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Optimization of Innovation Features in Mobile-Based Attendance Application

Optimization of Innovation Features in Mobile-Based Attendance Application Improved Human Resources Performance can be realized in the employee’s absence. The sophistication of tech- nology to accommodate the absence is the use of a Mobile-Based Attendance Application. Attendance can be used to measure employee performance. One of the measuring tools in measuring performance is the Key Per- formance Indicator (KPI). KPI values can be obtained from the Mobile-based Attendance Application, as currently implemented by an IT Company. But in its development, there is a shortage on the application features of Daily Attendance, Leave, Report Recaps Attendance and Report Recaps Leave. The value engineering method with the Analytical Hierarchy Process is used in this paper to obtain prioritized alternatives in the development of applica- tion feature updates. The results of the research show that the alternative with the largest percentage is owned by Alternative IV (45.6%). These results indicate that this alternative can be used as a recommendation for re- newal of attendance application features on IT Company. Alternative IV shows optimal results such as the reali- zation of application feature requirements for users, consumption of fewer workdays for 1-2 days, low costs, easy- to-understand feature design, and uncomplicated programming techniques. Key words: Mobile, Application, Analytical Hierarchy Process INTRODUCTION PLS technical analysis to prove that it is true that the rela- The Industrial Sector is growing rapidly and evolving to In- tionship between quality and value has an impact on the dustry 4.0 [1] to the Industrial Era 5.0 and plays an active spread of positive issues on products [5]. Quality and role in supporting the country's economy. Industry is value can be used as product advantages. However, along known as a company, based on its segment, it can be di- with the times, product advantages must be improved by vided into two such as in India there are Manufacturing providing updates to the product. Product updates need Companies and Service Companies [2]. Manufacturing to adapt to changing consumer needs, wants and tastes. companies carry out the production process and produce Value Engineering is a management technique that pro- tangible products, currently developing towards "Smart vides benefits and increases the proven management Manufacturing" which increases manufacturing flexibility value of construction projects [6]. Value engineering eval- [1]. Service companies provide services and produce in- uates product functions to identify & eliminate unneces- tangible products that create new experiences for con- sary costs [7]. The existence of value engineering supports sumers [3]. Examples of service companies are Insurance, the achievement of a balance function of cost, perfor- Banking, Transportation, Information Technology (IT) and mance, and product (project result). Products can be in- others [4]. troduced through promotions to increase the amount of Products contain useful qualities and values and can meet market share. Promotion is related to a business model consumer needs or desires. Quality and value play an ac- that defines how companies sell products to consumers, tive role in providing satisfaction to consumers. Quality is convey the advantages of product value, earn profits, re- the main basis in the development of long-term relation- duce barriers, and face other challenges [8]. Most of the ships, consisting of trust, satisfaction, and commitment recent literature on PSS has focused on business-to-busi- [5]. Values represent product functions/benefits and rep- ness and business-to-consumer relationships and their resent competitive scenarios. Value can be the basis for contribution to the economy [9]. Promotional models predicting the behaviour of customers in the future. There need to be innovated to attract consumers' attention and is a study that uses the survey strategy method and SEM- create a competitive advantage [10]. Promotional innova- tion can be initiated by describing management strategies T. KATRILIA et al. – Optimization of Innovation Features in Mobile-Based… 19 to communicate business ideas/concepts [9]. The tool [17]. This analysis uses the Delphi-Analytic Hierarchic Pro- that can be used to describe a business model is the Busi- cess (DAHP) technique to select, combine, and objectively ness Model Canvas [11]. Business Model Canvas (BMC) as consider various criteria to obtain a more reliable alterna- a supporting tool in the form of a visual chart. In the con- tive. In the case of technology and information, the deci- struction project, research was carried out to model the sion-making method of pairwise comparison is used for complex dynamics of promotional innovations until it was the selection of programming languages by adjusting the found that the results of the empirical model were the environment system and design science [18]. embodiment of the conceptual model [12]. Conceptual IT companies are in Jakarta, Surabaya, and Malaysia. This model consisting of Idea harnessing, Relationship en- company is one of the businesses that is growing in the hancement, Incentivization, and Project team fitness. The Pandemic Era in the field of Information Technology (IT) conceptual model is proven to affect innovation perfor- and has a business model, namely Software as a Service mance and has a positive impact on productivity, environ- (SaaS). The company sells applications and provides appli- ment, and project cost savings [12]. Innovation promotion cation services. The products produced are desktop, mo- of a product is getting better and is ready to compete bile and website-based applications. In addition, this com- when the promoted product advantages are better able pany also acts as a vendor in Business to Business (B2B) to meet the needs and desires of consumers. which means that the production (business or service) is Value engineering identifies and eliminates unnecessary intended directly for business partners, not for final con- costs and looks for other alternatives to meet needs. In sumers [19]. The production process of each product is re- realizing product excellence, several alternatives should ferred to as the application implementation, customiza- be considered and analysed to obtain the best alternative tion, and installation project. One of the products that will from decision making for product renewal. Decision mak- be discussed in this paper is the Mobile-based Attendance ing is a complex process considering perspectives, con- Application which can be installed on Android and iOS de- straints, and variables to be able to provide the best alter- vices. The purpose of developing this application is to be native recommendations [13]. The best alternative is to able to support the attendance process of employees provide functions that are as good as other alternatives wherever they are, easy to access and easy to use by in- but provide more benefits than disadvantages. In theory, volving a verification process using facial photos. Research Alternatives should optimize costs according to the func- that discusses attendance applications is still rarely found, tional and technical constraints applicable to the project. this is due to the focus on business continuity opportuni- The decision-making method to generate the best alter- ties [20] and business management innovation [19]. Thus, native can be applied to any industry for different cases. this application can support work from home (WFH) activ- In the implementation of green supply chain management ities for business continuity in the Covid-19 Pandemic Era (GSCM) Construction Projects, identification and prioriti- [21]. Those advantages create the attraction of consum- zation of factors that influence the implementation are ers to buy the application. This application can assist the carried out [14]. In this case, the fuzzy decision-making personnel team and company management in monitoring trial and evaluation Laboratory (FDEMATEL) approach was employee’s absence and as a performance measurement collaborated to determine the relationship between crite- material to assess Key Performance Indicators (KPI). ria in determining the important factors of GSCM and the Value engineering is a method of evaluating, analysing the fuzzy analysis network Process (FANP) to calculate the advantages, dangers, and limitations of each alternative weight of the criteria based on causal relationships. In to complete the decision-making process [22], one of contrast to Marzouk and Sabbah, choosing a supplier for which is Determination of Application Feature Innovation the sustainability of a construction project by implement- Priority Alternatives. For this reason, it is necessary to ap- ing the Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to ply value engineering methods in the development of ap- the Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) method. TOPSIS is used to plication features. It is important to determine the evaluate supplier differences and the Analytical Hierarchy method used, to be able to produce appropriate decision- Process (AHP) for calculating the weight of each supplier making stages to reduce the difficulty