Get 20M+ Full-Text Papers For Less Than $1.50/day. Start a 14-Day Trial for You or Your Team.

Learn More →

Optimizing the Spatial Configurations of an Urban Open Space: Syntactic Analysis of the Restored Hatirjheel Wetland, Dhaka

Optimizing the Spatial Configurations of an Urban Open Space: Syntactic Analysis of the Restored... Acta Sci. Pol. Architectura 20 (2) 2021, 3–16 content.sciendo.com/aspa ISSN 1644-0633 eISSN 2544-1760 DOI: 10.22630/ASPA.2021.20.2.10 ORIGINAL P APER Received: 08.04.2021 Accepted: 17.05.2021 OPTIMIZING THE SPATIAL CONFIGURATIONS OF AN URBAN OPEN SPACE: SYNTACTIC ANALYSIS OF THE RESTORED HATIRJHEEL WETLAND, DHAKA Md Arifur Rahman School of Applied Sciences and Technology, Shahjalal University of Science and Technology, Sylhet, Bangladesh ABSTRACT Due to rapid urbanization, urban open spaces are becoming increasingly significant, both in the inhabitants’ daily and societal lives. This significance is even more applicable for the densely populated city of Dhaka, which has historically overseen numerous urban migrations. Regretfully, the inhabitants of Dhaka can access only a few urban recreational facilities, public open spaces in particular. Due to illegal encroachment, low maintenance, and rigid policymaking, those limited number of open spaces are becoming gradually deterio- rated and are in the potential danger of greater extinction soon. The Hatirjheel wetland area inside Dhaka has recently been restored as an important public open space to connect the city’s green-blue network. Accessibil- ity is a significant spatial parameter to judge its potential success. This research analysed how accessibility would optimize the multi-scalar relationship between neighbourhoods and urban activities. With use a series of syntactic analyses, it was also searched for the Hatirjheel wetland’s potentials as an active urban open space to accelerate local and global activity. The possible weaknesses behind those open spaces’ inactive- ness were investigated both theoretically and practically. Finally, some recommendations were suggested by analysing these circumstances in aim to improve the current conditions and obtain optimum benefits from the existing open space. Key words: water urbanism, space syntax, accessibility, local integration, global integration scale. Besides, they significantly affect the urban INTRODUCTION dwellers’ physical and mental health on an individual In the urban context, open spaces include all urban level. However, the significance of unbuilt lands and green space (UGS) and green-blue infrastructure (GBI), public open spaces is repeatedly neglected in the least i.e.: urban forestry, woodlands, parks, playgrounds, developed countries worldwide due to their ignorance vacant lots, beeches, wetlands and riverfronts, which in balancing the constructed areas and the unbuilt belong to the public domain and have open access areas during urban and regional planning. Although (Schipperijn, Stigsdotter, Randrup & Troelsen, 2010). these countries might contemplate public open spaces Open spaces substantially contribute to preserve the as redundant momentarily, open spaces’ potential as urban ecosystem and maintain the green-blue thresh- responsive urban spaces must be acknowledged in the old. Apart from adding environmental and aesthetic long run (Tabassum & Sharmin, 2013). Permeability, value, public open spaces significantly impact social variety, legibility, robustness, visual appropriateness, interaction and cohesion at the communal and urban richness and personalization are the factors that in- Md Arifur Rahman https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5765-6874 ar.kaushik-arc@sust.edu © Copyright by Wydawnictwo SGGW Rahman, M. A. (2021). Optimizing the spatial confi gurations of an urban open space: syntactic analysis of the restored Hatirjheel wetland, Dhaka. Acta Sci. Pol. Architectura, 20 (2), 3–16. doi: 10.22630/ASPA.2021.20.2.10 fluence an environment’s responsiveness (Bentley, Besides, public parks are the place for social transfor- Mc Glynn, Smith, Alcock & Murrain, 1985). The mation where people can meet strangers and also feel omission of these factors might collapse the space’s anonymous and private simultaneously, even though responsiveness. virtual networking and recent technological revolution In his book, The death and life of great Ameri- have challenged the necessity of direct human contact. can cities, Jacobs (1961) stated that the success of Otherwise, the public spaces will become loose-fit an urban open space like a neighbourhood park de- spaces with a substantial gap in their design purpose pends on its generalized utilization, particularly by and practical use (Thompson, 2002). the underprivileged populations. Besides being used Dhaka, the capital of Bangladesh, is a rapid-grow- by the local people for livelihood, neighbourhood ing city due to the heavy urban migration and the re- parks serve multiple social purposes and public in- cent establishment of mega-infrastructures. It has more terests. The author claimed that under-utilized parks than 17 million dwellers and has been enlisted as one could result in vandalism and discourage public of the most inhabited cities globally (Islam, Mahmud movement in their adjacent roads. According to Gehl & Islam, 2015). The growing re-settlers require an in- (1987), three types of outdoor activities occur in creased number of public open spaces for satisfying public spaces: compulsory, optional and social. The their recreational and social demands, most important- enhanced quality of outdoor space accelerates the ly, without declining the existing ecological corridors optional and social outdoor activities, as observed in and footprints. Dhaka structure plan (Government of an intense study in Copenhagen. The author also un- Bangladesh & Rajdhani Unnayan Kartripakkha [GoB derlined traffic-free pedestrian streets as vital public & RAJUK], 1995) recommended that urban open spac- spaces for a widening spectrum of outdoor activities. es should cover no less than 20% of the entire land use Recently urban wetlands are attracting global atten- of Dhaka city. Unfortunately, parks and open spaces tion to reduce the deficiency of the public spaces in averaged a meagre value of 14.5% of the whole city’s metropolises. However, research on their use and ef- land area, which is below par for the standard UGS re- fectiveness after completion is a comparatively more quirement of 25% to maintain a sustainable ecosystem popular trend than research on their design guide- of a city. The scarcity of urban open spaces was more lines (Song, Albert & Prominski, 2020). The authors evident in the Dhaka Metropolitan Development Plan: found several potentials for urban wetlands as public 1995–2015 (GoB & RAJUK, 1995), which alarmingly space, such as preserving the cultural and ecologi- stated that open spaces in the old Dhaka constituted cal resources, providing recreational activities with merely 5% of the whole land area, compared to 12% amenities, attracting visitors. of open spaces in the new Dhaka (Islam et al., 2015). Haaland and Bosch (2015) identified the current Expansion of open spaces would be complex in the global position and challenges of urban open space existing situation for the land unavailability due to planning. The rapid expansion of cities tremendously the high density of buildings, inflated land price, and exploits urban forests in industrializing countries in pre-dominant peripheral wetland landscapes. Even the the Global South. Furthermore, consolidation and in- already limited number of open spaces were under fill developments are significantly threatening the ur- serious threat because of massive human encroach- ban open spaces in the Asian and Australian cities to ment and conversion of woodlands to changed land a greater extent compared to the European and North use. Consequently, the city’s corresponding ecological American cities. The major challenges in current plan- balance was severely damaged with the frequent oc- ning practice include providing green space in densi- currence of waterlogging, overflooding and environ- fication areas, the unequal distribution of open space, mental pollution (Nilufar, 1999). These open spaces especially in the older half of the cities, providing out- also suffered from human-caused problems such as door space for the younger generations, degradation inappropriate management, under-utilization, lack of recreational experiences, preserving biodiversity, of accessibility and security, unhealthy conditions, and institutional constraints (Haaland & Bosch, 2015). criminal and anti-social activities, and inadequate 4 architectura.actapol.net Rahman, M. A. (2021). Optimizing the spatial confi gurations of an urban open space: syntactic analysis of the restored Hatirjheel wetland, Dhaka. Acta Sci. Pol. Architectura, 20 (2), 3–16. doi: 10.22630/ASPA.2021.20.2.10 infrastructures to facilitate people (Islam et al., 2015). Dhanmondi lake, another major wetland in Dhaka, Long-term land-use planning based on their spatial through canals. But land infilling and construction configuration should be implemented immediately so of covered box culverts over the canals disrupted the that the existing limited resources could be accessed connectivity in recent times. The integrated restoration and utilized appropriately and preserved for a better would re-establish these lacustrine networks. Hence liveable environment. Otherwise, there will be a se- urban planners had identified Hatirjheel as a core blue vere crisis of public open spaces in Dhaka city in the infrastructure. It would enhance ecological connectiv- immediate future. ity between the green and blue corridors and the pe- Considering the lack of scope to expand the ex- ripheral riverine networks of the capital city (Fig. 2). isting natural resources and open spaces, recently, the As a result, the wetland would act as a retention tank Hatirjheel waterfront area was redeveloped as pri- of stormwater and mitigate environmental hazards mary urban open space (Fig. 1). This integrated wet- such as waterlogging and overflooding (Vitti Sthapati land development aimed to restore the city’s water Brindo Limited, 2015). During the recent restoration, edge activities which were initiated through a rich the Hatirjheel waterfront area was incorporated with tradition of water edge activities alongside the Burig- some significant urban recreational spaces, such as an anga riverfront (Mowla, 2013). The restoration project open-to-sky amphitheater, an urban park beside the also intended to link the older communities and resi- Gulshan-Hatirjheel Link Road, walkways, ghats, boat- dents of the newly developed part of the city. In the ing facilities, and restaurants. The entire restored area, past, Hatirjheel