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Agriculture (Poľnohospodárstvo), 67, 2021 (3): 103 − 112 Original paper dOi: 10.2478/agri-2021-0010 MINERAL COMPOSITION OF POTTED CABBAGE (BRASSICA OLERACEA VAR. CAPITATA L.) GROWN IN ZEOLITE AMENDED SANDY SOIL 1 2 3* 2 Olwetu A. SindeSi , MuinA t n. lewu , BOngAni ncuBe , ReckSOn Mulidzi , And FRAnciS B. lewu cape Peninsula university of t echnology, w ellington, South Africa Soil and w ater Science Programme, Stellenbosch, South Africa cape Peninsula university of t echnology, cape t own, South Africa Sindesi, O.A, lewu, M.n., ncube, B., Mulidzi, R. and lewu, F. (2021). Mineral composition of potted cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata l.) grown in zeolite amended sandy soil. Agriculture (Poľnohospodárstvo), 67(3), 103 – 112. Vegetables are essential components in human diets because they are rich in vitamins, minerals, and dietary fibre. There is a growing interest in human nutrition enhancement through vegetable consumption to reduce micro mineral deficiencies, especially in households with low buying power. A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of zeo- lite amendment on the mineral composition of cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata l.), in relation to the soil chemical status. the experiment was carried out over two growing seasons (winter/spring) of 2018 and 2019. the treatments were in the ratios of 0:10, 1:9, 2:8, 3:7 zeolite to sandy soil, on a weight-to-weight basis. zeolite improved soil chemical status (p < 0.05), except for soil iron (Fe) and phosphorus (P) contents. there was also a general improvement of macro minerals in cabbage with increased zeolite application, especially in the second season. zeolite did not improve the micronutrients of the vegetable. This indicates that cabbage planted under zeolite amended soils provides no additional contribution to the fight against micronutrient deficiencies. However, zeolite showed potential for soil conditioning in soil macronutrients and soil pH. k ey words: cabbage, zeolite, soil conditioner, soil amendment, soil fertility Fruits and vegetables are essential in human diets (Cvetković et al. 2019). there is an interest in the due to their nutritional value arising from high min- nutritional enhancement of highly utilised vegeta- eral, vitamin, and dietary fibre content (Cvetković et bles, especially, using them to reduce micro mineral al. 2019). diets high in fruits and vegetables have deficiencies in humans (Mzoughi et al. 2019). been associated with reduced risks of numerous Micro mineral deficiency is a widespread public chronic diseases, including cancer and cardiovascu- health problem. it is the result of the low bioactivity lar diseases, and maintaining healthy body weight. of trace minerals, particularly iron (Fe) in the daily Nutrient content and total nutritional benefits of diet (t ulchinsky 2010). Micro mineral deficiencies fruits and vegetables depend on the crop cultivar, have been combated by increasing dietary plant va- agricultural production practices, and ripening stage rieties in diets (Mzoughi et al. 2019). However, in Olwetu A. Sindesi, Francis B. lewu, department of Agriculture, Faculty of Applied Sciences, cape Peninsula university of t echnology, Private Bag X8, w ellington 7654, South Africa Muinat n. lewu, Reckson Mulidzi, Soil and w ater Science Programme, ARc infruitec-nietvoorbij, Private Bag X5026, Stellenbosch 7599, South Africa Bongani ncube (*corresponding author), centre for w ater and Sanitation Research, department of civil engineering and Surveying, Faculty of engineering & the Built environment, cape Peninsula university of t echnology, Bellville 7535, cape t own, South Africa. e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org © 2021 Authors. this is an open access article licensed under the creative commons Attribution-noncomercial-noderivs license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/). 103 Agriculture (Poľnohospodárstvo), 67, 2021 (3): 103 − 112 poor households, buying power is limited to a few study aimed to evaluate the effect of zeolite on the products at a time (Headey & Martin 2016). mineral composition of cabbage, in relation to soil increasing the nutritional contents of vegeta- chemical status. bles with agricultural practices is one of the ways of improving the micronutrient contents in food crops (Bernacchia et al. 2016). this can be through MATERIAL AND METHODS the manipulation of factors governing soil nutrient availability. Soil pH is part of the main factors that Experimental site and treatment details govern the solubility and bioavailability of soil el- A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted ements leading to the accumulation of nutrients in at the Agricultural Research council (ARc) in- plants (clemente et al. 2005). Other factors include fruitec-nietvoorbij, Stellenbosch, South Africa soil