of analysis and be so that decisions can be made with the best alternative able to achieve goals [13]. The AHP method is a method supplier [15]. In the design of information modelling ap- that helps make decisions to determine priority alterna- plications (BIM) for the development of sustainable con- tives in updating attendance applications. Based on the struction, there are 3 alternative clusters with a total of 6 available alternatives, information is obtained that the criteria [16]. It is proven that multi-criteria decision mak- available alternatives are discrete, and the alternative se- ing using the Analytical Network Process (ANP) is a good lection is in the form of ratings. The desired alternative decision-making tool and can be linked to BIM. ANP iden- characteristic is that it is easy to understand and apply by tified the main factors influencing sustainable construc- managers, so the recommended multi-criteria decision- tion by reducing the energy contained and operational making methods are Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP), and carbon emissions, namely a cluster consisting of de- Best Worst Method (BWM), Evaluations II (PROMETHEE sign optimization factors and reduction of material re- II), and Elimination Et Choix Traduisant la Realite III (ELEC- quirements. The railway industry development strategy in TREE III) [23]. The four methods were tested to identify facing the growing demand for railways requires analysing the stability of the results that will be used as a decision. the Moving Block (MB) and Virtual Coupling (VC) criteria AHP is a combined method of pairwise comparison that is 20 Management Systems in Production Engineering 2022, Volume 30, Issue 1 good for weighting criteria and determining alternative The PELA formula in equation 2 represents the percentage sequences [23]. However, when considering the variables level of employee absenteeism as one of the KPI values in of risk and uncertainty, it is advisable to use the PROME- IT companies such as sickness and permission/leave. If the THEE II method. PELA percentage value is low, it indicates that the em- This paper aims to find an alternative that is prioritized in ployee has a better absenteeism rate than other employ- the development of feature updates for Mobile-Based At- ees. tendance Applications in IT Companies. In this alternative To be able to collect KPI variable data with the attendance selection process, it is expected to achieve optimal results application, an initial survey was conducted by the author as measured by the realization of application feature re- who stated that the attendance application lacked fea- quirements for users by considering the development tures, so it needed to be updated (Table 1). process. The variables considered in the development Table 1 process are Workdays, Cost, Design Features, and Tech- Survey Data nical Programming. This alternative selection focuses on Criteria Description Suggestion ranking alternatives from best to worst. The best alterna- The daily attendance fea- tive is defined as the result of this paper which becomes a Access to user login and ture does not accommo- priority alternative to be recommended to IT companies logout attendance (ac- date sickness and permis- so that they can be developed first. Of course, from the IT cording to employee sion/leave (currently only company's point of view, it would be better if you could master data attendance is present). update the features without spending money, but this is of companies) which NIK For this reason, it is neces- and Password. sary to update the attend- not possible. Therefore, it is necessary to select features ance feature. to achieve optimal results so that the application can be Access to the user com- implemented in stages. The AHP method that will be used pany (corresponding em- by the author in this paper supports to get an alternative ployee master data from ranking order of feature updates, from priority to not - company) Company good.. where the user is work- ing. MATERIALS AND METHODOLOGY Features The leave feature has not Attendance Application Mobile-based implementation is accommodated the leave the realization of the use of sophisticated technology to Access the user's leave application process (cur- balance (ownership rently only checking the help the company work activities. As already informed, of the leave balance that leave balance). For this this application is a tool that can assist the personnel team the user can use). reason, it is necessary to and company management in monitoring employee ab- update the leave applica- senteeism and as a performance measurement material tion feature. to assess KPI. The KPI formula for assessing employee per- The Attendance Report It is necessary to provide a formance in IT companies is divided into 2, among others: feature is not yet availa- feature for the Attend- 𝑁𝑊 ble. ance Recap Report. 𝐹𝑜𝑟𝑚𝑢𝑙𝑎 𝑜𝑟𝑓 𝑡 ℎ𝑒 𝐸𝑃𝑊𝐴 = ( ) × 100% (1) 𝑇𝐴𝑊 It is necessary to provide a Explanation (1): Annual Leave Submission feature for the Annual Recap Report feature is PAWE – Percentage of Attendance at Work for Employees Leave Submission Recap not yet available. (%) Report. NW – Number of employee work attendance (days) Too much use win- TAW – Total annual working days (days) dow/new tab for each ac- tivity. The PAWE formula in equation 1 represents the percent- The impact of point 1 re- age level of employee present attendance as one of the sulted in large memory KPI values in IT companies. If the PAWE percentage value resource consumption If the system is rede- is high, it indicates that the employee has a higher attend- which can cause buffer- signed, a simple user in- ance rate (good employee) than other employees and vice User ing terface design is needed Interface versa. Selection of appropriate so as not to use a lot of 𝑁𝑆 +𝑁𝐿 −𝑁𝐴𝑆 −𝑇𝐴𝐿 𝐹𝑜𝑟𝑚𝑢𝑙𝑎 𝑜𝑟𝑓 𝑡 ℎ𝑒 𝑃𝐸𝐿𝐴 = ( ) × 100% (1) colours and symbols for new windows/tabs. 𝑇 𝐴 𝑊 the visualization capable Explanation (2): of directing users of the PELA – Percentage of Employee Leave Absences (%) application without hav- NS – Number of sick days of employees (days) ing to remember a de- NL – Number of days of leave of employees (days) scription of the features. NAS – Number of annual sick days of employees (days) TAL – Total annual leave of employees (days). Based on the survey results, there are 4 types of applica- Only current year, the previous year's leave allowance is tions that lack features and 1 type due to poor user inter- no longer recognized. face design. The development of this attendance applica- TAW – Total annual working days (days) tion feature is carried out in stages by looking at the most prioritized features to help collect KPI variable data. T. KATRILIA et al. – Optimization of Innovation Features in Mobile-Based… 21 Therefore, it is important to select the priority features lack of features or updates needed by IT companies. This that will be developed first so that the application can be information is then used as a new alternative candidate in implemented gradually and can meet the main needs of the selection of feature updates. employees as users. In operating this application, it takes 2 types (Primary Data MENU INTERNAL MENU Hi, Username Absence Application Solution and Secondary Data). The primary and secondary data Ver. 1.0 E-Mobile News USERNAME Internal Logout used in this paper are employee attendance data for IT Check In Check Out companies (see Table 2). PASSWORD Leave Balance Coming Soon DOMAIN Table 2 Remember Me IT Company Employee Attendance Data LOG IN Primary Data Secondary Data Fig. 2 Main Display of Standard Features Application Employee Identification Num- Company Profile (Name Ad- ber (NIK) and Employee Name dress) Employee Access Data to Com- Location Data INTERNAL MENU CHECK IN pany Project ID * Calendar Data (Date, Month Employee Leave Balance Data News and Year) Description * Time Data (Global) Attendance Recap Report For- mat Photo Check In Check Out Employee Photos with 3 Styles Annual Leave Recap Report For- (Smile, Flat, Pout) mat IMAGE NOT Leave Balance Coming Soon AVAILABLE Internet Quota Application Development Time Development Difficulty Level Application Design Difficulty Level Check In Feature Development Fee Fig. 3 Daily Attendance Display of Standard Features Application To fulfil the renewal of this application feature, the writer describes the business model in the Business Model Can- vas (BMC) as described by [24] as a supporter in the form INTERNAL MENU LEAVE BALANCE of a visual chart. Furthermore, the five stages of value en- Your leave balance is: gineering are used by the authors to analyse alternatives News for updating application features in this paper. The five stages are presented in the methodological framework Check In Check Out which can be seen in Figure 1. Sync Date: Current Date Current Time Leave Balance Coming Soon Start Introduction Data Collection Results and Discussion Problem Identification Lack of Applications (Observation) All Alternatives and Alternative Analyzed? Application Updates Study of literature Yes Primary Data and Secondary Development Stage Problem Formulation Data & Research Objectives Fig. 4 Display of Leave Balance Standard Features Application Results and Discussion Ending Data Collection Business Model Evaluation Stage Canvas (BMC) Determining Variables and