wetland was directly connected to the covering 311 acres, was surrounded by several highly Fig. 1. The Hatirjheel wetland, including the Begunbari canal after the restoration (based on Vitti Sthapati Brindo Lim- ited, 2015, retrieved from: http://vitti.com.bd/project/integrated-development-of-hatirjheel-area/#ad-image-852, accessed 21.06.2020) architectura.actapol.net 5 Rahman, M. A. (2021). Optimizing the spatial confi gurations of an urban open space: syntactic analysis of the restored Hatirjheel wetland, Dhaka. Acta Sci. Pol. Architectura, 20 (2), 3–16. doi: 10.22630/ASPA.2021.20.2.10 Fig. 2. The Hatirjheel lake was a part of the green-blue network of integrated Dhaka city (Nilufar, 2015) dense residential neighbourhoods. Four heavy ve- spatial organization and the site-specific accessibility hicular bridges and four pedestrian bridges were also factors of the study area’s connecting roads. The in- designed to serve the surrounding residential com- vestigation could possibly lead to some suggestions munities (Architecture Master Prize, 2016). Although for future sustainable use. In short, the objectives of the whole site consisted of heavy infrastructures, the the research were identified as the following: anticipated use of this waterfront might get impacted − To assess the connectivity of the Hatirjheel water- by numerous spatial and non-spatial site factors such front as a responsive public open space. as accessibility, connectivity, control, and choice. This − To compare the global and local integration values study will investigate these potential spatial factors to of the urban grid. enhance accessibility and to make the waterfront more − To outline the multi-scalar relationship from neigh- vibrant. Also, the user groups would be the benefici- bourhood to urban activities. ary if the management and operation process succeeds − To analyse the spatial configuration of the area and in the project’s integrated planning and construction the peripheral roads. process. − To suggest immediate measures to be adopted and This research aimed to explore the potential re- implemented to optimize the existing connectivity lationship between the surrounding neighbourhoods’ and use. 6 architectura.actapol.net Rahman, M. A. (2021). Optimizing the spatial confi gurations of an urban open space: syntactic analysis of the restored Hatirjheel wetland, Dhaka. Acta Sci. Pol. Architectura, 20 (2), 3–16. doi: 10.22630/ASPA.2021.20.2.10 Table 1. Name of the primary access road of Hatirjheel MATERIAL AND METHODS waterfront This research was structured with several steps to Code Access road’s name achieve the mentioned research objectives, such as identifying the study area and describing the syntactic 1 Karwan Bazar Road methodology, followed by spatial analysis, discussion 2 Sat Rasta-Moghbazar Road on results, key findings, case studies worldwide in 3 Hatirjheel Link Road similar situations, and several recommendations. 4 AUST Link Road Study area profile 5 Love Road The research covered the entire Hatirjheel water- 6 Hatirjheel-Gulshan-Tejgaon Link Road front area, including the adjacent Begunbari canal, fo- cusing on 13 roads connected to the Hatirjheel Link 7 Bir Uttam Mir Shawkat Sarak (Circular) Road. These roads acted as the primary 8 Pragati Sarani accessing line to enter the public open areas. Table 1 9 Generator Lane illustrates the labels of the roads with their locations indicated in Figure 3. 10 Mahanagar Middle Road-2 11 Mahanagar Housing Road 12 Modhubag Road 13 Mouchak-Moghbazar Road Fig. 3. The study area’s location with major access roads (based on Dhaka city map, 2014) architectura.actapol.net 7 Rahman, M. A. (2021). Optimizing the spatial confi gurations of an urban open space: syntactic analysis of the restored Hatirjheel wetland, Dhaka. Acta Sci. Pol. Architectura, 20 (2), 3–16. doi: 10.22630/ASPA.2021.20.2.10 Penn & Chiaradia, 2013), to assess disaster risk in the Syntactic method organic towns with hilly landscape (Castillo, 2013), Space syntax is a concept in the fields of urban de- sign, urban planning, building, traffic, and circulation to integrate the recreational spaces in towns (Tariq & design. This analytical method was initially devel- Nilufar, 2013), to design new cities based on evidence (Karimi & Vaughan, 2014) and even, to predict social oped to conceptualize urban grids’ morphological crimes in residential zones (Wu et al., 2015). logic (Hillier, 1996), to study settlement and housing In space syntax, the urban grids are analyzed genotypes (Hillier, Hanson & Graham, 1987; Hillier, Hanson & Peponis, 1987) and to measure spatial con- based on the configuration of the axial map. The axial figurations (Hillier & Hanson, 1984; Hillier, Penn, map consists of the least set of longest and straightest lines that can be drawn to connect the open spaces in Hanson, Grajewski & Xu, 1993). Spatial configura- a city (Ahmed, Hasan & Maniruzzaman, 2014). These tion ranges from the precise relation between two axial lines encompass every urban block in a city. spaces considering a third space to broadly all the Each street intersection within these urban grids is relationships among spaces in a system considering everything else in the system (Koohsari, Kaczynski, inscribed as an intersection of axial lines. Therefore, to record the urban grid structures, axial map analy- Mcormack & Sugiyama, 2014). Later space syntax sis could be an appropriate method. According to the had been widely used to investigate inconsistencies in space syntax theory, the first-order and second-order urban texture (Ratti, 2004), the relationship between measures’ relationship (Khan, 2014) can be consid- urban road configuration and land-use density (Kim & Sohn, 2002), the use of pedestrian and landscape ered as in Figure 4. Integration, a static global measure, depicts the attributes (Foltête & Piombini, 2007) and street pat- mean depth or shallowness of space to every other tern and network analysis (Duan & Wang, 2009; space in the system in the space syntax theory. Spaces Omer & Zafrir-Reuven, 2010). Recently it has been in the system can be categorized from the least inte- utilized in advanced and multidisciplinary fields to correlate historical research (Griffiths, 2011, 2012; grated to the least isolated (Klarqvist, 1993). Choice (CH), a dynamic global measure, expresses the Froy, 2016; Srinurak & Mishima, 2017), to explore number of the shortest paths passing through a sys- the relations between traffic network and the urban tem, connecting all spaces to all spaces of the system. environment (Giannopoulou, Roukounis & Stefanis, A higher number of flows through any space indicates 2012), to study the space-societal-economic triangu- lar relationship (Mohamed, van Nes, Salheen, Kohlert a stronger choice (Klarqvist, 1993). Connectivity (CN) & Schwander, 2013), to weigh influences on the resi- is a local syntactic measure. It represents the number of immediate neighbouring roads directly connected dential markets in metropolitan cities (Law, Karimi, Fig. 4. The relationship between different syntactic orders (adopted from Khan, 2014) 8 architectura.actapol.net Rahman, M. A. (2021). Optimizing the spatial confi gurations of an urban open space: syntactic analysis of the restored Hatirjheel wetland, Dhaka. Acta Sci. Pol. Architectura, 20 (2), 3–16. doi: 10.22630/ASPA.2021.20.2.10 ArcGIS The preparation of Dhaka city street network map from ArcGIS The generation of the axial lines from the street map The generation of the fewest lines maps by converting the axial lines to the fewest lines Space Syntax (Depthmap) The analysis of the fewest line map through graph analysis Comparing the syntactic measures of the selected roads Fig. 5. The syntactic methodology of the spatial analysis to space. The correlation between connectivity and area was located far from the local integration core, integration is known as Intelligibility (Tariq & Nilu- albeit closer to the strongly integrated lines. far, 2013). The control (CV) calculates the extent to Syntactic measures of the selected 13 roads’ con- which any space controls accessibility to its immedi- nectivity had been displayed in Table 2, along with ate neighbours considering the number of alternative their global and local integration values. The result connections each of these neighbours has (Klarqvist, showed that Karwan Bazar Road (1), Sat Rasta- 1993). The methodology of this research followed the -Moghbazar Road (2), and Mouchak-Moghbazar steps in Figure 5. Road (13) had the highest integration values (Figs. 6, For spatial analysis, DepthmapX was used, and 7). The connectivity values showed a strong relation- ArcGIS was used to prepare the 2-D geometric map. ship between the integration core and the connectivity The spatial configurations of the selected roads were of those roads. However, several roads like Pragati used to take guidance to identify some findings and Sarani and Generator Lane had comparatively lower suggest further recommendations. connectivity values, although being located nearby the local integration core (Figs. 6, 7). Thereby, the potential scope of connecting them more with the lo- RESULTS AND DISCUSSION cal integration core would improve the accessibility Spatial analysis of those roads. In the spatial analysis, the global integration map The relationship between the global integration (HH, R = n) showed that the highly integrated lines (HH, R = n) and the local integration (HH, R = 4) were situated at the centre with isolated lines dispers- was reasonably good with the tangent of the slope, ing towards the peripheral areas, representing a well- R = 0.301686 (Fig. 8). The statistics proved that -balanced scenario (Fig. 6). The Hatirjheel waterfront the entire area was relatively well-integrated in both area was located alongside the global integration core, neighbourhood and city scale. possibly generating bustling vehicular traffic. The The relationship between the local integration local integration map (HH, R = 4) showed that the (HH, R = 4) and the connectivity was moderate with integration core was dispersed in different localities the tangent of the slope, R = 0.13955 (Fig. 9). So, with a dispersed set of lines (Fig. 7). The Hatirjheel there remained a scope for improvements. architectura.actapol.net 9 ⎫ high low Spatial accessibility Fig. 6. The axial map with global integration (HH), R = n high low Spatial accessibility Fig. 7. The axial map with local integration (HH4), R = 4 Table 2. Different syntactic measures of the significant accessible roads of the Hatirjheel waterfront development project Global integration Local integration Code Access road’s name Connectivity (HH, R = n) (HH, R = 4) 1 Karwan Bazar Road 1.06264 3.01574 37 2 Sat Rasta-Moghbazar Road 1.03037 2.65121 19 3 Hatirjheel Link Road 1.00281 2.3494 09 