physical, chemical, and biological properties, (33.914476° S and 18.861322° e). Six-week-old as they condition plant growth and survival in soil cabbage (cv. copenhagen) seedlings were trans- (Bernacchia et al. 2016). planted into potted zeolite amended sandy soil and Amendments such as zeolite have shown the studied over two growing seasons (winter/spring, potential to mitigate soil acidity and improve soil 2018 and 2019). the treatments were: 0% zeolite physiological and chemical properties (de campos + 100% sandy soil, 10% zeolite + 90% sandy soil, Bernardi et al. 2013; Ramesh et al. 2015). zeolites 20% zeolite + 80% sandy soil and 30% zeolite + are aluminosilicate minerals (gül et al. 2005), that 70% sandy soil (i.e. ratios of 0:10, 1:9, 2:8, 3:7 are alkaline, porous structured, with a high cation zeolite to sandy soil) on a weight by weight basis. exchange capacity (CEC), and great affinity for am- t reatments were replicated 6 times and arranged ) cations (He et al. 2002; Ahmed et monium (NH in a randomized complete block design. the total al. 2008). zeolite applicability to agriculture has weight of soil or soil and zeolite per pot was 12 kg. been linked to its (i) high cation exchange; (ii) high urea (46% n) and single-super phosphate (20% P) water-holding capacity and (iii) high absorption ca- was applied to all pots at a rate of 1.17 and 3 g/pot pacity (de campos Bernardi et al. 2013). in heavy respectively, while potassium chloride (50% k) was metal contaminated soils, zeolite has been shown applied at 1.92 g/pot before transplanting. Addition- to reduce their bioavailability due to their negative ally, a urea side-dress of 1.11 g/pot was applied in charge (garau et al. 2007). Heavy metals are not split applications at 3 and 6 weeks after transplant- easily biodegradable and persist in soils for long pe- ing (w At). Seedlings were planted at one seedling riods (garau et al. 2007; Ramesh & Reddy 2011) per pot into 30 cm diameter and depth plastic pots. and their competitiveness in soils may account for Soil water content was regularly monitored gravi- the unavailability of some of the essential plant mi- metrically and through the weighing of pots. irriga- cronutrients. zeolite accelerates the soil natural re- tion water was maintained above 50% field capacity actions which reduce mobility and bioavailability of (Fc) throughout the study. heavy metals to plants (Madejón et al. 2006). w eeds were manually removed while insect pests the impact of zeolite on plant growth, yield, and were controlled with Makhro cyper (active ingre- crop mineral composition has been investigated in dient: cypermethrin, 200 g/l), using 1 ml in 10 l other studies (gül et al. 2005; Ahmed et al. 2008; of water in the first growing season. In the second eshghi et al. 2010; Ramesh & Reddy 2011; zbahce growing season, Avi gard Mercaptothion (active et al. 2015; Ramesh et al. 2015; Hazrati et al. 2017). ingredient Organophosphate 500 g/l) was used to However, zeolite use for crop production has not control pests at a rate of 15 ml of chemical to 10 l received much interest, especially in South Africa. of water. the pesticide had to be changed because there is limited information on the impact of zeolite the pests appeared to develop immunity against the on the mineral composition of vegetables such as first pesticide. cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata l.), which is a major part of the South African diet (Afolayan Harvesting and sample processing & Jimoh 2009; Bvenura & Afolayan 2015). this Harvesting was done 126 days after transplant- 104 Agriculture (Poľnohospodárstvo), 67, 2021 (3): 103 − 112 ing (dA t), by cutting the stem close to the head. ReSultS And diScuSSiOn the head was then chopped into small pieces and oven-dried at 70°c in a forced-air oven till con - t able 1 presents the soil baseline chemical prop- erties at the commencement of the study while the stant weight. dry samples were separately milled composition and characteristics of zeolite used as a using the Polymix PX-MFc, 90d miller manu - soil amendment in this study are presented in t able factured by kinemanetica Ag, Switzerland. the milled samples were placed in well labelled air- tight containers and later stored in the refrigerator Cabbage macro mineral contents in relation to soil before mineral analysis. nutrient availability and zeolite application the macronutrient contents of the cabbage head Plant tissue analysis evaluated in this study are presented in Figure 1. in t o determine the mineral element composition, the second season of the study, the level of P in cab- the plant samples were dry-ashed in a muffle fur - bage heads generally increased (p < 0.05) with the nace at 500°c for 6 hr and extracted using hydro - increase in soil zeolite application, unlike in the first chloric acid for total acid digestion in the determi- growing season where there was no significant dif- nation of phosphorus (P), potassium (k), calcium ference. Cabbage P contents in the first season were (ca), magnesium (Mg), sodium (na), manganese consistent with the findings of (Pasković et al. 2013) (Mn), iron (Fe), copper (cu) and zinc (zn). where there was no significant difference in P with zeolite application. However, the second season’s Soil chemical analysis results followed the trend also observed by (zheng Standard baseline soil chemical analysis was et al. 2019) on rice grown under zeolite application. carried out before the application of treatments and in relation to soil P (Figure 2), P contents in the again at harvest (for both seasons) using the stan- soil did not follow the trend observed in cabbage dard procedures of the Non-affiliated Soil Analysis P. In both seasons, soil P significantly decreased w ork committee (1990). t otal available P, k, and (p < 0.05) with the increase in zeolite application soil pH were determined using ICP-OES Bray II, (Figure 2). Soil P in this study was in contrast with t etraphenylboron, and Potassium chloride (kcl) methods respectively. Soil exchangeable ca, Mg, and na were extracted using 1.0 n ammonium ac - t a b l e 1 etate while Fe, cu, Mn, and zn were determined Soil baseline chemical properties by the edt A (ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid) titration method. All reagents used for chemical Soil parameter Value analysis were of analytical grade. pH 5.4 (kcl) Statistical analysis [mg/kg] data were subjected to analysis of variance Phosphorus (P) 47.0 (AnOVA) using SAS (version 9.4, SAS institute Potassium (k) 47.0 inc., cary, nc, uSA, 2000). AnOVA was done iron (Fe) 362.0 per season, using SAS statistical software. Results zinc (zn) 6.2 of both seasons were also combined and investi- gated in one overall AnOVA after testing for sea - Manganese (Mn) 24.2 son homogeneity of variance using levene’s test. copper (cu) 0.4 the Shapiro-w ilk test was performed to test for exchangeable cations [cmol/kg] deviation from normality. Fisher’s least signifi - calcium (ca) 5.83 cant difference was calculated at the 5% level to Magnesium (Mg) 0.39 compare treatment means. A probability level of Sodium (na) 0.11 5% was considered significant for all tests. KCl ‒ pH measured in potassium chloride solution. 105 Agriculture (Poľnohospodárstvo), 67, 2021 (3): 103−112 the findings of previous studies (Ozbahce et al. where cabbage P increased thereby decreasing soil 2015, 2018; zheng et al. 2019) who all found soil P content after plant uptake. P to increase with increased zeolite application. Soil in both growing seasons, cabbage grown on ze- P is hypothetically made available by the applica- olite amended soil had higher levels of k and na 2+ tion of zeolite, as reactive products such as ca and (p < 0.05) (Figure 1). the observed increase in k 4- H PO move into zeolites exchangeable sites there- content in the cabbage head was in line with previous by allowing for more P rock dissolution, making P research findings (Gül et al. 2005), which found to be readily available for plant assimilation (nur that zeolite as a soil conditioner was able to increase Aainaa et al. 2018; zheng et al. 2019). Soil P can be the content of both n and k in the plant tissue of stored in the soil by adsorption, organic matter, soil crisp-head lettuce. the effect of zeolite on cabbage solution, microbial biomass, etc. Soil P in the first K content was however contradictory to other find- season decreased even while there was no increase ings (Pasković et al. 2013) that found no significant in cabbage P uptake, unlike in the second season difference in k of chicory cultivated under different Figure 1. Cabbage macro mineral response to zeolite application (a ‒ e). Bars with the same letters show no significance at p < 0.05. Note: P ‒ phosphorus; K ‒ potassium; Ca ‒ calcium; Mg ‒ magnesium; Na ‒ sodium. 106 Agriculture (Poľnohospodárstvo), 67, 2021 (3): 103 − 112 levels of zeolite. However, soil K and Na increased the non-amended sandy soil in the second season with an increase in zeolite application in both sea- (p < 0.05). Soil exchangeable ca and Mg generally sons (Figure 2). the increase may be attributed to increased (p < 0.05) with zeolite application (Figure the 2.3% na O and 1.7% k O in the zeolite com- 2). nevertheless, there was less Mg in the soil in 2 2 position (t able 2). Additionally, the soil k increase all treatments at the end of the second season com- can also be associated with zeolites affinity towards pared to the Mg levels at the end of the first season. k cations (de campos Bernardi et al. 2013; Oz - the increase in the exchangeable ca and Mg (Fig - bahce et al. 2018). ure 3) with the increase in zeolite application may On the other hand, cabbage ca and Mg content be due to zeolite cation exchange capacity (cec) showed interchanging trends within the two seasons and improved soil pH (Ramesh & Reddy 2011). (Figure 1). In the first growing