Data Sources No From Table 1, Figure 2 to Figure 4, it can be concluded that Information Stage Conclusions Creating Data List the features available in the basic framework of attend- Creative Stage Suggestions Data Collections of Lack ance applications in IT companies are still limited so that of Applications and Analysis Stage Alternative Application Updates End they require updating the attendance application fea- tures. The feature renewal carried out by the authors will Fig. 1 Framework of Mobile-Based Attendance Application be able to improve the function of the application and can RESULTS AND DISCUSSION support the attendance process as an employee KPI as- sessment as has also been done by [25]. Furthermore, the Table 1 explains that the survey results state that this ap- plication has a basic framework that has been imple- function of each feature attendance application is de- mented internally by IT companies. The basic framework scribed in Table 3. of the description contained into two (2) criteria namely To support the process of operating this application, ma- Features and User Interface, the framework can be seen terials are needed consisting of primary data and second- in Figure 2 through Figure 4. This information is obtained ary data. The materials are listed in Table 2, there are 6 by the authors through interviews and discussions with types of primary data and 9 types of secondary data. users and consultant’s applications attendance this appli- cation. This activity is carried out to obtain the basic framework that is already available and to find out the 22 Management Systems in Production Engineering 2022, Volume 30, Issue 1 Table 3 broad target market so that it will create new business op- Application Features portunities and additional new income. No Features Function 1 Daily Attendance Become a mandatory daily activity, Table 4 conducted before and after office Material Description hours. Primary Data Secondary Data 2 Leave Becomes a periodic activity and is Type Function Type Function carried out when there are personal Employee Identifi- Attendance Company Company iden- needs/other activities that make it cation Number user identity Profile tity impossible to carry out office activi- (NIK) and Em- (Name Ad- ties at the same time. The main ac- ployee Name dress) tivities required are requesting leave Employee Access Attendance Location Location of at- and checking leave balances. Data to Company user indica- Data tendance user 3 Attendance Recap Become a useful periodic activity as tion in any Report a means for evaluating absenteeism company such as attendance, sickness, and Calendar Data Date, month, Employee Attendance permission/leave. (Date, Month and and year of Leave Ba- user leave bal- 4 Annual Leave Become a useful periodic activity to Year) attendance lance Data ance indicator Submission Recap inform and evaluate data on submis- user Report sion of annual leave. Time Data (Global) Time/Hour at- Attendance Guide for visual- tendance user Recap Re- izing user at- Primary data is data that is used directly in application op- port For- tendance recap erations, because when this application is run by employ- mat data ees, this data must be available. Secondary data is sup- Employee Photos Verification Annual Guide for visual- with 3 Styles when the user Leave Re- izing user an- porting data whose information can be followed up, such (Smile, Flat, Pout) attendance cap Report nual leave recap as the company address because it does not interfere with Format data application operations. Secondary data also includes data Internet Quota Internet bal- Application Alternative on application development that will be used for ance for appli- Deve- comparison cri- weighting analysis of alternative criteria with AHP. A de- cation's ac- lopment teria tailed explanation for each material can be seen in Table cess Time Deve- The complete business model is presented in this paper lopment using BMC (see Figure 5). The authors begin to declare the Difficulty company's business model adapted to the Business Model Level Application Canvas (BMC) which describes 9 main components. These Design Dif- components are used by companies to create and deliver ficulty Level value propositions to their customer segments. As in the Feature Financial Services Company which maps its business Deve- model with BMC in reviewing innovations that provide lopment sustainable benefits and services to its customers [26]. Fee Figure 5 also shows that IT companies have a broad target market because they include small, medium to large com- The support obtained from the business model can panies. The company provides sustainable information strengthen IT companies in updating features. technology services through a mobile attendance applica- However, to get the best alternative order from good to tion that supports the company's operational activities bad alternatives, a value engineering stage is needed by carried out at home (WFH) such as employee attendance. collaborating with the AHP method. This method is used Support for updating this feature can be viewed from a by the authors for decision making in an alternative order. business model that includes anyone who becomes a Fig. 5 Business Model Canvas (BMC) T. KATRILIA et al. – Optimization of Innovation Features in Mobile-Based… 23 The stages of value engineering carried out by the authors d. Technical Programming, namely identifying the level consist of: of technical difficulty when developing alternatives in a. The information stage is carried out to obtain project mobile-based applications. information by identifying the criteria used in the con- Table 5 sideration of alternatives. Criteria and Alternative Data b. The creative stage is collecting alternative feature up- Technical dates to achieve the fulfilment of application functions Alterna- Design Workdays Cost Program- that will be used by researchers to get the best alter- tive/Criteria Features ming native. Alternative I 1-2 days Cheap Easy Medium c. The analysis stage is carried out to select alternatives 10-14 days Expen- Difficult Difficult Alternative II by considering the advantages and disadvantages of sive using the AHP method. Alternative III 2-3 days Medium Medium Medium d. The Development Phase is carried out by comparing Alternative IV 1-2 days Cheap Easy Easy the selected alternatives with the currently available application framework. Based on the information obtained, data on the duration e. Evaluation stage to recommend selected alternatives of project work (workdays) were obtained based on the as feature updates for attendance applications in IT results of the breakdown of activities, effects, and levels companies. of difficulty. The assessment of the duration of the project The five stages above are carried out in a sequential man- (workdays) is carried out by the technician. The project ner in the methodological framework (Figure 1). cost assessment (cost) is obtained based on the use of re- This application provides new income opportunities for sources during the development of the feature. However, Authors or System Information Engineers for requested these costs are only for the company's internal consump- system services or additional features according to special tion so that this research can be explained by classifying agreements from customers or IT companies. The addi- costs. The following is the classification of costs (cost): tion of this feature certainly has the impact of being − Cheap: Working on features is not difficult, it costs charged additional fees for adding features by changing USD 3,44 to USD 68,81. the existing system. There are many features that require − Medium: Work on the feature can be done, it costs updating, so IT companies need results that sort alterna- USD 68,81 to USD 344,07. tive updates from good to bad. Based on these results, the − Expensive: Working on features is difficult but can be Company can follow up the decision to update this at- done, it costs USD 344,07 to USD 688,15. tendance application feature. The magnitude of the po- Then, the assessment of the difficulty level for the Design tential of this application further supports the value engi- Feature and Technical Programming criteria uses certain neering process in updating application features. To ob- parameters. These parameters are made based on the tain results that rank alternative renewals from priority to work experience of Consultants and Technicians. Diffi- non-priority, the authors adopted the AHP methodology culty levels are as follows: used by [25]. − Easy: Easy to understand and easy to design. − Medium: Understandable and acceptable design. Information Stage − Difficult: Difficult to understand and difficult to design. There are 4 criteria that must be considered in each avail- able alternative. The acquisition of these criteria is based Creative Stage on the results of brainstorming, and discussions between Based on the results of interviews and discussions with Business Consultants and Technical Consultants and other several employees who act as end users, the standard fea- experienced parties. These criteria will be compared to tures of the Mobile-Based Attendance Application have a obtain priority criteria in the alternatives (Table 5). The lack of features. For this reason, several alternatives are criteria considered are as follows: made that can accommodate the lack of standard applica- a. Workday is calculating the processing time of each al- tion features. Alternative collection was done by using ternative. The work consists of application develop- brainstorming and discussions with experienced people. ment activities and application testing. Thus, obtained 4 new alternatives that deserve to be con- b. Cost is the cost required to update application fea- sidered in updating the Mobile-Based Attendance Appli- tures. Costs consider worker salaries and additional cation feature. Alternatives can be seen in Table 6. costs for additional resource specifications. The Feature Update Alternatives each have a different c. Design Features, namely identifying the level of suita- look or design. The design and mapping process is deter- bility of alternative designs in mobile-based applica- mined by the Business Consultant by considering easy to tions. access and easy to use as shown in Figures 6 to 8. 