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Molecular detection of ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma australasia’ and ‘Ca. P. cynodontis’ in Iraq

Molecular detection of ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma australasia’ and ‘Ca. P. cynodontis’ in Iraq REFERENCESAL-KUWAITI, N.A.S. – KAREEM, T.A. – JAMEEL, D.S. 2015. The molecular investigation of phytoplasma ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma’ infecting Arabic jasmine Jasminum sambac in Iraq. In Iraqi Journal of Science, vol. 56, pp. 2787–2904.AL-RAWI, A.F. – AL-FADHIL, F.K. – AL-ANI, R.A. 2001. Histological methods for detection and monitoring distribution of phytoplasmas in some crops and weed plants in central Iraq. In Arab Journal of Plant Protection, vol. 19, pp. 3–11.AL-SUBHI, A.M. – AL-SAADY, N.A. – KHAN, A.J. – DEADMAN, M.L. 2011. First report of a group 16SrII Phytoplasma associated with witches’-broom of eggplant in Oman. In Plant Diseases, vol. 95, pp. 360.BERTACCINI, A. – DUDUK, B. 2009. Phytoplasma and phytoplasma diseases: a review of recent research. In Phytopathology Mediterranean, vol. 48, pp. 355–378.BERTACCINI, A. – DUDUK, B. – PALTRINIERI, S. – CONTALDO, N. 2014. Phytoplasmas and Phytoplasma Diseases: A Severe Threat to Agriculture. In American Journal of Plant Sciences, vol. 5, pp. 1763–1788.CALARI, A. – PALTRINIERI, S. – CONTALDO, N. – SAKALIEVA, D. – MORI, N. – DUDUK, B. – BERTACCINI, A. 2011. Molecular evidence of phytoplasmas in winter oil-seed rape, tomato and corn seedlings. In Bulletin of Insectology, vol. 64 (Supplement), pp. S157–S158.CHATURVEDI, Y. – RAO, G.P. – TIWARI, A.K. – DUDUK, B. – BERTACCINI, A. 2010. Phytoplasma on Ornamentals: detection, diversity and management. In Acta Phytopathologica et Entomologica Hungarica, vol. 45, pp. 31–69.DELIĆ, D. 2012. Polymerase chain reaction for phytoplasmas detection, polymerase chain reaction. In HERNANDEZ-RODRIGUEZ, P. (Ed.) Polymerase chain reaction. Rijeka : InTech, pp. 91–118. ISBN: 978-953-51-0612-8DENG, S. – HIRUKI, C. 1991. Amplification of 16S rRNA genes from culturable and nonculturable mollicutes. In Journal of Microbiological Methods, vol. 14, pp. 53–61.DUDUK, B. – BERTACCINI, A. 2011. Phytoplasma classification: Taxonomy based on 16S ribosomal gene, is it enough? In Phytopathogenic Mollicutes, vol. 1, pp. 3–13.IRPCM. 2004. ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma’, a taxon for the wall-less, non-helical prokaryotes that colonize plant phloem and insects. In International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology, vol. 54, pp. 1243–1255.FRÁNOVÁ, J. – BERTACCINI, A. – DUDUK, B. 2014. Molecular tools in COST FA0807 Action. Phytoplasmas and phytoplasma disease management: how to reduce their economic impact. In BERTACCINI, A. (Ed.) Phytoplasmas and phytoplasma disease management: how to reduce their economic impact. Bologna : IPWG – International Phytoplasmologist Working Group, pp. 179–185. ISBN: 978-88-909922-0-9GIBBS, K.S. – PERSLEY, D.M. – SCHNEIDER, B. – THOMAS, H.E. 1996. Phytoplasmas associated with papaya diseases in Australia. In Plant Disease, vol. 80, pp. 174–178.JARAUSCH, B. – WEINTRAUB, P. 2013. Spread of phytoplasmas by insect vectors: an introduction. In BERTACCINI, A. (Ed.) – LAVIÑA, A. – TORRES, E. New Perspectives in Phytoplasma Disease Management. COST action FA0807 Workshop, 22 March, Barcelona, Spain, Available at http://www.cost.eu/download/FAP_FA0807.MAEJIMA, K. – OSHIMA, K. – NAMBA, S. 2014. Exploring the phytoplasmas, plant pathogenic bacteria. In Journal of General Plant Pathology, vol. 80, pp. 210–221.MARCONE, C. – SCHNEIDER, B. – SEEMÜLLER, E. 2004. ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma cynodontis’, the phytoplasma associated with Bermuda grass white leaf disease. In International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology, vol. 54, pp. 1077–1082.MARCONE, C. – RAGOZZINO, A. – SEEMÜLLER, E. 1997. Detection of Bermuda grass white leaf disease in Italy and characterization of the associated phytoplasma by RFLP analysis. In Plant Disease, vol. 81, pp. 862–866.MITROVIĆ, J. – SMILJKOVIĆ, M. – SEEMÜLLER, E. – REINHARDT, R. – HUTTEL, B. – BERTACCINI, A. – KUBE, M. – DUDUK, B. 2015. Differentiation of ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma cynodontis’ based on 16S rRNA and groEL genes and identification of a new subgroup, 16SrXIV-C. In Plant Disease, vol. 99, pp. 1578–1583.MOHAMMED, M. – ALFADHA, F. – ALHATAMI, A. 2016. The relationship between sesame Phytoplasma (phyllody) and others plant Phytoplasma by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In Kufa Journal for Agricultural Science, vol. 8, pp. 130–150.OBURA, E. – MASIGA, D. – MIDEGA, C.A.O. – WACHIRA, F. – PICKETT, J.A. – DENG, A.L. – KHAN, Z.R. 2010. First report of a phytoplasma associated with Bermuda grass white leaf disease in Kenya. In New Disease Reports, vol. 21, pp. 23.OMAR, A.F. 2016. Association of ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma cynodontis’ with Bermuda grass white leaf disease and its new hosts in Qassim province, Saudi Arabia. In Journal of Plant Interactions, vol. 11, pp. 101–107.OMAR, A.F. – FOISSAC, X. 2012. Occurrence and incidence of phytoplasmas of the 16SrII-D subgroup on solanaceous and cucurbit crops in Egypt. In European Journal of Plant Pathology, vol. 133, pp. 353–360.http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000303354000001&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=b7bc2757938ac7a7a821505f8243d9f3SALEHI, E. – SALEHI, M. – TAGHAVI, S.M. – IZADPANAH, K. 2014. A 16SrII-D phytoplasma strain associated with tomato witches’-broom in Bushehr province. In Iranian Journal of Crop Protection, vol. 3, pp. 377–388.SALEHI, M. – IZADPANAH, K. – SIAMPOUR, M. – TAGHIZADEH, M. 2009. Molecular characterization and transmission of Bermuda grass with white leaf phytoplasma in Iran. In Journal of Plant Pathology, vol. 91, pp. 655–661.SAMBROOK, J.F. – RUSSELL, D. 2006. Condensed protocols: from molecular cloning: a laboratory manual. New York : Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, pp. 800.SINGH, J. – RANI, A. – KUMAR, P. – BARANWAL, V.K. – SAROJ, P.L. – SIROHI, A. 2012. First report of a 16SrII-D phytoplasma ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma australasia’ associated with a tomato disease in India. In New Disease Reports, vol. 26, pp. 14.SMART, C.D. – SCHNEIDER, B. – BLOMQUIST, C.L. – GUERRA, L.J. – HARRISON, N.A. – AHRENS, U. – LORENZ, K.H. – SEEMÜLLER, E. – KIRKPATRICK, B.C. 1996. Phytoplasma-specific PCR primers based on sequences of the 16S-23S rRNA spacer region. In Applied Environmental Microbiology, vol. 62, pp. 2988–2993.TAMURA, K. – STECHER, G. – PETERSON, D. – FILIPSKI, A. – KUMAR, S. 2013. MEGA6:Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis version 6.0. In Molecular Biology and Evolution, vol. 30, pp. 2725–2729.WEI, W. – DAVIS, R.E. – LEE, I. – M. – ZHAO, Y. 2007. Computer-simulated RFLP analysis of 16S rRNA genes: identification of ten new phytoplasma groups. In International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology, vol. 57, pp. 1855–1867.WHITE, D.T. – BLACKALL, L.L. – SCOTT, P.T. – WALSH, K.B. 1998. Phylogenetic positions of phytoplasmas associated with dieback, yellow crinkle and mosaic diseases of papaya, and their proposed inclusion in ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma australiense’ and a new taxon, ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma Australasia’. In International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology, vol. 48, pp. 941–951.YADAV, V. – MAHADEVAKUMAR, S. – TEJASWINI, G.S. – SHILPA, N. – SREENIVASA, M.Y. – AMRUTHAVALLI, C. – JANARDHANA, G.R. 2016. First report of 16SrII-D phytoplasma associated with eggplant big bud (Solanum melongena L.) in India. In Plant Disease, vol. 100, pp. 517.ZHAO, Y. – WEI, W. – LEE, I.-M. – SHAO, J. – SUO, X. – DAVIS, R.E. 2009. Construction of an interactive online phytoplasma classification tool, iPhyClassifier, and its application in analysis of the peach X-disease phytoplasma group (16SrIII). In International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology, vol. 59, pp. 2582–2593. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Agriculture de Gruyter

