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How Fertilisation Affects Distribution Of Carbon And Nutrients In Vineyard Soil?

How Fertilisation Affects Distribution Of Carbon And Nutrients In Vineyard Soil? DOI: 10.1515/agri-2015-0012 SHORT COMMUNICATION HOW FERTILISATION AFFECTS DISTRIBUTION OF CARBON AND NUTRIENTS IN VINEYARD SOIL? VLADIMÍR SIMANSKÝ*, JÁN HORÁK, OTTO LOZEK, JURAJ CHLPÍK Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra SIMANSKÝ, V. ­ HORÁK, J. ­ LOZEK, O. ­ CHLPÍK, J.: How fertilisation affects distribution of carbon and nutrients in vineyard soil? Agriculture (Ponohospodárstvo), vol. 61, 2015, no. 2, pp. 69­74. The effect of fertilisation on C and N, P, K nutrients distribution in the Rendzic Leptosol in locality Nitra-Drazovce was studied. We evaluated the following treatments of fertilisation: (1) G (non-fertilised), (2) FYM (farmyard manure ­ dose 40 t/ha), (3) G+NPK3 (grass + 3 rd intensity of fertilisation for vineyards), and (4) G+NPK1 (grass + 1 st intensity of fertilisation for vineyards). The soil samples were taken in spring during the years 2008­2015. Obtained results showed that the content of organic carbon (C org ) decreased in the following order: G+NPK1 > FYM > G > G+NPK3 and content of total nitrogen (N t ) decreased in the following order: FYM > G+NPK3 > G+NPK1 > G. The application of NPK in the 1 st intensity of fertilisation for vineyards and added FYM build up a C org at an average rate of 370 and 229 mg/kg/year, respectively. On the other hand, contents of N t due to fertilisation declined in FYM, G+NPK3 and G+NPK1 at an average rate of 53, 22 and 20 mg/kg/year, respectively. Available P and K contents were also increased after the fertilisation of FYM and NPK. Added fertilisers (G+NPK3) significantly build up a P at an average rate of 10.2 mg/kg/year. Key words: farmyard manure, soil organic carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, vineyard In the future, due to the increase in human population sustainable land management based on extensive managements will be unlikely and fertilisation will be one of the most important factors affecting agricultural production (Roberts 2009). In present time, fertilisation has become a basis for modern agricultural production. It can be the major source of crop nutrients (mainly in soils with low production level) that take part in the metabolism of crops and is therefore closely associated with crop yield and quality (Gu et al. 2004). Fertilisation is one of the most important factors influencing the changes in soil chemical properties. It is well known that manures are a source of all-necessary macro- and micronutrients in available forms, thereby improving the soil properties (Abou El-Magd et al. 2005). The main purpose of agricultural production is to obtain high crop yields and good quality. Many studies revealed the significant roles of fertiliser on crop production over the past several decades (Roberts 2009). Optimal supplies of inorganic fertiliser can achieve higher crop yields than the use of organic manure and do not reduce soil produc- doc. Ing. Vladimír Simanský, PhD. (* Corresponding author), Department of Soil Science, FAFR ­ SUA Nitra, 949 76 Nitra, Tr. A. Hlinku 2, Slovak Republic. E-mail: Vladimir.Simansky@uniag.sk Ing. Ján Horák, PhD., Department of Biometeorology and Hydrology, HLEF ­ SUA Nitra, 949 76 Nitra, Hospodárska 7, Slovak Republic. E-mail: Jan.Horak@uniag.sk prof. Ing. Otto Lozek, CSc., Department of Agrochemistry and Plant Nutrition, FAFR ­ SUA Nitra, 949 76 Nitra, Tr. A. Hlinku 2, Slovak Republic. E-mail: Otto.Lozek@uniag.sk doc. Ing. Juraj Chlpík, PhD., Department of Soil Science, FAFR ­ SUA Nitra, 949 76 Nitra, Tr. A. Hlinku 2, Slovak Republic. E-mail: Juraj.Chlpik@uniag.sk tivity (Kunzova & Hejcman 2009; Korsaeth 2012), however, only a unilateral addition of fertilisers can reduce soil fertility through the degradation of its physical properties (Simanský & Bokor 2012). In present time, depending on the cropping system and soil fertility, N alone accounts for about a third of agricultural energy consumption and K and P typically account for 1.5­9% each (Ercoli et al. 1999). Achieving economically efficient agricultural production requires the monitoring of nutrients content in the soil and then modifying fertilisation (i.e., the content of nutrients) in the soil depending on the individual requirements of crops. The aim of this study was to determine (1) how fertilisations influenced the distribution of carbon and nutrients in the soil over the period of 8 years (2) and which levels of fertilisation are better in response to improved soil supply. An experiment of the different fertilisation in a productive vineyard, which started in 2006, is still ongoing at the locality of Nitra-Drazovcce (48°21'6.16"N; 18°3'37.33"E), and is located in the Nitra wine-growing area, where the climate is temperate. The mean annual rainfall is 550 mm and the mean annual temperature is 10°C. The studies have been conducted in a complex of Rendzic Leptosol (WRB 2006) developed on limestone and dolomite and had the following characteristics: 57% sand, 33% silt, 10% clay, 7.18 pH (in 1 mol/dm3 KCl), 2.31% soil organic matter, 867 mg/kg total nitrogen, 99.3% base saturation, 99 mg/kg available P and 162 mg/kg available K in the year 2000. Before vineyard establishment the locality was abandoned, which resulted in prevailing grass growth. In 2000, the vines (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Chardonnay) were planted. A variety of grasses (Lolium perenne L. 50% + Poa pratensis L. 20% + Festuca rubra subsp. commutata Gaudin 25% + Trifolium repens L. 5%) were sown in 2003 in the interrows of the vines. In 2006, an experiment of the different fertilisation in a vineyard was carried out (Table 1). The experiment consisted of four replicates. Soil samples were collected in all treatments from two depths: 1. 0­30 cm and 2. 30­60 cm, every spring. Soil samples were analysed for: the organic carbon content (Corg) by the wet combustion method according to Tyurin (Dziadowiec & Gonet 1999), total nitrogen content (Nt) according to Kjeldahl (Fiala et al. 1999), available phosphorus and potassium according to Mehlich III. (Mehlich 1984). Treatments were compared on the basis of data collected during the years 2008­2015. The Statgraphics Centurion XV.I statistical package was used. A multifactor ANOVA model was used for individual treatment comparisons at P 0.05, with the separation of the means by the LSD multiple-range test. In individual treatments of fertilisation, the correlations between Corg and N t contents were then determined. The linear model was used to evaluate the trends of Corg, N t, P and K due to fertilisation during the period of 8 years. T a b l e 1 The investigated treatments in vineyard (Nitra-Drazovce) Treatment Control (G) Farmyard manure (FYM) Doses of NPK fertilisers in 3 rd intensity for vineyards (G+NPK3) Doses of NPK fertilisers in 1st intensity for vineyards (G+NPK1) Description Sown grass in the rows and between vine rows, without fertilisation. Medium tilth to the depth 0.25 m with ploughed farmyard manure (FYM) in a dose of 40 t/ha and intensive cultivation between vine rows during growing season. This means: 120 kg/ha N, 55 kg/ha P and 195 kg/ha K (Fecenko & Lozek 2000). The dose of nutrients was divided: 2/3 applied into the soil in the spring (bud burst ­ on March) and 1/3 in flowering (on May). The grass was sown in and between the vine rows. This