24 Management Systems in Production Engineering 2022, Volume 30, Issue 1 Table 6 Alternatives for Mobile-Based Attendance Application Feature Updates Design Description Initial Product 1. Access to user login and logout attendance (according to employee master data of com- panies) which NIK and Password. 2. Access to the user company (corresponding employee master data from company) Com- pany where the user is working. 3. Access the user's leave balance (ownership of the leave balance that the user can use). Alternative I Update attendance features by adding op- tions/information on attendance such as sick- ness, permission, or present. Benefits: daily attendance data can be rec- orded every day by the application and em- ployees do not need to do manual confirma- tion (calling, repeating the same information to several colleagues). The criteria for each at- Fig. 7 Display of Alternative 2 tendance statement are divided into 3 parts. Part 1, for sick information, you can add a sick letter document. Part 2, for permission, you can add a permit/leave document. Part 3, to present adding photos in real-time. Alternative II Making a new feature for submitting leave from the mobile attendance application. Benefits: the leave application will be automat- ically synchronized to the open my portal appli- cation so that the leave approval process can be continued on the open my portal applica- tion. Approved leave applications will be auto- matically synchronized with the employee's leave balance. The remaining leave balance can be checked in the leave bal- ance feature (the feature is already available). Alternative III Making a new feature for Attendance Recap Report. Benefits: to inform daily attendance (present, sickness, and leave) in a report that can be used for employee evaluation (KPI). Fig. 8 Display of Alternative 3 and Alternative 4 Alternative IV Making a new feature for the Annual Leave Submission Recap Report. AHP Analysis Stage Benefits: to inform the submission of data on leave and employee leave balances in a report At this stage, the AHP method is used to select the best that can be used for evaluation of employees alternative by considering the criteria obtained in the In- (KPI). formation Stage such as Workday, Cost, Design Features and Technical Programming. If arranged in a structured manner, a hierarchy of design alternatives is obtained (see Figure 9). Fig. 9 Hierarchy of Design Alternatives Based on Figure 9 we get a systematic structure that makes it easier for the authors to assess the weights on Fig. 6 Display of Alternative 1 the criteria and alternatives. This assessment forms a paired matrix of size 4 x 4, the result of a combination of T. KATRILIA et al. – Optimization of Innovation Features in Mobile-Based… 25 alternative features and criteria. In the AHP implementa- obtained from the largest to the smallest percentage. In tion process, the weight assessment between criteria is Table 10, the highest percentage of alternatives is owned carried out. The weight value between criteria is obtained by Alternative IV at 45.6%. Therefore, it is concluded that from a questionnaire that is assessed by the IT Company. the best alternative with the first recommended order for The standard assessment criteria used in the paired ma- updating mobile-based attendance application features is trix can be seen in Table 7. Alternative IV. Table 7 Table 10 Priority Vector Value of All Criteria Percentage Value and Alternative Order Priority Vector Average Criteria/Alternative TOTAL PERCENTAGE (%) RATE Criteria Percentage (EV) Alternative I 0.054 5.4% 4 Workdays 0.04 4% Alternative II 0.158 15.8% 3 Cost 0.16 16% Alternative III 0.332 33.2% 2 Design Features 0.34 34% Alternative IV 0.456 45.6% 1 Technical 0.46 46% Programming Evaluation Stage At this stage, it explains that the basic framework for the Based on the results of the consistency test of the criteria, attendance application gets the first recommendation to the Consistency Ratio (CR) value of 0.07 is obtained, which update the feature for making the annual leave submis- means that CR < 0.1, it is concluded that the assessment sion report feature (Alternative 4). When viewed from the of the criteria is consistent. basic framework of attendance applications that are cur- Furthermore, the authors assess the weight of the criteria rently available, only access to the remaining balance of and alternative weights. The assessment results are nor- leave is available. Sometimes application users only know malized so that the value reflects the actual condition. The that the leave balance is reduced without being able to weighting of the criteria and alternatives is obtained by browse directly through this attendance application. This iterating the matrix until the normalization value is zero. is because the operational leave application is done man- The summary of the weighting can be seen in Table 8. ually through writing on the IT Company work discussion application which is not synchronized with this attend- Table 8 ance application. This recommendation is good to imple- Summary of Criteria Weights & Alternative Weights ment because it helps inform leave applications and leave Summary of Criteria Weights & Alternative Weights balances in a report that can be used for employee evalu- Technical Design ation (KPI). In addition, the user interface design for Alter- Criteria/ Workdays Cost Program- Features native IV (Figure 8), is designed simply by combining ac- Alternative ming cess for Alternative III, making it easier for users to oper- 0.043 0.154 0.343 0.461 Alternative I 0.067 0.044 0.067 0.046 ate this attendance application. Another advantage of Alternative II 0.151 0.177 0.149 0.159 combining access to the two alternatives is that it saves Alternative III 0.330 0.357 0.325 0.330 time by eliminating the user interface design process for Alternative IV 0.452 0.422 0.460 0.466 Alternative III. After obtaining data on the criteria weights and alterna- CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS tive weights, calculations are carried out to obtain the Fi- Paper on the application of Mobile-based Attendance Ap- nal Alternative Weight (see Table 9). plications using the AHP method obtained Alternative IV with a percentage value of 45.6% as the best alternative. Table 9 This best alternative shows optimal results such as the re- Final Alternative Weight alization of application feature requirements for users, Final Alternative Weight consumption of fewer workdays for 1-2 days, low costs, Criteria/ Technical Design TO- Alternative Workdays Cost Program- easy-to-understand feature designs, and uncomplicated Features TAL ming programming techniques. The application of this AHP Alternative I 0.003 0.007 0.023 0.021 0.054 method can also be applied to the selection of application Alternative II 0.006 0.027 0.051 0.073 0.158 user interface designs, programming languages in making Alternative III 0.014 0.055 0.111 0.152 0.332 applications and the selection of tools for visualizing em- Alternative IV 0.019 0.065 0.158 0.214 0.456 ployee performance data related to KPIs. It is recom- mended for the next paper to discuss project manage- In Table 9, Alternative 4 has the highest Final Alternative ment related to how to allocate time and costs so that it Weight compared to other alternatives. can be carried out according to project targets. Alternative Development Stage Based on the Final Alternative Weight, the final alterna- tive percentage value and the order of the alternatives are 26 Management Systems in Production Engineering 2022, Volume 30, Issue 1 [15] M. Marzouk, & M. 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Dewa SP Universitas Atma Jaya Yogyakarta Universitas Atma Jaya Yogyakarta Department of Industrial Engineering, Department of Industrial Engineering Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia e-mail: 205603330@students.uajy.ac.id e-mail: parama.dewa@uajy.ac.id P.W. Anggoro Universitas Atma Jaya Yogyakarta Department of Industrial Engineering Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia e-mail: p.wisnuanggoro@gmail.com http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Management Systems in Production Engineering de Gruyter

Optimization of Innovation Features in Mobile-Based Attendance Application

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de Gruyter