Molecular detection of ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma australasia’ and ‘Ca. P. cynodontis’ in Iraq

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© 2017 Nawres Abdulelah Sadeq Alkuwaiti et al., published by De Gruyter Open
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REFERENCESAL-KUWAITI, N.A.S. – KAREEM, T.A. – JAMEEL, D.S. 2015. The molecular investigation of phytoplasma ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma’ infecting Arabic jasmine Jasminum sambac in Iraq. In Iraqi Journal of Science, vol. 56, pp. 2787–2904.AL-RAWI, A.F. – AL-FADHIL, F.K. – AL-ANI, R.A. 2001. Histological methods for detection and monitoring distribution of phytoplasmas in some crops and weed plants in central Iraq. In Arab Journal of Plant Protection, vol. 19, pp. 3–11.AL-SUBHI, A.M. – AL-SAADY, N.A. – KHAN, A.J. – DEADMAN, M.L. 2011. First report of a group 16SrII Phytoplasma associated with witches’-broom of eggplant in Oman. In Plant Diseases, vol. 95, pp. 360.BERTACCINI, A. – DUDUK, B. 2009. Phytoplasma and phytoplasma diseases: a review of recent research. In Phytopathology Mediterranean, vol. 48, pp. 355–378.BERTACCINI, A. – DUDUK, B. – PALTRINIERI, S. – CONTALDO, N. 2014. Phytoplasmas and Phytoplasma Diseases: A Severe Threat to Agriculture. In American Journal of Plant Sciences, vol. 5, pp. 1763–1788.CALARI, A. – PALTRINIERI, S. – CONTALDO, N. – SAKALIEVA, D. – MORI, N. – DUDUK, B. – BERTACCINI, A. 2011. Molecular evidence of phytoplasmas in winter oil-seed rape, tomato and corn seedlings. In Bulletin of Insectology, vol. 64 (Supplement), pp. S157–S158.CHATURVEDI, Y. – RAO, G.P. – TIWARI, A.K. – DUDUK, B. – BERTACCINI, A. 2010. Phytoplasma on Ornamentals: detection, diversity and management. In Acta Phytopathologica et Entomologica Hungarica, vol. 45, pp. 31–69.DELIĆ, D. 2012. Polymerase chain reaction for phytoplasmas detection, polymerase chain reaction. In HERNANDEZ-RODRIGUEZ, P. (Ed.) Polymerase chain reaction. Rijeka : InTech, pp. 91–118. ISBN: 978-953-51-0612-8DENG, S. – HIRUKI, C. 1991. Amplification of 16S rRNA genes from culturable and nonculturable mollicutes. In Journal of Microbiological Methods, vol. 14, pp. 53–61.DUDUK, B. – BERTACCINI, A. 2011. Phytoplasma classification: Taxonomy based on 16S ribosomal gene, is it enough? In Phytopathogenic Mollicutes, vol. 1, pp. 3–13.IRPCM. 2004. ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma’, a taxon for the wall-less, non-helical prokaryotes that colonize plant phloem and insects. In International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology, vol. 54, pp. 1243–1255.FRÁNOVÁ, J. – BERTACCINI, A. – DUDUK, B. 2014. Molecular tools in COST FA0807 Action. Phytoplasmas and phytoplasma disease management: how to reduce their economic impact. In BERTACCINI, A. (Ed.) Phytoplasmas and phytoplasma disease management: how to reduce their economic impact. Bologna : IPWG – International Phytoplasmologist Working Group, pp. 179–185. ISBN: 978-88-909922-0-9GIBBS, K.S. – PERSLEY, D.M. – SCHNEIDER, B. – THOMAS, H.E. 1996. Phytoplasmas associated with papaya diseases in Australia. In Plant Disease, vol. 80, pp. 174–178.JARAUSCH, B. – WEINTRAUB, P. 2013. Spread of phytoplasmas by insect vectors: an introduction. In BERTACCINI, A. (Ed.) – LAVIÑA, A. – TORRES, E. New Perspectives in Phytoplasma Disease Management. COST action FA0807 Workshop, 22 March, Barcelona, Spain, Available at http://www.cost.eu/download/FAP_FA0807.MAEJIMA, K. – OSHIMA, K. – NAMBA, S. 2014. Exploring the phytoplasmas, plant pathogenic bacteria. In Journal of General Plant Pathology, vol. 80, pp. 210–221.MARCONE, C. – SCHNEIDER, B. – SEEMÜLLER, E. 2004. ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma cynodontis’, the phytoplasma associated with Bermuda grass white leaf disease. In International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology, vol. 54, pp. 1077–1082.MARCONE, C. – RAGOZZINO, A. – SEEMÜLLER, E. 1997. Detection of Bermuda grass white leaf disease in Italy and characterization of the associated phytoplasma by RFLP analysis. In Plant Disease, vol. 81, pp. 862–866.MITROVIĆ, J. – SMILJKOVIĆ, M. – SEEMÜLLER, E. – REINHARDT, R. – HUTTEL, B. – BERTACCINI, A. – KUBE, M. – DUDUK, B. 2015. Differentiation of ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma cynodontis’ based on 16S rRNA and groEL genes and identification of a new subgroup, 16SrXIV-C. In Plant Disease, vol. 99, pp. 1578–1583.MOHAMMED, M. – ALFADHA, F. – ALHATAMI, A. 2016. The relationship between sesame Phytoplasma (phyllody) and others plant Phytoplasma by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In Kufa Journal for Agricultural Science, vol. 8, pp. 130–150.OBURA, E. – MASIGA, D. – MIDEGA, C.A.O. – WACHIRA, F. – PICKETT, J.A. – DENG, A.L. – KHAN, Z.R. 2010. First report of a phytoplasma associated with Bermuda grass white leaf disease in Kenya. In New Disease Reports, vol. 21, pp. 23.OMAR, A.F. 2016. Association of ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma cynodontis’ with Bermuda grass white leaf disease and its new hosts in Qassim province, Saudi Arabia. In Journal of Plant Interactions, vol. 11, pp. 101–107.OMAR, A.F. – FOISSAC, X. 2012. Occurrence and incidence of phytoplasmas of the 16SrII-D subgroup on solanaceous and cucurbit crops in Egypt. In European Journal of Plant Pathology, vol. 133, pp. 353–360.http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000303354000001&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=b7bc2757938ac7a7a821505f8243d9f3SALEHI, E. – SALEHI, M. – TAGHAVI, S.M. – IZADPANAH, K. 2014. A 16SrII-D phytoplasma strain associated with tomato witches’-broom in Bushehr province. In Iranian Journal of Crop Protection, vol. 3, pp. 377–388.SALEHI, M. – IZADPANAH, K. – SIAMPOUR, M. – TAGHIZADEH, M. 2009. Molecular characterization and transmission of Bermuda grass with white leaf phytoplasma in Iran. In Journal of Plant Pathology, vol. 91, pp. 655–661.SAMBROOK, J.F. – RUSSELL, D. 2006. Condensed protocols: from molecular cloning: a laboratory manual. New York : Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, pp. 800.SINGH, J. – RANI, A. – KUMAR, P. – BARANWAL, V.K. – SAROJ, P.L. – SIROHI, A. 2012. First report of a 16SrII-D phytoplasma ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma australasia’ associated with a tomato disease in India. In New Disease Reports, vol. 26, pp. 14.SMART, C.D. – SCHNEIDER, B. – BLOMQUIST, C.L. – GUERRA, L.J. – HARRISON, N.A. – AHRENS, U. – LORENZ, K.H. – SEEMÜLLER, E. – KIRKPATRICK, B.C. 1996. Phytoplasma-specific PCR primers based on sequences of the 16S-23S rRNA spacer region. In Applied Environmental Microbiology, vol. 62, pp. 2988–2993.TAMURA, K. – STECHER, G. – PETERSON, D. – FILIPSKI, A. – KUMAR, S. 2013. MEGA6:Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis version 6.0. In Molecular Biology and Evolution, vol. 30, pp. 2725–2729.WEI, W. – DAVIS, R.E. – LEE, I. – M. – ZHAO, Y. 2007. Computer-simulated RFLP analysis of 16S rRNA genes: identification of ten new phytoplasma groups. In International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology, vol. 57, pp. 1855–1867.WHITE, D.T. – BLACKALL, L.L. – SCOTT, P.T. – WALSH, K.B. 1998. Phylogenetic positions of phytoplasmas associated with dieback, yellow crinkle and mosaic diseases of papaya, and their proposed inclusion in ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma australiense’ and a new taxon, ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma Australasia’. In International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology, vol. 48, pp. 941–951.YADAV, V. – MAHADEVAKUMAR, S. – TEJASWINI, G.S. – SHILPA, N. – SREENIVASA, M.Y. – AMRUTHAVALLI, C. – JANARDHANA, G.R. 2016. First report of 16SrII-D phytoplasma associated with eggplant big bud (Solanum melongena L.) in India. In Plant Disease, vol. 100, pp. 517.ZHAO, Y. – WEI, W. – LEE, I.-M. – SHAO, J. – SUO, X. – DAVIS, R.E. 2009. Construction of an interactive online phytoplasma classification tool, iPhyClassifier, and its application in analysis of the peach X-disease phytoplasma group (16SrIII). In International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology, vol. 59, pp. 2582–2593.

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Published: Oct 1, 2017

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