means: 80 kg/ha N, 35 kg/ha P and 135 kg/ha K (Fecenko & Lozek 2000). The dose of nutrients was divided: 1/2 applied into the soil in the spring (bud burst ­ on March) and 1/2 in flowering (on May). The grass was sown in and between the vine rows. The contents of Corg were higher by 4 and 5% in FYM and G+NPK1, respectively, compared with G. Opposite, Corg content was lower by 4% in G+NPK3 than G. These findings are consistent with already published results of this experiment (Simanský et al. 2013). A significant part of the organic carbon is associated with the stable fraction of organic matter and it has been turned over thousands of times over the years (Semenov et al. 2013). The content of Nt decreased in the following order: FYM > G+NPK3 > G+NPK1 > G. The nitrogen soil content was strictly related to Corg and varied more in response to organic material supply than to mineral N rates or to the kind of N fertiliser (Triberti et al. 2008), however, in our case Corg contents did not correlate with Nt in all treatments of fertilisation (FYM: r = 0.492, P > 0.05, n = 8; G+NPK3: r = 0.032, P > 0.05, n = 8; G+NPK1: r = 0.279, P > 0.05, n = 8). Corg and N t contents varied by the addition of fertilisation, but without statistical significance (Table 2). However, the significant effect of soil depth on the content of selected soil parameters was observed. The average difference between the first (0­30 cm) and the second (30­60 cm) soil depth under vineyard was in Corg 7.1 g/kg and in Nt content 364 mg/kg. The application of NPK in 1st intensity of fertilisation for vineyards significantly build up a Corg at an average rate of 370 mg/kg/year and added FYM at 40 t/ha build up a Corg at an average rate of 229 mg/kg/year, however, without any statistical significance. The dose of NPK in 1 st intensity of fertilisation for vineyards can positively affect an increase of Corg in water-stable microaggregates (Simanský & Polláková 2012). As presented by Marscher (2011), the addition of organic manure increases soil microbial activity, which may increase the content of soil organic matter after decomposing it. On the other hand, the application of NPK in 3rd intensity of fertilisation for vineyards caused a Corg decline at an average rate of 40 mg/kg/year. Inorganic fertilisation alone proved to be unable to increase Corg concentration in the long term (Yang et al. 2003; Su et al. 2006). Simanský and Tobiasová (2012) showed that higher doses of NPK fertilisers are responsible for the higher mineralisation rate of soil organic matter. It is obvious that the fertilisers applied to the soil can act diametrically opposite; the effect of their action depends on their dose, which confirmed the findings of several authors (Halvorson et al. 2002; Whalen & Chang 2002). The use of organic manure caused the fastest build up of the N in the soil, followed by crop residues (in our case grass biomass). These T a b l e 2 Statistical evaluation of C org , N t , P and K distribution in the Rendzic Leptosol at depths 0­30 and 30­60 cm during the years 2008­2015 Fertilisation G FYM G+NPK3 G+NPK1 LSD0.05 Depth 0­30 cm 30­60 cm LSD0.05 17.5b 10.4a ±0.99 1,153b 789a ±138 162b 78a ±38 313b 145a ±37 Corg [g/kg] 13.8a 14.3 14.5 Nt [mg/kg] 932a 1,034 953 P [mg/kg] 101a 109 113 K [mg/kg] 204a 233ab 257b 223ab ±52 13.3a 964a 124a ±1.41 ±194 ±54 Different letters between lines (a, b) indicate that treatment means are significantly different at P 0.05 according to LSD multiple-range test G ­ control; FYM ­ farmyard manure; G+NPK3 ­ doses of NPK fertilisers in 3 rd intensity for vineyards; G+NPK1 ­ doses of NPK fertilisers in 1 st intensity for vineyards; C org ­ soil organic carbon content; N t ­ total nitrogen content; P ­ available phosphorus; K ­ available potassium effects can be explained by the fact that the lower the stabilisation of organic matter (crop residues < manure), the higher the nitrogen release (Triberti et al. 2008). Opposite situations have been recorded (Table 3). Contents of Nt due to fertilisation decline in FYM, G+NPK3 and G+NPK1 at an average rate of 53, 22 and 20 mg/kg/year, respectively, which means the decrease of 31, 25 and 24% Nt in the soil, respectively, during the years 2008­2015. The content of phosphorus in the soils of Slovakia ranges from 0.03 to 0.20% (Kovácik 2014). The majority of P is usually present in the soils as insoluble compounds of calcium, iron or aluminium with little or no solubility (Rahmatullah et al. 1994). There is a need to improve the availability of native soil P. In our study, available P contents were also increased after fertilisation of FYM and NPK (Table 2). In G, the average value of available P was lower by 8%, by 23% and by 12% than in FYM, in G+NPK3 and in G+NPK1, respectively. The average contents of P were evaluated as a satisfactory in G and FYM and in treatments with added fertilisers in 1st and 3rd intensity for vineyards were evaluated as a good supply. It is reported that P sorption capacity of soils varies widely according to clay content, clay mineralogy, soil organic matter, exchangeable aluminium, iron, calcium concentrations and pH (Tisdale et al. 1993). In our case, the lowest accumulation of P was observed in soil under FYM. Organic manures after decomposition may also provide organic acids and increase P bioavailability after the dissolution of native and fixed P (Marschner 2011). Similarly, higher K pool was observed in the soil under the adequate supply of organic and inorganic fertilisers. The content of K increased in the following order: G < G+NPK1 < FYM < G+NPK3. This result confirms the results of Aziz et al. (2010), who reported that manure application significantly increases soil K contents. On the basis of the calculated average linear trend we established the average annual changes T a b l e 3 Trends of C org, N t, P and K distribution in the Rendzic Leptosol at depth 0­60 cm (y = C org, N t, P and K distribution) with time (x = years) (n = 24) Treatments FYM G+NPK3 G+NPK1 FYM G+NPK3 G+NPK1 FYM G+NPK3 G+NPK1 FYM G+NPK3 G+NPK1 Equations y = 0.0229x ­ 44.55 y = ­0.0042x + 9.715 y = 0.0371x ­ 73.27 y = ­53.68x + 108987 y = ­21.75x + 44715 y = ­20.14x + 41470 y = ­1.79x + 3696 y = 10.20x ­ 20386 y = ­0.59x + 1298 y = 4.25x ­ 8316 y = 6.89x ­ 13642 y = 15.42x ­ 30741 R2 Corg 0.154 0.006 0.276 Nt 0.311 0.047 0.120 P 0.013 0.209 0.001 K 0.031 0.082 0.150 increase increase increase rd Trend increase decrease increase decrease decrease decrease decrease increase increase Probability n.s. n.s. ++ ++ n.s. n.s. n.s. n.s. n.s. n.s. n.s. G ­ control; FYM ­ farmyard manure; G+NPK3 ­ doses of NPK fertilizers in 3 intensity for vineyards; G+NPK1 ­ doses of NPK fertilizers in 1 st intensity for vineyards; C org ­ soil organic carbon content; N t ­ total nitrogen content; P ­ available phosphorus; K ­ available potassium; ++ P 0.01; + P 0.05; n.s. ­ non-significant in the content of P and K at a depth of 0­60 cm. Added fertilisers in the 3rd intensity of fertilisation for vineyards significantly build up a P at an average rate of 10.2 mg/kg/year (Table 3). Every year (during 2008­2015) the content of K increased by fertilisation in FYM, G+NPK1 and G+NPK3 at an average rate of 4.25, 6.89 and 15.4 mg/kg, respectively, but without any statistical significance. The results underscore the importance of fertilisation in relation with carbon sequestration and distribution of nutrients in the soil, especially in vineyards and its meaning is emphasised in this study. From the