4 AUST Link Road 0.84609 1.58986 03 5 Love Road 0.80575 1.4425 04 6 Hatirjheel-Gulshan-Tejgaon Link Road 0.828948 1.75584 03 7 Bir Uttam Mir Shawkat Sarak 0.786788 1.5005 05 8 Pragati Sarani 0.811843 1.69548 03 9 Generator Lane 0.773052 1.73026 02 10 Mahanagar Middle Road-2 0.734906 1.52286 05 11 Mahanagar Housing Road 0.772525 1.72706 08 12 Modhubag Road 0.861593 2.23031 11 13 Mouchak-Moghbazar Road 1.03037 2.65121 19 Fig. 8. The correlation between global integration (HH, R = n) and local integration (HH, R = 4) Fig. 9. The correlation between local integration (HH, R = 4) and connectivity Rahman, M. A. (2021). Optimizing the spatial confi gurations of an urban open space: syntactic analysis of the restored Hatirjheel wetland, Dhaka. Acta Sci. Pol. Architectura, 20 (2), 3–16. doi: 10.22630/ASPA.2021.20.2.10 surrounded those spaces (Fig. 11). Incorporating these Findings recreational spaces with integrated roads could indi- The Hatirjheel Link road was segregated to some extent from the major roads with high connectivity measures. rectly enhance their land use. Generally, commercial Though several access roads were close to the highly land use grows more on the edges of the highly inte- grated roads. However, in this case, most of the Hat- integrated axial lines, they were under-utilized and irjheel Link Road’s (3) edges were not commercially situated far from the global integration core. The fo- developed yet. The barren facades and unused pocket cus should be given to pedestrian connectivity, a local measurement that should be designed from the local spaces could create potential crime zones. The possi- integration and neighbourhood (local) activity pattern. ble reason could be that the restored area was not close to the local integration core. As a result, pedestrians’ Moreover, some recreational facilities to the Hatirjheel movement was superseded by heavy vehicular move- waterfront area were located across high vehicular ments, hence not attracting the walking consumers from traffic roads, evidently identified in the global integra- tion measures. It was suggested that high vehicular the surrounding neighbourhoods to use it frequently. roads should not be directly connected to the public Cases around the world in similar situations urban open spaces. Instead, pedestrian roads with high The design and implementation of public spaces re- integration roads should be preferred. For instance, garding openness and accessibility are global concerns in this particular case, the Hatirjheel waterfront area was seldom connected to one of Dhaka city’s highest among researchers, planners, and urban designers. Wei integrated roads – Pragati Sarani (8) (Fig. 10). More (2017) emphasized the accessibility of public spaces as a spatial and socio-economic process and changes pedestrian connectivity could be developed between in access as a significant criterion to allocate the parks these roads and the local integration core. efficiently. Feng et al. (2019) also analysed the inter- The recreational facilities, established during the nal relationships between the urban park accessibility recent restoration, lacked robust connectivity with highly integrated roads, and weakly integrated roads and the location of neighbourhood residents. Several Fig. 10. The weaker connectivity to the nearest highly integrated Fig. 11. Major findings between the connectivity with the recrea- roads tional spaces 12 architectura.actapol.net Rahman, M. A. (2021). Optimizing the spatial confi gurations of an urban open space: syntactic analysis of the restored Hatirjheel wetland, Dhaka. Acta Sci. Pol. Architectura, 20 (2), 3–16. doi: 10.22630/ASPA.2021.20.2.10 studies also addressed the post-design evaluation and − The land use of the surrounding edges of the glo- discussed the relationship between accessibility and bally integrated roads should be grown with urban commercial activities. the effectiveness of public spaces. A comparative case study (Pedersen, Weisner & Johansson, 2019) showed − Locally integrated roadsides should support more that an urban wetland integrated with the residential local commercial activities to prevent potential cri- area in Helsingborg was more socially responsive than me zones. two other less integrated wetlands in Hässleholm and Staffanstorp. Urban wetlands can act as vital public CONCLUSIONS spaces in dense metropolitan areas. Though human ac- cess and interference in urban wetlands are often con- This research identified the Hatirjheel waterfront as sidered a threat to ecological restoration in some coun- one of the most significant public open spaces in Dhaka tries, recent studies proved that openness to the public city and assessed its accessibility measures in the post- design evaluation phase. It is incredibly challenging in London Wetland Park did not restrain the collabora- tive existence of people and environmental resources. to produce new public open spaces in Dhaka for land In China, the optimization of Haizhu Wetland Park as scarcity due to the high density of buildings, the pre- a public place even accelerated the ecological restora- dominance of wetlands, and a densely growing popula- tion, economic benefit, and social interaction (Lv & tion. So, the existing open spaces need to be utilized in optimum-scale, possibly with significant additions and Guan, 2019). In Singapore, Bishan-Ang Mo Kio Park was bisected by the Kallang River, separating the park alterations on a micro-scale. The Hatirjheel lake was from two adjacent residential communities. The park designed as a part of the city’s green-blue core infra- had later been restored by providing more pedestrian structure network by connecting the peripheral riverine access and opening it to the surrounding residential networks and several massive urban forests, wetlands, and the old airport. Therefore, proper utilization of this communities, resulting in an increased sharing of landscape resources (An, Chen & Li, 2020). open space should be made essential. Any disorder or under-utilization of it will hamper the growth of other corresponding infrastructures. The recommendations, RECOMMENDATIONS discussed in this research by analysing several theo- retical bases and practical situations, could resolve the Urban open spaces act as an essential element to serve the recreational necessity of the urban population. constraints hindering the maximum use of the open Due to high land prices and scarce land, it is nearly space. This model could be later successfully followed non-realistic to create a new open space in Dhaka city. for the public open spaces in a similar context. Hence the existing open spaces should be protected Acknowledgements and well-utilized. In order to optimize the utilization of these limited resources, policy-makers need to plan This research was part of the author’s coursework on accordingly. From the previous discussion on the case the Urban Morphology-I course with technical and of the Hatirjheel waterfront area, this research recom- resource support from the Department of Architecture, mended that, Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technol- ogy (BUET), Dhaka. − More pedestrian roads should be developed with the local integration core, and vehicular roads with heavy traffic load should be placed near the global REFERENCES integration core. − More connectivity should be developed with roads Ahmed, B., Hasan, R. & Maniruzzaman, K. M. (2014). Ur- ban morphological change analysis of Dhaka city, Bang- with high integration by joining the isolated ends. ladesh, using space syntax. ISPRS International Jour- − Optimum use of the recreational spaces could be nal of Geo-Information, 3 (4), 1412–1444. https://doi. ensured by linking them with highly locally inte- org/10.3390/ijgi3041412 grated roads. architectura.actapol.net 13 Rahman, M. A. (2021). Optimizing the spatial confi gurations of an urban open space: syntactic analysis of the restored Hatirjheel wetland, Dhaka. Acta Sci. Pol. Architectura, 20 (2), 3–16. doi: 10.22630/ASPA.2021.20.2.10 An, Z., Chen, Q. & Li, J. (2020). Ecological Strategies of Development Plan (1995–2015): Structure Plan, Mas- Urban Ecological Parks – A case of Bishan Ang Mo ter Plan and Detailed Area Plan for Dhaka City. Urban Kio Park and Kallang River in Singapore. E3S Web of area plan (1995–2005). Vol. 2. Dhaka: Author. Conferences, 194, 05060. https://doi.org/10.1051/e3s- Griffiths, S. (2011). Temporality in Hillier and Han- conf/202019405060 son’s theory of spatial description: Some implications Architecture Master Prize (2016). Urban Oasis: Integrated of historical research for space syntax. The Jour- Development of Hatirjheel Area Including Begunbari nal of Space Syntax, 2 (1), 73–96. Retrieved from: Canal, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Retrieved from: https://ar- http://128.40.150.106/joss/index.php/joss/article/ chitectureprize.com/winners/winner.php?id=2765 [ac- view/58/pdf_38 [access 10.12.2020]. cess 21.06.2020]. Griffiths, S. (2012). The use of space syntax in historical Bentley, I., McGlynn, S., Smith, G., Alcock, A. & Murrain, research: current practice and future possibilities. In P. (1985). Responsive Environments: A Manual for De- M. Greene, J. Reyes & A. Castro (Eds.), Proceedings of signers. Oxford, UK: Routledge. the Eighth International Space Syntax Symposium (pp. Castillo, M. M. (2013). Urban patterns and disaster risk: 1–26). Santiago de Chile: PUC. Retrieved from: http:// The informal city on the hills. In Y. O. Kim, H. T. Park, sss8.cl/8193.pdf [access 10.12.2020]. & K. W. Seo (Eds.), Proceedings of the Ninth Inter- Haaland, C. & Bosch, C.K. (2015). Challenges and strate- national Space Syntax Symposium (pp. 1-13). Seoul: gies for urban green-space planning in cities undergo- Sejong University Press. Retrieved from: http://sss9se- ing densification: a review. Urban Forestry and Urban jong.or.kr/paperpdf/ussecp/SSS9_2013_REF114_P.pdf Greening, 14 (4), 760–771. https://doi.org/10.1016/ [access 10.12.2020]. j.ufug.2015.07.009 Duan, Z. Y. & Wang, Q. (2009). Road network analysis and Hillier, B. (1996). Space is the machine: A configurational evaluation of Huizhou city based on space syntax. In theory of architecture. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Uni- Proceedings of the 2009 International Conference on versity Press. Measuring Technology and Mechatronics Automation, Hillier, B. & Hanson, J. (1984). The social logic of space. Zhangjiajie, China. Vol. 3 (pp. 579–582). https://doi. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. https:// org/10.1109/ICMTMA.2009.505 doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511597237 Feng, S., Chen, L., Sun, R., Feng, Z., Li, J., Khan, M. S. Hillier, B., Hanson, J. & Graham, H. (1987). Ideas are in & Jing, Y. (2019). The distribution and accessibility of things: an application of the space syntax method to dis- urban parks in Beijing, China: Implications of social covering house genotypes. Environment and Planning equity. International Journal of Environmental Re- B: Planning and Design, 14 (4), 363–385. https://doi. search and Public Health, 16 (24), 4894. https://doi. org/10.1068/b140363 org/10.3390/ijerph16244894 Hillier, W. R. G., Hanson, J. & Peponis, J. (1987). Syntactic Foltête, J. & Piombini, A. (2007). Urban layout, landscape analysis of settlements. Architecture et comportement features and pedestrian usage. Landscape and Urban – Architecture and Behaviour, 3 (3), 217–231. Retrieved Planning, 81 (3), 225–234. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lan- from: http://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/86/1/hillier-etal-1987- durbplan.2006.12.001 synactic-analysis-settlements.pdf [access 10.12.2020]. Froy, F. E. (2016). Understanding the spatial organisation Hillier, B., Penn, A., Hanson, J., Grajewski, T. & Xu, J. of economic activities in early 19th century Antwerp. (1993). Natural movement: or, configuration and attrac- The Journal of Space Syntax, 6 (2), 225–246. Retrieved tion in urban pedestrian movement. Environment and from: http://joss.bartlett.ucl.ac.uk/journal/index.php/ Planning B: Planning and Design, 20 (1), 29-66. https:// joss/article/view/287/pdf [access 10.12.2020]. doi.org/10.1068/b200029 Gehl, J. (1987). Life between buildings: using public space Islam, M., Mahmud, A. & Islam, S. M. D. (2015). Open (transl. by J. Koch). New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold. Space Management of Dhaka City, Bangladesh: Giannopoulou, M., Roukounis, Y. & Stefanis, V. (2012). A Case Study on Parks and Playgrounds, International Traffic network and the urban environment: an adapted Research Journal of Environment Sciences, 4 (12), space syntax approach. Procedia – Social and Behav- 118–126. Retrieved from: http://www.isca.in/IJENS/ ioral Sciences, 48, 1887–1896. https://doi.org/10.1016/ Archive/v4/i12/15.ISCA-IRJEVS-2015-238.pdf [ac- j.sbspro.2012.06.1163 cess 12.12.2020]. Government of Bangladesh & Rajdhani Unnayan Kartri- Jacobs, J. (1961). The death and life of great American cit- pakkha [GoB & RAJUK] (1995). Dhaka Metropolitan ies. New York: Random House. 14 architectura.actapol.net Rahman, M. A. (2021). Optimizing the spatial confi gurations of an urban open space: syntactic analysis of the restored Hatirjheel wetland, Dhaka. Acta Sci. Pol. Architectura, 20 (2), 3–16. doi: 10.22630/ASPA.2021.20.2.10 Karimi, K. & Vaughan, L. (2014). An evidence-based ap- Nilufar, F. (1999). Urban life and public open space in proach to designing new cities: The English new towns Dhaka. Report submitted to Asiatic Society of Bang- revisited. In M. Carmona (Ed.), Explorations in Urban ladesh, Dhaka. Retrieved from: https://www.academia. Design: An Urban Design Research Primer (pp. 261– edu/245120/Urban_life_and_use_of_Public_Space_in_ –276). Surrey, UK: Ashgate Publishing. Dhaka [access 10.08.2020]. Khan, M. (2014). Study of open spaces in the context of Nilufar, F. (2015). Preserving open space for livability Dhaka city for sustainable use: A syntactic approach. of Dhaka. Paper presented at the World Habitat Day International Journal of Engineering and Technol- 2015 Seminar, Housing and Public Works Ministry, ogy, 6 (3), 118–126. https://doi.org/10.7763/IJET.2014. GoB, Dhaka. Retrieved from: https://www.academia. V6.704 edu/19511365/PRESERVING_OPEN_SPACE_FOR_ Kim, H. K. & Sohn, D. W. (2002). An analysis of the rela- LIVABILITY_OF_DHAKA [access 12.08.2020]. tionship between land use density of office buildings and Omer, I. & Zafrir-Reuven, O. (2010). Street patterns and spatial urban street configuration: Case studies of two areas in integration of Israeli cities. The Journal of Space Syntax, Seoul by space syntax analysis. Cities, 19 (6), 409–418. 1 (2), 295. Retrieved from: http://128.40.150.106/joss/in- https://doi.org/10.1016/S0264-2751(02)00071-9 dex.php/joss/article/view/280/pdf_24 [access 10.12.2020]. Klarqvist, B. (1993). A Space Syntax Glossary. Nordic Pedersen, E., Weisner, S. E. B. & Johansson, M. (2019). Journal of Architectural Research, 2, 11–12. Retrieved Wetland areas’ direct contributions to residents’ well-be- from: http://arkitekturforskning.net/na/article/view/778 ing entitle them to high cultural ecosystem values. Sci- [access 06.01.2021]. ence of the Total Environment, 646, 1315–1326. https:// Koohsari, M. J., Kaczynski, A. T., Mcormack, G. R. & doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.07.236 Sugiyama, T. (2014). Using Space Syntax to Assess the Ratti, C. (2004). Space Syntax: Some Inconsistencies. Envi- Built Environment for Physical Activity: Applications ronment and Planning B: Planning and Design, 31 (4), to Research on Parks and Public Open Spaces. Leisure 487–499. https://doi.org/10.1068/b3019 Sciences, 36 (2), 206–216. https://doi.org/10.1080/0149 Schipperijn, J., Stigsdotter, U. K., Randrup, T. B. & Tro- 0400.2013.856722 elsen, J. (2010). Influences on the Use of Urban Green Law, S., Karimi, K., Penn, A. & Chiaradia, A. (2013). Meas- Space- A Case Study in Odense, Denmark. Urban uring the influence of spatial configuration on the hous- Forestry & Urban Greening, 9 (1), 25–32. https://doi. ing market in metropolitan London. In Y. O. Kim, H. T. org/10.1016/j.ufug.2009.09.002 Park & K. W. Seo (Eds.), Proceedings of the 2013 In- Song, S., Albert, C. & Prominski, M. (2020). Exploring inte- ternational Space Syntax Symposium (pp. 1–20). Seul: grated design guidelines for urban wetland parks in Chi- Sejong University Press. Retrieved from: http://sss9se- na. Urban Forestry and Urban Greening, 53, 126712. jong.or.kr/paperpdf/ussecp/SSS9_2013_REF121_P.pdf https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ufug.2020.126712 [access 10.12.2020]. Srinurak, N. & Mishima, N. (2017). Urban Axis and City Lv, Y. & Guan, S. P. (2019). Exploration to the construction shape evaluation through spatial configuration in pattern of Wetland Park – Taking Haizhu Wetland Park ‘Lan Na’ Northern Thailand Historic city. City, Terri- as an example. MATEC Web of Conferences, 277, 03016. tory and Architecture, 4 (1), 10. https://doi.org/10.1186/ https://doi.org/10.1051/matecconf/201927703016 s40410-017-0067-z Mohamed, A. A., Nes, A. van, Salheen, M. A., Kohlert, C. & Tabassum, S. & Sharmin, F. (2013). Accessibility analysis Schwander, C. (2013). The socio-economic implications of parks at urban neighbourhood: The case of Dhaka. of the spatial configuration in greater Cairo metropoli- Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering, 2 (2), tan area. In Y. O. Kim, H. T. Park & K. W. Seo (Eds.), 48–61. Retrieved from: http://publicationslist.org/data/ Proceedings of the Ninth international Space Syntax ajase/ref-46/51_4_Template.pdf [access 10.08.2020]. Symposium (pp. 1–18). Seoul: Sejong University Press. Tariq, T. & Nilufar, F. (2013). Integrating the Recreational Retrieved from: http://resolver.tudelft.nl/uuid:68f2716c- spaces of Rangpur City Corporation, Bangladesh: A per- bdcf-447e-8a80-d3b025b062a3 [access 10.12.2020]. spective from space syntax. In Y. O. Kim, H. T. Park & Mowla, Q. A. (2013). Water Urbanism: A Prospective Study K. W. Seo (Eds.), Proceedings of the 2013 International on Dhaka. Turkish Online Journal of Science & Tech- Space Syntax Symposium (pp. 1–15). Seoul: Sejong nology, 3 (3), 205–218. Retrieved from: https://www. University Press. Retrieved from: http://sss9sejong. tojsat.net/journals/tojsat/volumes/tojsat-volume03-i03. or.kr/paperpdf/ussecp/SSS9_2013_REF119_P.pdf [ac- pdf [access 10.08.2020]. cess 10.08.2020]. architectura.actapol.net 15 Rahman, M. A. (2021). Optimizing the spatial confi gurations of an urban open space: syntactic analysis of the restored Hatirjheel wetland, Dhaka. Acta Sci. Pol. Architectura, 20 (2), 3–16. doi: 10.22630/ASPA.2021.20.2.10 Thompson, C. W. (2002). Urban open space in the 21st cen- Wei, F. (2017). Greener urbanization? Changing accessibil- tury. Landscape and Urban Planning, 60 (2), 59–72. ity to parks in China. Landscape and Urban Planning, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0169-2046(02)00059-2 157, 542–552. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landurbplan.20 Vitti Sthapati Brindo Limited (2015). Integrated Develop- 16.09.004 ment of Hatirjheel Area Including Begunbari Canal. Wu, L., Liu, X., Ye, X., Leipnik, M., Lee, J. & Zhu, X. (2015). Dhaka, Bangladesh. Retrieved from: http://vitti.com. Permeability, space syntax, and the patterning of residen- bd/project/integrated-development-of-hatirjheel-area/ tial burglaries in urban China. Applied Geography, 60, #ad-image-852 [access 21.06.2020]. 261–265. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apgeog.2014.12.001 OPTYMALIZACJA KONFIGURACJI PRZESTRZENNYCH MIEJSKIEJ PRZESTRZENI OTWARTEJ: ANALIZA SYNTAKTYCZNA ODTWORZONEGO JEZIORA HATIRJHEEL, DHAKA STRESZCZENIE W związku z gwałtowną urbanizacją rola terenów otwartych nabiera coraz większego znaczenia – zarówno w życiu codziennym, jak i społecznym mieszkańców. To znaczenie jest jeszcze większe dla gęsto zaludnio- nego miasta Dhaka, które w przeszłości doświadczyło licznych migracji. Niestety mieszkańcy Dhaki mają dostęp tylko do kilku miejskich obiektów rekreacyjnych, w szczególności publicznych terenów otwartych. Ze względu na nielegalne zajmowanie, słabe utrzymanie i sztywną politykę te ograniczone liczbowo tereny stopniowo ulegają niszczeniu i wkrótce mogą zaniknąć całkowicie. Jezioro Hatirjheel w Dhace niedawno odtworzono, aby stało się istotnym łącznikiem w zielono-niebieskiej infrastrukturze miasta. Dostępność to znaczący parametr przestrzeni, pozwalający ocenić szanse na potencjalny sukces. W badaniu przeanalizowa- no, w jaki sposób dostępność polepszyłaby wieloczynnikową relację między dzielnicami a aktywnościami miejskimi. Za pomocą wielu analiz syntaktycznych poszukiwano również potencjału jeziora Hatirjheel jako miejskiej otwartej przestrzeni, która przyspieszy lokalną i globalną aktywność. Możliwe negatywne efekty braku aktywności na tych otwartych przestrzeniach zostały zbadane zarówno teoretycznie, jak i praktycznie. Na koniec analizując te okoliczności, zasugerowano kilka zaleceń w celu poprawy obecnych warunków i uzyskania optymalnych korzyści z istniejących terenów otwartych. Słowa kluczowe: urbanistyka wodna, syntaktyka przestrzeni, dostępność, integracja lokalna, integracja globalna 16 architectura.actapol.net http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Acta Scientiarum Polonorum Architectura de Gruyter

Optimizing the Spatial Configurations of an Urban Open Space: Syntactic Analysis of the Restored Hatirjheel Wetland, Dhaka

Acta Scientiarum Polonorum Architectura , Volume 20 (2): 14 – Jun 1, 2021

Loading next page...