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© 2022 Tiya Katrilia et al., published by Sciendo
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2450-5781
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10.2478/mspe-2022-0003
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Abstract

Improved Human Resources Performance can be realized in the employee’s absence. The sophistication of tech- nology to accommodate the absence is the use of a Mobile-Based Attendance Application. Attendance can be used to measure employee performance. One of the measuring tools in measuring performance is the Key Per- formance Indicator (KPI). KPI values can be obtained from the Mobile-based Attendance Application, as currently implemented by an IT Company. But in its development, there is a shortage on the application features of Daily Attendance, Leave, Report Recaps Attendance and Report Recaps Leave. The value engineering method with the Analytical Hierarchy Process is used in this paper to obtain prioritized alternatives in the development of applica- tion feature updates. The results of the research show that the alternative with the largest percentage is owned by Alternative IV (45.6%). These results indicate that this alternative can be used as a recommendation for re- newal of attendance application features on IT Company. Alternative IV shows optimal results such as the reali- zation of application feature requirements for users, consumption of fewer workdays for 1-2 days, low costs, easy- to-understand feature design, and uncomplicated programming techniques. Key words: Mobile, Application, Analytical Hierarchy Process INTRODUCTION PLS technical analysis to prove that it is true that the rela- The Industrial Sector is growing rapidly and evolving to In- tionship between quality and value has an impact on the dustry 4.0 [1] to the Industrial Era 5.0 and plays an active spread of positive issues on products [5]. Quality and role in supporting the country's economy. Industry is value can be used as product advantages. However, along known as a company, based on its segment, it can be di- with the times, product advantages must be improved by vided into two such as in India there are Manufacturing providing updates to the product. Product updates need Companies and Service Companies [2]. Manufacturing to adapt to changing consumer needs, wants and tastes. companies carry out the production process and produce Value Engineering is a management technique that pro- tangible products, currently developing towards "Smart vides benefits and increases the proven management Manufacturing" which increases manufacturing flexibility value of construction projects [6]. Value engineering eval- [1]. Service companies provide services and produce in- uates product functions to identify & eliminate unneces- tangible products that create new experiences for con- sary costs [7]. The existence of value engineering supports sumers [3]. Examples of service companies are Insurance, the achievement of a balance function of cost, perfor- Banking, Transportation, Information Technology (IT) and mance, and product (project result). Products can be in- others [4]. troduced through promotions to increase the amount of Products contain useful qualities and values and can meet market share. Promotion is related to a business model consumer needs or desires. Quality and value play an ac- that defines how companies sell products to consumers, tive role in providing satisfaction to consumers. Quality is convey the advantages of product value, earn profits, re- the main basis in the development of long-term relation- duce barriers, and face other challenges [8]. Most of the ships, consisting of trust, satisfaction, and commitment recent literature on PSS has focused on business-to-busi- [5]. Values represent product functions/benefits and rep- ness and business-to-consumer relationships and their resent competitive scenarios. Value can be the basis for contribution to the economy [9]. Promotional models predicting the behaviour of customers in the future. There need to be innovated to attract consumers' attention and is a study that uses the survey strategy method and SEM- create a competitive advantage [10]. Promotional innova- tion can be initiated by describing management strategies T. KATRILIA et al. – Optimization of Innovation Features in Mobile-Based… 19 to communicate business ideas/concepts [9]. The tool [17]. This analysis uses the Delphi-Analytic Hierarchic Pro- that can be used to describe a business model is the Busi- cess (DAHP) technique to select, combine, and objectively ness Model Canvas [11]. Business Model Canvas (BMC) as consider various criteria to obtain a more reliable alterna- a supporting tool in the form of a visual chart. In the con- tive. In the case of technology and information, the deci- struction project, research was carried out to model the sion-making method of pairwise comparison is used for complex dynamics of promotional innovations until it was the selection of programming languages by adjusting the found that the results of the empirical model were the environment system and design science [18]. embodiment of the conceptual model [12]. Conceptual IT companies are in Jakarta, Surabaya, and Malaysia. This model consisting of Idea harnessing, Relationship en- company is one of the businesses that is growing in the hancement, Incentivization, and Project team fitness. The Pandemic Era in the field of Information Technology (IT) conceptual model is proven to affect innovation perfor- and has a business model, namely Software as a Service mance and has a positive impact on productivity, environ- (SaaS). The company sells applications and provides appli- ment, and project cost savings [12]. Innovation promotion cation services. The products produced are desktop, mo- of a product is getting better and is ready to compete bile and website-based applications. In addition, this com- when the promoted product advantages are better able pany also acts as a vendor in Business to Business (B2B) to meet the needs and desires of consumers. which means that the production (business or service) is Value engineering identifies and eliminates unnecessary intended directly for business partners, not for final con- costs and looks for other alternatives to meet needs. In sumers [19]. The production process of each product is re- realizing product excellence, several alternatives should ferred to as the application implementation, customiza- be considered and analysed to obtain the best alternative tion, and installation project. One of the products that will from decision making for product renewal. Decision mak- be discussed in this paper is the Mobile-based Attendance ing is a complex process considering perspectives, con- Application which can be installed on Android and iOS de- straints, and variables to be able to provide the best alter- vices. The purpose of developing this application is to be native recommendations [13]. The best alternative is to able to support the attendance process of employees provide functions that are as good as other alternatives wherever they are, easy to access and easy to use by in- but provide more benefits than disadvantages. In theory, volving a verification process using facial photos. Research Alternatives should optimize costs according to the func- that discusses attendance applications is still rarely found, tional and technical constraints applicable to the project. this is due to the focus on business continuity opportuni- The decision-making method to generate the best alter- ties [20] and business management innovation [19]. Thus, native can be applied to any industry for different cases. this application can support work from home (WFH) activ- In the implementation of green supply chain management ities for business continuity in the Covid-19 Pandemic Era (GSCM) Construction Projects, identification and prioriti- [21]. Those advantages create the attraction of consum- zation of factors that influence the implementation are ers to buy the application. This application can assist the carried out [14]. In this case, the fuzzy decision-making personnel team and company management in monitoring trial and evaluation Laboratory (FDEMATEL) approach was employee’s absence and as a performance measurement collaborated to determine the relationship between crite- material to assess Key Performance Indicators (KPI). ria in determining the important factors of GSCM and the Value engineering is a method of evaluating, analysing the fuzzy analysis network Process (FANP) to calculate the advantages, dangers, and limitations of each alternative weight of the criteria based on causal relationships. In to complete the decision-making process [22], one of contrast to Marzouk and Sabbah, choosing a supplier for which is Determination of Application Feature Innovation the sustainability of a construction project by implement- Priority Alternatives. For this reason, it is necessary to ap- ing the Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to ply value engineering methods in the development of ap- the Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) method. TOPSIS is used to plication features. It is important to determine the evaluate supplier differences and the Analytical Hierarchy method used, to be able to produce appropriate decision- Process (AHP) for