season, the amount the cabbage ca, Mg, and k contents in this of mineral ca in the cabbage head reduced (p < 0.05) study were similar to previous findings (Pasković et with the application of zeolite. However, in the sec- al. 2013), although their results showed a non-sig- ond season, there was no significant difference in nificant increase (Mg and K) in chicory leaves with ca levels on both zeolite amended sandy soils and a decrease in ca as a result of zeolite application. the control (p > 0.05), which is probably due to the in another study (gül et al. 2005) the contents of residual effect of zeolite. cabbage Mg content was ca and Mg were relatively low in crisp-head lettuce also not affected (p > 0.05) in both growing seasons that was cultivated under zeolite than those cultivat- except for the observed drop that was recorded in ed under perlite. the results of this study were also similar to others where there were no significant differences in ca and Mg contents in beans grown using different zeolite levels (Ozbahce et al. 2018). t a b l e 2 This was attributed to high soil pH and excessive zeolite characteristics 2+ soil P. the ca cations moved to zeolite exchange- able sites which allowed more P availability while Physical properties description ca became limited to plants (nur Aainaa et al. 2018; colour white to grey Ozbahce et al. 2015; zheng et al. 2019) and low sol - Appearance granules ubility and mobility in soils, especially under water pH (30 g in 60 mL water) 8 stress. Available soil P and plant P uptake could be cation exchange capacity [mg/kg] 16 improved through the application of zeolite. How- ever, little is known about the impact of zeolite on w ater adsorption (on sinter plate) 400% P uptake in rice under water stress. A two-year ly- chemical property t ypical [%] simetric experiment using a split-split plot design Silicon dioxide (SiO ) 64.3 investigated the effects of zeolite (0 or 15 t/ha). Aluminium oxide (Al O ) 12.7 2 3 cabbage ca contents generally decreased in the t itanium dioxide (t iO ) 0.1 first season while soil exchangeable Ca increased. High levels of Ca in soils have been proven to re- Magnesium ooxide (MgO) 1.3 duce the absorption of Mg and K in soils (Pasković Sodium oxide (na O) 2.3 et al. 2013), which was observed for k in this study. iron (iii) oxide (Fe O ) 1.3 2 3 the increasing availability of these nutrients (ca, calcium oxide (caO) 1.2 Mg and k) in soil aligns with the increase in zeolite Potassium oxide (k O) 1.7 application in this study. These findings are in line loss on ignition 8.4 with those obtained by other studies (Ozbahce et al. 2015; Ramesh & Reddy 2011) who established Mineralogy Approximate that the application of zeolite to soil increased the clinoptilolite [%] >90 availability of ca, Mg, and k. Quartz [%] <5 107 Agriculture (Poľnohospodárstvo), 67, 2021 (3): 103 −112 The response of soil trace elements and pH to zeolite reception to plants by making the metal ions in- application soluble (de campos Bernardi et al. 2013; Omar et zeolite has been reported to have the ability to in- al. 2011; Ramesh & Reddy 2011; Reháková et al. crease soil pH, similar to agricultural lime (Ramesh 2004). Much of this has been attributed to the cec et al. 2015; t sadilas et al. 1997). the baseline soil of zeolite which exchanges plant nutrients and sorb pH of 5.4 (Table 1) was near vegetable critical acidic soil heavy metals while slowly releasing the nutrient values. However, the soil pH increased significantly (Ramesh & Reddy 2011), in addition to the alkalini- (p < 0.05) with the application of zeolite (Figure 3). ty of zeolite which increases soil pH. The adsorption This pH increase could be attributed to the alkaline of metals in soil is generally directly proportional to nature, high cec, and the negative charges of zeo- soil pH, which also governs metal uptake by plants lite, which permit cation sorption (nur Aainaa et al. (Rieuwerts et al. 1998; kukier et al. 2004; Fornes 2018). this demonstrated the liming effect of zeolite et al. 2009). in soils (Polat et al. 2004; Ramesh & Reddy 2011). the soil micro minerals in this study responded zeolite has also been shown to adsorb heavy metals differently to zeolite application between treatments into its cavities and channels and further block their and seasons (Figure 4). Soil zn and cu of the second Figure 2. Effect of zeolite on soil macronutrients (a ‒ e). Overlapping error bars show no significance at p < 0.05. note: see Figure 1. 