 
/lp/de-gruyter/optimizing-the-spatial-configurations-of-an-urban-open-space-syntactic-r5yjgwO61U
Publisher
de Gruyter
Copyright
© 2021 Md Arifur Rahman, published by Sciendo
eISSN
2544-1760
DOI
10.22630/aspa.2021.20.2.10
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Acta Sci. Pol. Architectura 20 (2) 2021, 3–16 content.sciendo.com/aspa ISSN 1644-0633 eISSN 2544-1760 DOI: 10.22630/ASPA.2021.20.2.10 ORIGINAL P APER Received: 08.04.2021 Accepted: 17.05.2021 OPTIMIZING THE SPATIAL CONFIGURATIONS OF AN URBAN OPEN SPACE: SYNTACTIC ANALYSIS OF THE RESTORED HATIRJHEEL WETLAND, DHAKA Md Arifur Rahman School of Applied Sciences and Technology, Shahjalal University of Science and Technology, Sylhet, Bangladesh ABSTRACT Due to rapid urbanization, urban open spaces are becoming increasingly significant, both in the inhabitants’ daily and societal lives. This significance is even more applicable for the densely populated city of Dhaka, which has historically overseen numerous urban migrations. Regretfully, the inhabitants of Dhaka can access only a few urban recreational facilities, public open spaces in particular. Due to illegal encroachment, low maintenance, and rigid policymaking, those limited number of open spaces are becoming gradually deterio- rated and are in the potential danger of greater extinction soon. The Hatirjheel wetland area inside Dhaka has recently been restored as an important public open space to connect the city’s green-blue network. Accessibil- ity is a significant spatial parameter to judge its potential success. This research analysed how accessibility would optimize the multi-scalar relationship between neighbourhoods and urban activities. With use a series of syntactic analyses, it was also searched for the Hatirjheel wetland’s potentials as an active urban open space to accelerate local and global activity. The possible weaknesses behind those open spaces’ inactive- ness were investigated both theoretically and practically. Finally, some recommendations were suggested by analysing these circumstances in aim to improve the current conditions and obtain optimum benefits from the existing open space. Key words: water urbanism, space syntax, accessibility, local integration, global integration scale. Besides, they significantly affect the urban INTRODUCTION dwellers’ physical and mental health on an individual In the urban context, open spaces include all urban level. However, the significance of unbuilt lands and green space (UGS) and green-blue infrastructure (GBI), public open spaces is repeatedly neglected in the least i.e.: urban forestry, woodlands, parks, playgrounds, developed countries worldwide due to their ignorance vacant lots, beeches, wetlands and riverfronts, which in balancing the constructed areas and the unbuilt belong to the public domain and have open access areas during urban and regional planning. Although (Schipperijn, Stigsdotter, Randrup & Troelsen, 2010). these countries might contemplate public open spaces Open spaces substantially contribute to preserve the as redundant momentarily, open spaces’ potential as urban ecosystem and maintain the green-blue thresh- responsive urban spaces must be acknowledged in the old. Apart from adding environmental and aesthetic long run (Tabassum & Sharmin, 2013). Permeability, value, public open spaces significantly impact social variety, legibility, robustness, visual appropriateness, interaction and cohesion at the communal and urban richness and personalization are the factors that in- Md Arifur Rahman https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5765-6874 ar.kaushik-arc@sust.edu © Copyright by Wydawnictwo SGGW Rahman, M. A. (2021). Optimizing the spatial confi gurations of an urban open space: syntactic analysis of the restored Hatirjheel wetland, Dhaka. Acta Sci. Pol. Architectura, 20 (2), 3–16. doi: 10.22630/ASPA.2021.20.2.10 fluence an environment’s responsiveness (Bentley, Besides, public parks are the place for social transfor- Mc Glynn, Smith, Alcock & Murrain, 1985). The mation where people can meet strangers and also feel omission of these factors might collapse the space’s anonymous and private simultaneously, even though responsiveness. virtual networking and recent technological revolution In his book, The death and life of great Ameri- have challenged the necessity of direct human contact. can cities, Jacobs (1961) stated that the success of Otherwise, the public spaces will become loose-fit an urban open space like a neighbourhood park de- spaces with a substantial gap in their design purpose pends on its generalized utilization, particularly by and practical use (Thompson, 2002). the underprivileged populations. Besides being used Dhaka, the capital of Bangladesh, is a rapid-grow- by the local people for livelihood, neighbourhood ing city due to the heavy urban migration and the re- parks serve multiple social purposes and public in- cent establishment of mega-infrastructures. It has more terests. The author claimed that under-utilized parks than 17 million dwellers and has been enlisted as one could result in vandalism and discourage public of the most inhabited cities globally (Islam, Mahmud movement in their adjacent roads. According to Gehl & Islam, 2015). The growing re-settlers require an in- (1987), three types of outdoor activities occur in creased number of public open spaces for satisfying public spaces: compulsory, optional and social. The their recreational and social demands, most important- enhanced quality of outdoor space accelerates the ly, without declining the existing ecological corridors optional and social outdoor activities, as observed in and footprints. Dhaka structure plan (Government of an intense study in Copenhagen. The author also un- Bangladesh & Rajdhani Unnayan Kartripakkha [GoB derlined traffic-free pedestrian streets as vital public & RAJUK], 1995) recommended that urban open spac- spaces for a widening spectrum of outdoor activities. es should cover no less than 20% of the entire land use Recently urban wetlands are attracting global atten- of Dhaka city. Unfortunately, parks and open spaces tion to reduce the deficiency of the public spaces in averaged a meagre value of 14.5% of the whole city’s metropolises. However, research on their use and ef- land area, which is below par for the standard UGS re- fectiveness after completion is a comparatively more quirement of 25% to maintain a sustainable ecosystem popular trend than research on their design guide- of a city. The scarcity of urban open spaces was more lines (Song, Albert & Prominski, 2020). The authors evident in the Dhaka Metropolitan Development Plan: found several potentials for urban wetlands as public 1995–2015 (GoB & RAJUK, 1995), which alarmingly space, such as preserving the cultural and ecologi- stated that open spaces in the old Dhaka constituted cal resources, providing recreational activities with merely 5% of the whole land area, compared to 12% amenities, attracting visitors. of open spaces in the new Dhaka (Islam et al., 2015). Haaland and Bosch (2015) identified the current Expansion of open spaces would be complex in the global position and challenges of urban open space existing situation for the land unavailability due to planning. The rapid expansion of cities tremendously the high density of buildings, inflated land price, and exploits urban forests in industrializing countries in pre-dominant peripheral wetland landscapes. Even the the Global South. Furthermore, consolidation and in- already limited number of open spaces were under fill developments are significantly threatening the ur- serious threat because of massive human encroach- ban open spaces in the Asian and Australian cities to ment and conversion of woodlands to changed land a greater extent compared to the European and North use. Consequently, the city’s corresponding ecological American cities. The major challenges in current plan- balance was severely damaged with the frequent oc- ning practice include providing green space in densi- currence of waterlogging, overflooding and environ- fication areas, the unequal distribution of open space, mental pollution (Nilufar, 1999). These open spaces especially in the older half of the cities, providing out- also suffered from human-caused problems such as door space for the younger generations, degradation inappropriate management, under-utilization, lack of recreational experiences, preserving biodiversity, of accessibility and security, unhealthy conditions, and institutional constraints (Haaland & Bosch, 2015). criminal and anti-social activities, and inadequate 4 architectura.actapol.net Rahman, M. A. (2021). Optimizing the spatial confi gurations of an urban open space: syntactic analysis of the restored Hatirjheel wetland, Dhaka. Acta Sci. Pol. Architectura, 20 (2), 3–16. doi: 10.22630/ASPA.2021.20.2.10 infrastructures to facilitate people (Islam et al., 2015). Dhanmondi lake, another major wetland in Dhaka, Long-term land-use planning based on their spatial through canals. But land infilling and construction configuration should be implemented immediately so of covered box culverts over the canals disrupted the that the existing limited resources could be accessed connectivity in recent times. The integrated restoration and utilized appropriately and preserved for a better would re-establish these lacustrine networks. Hence liveable environment. Otherwise, there will be a se- urban planners had identified Hatirjheel as a core blue vere crisis of public open spaces in Dhaka city in the infrastructure. It would enhance ecological connectiv- immediate future. ity between the green and blue corridors and the pe- Considering the lack of scope to expand the ex- ripheral riverine networks of the capital city (Fig. 2). isting natural resources and open spaces, recently, the As a result, the wetland would act as a retention tank Hatirjheel waterfront area was redeveloped as pri- of stormwater and mitigate environmental hazards mary urban open space (Fig. 1). This integrated wet- such as waterlogging and overflooding (Vitti Sthapati land development aimed to restore the city’s water Brindo Limited, 2015). During the recent restoration, edge activities which were initiated through a rich the Hatirjheel waterfront area was incorporated with tradition of water edge activities alongside the Burig- some significant urban recreational spaces, such as an anga riverfront (Mowla, 2013). The restoration project open-to-sky amphitheater, an urban park beside the also intended to link the older communities and resi- Gulshan-Hatirjheel Link Road, walkways, ghats, boat- dents of the newly developed part of the city. In the ing facilities, and restaurants. The entire restored area, past, Hatirjheel wetland was directly