view point of organic carbon and nitrogen, our results confirm that the application of higher doses of nutrients to the soil (3 rd intensity of fertilisation for vineyards) resulted in intensive mineralisation of soil organic matter and decreases of carbon sequestration in the soil. On the other hand, lower doses of nutrients to the soil (1 st intensity of fertilisation for vineyards) can be responsible for higher carbon sequestration in the soil. The present results indicate that the application of FYM increases contents of C org, N, P and K. Furthermore, the application of nutrients at higher rates significantly increases their pool in the soil. This information is very important for farmers (winegrowers), because they can optimise soil management practices on this basis, mainly fertilisation in productive vineyards, and avoid environmental degradation due to the application of high doses of fertilisers to the soil. To future, the substantial effects of long-term application of fertilisation should be investigated in the productive vineyards. Acknowledgements. This study was supported by the Slovak Research and Development Agency under the contract No. APVV-0512-12. organic manures. In International Journal of Agriculture and Biology, vol. 12, pp. 621­624. DZIADOWIEC, H. ­ GONET, S.S. 1999. Przewodnik metodyczny do bada materii organicznej gleb [Methodical guide-book for soil organic matter studies]. Prace Komisji Naukowych Polskiego Towarzystwa Gleboznawczego, N. 120, Komisja chemii gleb, Zespól Materii Organicznej Gleb, N II/16, 65 p. ERCOLI, L. ­ MARIOTTI, M. ­ MASONI, A. ­ BONARI, E. 1999. Effect of irrigation and nitrogen fertilization on biomass yield and efficiency of energy use in crop production of Miscanthus. In Field Crops Research, vol. 63, pp. 3­11. DOI: 10.1016/S03784290(99)00022-2. FECENKO, J. ­ LOZEK, O. 2000. Výziva a hnojenie poných plodín [Nutrition and fertilization of field crops]. Nitra: SPU, pp. 452. FIALA, K. ­ KOBZA, J. ­ MATÚSKOVÁ, . ­ BRECKOVÁ, V. ­ MAKOVNÍKOVÁ, J. ­ BARANCÍKOVÁ, G. ­ BÚRIK, V. ­ LITAVEC, T. ­ HOUSKOVÁ, B. ­ CHROMANICOVÁ, A. ­ VÁRADIOVÁ, D. ­ PECHOVÁ B. 1999. Záväzné metódy rozborov pôd. Ciastkový monitorovací system ­ Pôda [Approved methods of soil analyses. Partial monitoring system ­ Soil]. Bratislava : VÚPOP, 142 p. GU, Q.Z. ­ YANG, X.Y. ­ SUN, B.H. ­ MA, L.J. ­ TONG, Y.A. ­ ZHAO, B.Q. ­ ZHANG, F.D. 2004. Effects of long-term fertilization on grain yield and quality of wheat. In Journal of Triticeae Crops, vol. 24, pp. 76­79. HALVORSON, A.D. ­ WIENHOLD, B.J. ­ BLACK, A.L. 2002. Tillage, nitrogen and cropping system effects on soil carbon sequestration. In Soil Science Society of America Journal, vol. 66, pp. 906­912. DOI: 10.2136/sssaj2002.9060. IUSS Working Group WRB. 2006. World reference base for soil resources 2006. 2nd edition. World Soil Resources Reports No. 103. Rome: FAO, pp. 145. KORSAETH, A. 2012. N, P, and K budgets and changes in selected topsoil nutrients over 10 years in a longterm experiment with conventional and organic crop rotations. In Applied and Environmental Soil Science Journal, vol. 25, pp. 1­17. KOVÁCIK, P. 2014. Princípy a spôsoby výzivy rastlín [Principles and methods of plant nutrition]. Nitra: SPU, pp. 278. KUNZOVA, E. ­ HEJCMAN, M. 2009. Yield development of winter wheat over 50 years of FYM, N, P and K fertilizer application on black earth soil in the Czech Republic. In Field Crops Research, vol. 111, pp. 226­234. DOI: 10.1016/j.fcr.2008.12.008. MARSCHNER, P. 2011. Marschner 's mineral nutrition of higher plants. 3rd ed. London: Academic Press, pp. 269. MEHLICH, A. 1984. Mehlich No. 3 soil test extractant: A modification of Mehlich No. 2. In Communication in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, vol. 15, pp. 1409­ 1416. DOI: 10.1080/00103628409367568. RAHMATULLAH, G.M.A. ­ SHAIKH, B.Z. ­ SALIM, M. 1994. Bioavailability and distribution of P among inorganic fractions in calcareous soils. In http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Agriculture de Gruyter

