one of the when the planned project is to make the wearing course of a road pavement. The same criterion could be con- most significant stages is the one when a list of criteria to be assessed is being prepared, with each param- sidered as very important in one case, but shown to eter assigned its weight of importance in the light of be unimportant in another one (Szafranko, 2017). The a given design plan. evaluation of the project variants and a selection of the The first step in the diagram (Fig. 2) is to make best solution may seem to be a relatively straightfor- ward task, yet when making a list of criteria and subse- a list of criteria for the subsequent assessment, which in our case means an evaluation of various material quently evaluating them, errors may occur which will (geosynthetics) solutions and an appraisal of their bear an impact on the ultimate outcome of the analysis. value (Szafranko, 2013). The objective is to achieve Hence, this stage requires particular attention and care. Determination of assessment criteria applied to geosynthetics (identification of the goal, making a list) Analysis of variants of the performance of a project (preliminary analysis of variants) Selection of a method for the assessment of prepared variants (selecting an assessment method, selecting an approach to the evaluation of the importance of criteria) Making calculations, evaluation of variants (making a ranking list of variants, selecting the best variant) Analysis and verification of the results (checking the correctness of the procedure, verification) Making the choice of a geosynthetic for a specific design solution Fig. 2. Diagram of the decision-making procedure (own elaboration) architectura.actapol.net 97 Re-evaluation, setting criteria, choice of analysis method Szafranko, E. (2021). Problem of selection of suitable geosynthetics for the strengthening of subgrade in road construction, selection of assessment criteria. Acta Sci. Pol. Architectura, 20 (2), 93–101. doi: 10.22630/ASPA.2021.20.2.18 The geosynthetics described and classified accord- Criteria arranged according to Figure 3 can be sub- ing to the standard PN-EN ISO 10318:2007 demon- mitted to further analysis. In order to determine their strate certain features and are characterized by specific importance, it is necessary to obtain opinions from ex- technical, mechanical and other properties. Due to their perts. To carry out this stage, experts are requested to large diversity, it is recommended to divide them into complete specially prepared research questionnaires. main criteria and subcriteria. A suggestion which cri- Questionnaires must be adjusted to the planned teria could be distinguished as useful ones in the con- analytical method and the assessments given by inter- secutive stages of an assessment is given in Figure 3. viewed experts should be based on a suitably chosen • mass per unit area • thickness • specific density • porosity • tensile strength (longitudinal and transverse) • elongation at failure • creep at tension and compression • static and dynamic puncture strength • longitudinal and transverse water permeability • size of pores • resistance to atmospheric conditions • gradual change in parameters with time • time needed to implement • use of specialist equipment • prices for hiring equipment • qualified staff needed to be employed • availability of materials • prices of materials • impact on the natural environment, • reduction of harmful emissions • the impact on the soil and water balance on a local and global scale Fig. 3. Proposed criteria for assessing geosynthetics (own elaboration) 98 architectura.actapol.net Assessment criteria Environmental Implementation Hydraulic and Mechanical criteria Physical criteria criteria criteria rheological criteria Szafranko, E. (2021). Problem of selection of suitable geosynthetics for the strengthening of subgrade in road construction, selection of assessment criteria. Acta Sci. Pol. Architectura, 20 (2), 93–101. doi: 10.22630/ASPA.2021.20.2.18 scale while the provided responses ought to be given selecting geosynthetics, the author proposes a method- in line with the proposed method. Various scales are ology for supporting the decision-making process. The applicable (different ranges and specificity), in ad- suggested procedure can be summarized on Figure 4. dition to which there could be different methods of The procedure described above makes it possible giving answers (statistical, descriptive, linguistic) or enables to choose the correct geosynthetic for a given methods for giving score evaluations of non-measur- purpose, and to take into account all significant cri- able events. teria while considering the requirements specific for The assessments of criteria achieved as explained a given design plan. beforecan serve as a reliable database to make an analy- sis supported by the previously chosen multifactorial REFERENCES analytical method. Such methods are very useful when Ajdukiewicz, J. (2004). Projektowanie z geosyntetykami an evaluation must take into account large groups of – możliwe zagrożenia dla projektantów – cz. I. Magazyn factors that decide about the final selection of the op- Autostrady, 5, 84–90. timal solution. 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Problem of selection of suitable geosynthetics for the strengthening of subgrade in road construction, selection of assessment criteria. Acta Sci. Pol. Architectura, 20 (2), 93–101. doi: 10.22630/ASPA.2021.20.2.18 PROBLEM WYBORU GEOSYNTETYKÓW DO WZMOCNIENIA PODŁOŻA W BUDOWNICTWIE DROGOWYM, DOBÓR KRYTERIÓW OCENY STRESZCZENIE Wprowadzenie do budownictwa drogowego geosyntetyków w znacznym stopniu ułatwiło spełnienie wymo- gów stawianych nowoczesnym technologiom drogowym. Możliwość zastosowania materiałów geosynte- tycznych począwszy od robót ziemnych przez odwodnienie aż do konstrukcji warstw nawierzchni (zarówno nowych, jak i remontowanych lub wzmacnianych) sprawia, że geosyntetyki zajmują ważne miejsce pośród nowoczesnych technologii drogowych. Przemysł dostarcza bardzo dużo materiałów kwalifikowanych jako geosyntetyki. Zgodnie z normą PN-EN ISO 10318:2007 wyróżniamy cztery zasadnicze grupy tych pro- duktów: geotekstylia, geotekstylne wyroby pokrewne, bariery geosyntetyczne i geokompozyty. Materiały dostarczane przez przemysł mają różne właściwości, a co za tym idzie wielorakie zastosowania. W artyku- le przeanalizowano podstawowe cechy decydujące o możliwości wykorzystania geosyntetyków w różnych rozwiązaniach inżynierskich. Ze względu na dużą liczbę cech i czynników do oceny wybranych rozwiązań konieczne jest uwzględnienie znacznej grupy kryteriów. Ich analiza może przysparzać wiele problemów, dlatego też w artykule zaproponowano podejście pozwalające na kompleksową ocenę i wybór rozwiązania w najwyższym stopniu spełniającego oczekiwania klienta. Ocena stopnia spełnienia określonych kryteriów przez wybrane materiały geosyntetyczne pozwala na lepszą ocenę ich przydatności i dobór z zastosowaniem metod analizy wielokryterialnej. Tematem artykułu jest etap wstępny, czyli przygotowanie i uporządkowanie istotnych cech geosyntetyków i zdefiniowanie grup kryteriów głównych i podkryteriów. Słowa kluczowe: geosyntetyki, klasyfikacja, zastosowanie geosyntetyków, kryteria oceny architectura.actapol.net 101

Journal

Acta Scientiarum Polonorum Architecturade Gruyter

Published: Jun 1, 2021

Keywords: geosynthetics; classification; functions of geosynthetics; assessment criteria

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