calculating the weight of each supplier making stages to reduce the difficulty of analysis and be so that decisions can be made with the best alternative able to achieve goals [13]. The AHP method is a method supplier [15]. In the design of information modelling ap- that helps make decisions to determine priority alterna- plications (BIM) for the development of sustainable con- tives in updating attendance applications. Based on the struction, there are 3 alternative clusters with a total of 6 available alternatives, information is obtained that the criteria [16]. It is proven that multi-criteria decision mak- available alternatives are discrete, and the alternative se- ing using the Analytical Network Process (ANP) is a good lection is in the form of ratings. The desired alternative decision-making tool and can be linked to BIM. ANP iden- characteristic is that it is easy to understand and apply by tified the main factors influencing sustainable construc- managers, so the recommended multi-criteria decision- tion by reducing the energy contained and operational making methods are Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP), and carbon emissions, namely a cluster consisting of de- Best Worst Method (BWM), Evaluations II (PROMETHEE sign optimization factors and reduction of material re- II), and Elimination Et Choix Traduisant la Realite III (ELEC- quirements. The railway industry development strategy in TREE III) [23]. The four methods were tested to identify facing the growing demand for railways requires analysing the stability of the results that will be used as a decision. the Moving Block (MB) and Virtual Coupling (VC) criteria AHP is a combined method of pairwise comparison that is 20 Management Systems in Production Engineering 2022, Volume 30, Issue 1 good for weighting criteria and determining alternative The PELA formula in equation 2 represents the percentage sequences [23]. However, when considering the variables level of employee absenteeism as one of the KPI values in of risk and uncertainty, it is advisable to use the PROME- IT companies such as sickness and permission/leave. If the THEE II method. PELA percentage value is low, it indicates that the em- This paper aims to find an alternative that is prioritized in ployee has a better absenteeism rate than other employ- the development of feature updates for Mobile-Based At- ees. tendance Applications in IT Companies. In this alternative To be able to collect KPI variable data with the attendance selection process, it is expected to achieve optimal results application, an initial survey was conducted by the author as measured by the realization of application feature re- who stated that the attendance application lacked fea- quirements for users by considering the development tures, so it needed to be updated (Table 1). process. The variables considered in the development Table 1 process are Workdays, Cost, Design Features, and Tech- Survey Data nical Programming. This alternative selection focuses on Criteria Description Suggestion ranking alternatives from best to worst. The best alterna- The daily attendance fea- tive is defined as the result of this paper which becomes a Access to user login and ture does not accommo- priority alternative to be recommended to IT companies logout attendance (ac- date sickness and permis- so that they can be developed first. Of course, from the IT cording to employee sion/leave (currently only company's point of view, it would be better if you could master data attendance is present). update the features without spending money, but this is of companies) which NIK For this reason, it is neces- and Password. sary to update the attend- not possible. Therefore, it is necessary to select features ance feature. to achieve optimal results so that the application can be Access to the user com- implemented in stages. The AHP method that will be used pany (corresponding em- by the author in this paper supports to get an alternative ployee master data from ranking order of feature updates, from priority to not - company) Company good.. where the user is work- ing. MATERIALS AND METHODOLOGY Features The leave feature has not Attendance Application Mobile-based implementation is accommodated the leave the realization of the use of sophisticated technology to Access the user's leave application process (cur- balance (ownership rently only checking the help the company work activities. As already informed, of the leave balance that leave balance). For this this application is a tool that can assist the personnel team the user can use). reason, it is necessary to and company management in monitoring employee ab- update the leave applica- senteeism and as a performance measurement material tion feature. to assess KPI. The KPI formula for assessing employee per- The Attendance Report It is necessary to provide a formance in IT companies is divided into 2, among others: feature is not yet availa- feature for the Attend- 𝑁𝑊 ble. ance Recap Report. 𝐹𝑜𝑟𝑚𝑢𝑙𝑎 𝑜𝑟𝑓 𝑡 ℎ𝑒 𝐸𝑃𝑊𝐴 = ( ) × 100% (1) 𝑇𝐴𝑊 It is necessary to provide a Explanation (1): Annual Leave Submission feature for the Annual Recap Report feature is PAWE – Percentage of Attendance at Work for Employees Leave Submission Recap not yet available. (%) Report. NW – Number of employee work attendance (days) Too much use win- TAW – Total annual working days (days) dow/new tab for each ac- tivity. The PAWE formula in equation 1 represents the percent- The impact of point 1 re- age level of employee present attendance as one of the sulted in large memory KPI values in IT companies. If the PAWE percentage value resource consumption If the system is rede- is high, it indicates that the employee has a higher attend- which can cause buffer- signed, a simple user in- ance rate (good employee) than other employees and vice User ing terface design is needed Interface versa. Selection of appropriate so as not to use a lot of 𝑁𝑆 +𝑁𝐿 −𝑁𝐴𝑆 −𝑇𝐴𝐿 𝐹𝑜𝑟𝑚𝑢𝑙𝑎 𝑜𝑟𝑓 𝑡 ℎ𝑒 𝑃𝐸𝐿𝐴 = ( ) × 100% (1) colours and symbols for new windows/tabs. 𝑇 𝐴 𝑊 the visualization capable Explanation (2): of directing users of the PELA – Percentage of Employee Leave Absences (%) application without hav- NS – Number of sick days of employees (days) ing to remember a de- NL – Number of days of leave of employees (days) scription of the features. NAS – Number of annual sick days of employees (days) TAL – Total annual leave of employees (days). Based on the survey results, there are 4 types of applica- Only current year, the previous year's leave allowance is tions that lack features and 1 type due to poor user inter- no longer recognized. face design. The development of this attendance applica- TAW – Total annual working days (days) tion feature is carried out in stages by looking at the most prioritized features to help collect KPI variable data. T. KATRILIA et al. – Optimization of Innovation Features in Mobile-Based… 21 Therefore, it is important to select the priority features lack of features or updates needed by IT companies. This that will be developed first so that the application can be information is then used as a new alternative candidate in implemented gradually and can meet the main needs of the selection of feature updates. employees as users. In operating this application, it takes 2 types (Primary Data MENU INTERNAL MENU Hi, Username Absence Application Solution and Secondary Data). The primary and secondary data Ver. 1.0 E-Mobile News USERNAME Internal Logout used in this paper are employee attendance data for IT Check In Check Out companies (see Table 2). PASSWORD Leave Balance Coming Soon DOMAIN Table 2 Remember Me IT Company Employee Attendance Data LOG IN Primary Data Secondary Data Fig. 2 Main Display of Standard Features Application Employee Identification Num- Company Profile (Name Ad- ber (NIK) and Employee Name dress) Employee Access Data to Com- Location Data INTERNAL MENU CHECK IN pany Project ID * Calendar Data (Date, Month Employee Leave Balance Data News and Year) Description * Time Data (Global) Attendance Recap Report For- mat Photo Check In Check Out Employee Photos with 3 Styles Annual Leave Recap Report For- (Smile, Flat, Pout) mat IMAGE NOT Leave Balance Coming Soon AVAILABLE Internet Quota Application Development Time Development Difficulty Level Application Design Difficulty Level Check In Feature Development Fee Fig. 3 Daily Attendance Display of Standard Features Application To fulfil the renewal of this application feature, the writer describes the business model in the Business Model Can- vas (BMC) as described by [24] as a supporter in the form INTERNAL MENU LEAVE BALANCE of a visual chart. Furthermore, the five stages of value en- Your leave balance is: gineering are used by the authors to analyse alternatives News for updating application features in this paper. The five stages are presented in the methodological framework Check In Check Out which can be seen in Figure 1. Sync Date: Current Date Current Time Leave Balance Coming Soon Start Introduction Data Collection Results and Discussion Problem Identification Lack of Applications (Observation) All Alternatives and Alternative Analyzed? Application Updates Study of literature Yes Primary Data and Secondary Development Stage Problem Formulation Data & Research Objectives Fig. 4 Display of Leave Balance Standard Features Application Results and Discussion Ending Data Collection