How Fertilisation Affects Distribution Of Carbon And Nutrients In Vineyard Soil?

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DOI: 10.1515/agri-2015-0012 SHORT COMMUNICATION HOW FERTILISATION AFFECTS DISTRIBUTION OF CARBON AND NUTRIENTS IN VINEYARD SOIL? VLADIMÍR SIMANSKÝ*, JÁN HORÁK, OTTO LOZEK, JURAJ CHLPÍK Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra SIMANSKÝ, V. ­ HORÁK, J. ­ LOZEK, O. ­ CHLPÍK, J.: How fertilisation affects distribution of carbon and nutrients in vineyard soil? Agriculture (Ponohospodárstvo), vol. 61, 2015, no. 2, pp. 69­74. The effect of fertilisation on C and N, P, K nutrients distribution in the Rendzic Leptosol in locality Nitra-Drazovce was studied. We evaluated the following treatments of fertilisation: (1) G (non-fertilised), (2) FYM (farmyard manure ­ dose 40 t/ha), (3) G+NPK3 (grass + 3 rd intensity of fertilisation for vineyards), and (4) G+NPK1 (grass + 1 st intensity of fertilisation for vineyards). The soil samples were taken in spring during the years 2008­2015. Obtained results showed that the content of organic carbon (C org ) decreased in the following order: G+NPK1 > FYM > G > G+NPK3 and content of total nitrogen (N t ) decreased in the following order: FYM > G+NPK3 > G+NPK1 > G. The application of NPK in the 1 st intensity of fertilisation for vineyards and added FYM build up a C org at an average rate of 370 and 229 mg/kg/year, respectively. On the other hand, contents of N t due to fertilisation declined in FYM, G+NPK3 and G+NPK1 at an average rate of 53, 22 and 20 mg/kg/year, respectively. Available P and K contents were also increased after the fertilisation of FYM and NPK. Added fertilisers (G+NPK3) significantly build up a P at an average rate of 10.2 mg/kg/year. Key words: farmyard manure, soil organic carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, vineyard In the future, due to the increase in human population sustainable land management based on extensive managements will be unlikely and fertilisation will be one of the most important factors affecting agricultural production (Roberts 2009). In present time, fertilisation has become a basis for modern agricultural production. It can be the major source of crop nutrients (mainly in soils with low production level) that take part in the metabolism of crops and is therefore closely associated with crop yield and quality (Gu et al. 2004). Fertilisation is one of the most important factors influencing the changes in soil chemical properties. It is well known that manures are a source of all-necessary macro- and micronutrients in available forms, thereby improving the soil properties (Abou El-Magd et al. 2005). The main purpose of agricultural production is to obtain high crop yields and good quality. Many studies revealed the significant roles of fertiliser on crop production over the past several decades (Roberts 2009). Optimal supplies of inorganic fertiliser can achieve higher crop yields than the use of organic manure and do not reduce soil produc- doc. Ing. Vladimír Simanský, PhD. (* Corresponding author), Department of Soil Science, FAFR ­ SUA Nitra, 949 76 Nitra, Tr. A. Hlinku 2, Slovak Republic. E-mail: Vladimir.Simansky@uniag.sk Ing. Ján Horák, PhD., Department of Biometeorology and Hydrology, HLEF ­ SUA Nitra, 949 76 Nitra, Hospodárska 7, Slovak Republic. E-mail: Jan.Horak@uniag.sk prof. Ing. Otto Lozek, CSc., Department of Agrochemistry and Plant Nutrition, FAFR ­ SUA Nitra, 949 76 Nitra, Tr. A. Hlinku 