connected to the covering 311 acres, was surrounded by several highly Fig. 1. The Hatirjheel wetland, including the Begunbari canal after the restoration (based on Vitti Sthapati Brindo Lim- ited, 2015, retrieved from: http://vitti.com.bd/project/integrated-development-of-hatirjheel-area/#ad-image-852, accessed 21.06.2020) architectura.actapol.net 5 Rahman, M. A. (2021). Optimizing the spatial confi gurations of an urban open space: syntactic analysis of the restored Hatirjheel wetland, Dhaka. Acta Sci. Pol. Architectura, 20 (2), 3–16. doi: 10.22630/ASPA.2021.20.2.10 Fig. 2. The Hatirjheel lake was a part of the green-blue network of integrated Dhaka city (Nilufar, 2015) dense residential neighbourhoods. Four heavy ve- spatial organization and the site-specific accessibility hicular bridges and four pedestrian bridges were also factors of the study area’s connecting roads. The in- designed to serve the surrounding residential com- vestigation could possibly lead to some suggestions munities (Architecture Master Prize, 2016). Although for future sustainable use. In short, the objectives of the whole site consisted of heavy infrastructures, the the research were identified as the following: anticipated use of this waterfront might get impacted − To assess the connectivity of the Hatirjheel water- by numerous spatial and non-spatial site factors such front as a responsive public open space. as accessibility, connectivity, control, and choice. This − To compare the global and local integration values study will investigate these potential spatial factors to of the urban grid. enhance accessibility and to make the waterfront more − To outline the multi-scalar relationship from neigh- vibrant. Also, the user groups would be the benefici- bourhood to urban activities. ary if the management and operation process succeeds − To analyse the spatial configuration of the area and in the project’s integrated planning and construction the peripheral roads. process. − To suggest immediate measures to be adopted and This research aimed to explore the potential re- implemented to optimize the existing connectivity lationship between the surrounding neighbourhoods’ and use. 6 architectura.actapol.net Rahman, M. A. (2021). Optimizing the spatial confi gurations of an urban open space: syntactic analysis of the restored Hatirjheel wetland, Dhaka. Acta Sci. Pol. Architectura, 20 (2), 3–16. doi: 10.22630/ASPA.2021.20.2.10 Table 1. Name of the primary access road of Hatirjheel MATERIAL AND METHODS waterfront This research was structured with several steps to Code Access road’s name achieve the mentioned research objectives, such as identifying the study area and describing the syntactic 1 Karwan Bazar Road methodology, followed by spatial analysis, discussion 2 Sat Rasta-Moghbazar Road on results, key findings, case studies worldwide in 3 Hatirjheel Link Road similar situations, and several recommendations. 4 AUST Link Road Study area profile 5 Love Road The research covered the entire Hatirjheel water- 6 Hatirjheel-Gulshan-Tejgaon Link Road front area, including the adjacent Begunbari canal, fo- cusing on 13 roads connected to the Hatirjheel Link 7 Bir Uttam Mir Shawkat Sarak (Circular) Road. These roads acted as the primary 8 Pragati Sarani accessing line to enter the public open areas. Table 1 9 Generator Lane illustrates the labels of the roads with their locations indicated in Figure 3. 10 Mahanagar Middle Road-2 11 Mahanagar Housing Road 12 Modhubag Road 13 Mouchak-Moghbazar Road Fig. 3. The study area’s location with major access roads (based on Dhaka city map, 2014) architectura.actapol.net 7 Rahman, M. A. (2021). Optimizing the spatial confi gurations of an urban open space: syntactic analysis of the restored Hatirjheel wetland, Dhaka. Acta Sci. Pol. Architectura, 20 (2), 3–16. doi: 10.22630/ASPA.2021.20.2.10 Penn & Chiaradia, 2013), to assess disaster risk in the Syntactic method organic towns with hilly landscape (Castillo, 2013), Space syntax is a concept in the fields of urban de- sign, urban planning, building, traffic, and circulation to integrate the recreational spaces in towns (Tariq & design. This analytical method was initially devel- Nilufar, 2013), to design new cities based on evidence (Karimi & Vaughan, 2014) and even, to predict social oped to conceptualize urban grids’ morphological crimes in residential zones (Wu et al., 2015). logic (Hillier, 1996), to study settlement and housing In space syntax, the urban grids are analyzed genotypes (Hillier, Hanson & Graham, 1987; Hillier, Hanson & Peponis, 1987) and to measure spatial con- based on the configuration of the axial map. The axial figurations (Hillier & Hanson, 1984; Hillier, Penn, map consists of the least set of longest and straightest lines that can be drawn to connect the open spaces in Hanson, Grajewski & Xu, 1993). Spatial configura- a city (Ahmed, Hasan & Maniruzzaman, 2014). These tion ranges from the precise relation between two axial lines encompass every urban block in a city. spaces considering a third space to broadly all the Each street intersection within these urban grids is relationships among spaces in a system considering everything else in the system (Koohsari, Kaczynski, inscribed as an intersection of axial lines. Therefore, to record the urban grid structures, axial map analy- Mcormack & Sugiyama, 2014). Later space syntax sis could be an appropriate method. According to the had been widely used to investigate inconsistencies in space syntax theory, the first-order and second-order urban texture (Ratti, 2004), the relationship between measures’ relationship (Khan, 2014) can be consid- urban road configuration and land-use density (Kim & Sohn, 2002), the use of pedestrian and landscape ered as in Figure 4. Integration, a static global measure, depicts the attributes (Foltête & Piombini, 2007) and street pat- mean depth or shallowness of space to every other tern and network analysis (Duan & Wang, 2009; space in the system in the space syntax theory. Spaces Omer & Zafrir-Reuven, 2010). Recently it has been in the system can be categorized from the least inte- utilized in advanced and multidisciplinary fields to correlate historical research (Griffiths, 2011, 2012; grated to the least isolated (Klarqvist, 1993). Choice (CH), a dynamic global measure, expresses the Froy, 2016; Srinurak & Mishima, 2017), to explore number of the shortest paths passing through a sys- the relations between traffic network and the urban tem, connecting all spaces to all spaces of the system. environment (Giannopoulou, Roukounis & Stefanis, A higher number of flows through any space indicates 2012), to study the space-societal-economic triangu- lar relationship (Mohamed, van Nes, Salheen, Kohlert a stronger choice (Klarqvist, 1993). Connectivity (CN) & Schwander, 2013), to weigh influences on the resi- is a local syntactic measure. It represents the number of immediate neighbouring roads directly connected dential markets in metropolitan cities (Law, Karimi, Fig. 4. The relationship between different syntactic orders (adopted from Khan, 2014) 8 architectura.actapol.net Rahman, M. A. (2021). Optimizing the spatial confi gurations of an urban open space: syntactic analysis of the restored Hatirjheel wetland, Dhaka. Acta Sci. Pol. Architectura, 20 (2), 3–16. doi: 10.22630/ASPA.2021.20.2.10 ArcGIS The preparation of Dhaka city street network map from ArcGIS The generation of the axial lines from the street map The generation of the fewest lines maps by converting the axial lines to the fewest lines Space Syntax (Depthmap) The analysis of the fewest line map through graph analysis Comparing the syntactic measures of the selected roads Fig. 5. The syntactic methodology of the spatial analysis to space. The correlation between connectivity and area was located far from the local integration core, integration is known as Intelligibility (Tariq & Nilu- albeit closer to the strongly integrated lines. far, 2013). The control (CV) calculates the extent to Syntactic measures of the selected 13 roads’ con- which any space controls accessibility to its immedi- nectivity had been displayed in Table 2, along with ate neighbours considering the number of alternative their global and local integration values. The result connections each of these neighbours has (Klarqvist, showed that Karwan Bazar Road (1), Sat Rasta- 1993). The methodology of this research followed the -Moghbazar Road (2), and Mouchak-Moghbazar steps in Figure 5. Road (13) had the highest integration values (Figs. 6, For spatial analysis, DepthmapX was used, and 7). The connectivity values showed a strong relation- ArcGIS was used to prepare the 2-D geometric map. ship between the integration core and the connectivity The spatial configurations of the selected roads were of those roads. However, several roads like Pragati used to take guidance to identify some findings and Sarani and Generator Lane had comparatively lower suggest further recommendations. connectivity values, although being located nearby the local integration core (Figs. 6, 7). Thereby, the potential scope of connecting them more with the lo- RESULTS AND DISCUSSION cal integration core would improve the accessibility Spatial analysis of those roads. In the spatial analysis, the global integration map The relationship between the global integration (HH, R = n) showed that the highly integrated lines (HH, R = n) and the local integration (HH, R = 4) were situated at the centre with isolated lines dispers- was reasonably good with the tangent of the slope, ing towards the peripheral areas, representing a well- R = 0.301686 (Fig. 8). The statistics proved that -balanced scenario (Fig. 6). The Hatirjheel waterfront the entire area was relatively well-integrated in both area was located alongside the global integration core, neighbourhood and city scale. possibly generating bustling vehicular traffic. The The relationship between the local integration local integration map (HH, R = 4) showed that the (HH, R = 4) and the connectivity was moderate with integration core was dispersed in different localities the tangent of the slope, R = 0.13955 (Fig. 9). So, with a dispersed set of lines (Fig. 7). The Hatirjheel there remained a scope for improvements. architectura.actapol.net 9 ⎫ high low Spatial accessibility Fig. 6. The axial map with global integration (HH), R = n high low Spatial accessibility Fig. 7. The axial map with local integration (HH4), R = 4 Table 2. Different syntactic measures of the significant accessible roads of the Hatirjheel waterfront development project Global integration Local integration Code Access road’s name Connectivity (HH, R = n) (HH, R = 4) 1 Karwan Bazar Road 1.06264 3.01574 37 2 Sat Rasta-Moghbazar Road 1.03037 2.65121 19 3 Hatirjheel