108 Agriculture (Poľnohospodárstvo), 67, 2021 (3): 103 −112 the case for Fe. the applied zeolite contained Fe, but soil Fe was lower at the end of both growing seasons. Micro mineral contents in cabbage head in response to zeolite application All the micro minerals content of cabbage heads evaluated in this study were found to be at higher levels in the non-amended treatments, especially in the second season (Figure 5). Fe and cu showed no significant difference (p > 0.05) in the first season Figure 3. Effect of zeolite on soil pH. Overlapping error bars among treatments while micro mineral zn tended show no significance at p < 0.05. Note: KCl ‒ see Table 1. to decrease with increased zeolite application for both seasons. Similar to some previous studies (Re- season, and Fe in both seasons generally decreased háková et al. 2004), zeolite resulted in a significant with zeolite application, whereas soil zn and cu decrease in microelements in the cabbage plant (first season) and Mn (both seasons) increased even tissues, except for Mn in the first growing season though the soil pH increased with zeolite. This was which had the highest content (30.83 mg/kg) in the similar to findings of an earlier study (Tsadilas et al. 30% zeolite treatment. 1997) which found that zeolite increased the sorp- Fe and zn are essential micronutrients required tion of the heavy metal cd on soils and as a result, it for human growth and health. there is a widespread became insoluble and unavailable for plant assimila- problem of these nutrient deficiencies among popu- lations (t ulchinsky 2010; kondaiah et al. 2019) but tion. However, the increase in soil Mn in both sea- can be alleviated by supplementation and food forti- sons and zn (second season) was similar to previous fication. Cross-sectional studies in humans showed findings (Ozbahce et al. 2018), where soil zn and positive association of serum zinc levels with hemo- Mn increases were linked to the presence in the zeo- globin and markers of iron status. dietary restriction lite used as a soil amendment. However, this was not Figure 4. Effect of zeolite on soil trace minerals (a ‒ d). Overlapping error bars show no significance at p < 0.05. 109 Agriculture (Poľnohospodárstvo), 67, 2021 (3): 103 −112 of zinc or intestinal specific conditional knock out of (Singh et al. 2016). in this study, zeolite application ZIP4 (SLC39A4). Alleviation of these deficiencies is did not enhance micromineral accumulation in the mostly through increased plant intake, so such plants cabbage heads. However, the potential environmen- with enhanced Fe and zn contents are of high im- tal availability of heavy metals from contaminated portance (Mzoughi et al. 2019). in previous studies soils may be controlled by soil amendments using Jacobs 2011), increased zeolite application to the soil exogenous zeolite. decreased zn and Fe accumulation on Hieracium aurantium and Rumex acetosella. the results in the study were similar, as the highest concentrations of cOncluSiOnS Fe and zn were found in the non-amended treat - ments. iron availability is dictated by the soil redox zeolite generally improved the soil chemical potential and soil pH, Fe is readily oxidised at high status of macrominerals and soil pH. The baseline pH and is predominantly in the form of ferric oxides soil pH of 5.4 was near the vegetable requirement (Morrissey & guerinot 2009). the accumulation of for critical acidic values for growth. The soil pH Fe on the cabbage grown under zeolite amended soil increased significantly after the application of zeo- followed this trend and decreased with increased ze- lite. However, there was a decrease in phosphorus. olite application which had increased soil pH. Zinc the cabbage content of macro minerals was similar accumulation on the cabbage head was also high- under both the zeolite amended and non-amended est on the non-amended treatment. zinc assimila - treatments, except for sodium and potassium. zeo- lite did not improve the micro mineral content of tion by plants depends on the content and form of cabbage. Soil Fe and Mn also decreased compared zn, it further depends on the genetic characterises to non-amended soils. Soil zn and cu of the second of plants and soil chemical characteristics (Murtic season, and Fe in both seasons generally decreased et al. 2017). the accumulation of the micromineral with an increase in zeolite application, whereas soil in cabbage in relation to soil pH proved that heavy metals generally have low solubility at higher pH as Zn and Cu (first season) and Mn (both seasons) in- they are normally present in their hydroxide forms creased even though the soil pH increased with ze- Figure 5. Cabbage microminerals in response to zeolite application. Bars with the same letters show no significance at p < 0.05. 110 Agriculture (Poľnohospodárstvo), 67, 2021 (3): 103 −112 garau, g., castaldi, P., Santona, l., deiana, P. & Melis, P. olite. this study showed that crops cultivated under (2007). Influence of red mud, zeolite and lime on heavy zeolite can have some nutrient benefits for macro metal immobilization, culturable heterotrophic microbial minerals. 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Agriculture – de Gruyter
Published: Oct 1, 2021
Keywords: cabbage; zeolite; soil conditioner; soil amendment; soil fertility
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