2, Slovak Republic. E-mail: Otto.Lozek@uniag.sk doc. Ing. Juraj Chlpík, PhD., Department of Soil Science, FAFR ­ SUA Nitra, 949 76 Nitra, Tr. A. Hlinku 2, Slovak Republic. E-mail: Juraj.Chlpik@uniag.sk tivity (Kunzova & Hejcman 2009; Korsaeth 2012), however, only a unilateral addition of fertilisers can reduce soil fertility through the degradation of its physical properties (Simanský & Bokor 2012). In present time, depending on the cropping system and soil fertility, N alone accounts for about a third of agricultural energy consumption and K and P typically account for 1.5­9% each (Ercoli et al. 1999). Achieving economically efficient agricultural production requires the monitoring of nutrients content in the soil and then modifying fertilisation (i.e., the content of nutrients) in the soil depending on the individual requirements of crops. The aim of this study was to determine (1) how fertilisations influenced the distribution of carbon and nutrients in the soil over the period of 8 years (2) and which levels of fertilisation are better in response to improved soil supply. An experiment of the different fertilisation in a productive vineyard, which started in 2006, is still ongoing at the locality of Nitra-Drazovcce (48°21'6.16"N; 18°3'37.33"E), and is located in the Nitra wine-growing area, where the climate is temperate. The mean annual rainfall is 550 mm and the mean annual temperature is 10°C. The studies have been conducted in a complex of Rendzic Leptosol (WRB 2006) developed on limestone and dolomite and had the following characteristics: 57% sand, 33% silt, 10% clay, 7.18 pH (in 1 mol/dm3 KCl), 2.31% soil organic matter, 867 mg/kg total nitrogen, 99.3% base saturation, 99 mg/kg available P and 162 mg/kg available K in the year 2000. Before vineyard establishment the locality was abandoned, which resulted in prevailing grass growth. In 2000, the vines (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Chardonnay) were planted. A variety of grasses (Lolium perenne L. 50% + Poa pratensis L. 20% + Festuca rubra subsp. commutata Gaudin 25% + Trifolium repens L. 5%) were sown in 2003 in the interrows of the vines. In 2006, an experiment of the different fertilisation in a vineyard was carried out (Table 1). The experiment consisted of four replicates. Soil samples were collected in all treatments from two depths: 1. 0­30 cm and 2. 30­60 cm, every spring. Soil samples were analysed for: the organic carbon content (Corg) by the wet combustion method according to Tyurin (Dziadowiec & Gonet 1999), total nitrogen content (Nt) according to Kjeldahl (Fiala et al. 1999), available phosphorus and potassium according to Mehlich III. (Mehlich 1984). Treatments were compared on the basis of data collected during the years 2008­2015. The Statgraphics Centurion XV.I statistical package was used. A multifactor ANOVA model was used for individual treatment comparisons at P 0.05, with the separation of the means by the LSD multiple-range test. In individual treatments of fertilisation, the correlations between Corg and N t contents were then determined. The linear model was used to evaluate the trends of Corg, N t, P and K due to fertilisation during the period of 8 years. T a b l e 1 The investigated treatments in vineyard (Nitra-Drazovce) Treatment Control (G) Farmyard manure (FYM) Doses of NPK fertilisers in 3 rd intensity for vineyards (G+NPK3) Doses of NPK fertilisers in 1st intensity for vineyards (G+NPK1) Description Sown grass in the rows and between vine rows, without fertilisation. Medium tilth to the depth 0.25 m with ploughed farmyard manure (FYM) in a dose of 40 t/ha and intensive cultivation between vine rows during growing season. This means: 120 kg/ha N, 55 kg/ha P and 195 kg/ha K (Fecenko & Lozek 