Business Model Evaluation Stage Canvas (BMC) Determining Variables and Data Sources No From Table 1, Figure 2 to Figure 4, it can be concluded that Information Stage Conclusions Creating Data List the features available in the basic framework of attend- Creative Stage Suggestions Data Collections of Lack ance applications in IT companies are still limited so that of Applications and Analysis Stage Alternative Application Updates End they require updating the attendance application fea- tures. The feature renewal carried out by the authors will Fig. 1 Framework of Mobile-Based Attendance Application be able to improve the function of the application and can RESULTS AND DISCUSSION support the attendance process as an employee KPI as- sessment as has also been done by [25]. Furthermore, the Table 1 explains that the survey results state that this ap- plication has a basic framework that has been imple- function of each feature attendance application is de- mented internally by IT companies. The basic framework scribed in Table 3. of the description contained into two (2) criteria namely To support the process of operating this application, ma- Features and User Interface, the framework can be seen terials are needed consisting of primary data and second- in Figure 2 through Figure 4. This information is obtained ary data. The materials are listed in Table 2, there are 6 by the authors through interviews and discussions with types of primary data and 9 types of secondary data. users and consultant’s applications attendance this appli- cation. This activity is carried out to obtain the basic framework that is already available and to find out the 22 Management Systems in Production Engineering 2022, Volume 30, Issue 1 Table 3 broad target market so that it will create new business op- Application Features portunities and additional new income. No Features Function 1 Daily Attendance Become a mandatory daily activity, Table 4 conducted before and after office Material Description hours. Primary Data Secondary Data 2 Leave Becomes a periodic activity and is Type Function Type Function carried out when there are personal Employee Identifi- Attendance Company Company iden- needs/other activities that make it cation Number user identity Profile tity impossible to carry out office activi- (NIK) and Em- (Name Ad- ties at the same time. The main ac- ployee Name dress) tivities required are requesting leave Employee Access Attendance Location Location of at- and checking leave balances. Data to Company user indica- Data tendance user 3 Attendance Recap Become a useful periodic activity as tion in any Report a means for evaluating absenteeism company such as attendance, sickness, and Calendar Data Date, month, Employee Attendance permission/leave. (Date, Month and and year of Leave Ba- user leave bal- 4 Annual Leave Become a useful periodic activity to Year) attendance lance Data ance indicator Submission Recap inform and evaluate data on submis- user Report sion of annual leave. Time Data (Global) Time/Hour at- Attendance Guide for visual- tendance user Recap Re- izing user at- Primary data is data that is used directly in application op- port For- tendance recap erations, because when this application is run by employ- mat data ees, this data must be available. Secondary data is sup- Employee Photos Verification Annual Guide for visual- with 3 Styles when the user Leave Re- izing user an- porting data whose information can be followed up, such (Smile, Flat, Pout) attendance cap Report nual leave recap as the company address because it does not interfere with Format data application operations. Secondary data also includes data Internet Quota Internet bal- Application Alternative on application development that will be used for ance for appli- Deve- comparison cri- weighting analysis of alternative criteria with AHP. A de- cation's ac- lopment teria tailed explanation for each material can be seen in Table cess Time Deve- The complete business model is presented in this paper lopment using BMC (see Figure 5). The authors begin to declare the Difficulty company's business model adapted to the Business Model Level Application Canvas (BMC) which describes 9 main components. These Design Dif- components are used by companies to create and deliver ficulty Level value propositions to their customer segments. As in the Feature Financial Services Company which maps its business Deve- model with BMC in reviewing innovations that provide lopment sustainable benefits and services to its customers [26]. Fee Figure 5 also shows that IT companies have a broad target market because they include small, medium to large com- The support obtained from the business model can panies. The company provides sustainable information strengthen IT companies in updating features. technology services through a mobile attendance applica- However, to get the best alternative order from good to tion that supports the company's operational activities bad alternatives, a value engineering stage is needed by carried out at home (WFH) such as employee attendance. collaborating with the AHP method. This method is used Support for updating this feature can be viewed from a by the authors for decision making in an alternative order. business model that includes anyone who becomes a Fig. 5 Business Model Canvas (BMC) T. KATRILIA et al. – Optimization of Innovation Features in Mobile-Based… 23 The stages of value engineering carried out by the authors d. Technical Programming, namely identifying the level consist of: of technical difficulty when developing alternatives in a. The information stage is carried out to obtain project mobile-based applications. information by identifying the criteria used in the con- Table 5 sideration of alternatives. Criteria and Alternative Data b. The creative stage is collecting alternative feature up- Technical dates to achieve the fulfilment of application functions Alterna- Design Workdays Cost Program- that will be used by researchers to get the best alter- tive/Criteria Features ming native. Alternative I 1-2 days Cheap Easy Medium c. The analysis stage is carried out to select alternatives 10-14 days Expen- Difficult Difficult Alternative II by considering the advantages and disadvantages of sive using the AHP method. Alternative III 2-3 days Medium Medium Medium d. The Development Phase is carried out by comparing Alternative IV 1-2 days Cheap Easy Easy the selected alternatives with the currently available application framework. Based on the information obtained, data on the duration e. Evaluation stage to recommend selected alternatives of project work (workdays) were obtained based on the as feature updates for attendance applications in IT results of the breakdown of activities, effects, and levels companies. of difficulty. The assessment of the duration of the project The five stages above are carried out in a sequential man- (workdays) is carried out by the technician. The project ner in the methodological framework (Figure 1). cost assessment (cost) is obtained based on the use of re- This application provides new income opportunities for sources during the development of the feature. However, Authors or System Information Engineers for requested these costs are only for the company's internal consump- system services or additional features according to special tion so that this research can be explained by classifying agreements from customers or IT companies. The addi- costs. The following is the classification of costs (cost): tion of this feature certainly has the impact of being − Cheap: Working on features is not difficult, it costs charged additional fees for adding features by changing USD 3,44 to USD 68,81. the existing system. There are many features that require − Medium: Work on the feature can be done, it costs updating, so IT companies need results that sort alterna- USD 68,81 to USD 344,07. tive updates from good to bad. Based on these results, the − Expensive: Working on features is difficult but can be Company can follow up the decision to update this at- done, it costs USD 344,07 to USD 688,15. tendance application feature. The magnitude of the po- Then, the assessment of the difficulty level for the Design tential of this application further supports the value engi- Feature and Technical Programming criteria uses certain neering process in updating application features. To ob- parameters. These parameters are made based on the tain results that rank alternative renewals from priority to work experience of Consultants and Technicians. Diffi- non-priority, the authors adopted the AHP methodology culty levels are as follows: used by [25]. − Easy: Easy to understand and easy to design. − Medium: Understandable and acceptable design. Information Stage − Difficult: Difficult to understand and difficult to design. There are 4 criteria that must be considered in each avail- able alternative. The acquisition of these criteria is based Creative Stage on the results of brainstorming, and discussions between Based on the results of interviews and discussions with Business Consultants and Technical Consultants and other several employees who act as end users, the standard fea- experienced parties. These criteria will be compared to tures of the Mobile-Based Attendance Application have a obtain priority criteria in the alternatives (Table 5). The lack of features. For this reason, several alternatives are criteria considered are as follows: made that can accommodate the lack of standard applica- a. Workday is calculating the processing time of each al- tion features. Alternative collection was done by using ternative. The work consists of application develop- brainstorming and discussions with experienced people. ment activities and application testing. Thus, obtained 4 new alternatives that deserve to be con- b. Cost is the cost required to update application fea- sidered in updating the Mobile-Based Attendance Appli- tures. Costs consider worker salaries and additional cation feature. Alternatives can be seen in Table 6. costs for additional resource specifications. The Feature Update Alternatives each have a different c. Design Features, namely identifying the level of suita- look or design. The design and mapping process is deter- bility of alternative designs in mobile-based applica- mined by the Business Consultant by considering easy to tions. access and easy to use as shown in Figures 6 to 8. 