Link Road 1.00281 2.3494 09 4 AUST Link Road 0.84609 1.58986 03 5 Love Road 0.80575 1.4425 04 6 Hatirjheel-Gulshan-Tejgaon Link Road 0.828948 1.75584 03 7 Bir Uttam Mir Shawkat Sarak 0.786788 1.5005 05 8 Pragati Sarani 0.811843 1.69548 03 9 Generator Lane 0.773052 1.73026 02 10 Mahanagar Middle Road-2 0.734906 1.52286 05 11 Mahanagar Housing Road 0.772525 1.72706 08 12 Modhubag Road 0.861593 2.23031 11 13 Mouchak-Moghbazar Road 1.03037 2.65121 19 Fig. 8. The correlation between global integration (HH, R = n) and local integration (HH, R = 4) Fig. 9. The correlation between local integration (HH, R = 4) and connectivity Rahman, M. A. (2021). Optimizing the spatial confi gurations of an urban open space: syntactic analysis of the restored Hatirjheel wetland, Dhaka. Acta Sci. Pol. Architectura, 20 (2), 3–16. doi: 10.22630/ASPA.2021.20.2.10 surrounded those spaces (Fig. 11). Incorporating these Findings recreational spaces with integrated roads could indi- The Hatirjheel Link road was segregated to some extent from the major roads with high connectivity measures. rectly enhance their land use. Generally, commercial Though several access roads were close to the highly land use grows more on the edges of the highly inte- grated roads. However, in this case, most of the Hat- integrated axial lines, they were under-utilized and irjheel Link Road’s (3) edges were not commercially situated far from the global integration core. The fo- developed yet. The barren facades and unused pocket cus should be given to pedestrian connectivity, a local measurement that should be designed from the local spaces could create potential crime zones. The possi- integration and neighbourhood (local) activity pattern. ble reason could be that the restored area was not close to the local integration core. As a result, pedestrians’ Moreover, some recreational facilities to the Hatirjheel movement was superseded by heavy vehicular move- waterfront area were located across high vehicular ments, hence not attracting the walking consumers from traffic roads, evidently identified in the global integra- tion measures. It was suggested that high vehicular the surrounding neighbourhoods to use it frequently. roads should not be directly connected to the public Cases around the world in similar situations urban open spaces. Instead, pedestrian roads with high The design and implementation of public spaces re- integration roads should be preferred. For instance, garding openness and accessibility are global concerns in this particular case, the Hatirjheel waterfront area was seldom connected to one of Dhaka city’s highest among researchers, planners, and urban designers. Wei integrated roads – Pragati Sarani (8) (Fig. 10). More (2017) emphasized the accessibility of public spaces as a spatial and socio-economic process and changes pedestrian connectivity could be developed between in access as a significant criterion to allocate the parks these roads and the local integration core. efficiently. Feng et al. (2019) also analysed the inter- The recreational facilities, established during the nal relationships between the urban park accessibility recent restoration, lacked robust connectivity with highly integrated roads, and weakly integrated roads and the location of neighbourhood residents. Several Fig. 10. The weaker connectivity to the nearest highly integrated Fig. 11. Major findings between the connectivity with the recrea- roads tional spaces 12 architectura.actapol.net Rahman, M. A. (2021). Optimizing the spatial confi gurations of an urban open space: syntactic analysis of the restored Hatirjheel wetland, Dhaka. Acta Sci. Pol. Architectura, 20 (2), 3–16. doi: 10.22630/ASPA.2021.20.2.10 studies also addressed the post-design evaluation and − The land use of the surrounding edges of the glo- discussed the relationship between accessibility and bally integrated roads should be grown with urban commercial activities. the effectiveness of public spaces. A comparative case study (Pedersen, Weisner & Johansson, 2019) showed − Locally integrated roadsides should support more that an urban wetland integrated with the residential local commercial activities to prevent potential cri- area in Helsingborg was more socially responsive than me zones. two other less integrated wetlands in Hässleholm and Staffanstorp. Urban wetlands can act as vital public CONCLUSIONS spaces in dense metropolitan areas. Though human ac- cess and interference in urban wetlands are often con- This research identified the Hatirjheel waterfront as sidered a threat to ecological restoration in some coun- one of the most significant public open spaces in Dhaka tries, recent studies proved that openness to the public city and assessed its accessibility measures in the post- design evaluation phase. It is incredibly challenging in London Wetland Park did not restrain the collabora- tive existence of people and environmental resources. to produce new public open spaces in Dhaka for land In China, the optimization of Haizhu Wetland Park as scarcity due to the high density of buildings, the pre- a public place even accelerated the ecological restora- dominance of wetlands, and a densely growing popula- tion, economic benefit, and social interaction (Lv & tion. So, the existing open spaces need to be utilized in optimum-scale, possibly with significant additions and Guan, 2019). In Singapore, Bishan-Ang Mo Kio Park was bisected by the Kallang River, separating the park alterations on a micro-scale. The Hatirjheel lake was from two adjacent residential communities. The park designed as a part of the city’s green-blue core infra- had later been restored by providing more pedestrian structure network by connecting the peripheral riverine access and opening it to the surrounding residential networks and several massive urban forests, wetlands, and the old airport. Therefore, proper utilization of this communities, resulting in an increased sharing of landscape resources (An, Chen & Li, 2020). open space should be made essential. Any disorder or under-utilization of it will hamper the growth of other corresponding infrastructures. The recommendations, RECOMMENDATIONS discussed in this research by analysing several theo- retical bases and practical situations, could resolve the Urban open spaces act as an essential element to serve the recreational necessity of the urban population. constraints hindering the maximum use of the open Due to high land prices and scarce land, it is nearly space. This model could be later successfully followed non-realistic to create a new open space in Dhaka city. for the public open spaces in a similar context. Hence the existing open spaces should be protected Acknowledgements and well-utilized. In order to optimize the utilization of these limited resources, policy-makers need to plan This research was part of the author’s coursework on accordingly. From the previous discussion on the case the Urban Morphology-I course with technical and of the Hatirjheel waterfront area, this research recom- resource support from the Department of Architecture, mended that, Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technol- ogy (BUET), Dhaka. − More pedestrian roads should be developed with the local integration core, and vehicular roads with heavy traffic load should be placed near the global REFERENCES integration core. − More connectivity should be developed with roads Ahmed, B., Hasan, R. & Maniruzzaman, K. M. (2014). Ur- ban morphological change analysis of Dhaka city, Bang- with high integration by joining the isolated ends. ladesh, using space syntax. ISPRS International Jour- − Optimum use of the recreational spaces could be nal of Geo-Information, 3 (4), 1412–1444. https://doi. ensured by linking them with highly locally inte- org/10.3390/ijgi3041412 grated roads. architectura.actapol.net 13 Rahman, M. A. (2021). Optimizing the spatial confi gurations of an urban open space: syntactic analysis of the restored Hatirjheel wetland, Dhaka. Acta Sci. Pol. Architectura, 20 (2), 3–16. doi: 10.22630/ASPA.2021.20.2.10 An, Z., Chen, Q. & Li, J. (2020). Ecological Strategies of Development Plan (1995–2015): Structure Plan, Mas- Urban Ecological Parks – A case of Bishan Ang Mo ter Plan and Detailed Area Plan for Dhaka City. Urban Kio Park and Kallang River in Singapore. E3S Web of area plan (1995–2005). Vol. 2. Dhaka: Author. Conferences, 194, 05060. https://doi.org/10.1051/e3s- Griffiths, S. (2011). Temporality in Hillier and Han- conf/202019405060 son’s theory of spatial description: Some implications Architecture Master Prize (2016). Urban Oasis: Integrated of historical research for space syntax. The Jour- Development of Hatirjheel Area Including Begunbari nal of Space Syntax, 2 (1), 73–96. Retrieved from: Canal, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Retrieved from: https://ar- http://128.40.150.106/joss/index.php/joss/article/ chitectureprize.com/winners/winner.php?id=2765 [ac- view/58/pdf_38 [access 10.12.2020]. cess 21.06.2020]. Griffiths, S. (2012). The use of space syntax in historical Bentley, I., McGlynn, S., Smith, G., Alcock, A. & Murrain, research: current practice and future possibilities. In P. (1985). Responsive Environments: A Manual for De- M. Greene, J. Reyes & A. Castro (Eds.), Proceedings of signers. Oxford, UK: Routledge. the Eighth International Space Syntax Symposium (pp. Castillo, M. M. (2013). Urban patterns and disaster risk: 1–26). Santiago de Chile: PUC. Retrieved from: http:// The informal city on the hills. In Y. O. Kim, H. T. Park, sss8.cl/8193.pdf [access 10.12.2020]. & K. W. Seo (Eds.), Proceedings of the Ninth Inter- Haaland, C. & Bosch, C.K. (2015). Challenges and strate- national Space Syntax Symposium (pp. 1-13). Seoul: gies for urban green-space planning in cities undergo- Sejong University Press. Retrieved from: http://sss9se- ing densification: a review. Urban Forestry and Urban jong.or.kr/paperpdf/ussecp/SSS9_2013_REF114_P.pdf Greening, 14 (4), 760–771. https://doi.org/10.1016/ [access 10.12.2020]. j.ufug.2015.07.009 Duan, Z. Y. & Wang, Q. (2009). Road network analysis and Hillier, B. (1996). Space is the machine: A configurational evaluation of Huizhou city based on space syntax. In theory of architecture. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Uni- Proceedings of the 2009 International Conference on versity Press. Measuring Technology and Mechatronics Automation, Hillier, B. & Hanson, J. (1984). The social logic of space. Zhangjiajie, China. Vol. 3 (pp. 579–582). https://doi. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. https:// org/10.1109/ICMTMA.2009.505 doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511597237 Feng, S., Chen, L., Sun, R., Feng, Z., Li, J., Khan, M. S. Hillier, B., Hanson, J. & Graham, H. (1987). Ideas are in & Jing, Y. (2019). The distribution and accessibility of things: an application of the space syntax method to dis- urban parks in Beijing, China: Implications of social covering house genotypes. Environment and Planning equity. International Journal of Environmental Re- B: Planning and Design, 14 (4), 363–385. https://doi. search and Public Health, 16 (24), 4894. https://doi. org/10.1068/b140363 org/10.3390/ijerph16244894 Hillier, W. R. G., Hanson, J. & Peponis, J. (1987). Syntactic Foltête, J. & Piombini, A. (2007). Urban layout, landscape analysis of settlements. Architecture et comportement features and pedestrian usage. Landscape and Urban – Architecture and Behaviour, 3 (3), 217–231. Retrieved Planning, 81 (3), 225–234. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lan- from: http://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/86/1/hillier-etal-1987- durbplan.2006.12.001 synactic-analysis-settlements.pdf [access 10.12.2020]. Froy, F. E. (2016). Understanding the spatial organisation Hillier, B., Penn, A., Hanson, J., Grajewski, T. & Xu, J. of economic activities in early 19th century Antwerp. (1993). Natural movement: or, configuration and attrac- The Journal of Space Syntax, 6 (2), 225–246. Retrieved tion in urban pedestrian movement. Environment and from: http://joss.bartlett.ucl.ac.uk/journal/index.php/ Planning B: Planning and Design, 20 (1), 29-66. https:// joss/article/view/287/pdf [access 10.12.2020]. doi.org/10.1068/b200029 Gehl, J. (1987). Life between buildings: using public space Islam, M., Mahmud, A. & Islam, S. M. D. (2015). Open (transl. by J. Koch). New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold. Space Management of Dhaka City, Bangladesh: Giannopoulou, M., Roukounis, Y. & Stefanis, V. (2012). A Case Study on Parks and Playgrounds, International Traffic network and the urban environment: an adapted Research Journal of Environment Sciences, 4 (12), space syntax approach. Procedia – Social and Behav- 118–126. Retrieved from: http://www.isca.in/IJENS/ ioral Sciences, 48, 1887–1896. https://doi.org/10.1016/ Archive/v4/i12/15.ISCA-IRJEVS-2015-238.pdf [ac- j.sbspro.2012.06.1163 cess 12.12.2020]. Government of Bangladesh & Rajdhani Unnayan Kartri- Jacobs, J. (1961). The death and life of great American cit- pakkha [GoB & RAJUK] (1995). Dhaka Metropolitan ies. New York: Random House. 14 architectura.actapol.net Rahman, M. A. (2021). Optimizing the spatial confi gurations of an urban open space: syntactic analysis of the restored Hatirjheel wetland, Dhaka. Acta Sci. Pol. Architectura, 20 (2), 3–16. doi: 10.22630/ASPA.2021.20.2.10 Karimi, K. & Vaughan, L. (2014). An evidence-based ap- Nilufar, F. (1999). Urban life and public open space in proach to designing new cities: The English new towns Dhaka. Report submitted to Asiatic Society of Bang- revisited. In M. Carmona (Ed.), Explorations in Urban ladesh, Dhaka. Retrieved from: https://www.academia. Design: An Urban Design Research Primer (pp. 261– edu/245120/Urban_life_and_use_of_Public_Space_in_ –276). Surrey, UK: Ashgate Publishing. Dhaka [access 10.08.2020]. Khan, M. (2014). Study of open spaces in the context of Nilufar, F. (2015). Preserving open space for livability Dhaka city for sustainable use: A syntactic approach. of Dhaka. Paper presented at the World Habitat Day International Journal of Engineering and Technol- 2015 Seminar, Housing and Public Works Ministry, ogy, 6 (3), 118–126. https://doi.org/10.7763/IJET.2014. GoB, Dhaka. Retrieved from: https://www.academia. V6.704 edu/19511365/PRESERVING_OPEN_SPACE_FOR_ Kim, H. K. & Sohn, D. W. (2002). An analysis of the rela- LIVABILITY_OF_DHAKA [access 12.08.2020]. tionship between land use density of office buildings and Omer, I. & Zafrir-Reuven, O. (2010). Street patterns and spatial urban street configuration: Case studies of two areas in integration of Israeli cities. The Journal of Space Syntax, Seoul by space syntax analysis. Cities, 19 (6), 409–418. 1 (2), 295. Retrieved from: http://128.40.150.106/joss/in- https://doi.org/10.1016/S0264-2751(02)00071-9 dex.php/joss/article/view/280/pdf_24 [access 10.12.2020]. Klarqvist, B. (1993). A Space Syntax Glossary. Nordic Pedersen, E., Weisner, S. E. B. & Johansson, M. (2019). Journal of Architectural Research, 2, 11–12. Retrieved Wetland areas’ direct contributions to residents’ well-be- from: http://arkitekturforskning.net/na/article/view/778 ing entitle them to high cultural ecosystem values. Sci- [access 06.01.2021]. ence of the Total Environment, 646, 1315–1326. https:// Koohsari, M. J., Kaczynski, A. T., Mcormack, G. R. & doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.07.236 Sugiyama, T. (2014). Using Space Syntax to Assess the Ratti, C. (2004). Space Syntax: Some Inconsistencies. Envi- Built Environment for Physical Activity: Applications ronment and Planning B: Planning and Design, 31 (4), to Research on Parks and Public Open Spaces. Leisure 487–499. https://doi.org/10.1068/b3019 Sciences, 36 (2), 206–216. https://doi.org/10.1080/0149 Schipperijn, J., Stigsdotter, U. K., Randrup, T. B. & Tro- 0400.2013.856722 elsen, J. (2010). Influences on the Use of Urban Green Law, S., Karimi, K., Penn, A. & Chiaradia, A. (2013). Meas- Space- A Case Study in Odense, Denmark. Urban uring the influence of spatial configuration on the hous- Forestry & Urban Greening, 9 (1), 25–32. https://doi. ing market in metropolitan London. In Y. O. Kim, H. T. org/10.1016/j.ufug.2009.09.002 Park & K. W. Seo (Eds.), Proceedings of the 2013 In- Song, S., Albert, C. & Prominski, M. (2020). Exploring inte- ternational Space Syntax Symposium (pp. 1–20). Seul: grated design guidelines for urban wetland parks in Chi- Sejong University Press. Retrieved from: http://sss9se- na. Urban Forestry and Urban Greening, 53, 126712. jong.or.kr/paperpdf/ussecp/SSS9_2013_REF121_P.pdf https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ufug.2020.126712 [access 10.12.2020]. Srinurak, N. & Mishima, N. (2017). Urban Axis and City Lv, Y. & Guan, S. P. (2019). Exploration to the construction shape evaluation through spatial configuration in pattern of Wetland Park – Taking Haizhu Wetland Park ‘Lan Na’ Northern Thailand Historic city. City, Terri- as an example. MATEC Web of Conferences, 277, 03016. tory and Architecture, 4 (1), 10. https://doi.org/10.1186/ https://doi.org/10.1051/matecconf/201927703016 s40410-017-0067-z Mohamed, A. A., Nes, A. van, Salheen, M. A., Kohlert, C. & Tabassum, S. & Sharmin, F. (2013). Accessibility analysis Schwander, C. (2013). The socio-economic implications of parks at urban neighbourhood: The case of Dhaka. of the spatial configuration in greater Cairo metropoli- Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering, 2 (2), tan area. In Y. O. Kim, H. T. Park & K. W. Seo (Eds.), 48–61. Retrieved from: http://publicationslist.org/data/ Proceedings of the Ninth international Space Syntax ajase/ref-46/51_4_Template.pdf [access 10.08.2020]. Symposium (pp. 1–18). Seoul: Sejong University Press. Tariq, T. & Nilufar, F. (2013). Integrating the Recreational Retrieved from: http://resolver.tudelft.nl/uuid:68f2716c- spaces of Rangpur City Corporation, Bangladesh: A per- bdcf-447e-8a80-d3b025b062a3 [access 10.12.2020]. spective from space syntax. In Y. O. Kim, H. T. Park & Mowla, Q. A. (2013). Water Urbanism: A Prospective Study K. W. Seo (Eds.), Proceedings of the 2013 International on Dhaka. Turkish Online Journal of Science & Tech- Space Syntax Symposium (pp. 1–15). Seoul: Sejong nology, 3 (3), 205–218. Retrieved from: https://www. University Press. Retrieved from: http://sss9sejong. tojsat.net/journals/tojsat/volumes/tojsat-volume03-i03. or.kr/paperpdf/ussecp/SSS9_2013_REF119_P.pdf [ac- pdf [access 10.08.2020]. cess 10.08.2020]. architectura.actapol.net 15 Rahman, M. A. (2021). Optimizing the spatial confi gurations of an urban open space: syntactic analysis of the restored Hatirjheel wetland, Dhaka. Acta Sci. Pol. Architectura, 20 (2), 3–16. doi: 10.22630/ASPA.2021.20.2.10 Thompson, C. W. (2002). Urban open space in the 21st cen- Wei, F. (2017). Greener urbanization? Changing accessibil- tury. Landscape and Urban Planning, 60 (2), 59–72. ity to parks in China. Landscape and Urban Planning, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0169-2046(02)00059-2 157, 542–552. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landurbplan.20 Vitti Sthapati Brindo Limited (2015). Integrated Develop- 16.09.004 ment of Hatirjheel Area Including Begunbari Canal. Wu, L., Liu, X., Ye, X., Leipnik, M., Lee, J. & Zhu, X. (2015). Dhaka, Bangladesh. Retrieved from: http://vitti.com. Permeability, space syntax, and the patterning of residen- bd/project/integrated-development-of-hatirjheel-area/ tial burglaries in urban China. Applied Geography, 60, #ad-image-852 [access 21.06.2020]. 261–265. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apgeog.2014.12.001 OPTYMALIZACJA KONFIGURACJI PRZESTRZENNYCH MIEJSKIEJ PRZESTRZENI OTWARTEJ: ANALIZA SYNTAKTYCZNA ODTWORZONEGO JEZIORA HATIRJHEEL, DHAKA STRESZCZENIE W związku z gwałtowną urbanizacją rola terenów otwartych nabiera coraz większego znaczenia – zarówno w życiu codziennym, jak i społecznym mieszkańców. To znaczenie jest jeszcze większe dla gęsto zaludnio- nego miasta Dhaka, które w przeszłości doświadczyło licznych migracji. Niestety mieszkańcy Dhaki mają dostęp tylko do kilku miejskich obiektów rekreacyjnych, w szczególności publicznych terenów otwartych. Ze względu na nielegalne zajmowanie, słabe utrzymanie i sztywną politykę te ograniczone liczbowo tereny stopniowo ulegają niszczeniu i wkrótce mogą zaniknąć całkowicie. Jezioro Hatirjheel w Dhace niedawno odtworzono, aby stało się istotnym łącznikiem w zielono-niebieskiej infrastrukturze miasta. Dostępność to znaczący parametr przestrzeni, pozwalający ocenić szanse na potencjalny sukces. W badaniu przeanalizowa- no, w jaki sposób dostępność polepszyłaby wieloczynnikową relację między dzielnicami a aktywnościami miejskimi. Za pomocą wielu analiz syntaktycznych poszukiwano również potencjału jeziora Hatirjheel jako miejskiej otwartej przestrzeni, która przyspieszy lokalną i globalną aktywność. Możliwe negatywne efekty braku aktywności na tych otwartych przestrzeniach zostały zbadane zarówno teoretycznie, jak i praktycznie. Na koniec analizując te okoliczności, zasugerowano kilka zaleceń w celu poprawy obecnych warunków i uzyskania optymalnych korzyści z istniejących terenów otwartych. Słowa kluczowe: urbanistyka wodna, syntaktyka przestrzeni, dostępność, integracja lokalna, integracja globalna 16 architectura.actapol.net

Journal

Acta Scientiarum Polonorum Architecturade Gruyter

Published: Jun 1, 2021

Keywords: water urbanism; space syntax; accessibility; local integration; global integration

There are no references for this article.