24 Management Systems in Production Engineering 2022, Volume 30, Issue 1 Table 6 Alternatives for Mobile-Based Attendance Application Feature Updates Design Description Initial Product 1. Access to user login and logout attendance (according to employee master data of com- panies) which NIK and Password. 2. Access to the user company (corresponding employee master data from company) Com- pany where the user is working. 3. Access the user's leave balance (ownership of the leave balance that the user can use). Alternative I Update attendance features by adding op- tions/information on attendance such as sick- ness, permission, or present. Benefits: daily attendance data can be rec- orded every day by the application and em- ployees do not need to do manual confirma- tion (calling, repeating the same information to several colleagues). The criteria for each at- Fig. 7 Display of Alternative 2 tendance statement are divided into 3 parts. Part 1, for sick information, you can add a sick letter document. Part 2, for permission, you can add a permit/leave document. Part 3, to present adding photos in real-time. Alternative II Making a new feature for submitting leave from the mobile attendance application. Benefits: the leave application will be automat- ically synchronized to the open my portal appli- cation so that the leave approval process can be continued on the open my portal applica- tion. Approved leave applications will be auto- matically synchronized with the employee's leave balance. The remaining leave balance can be checked in the leave bal- ance feature (the feature is already available). Alternative III Making a new feature for Attendance Recap Report. Benefits: to inform daily attendance (present, sickness, and leave) in a report that can be used for employee evaluation (KPI). Fig. 8 Display of Alternative 3 and Alternative 4 Alternative IV Making a new feature for the Annual Leave Submission Recap Report. AHP Analysis Stage Benefits: to inform the submission of data on leave and employee leave balances in a report At this stage, the AHP method is used to select the best that can be used for evaluation of employees alternative by considering the criteria obtained in the In- (KPI). formation Stage such as Workday, Cost, Design Features and Technical Programming. If arranged in a structured manner, a hierarchy of design alternatives is obtained (see Figure 9). Fig. 9 Hierarchy of Design Alternatives Based on Figure 9 we get a systematic structure that makes it easier for the authors to assess the weights on Fig. 6 Display of Alternative 1 the criteria and alternatives. This assessment forms a paired matrix of size 4 x 4, the result of a combination of T. KATRILIA et al. – Optimization of Innovation Features in Mobile-Based… 25 alternative features and criteria. In the AHP implementa- obtained from the largest to the smallest percentage. In tion process, the weight assessment between criteria is Table 10, the highest percentage of alternatives is owned carried out. The weight value between criteria is obtained by Alternative IV at 45.6%. Therefore, it is concluded that from a questionnaire that is assessed by the IT Company. the best alternative with the first recommended order for The standard assessment criteria used in the paired ma- updating mobile-based attendance application features is trix can be seen in Table 7. Alternative IV. Table 7 Table 10 Priority Vector Value of All Criteria Percentage Value and Alternative Order Priority Vector Average Criteria/Alternative TOTAL PERCENTAGE (%) RATE Criteria Percentage (EV) Alternative I 0.054 5.4% 4 Workdays 0.04 4% Alternative II 0.158 15.8% 3 Cost 0.16 16% Alternative III 0.332 33.2% 2 Design Features 0.34 34% Alternative IV 0.456 45.6% 1 Technical 0.46 46% Programming Evaluation Stage At this stage, it explains that the basic framework for the Based on the results of the consistency test of the criteria, attendance application gets the first recommendation to the Consistency Ratio (CR) value of 0.07 is obtained, which update the feature for making the annual leave submis- means that CR < 0.1, it is concluded that the assessment sion report feature (Alternative 4). When viewed from the of the criteria is consistent. basic framework of attendance applications that are cur- Furthermore, the authors assess the weight of the criteria rently available, only access to the remaining balance of and alternative weights. The assessment results are nor- leave is available. Sometimes application users only know malized so that the value reflects the actual condition. The that the leave balance is reduced without being able to weighting of the criteria and alternatives is obtained by browse directly through this attendance application. This iterating the matrix until the normalization value is zero. is because the operational leave application is done man- The summary of the weighting can be seen in Table 8. ually through writing on the IT Company work discussion application which is not synchronized with this attend- Table 8 ance application. This recommendation is good to imple- Summary of Criteria Weights & Alternative Weights ment because it helps inform leave applications and leave Summary of Criteria Weights & Alternative Weights balances in a report that can be used for employee evalu- Technical Design ation (KPI). In addition, the user interface design for Alter- Criteria/ Workdays Cost Program- Features native IV (Figure 8), is designed simply by combining ac- Alternative ming cess for Alternative III, making it easier for users to oper- 0.043 0.154 0.343 0.461 Alternative I 0.067 0.044 0.067 0.046 ate this attendance application. Another advantage of Alternative II 0.151 0.177 0.149 0.159 combining access to the two alternatives is that it saves Alternative III 0.330 0.357 0.325 0.330 time by eliminating the user interface design process for Alternative IV 0.452 0.422 0.460 0.466 Alternative III. After obtaining data on the criteria weights and alterna- CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS tive weights, calculations are carried out to obtain the Fi- Paper on the application of Mobile-based Attendance Ap- nal Alternative Weight (see Table 9). plications using the AHP method obtained Alternative IV with a percentage value of 45.6% as the best alternative. Table 9 This best alternative shows optimal results such as the re- Final Alternative Weight alization of application feature requirements for users, Final Alternative Weight consumption of fewer workdays for 1-2 days, low costs, Criteria/ Technical Design TO- Alternative Workdays Cost Program- easy-to-understand feature designs, and uncomplicated Features TAL ming programming techniques. The application of this AHP Alternative I 0.003 0.007 0.023 0.021 0.054 method can also be applied to the selection of application Alternative II 0.006 0.027 0.051 0.073 0.158 user interface designs, programming languages in making Alternative III 0.014 0.055 0.111 0.152 0.332 applications and the selection of tools for visualizing em- Alternative IV 0.019 0.065 0.158 0.214 0.456 ployee performance data related to KPIs. It is recom- mended for the next paper to discuss project manage- In Table 9, Alternative 4 has the highest Final Alternative ment related to how to allocate time and costs so that it Weight compared to other alternatives. can be carried out according to project targets. Alternative Development Stage Based on the Final Alternative Weight, the final alterna- tive percentage value and the order of the alternatives are 26 Management Systems in Production Engineering 2022, Volume 30, Issue 1 [15] M. Marzouk, & M. 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Dewa SP Universitas Atma Jaya Yogyakarta Universitas Atma Jaya Yogyakarta Department of Industrial Engineering, Department of Industrial Engineering Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia e-mail: 205603330@students.uajy.ac.id e-mail: parama.dewa@uajy.ac.id P.W. Anggoro Universitas Atma Jaya Yogyakarta Department of Industrial Engineering Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia e-mail: p.wisnuanggoro@gmail.com

Journal

Management Systems in Production Engineeringde Gruyter

Published: Mar 1, 2022

Keywords: Mobile; Application; Analytical Hierarchy Process

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