2000). The dose of nutrients was divided: 2/3 applied into the soil in the spring (bud burst ­ on March) and 1/3 in flowering (on May). The grass was sown in and between the vine rows. This means: 80 kg/ha N, 35 kg/ha P and 135 kg/ha K (Fecenko & Lozek 2000). The dose of nutrients was divided: 1/2 applied into the soil in the spring (bud burst ­ on March) and 1/2 in flowering (on May). The grass was sown in and between the vine rows. The contents of Corg were higher by 4 and 5% in FYM and G+NPK1, respectively, compared with G. Opposite, Corg content was lower by 4% in G+NPK3 than G. These findings are consistent with already published results of this experiment (Simanský et al. 2013). A significant part of the organic carbon is associated with the stable fraction of organic matter and it has been turned over thousands of times over the years (Semenov et al. 2013). The content of Nt decreased in the following order: FYM > G+NPK3 > G+NPK1 > G. The nitrogen soil content was strictly related to Corg and varied more in response to organic material supply than to mineral N rates or to the kind of N fertiliser (Triberti et al. 2008), however, in our case Corg contents did not correlate with Nt in all treatments of fertilisation (FYM: r = 0.492, P > 0.05, n = 8; G+NPK3: r = 0.032, P > 0.05, n = 8; G+NPK1: r = 0.279, P > 0.05, n = 8). Corg and N t contents varied by the addition of fertilisation, but without statistical significance (Table 2). However, the significant effect of soil depth on the content of selected soil parameters was observed. The average difference between the first (0­30 cm) and the second (30­60 cm) soil depth under vineyard was in Corg 7.1 g/kg and in Nt content 364 mg/kg. The application of NPK in 1st intensity of fertilisation for vineyards significantly build up a Corg at an average rate of 370 mg/kg/year and added FYM at 40 t/ha build up a Corg at an average rate of 229 mg/kg/year, however, without any statistical significance. The dose of NPK in 1 st intensity of fertilisation for vineyards can positively affect an increase of Corg in water-stable microaggregates (Simanský & Polláková 2012). As presented by Marscher (2011), the addition of organic manure increases soil microbial activity, which may increase the content of soil organic matter after decomposing it. On the other hand, the application of NPK in 3rd intensity of fertilisation for vineyards caused a Corg decline at an average rate of 40 mg/kg/year. Inorganic fertilisation alone proved to be unable to increase Corg concentration in the long term (Yang et al. 2003; Su et al. 2006). Simanský and Tobiasová (2012) showed that higher doses of NPK fertilisers are responsible for the higher mineralisation rate of soil organic matter. It is obvious that the fertilisers applied to the soil can act diametrically opposite; the effect of their action depends on their dose, which confirmed the findings of several authors (Halvorson et al. 2002; Whalen & Chang 2002). The use of organic manure caused the fastest build up of the N in the soil, followed by crop residues (in our case grass biomass). These T a b l e 2 Statistical evaluation of C org , N t , P and K distribution in the Rendzic Leptosol at depths 0­30 and 30­60 cm during the years 2008­2015 Fertilisation G FYM G+NPK3 G+NPK1 LSD0.05 Depth 0­30 cm 30­60 cm LSD0.05 17.5b 10.4a ±0.99 1,153b 789a ±138 162b 78a ±38 313b 145a ±37 Corg [g/kg] 13.8a 14.3 14.5 Nt [mg/kg] 932a 1,034 953 P [mg/kg] 101a 109 113 K [mg/kg] 204a 233ab 257b 223ab ±52 13.3a 964a 124a ±1.41 ±194 ±54 Different letters between lines (a, b) indicate that treatment means are significantly different at P 0.05 according to LSD multiple-range test G ­ control; FYM ­ farmyard manure; G+NPK3 ­ doses of NPK fertilisers in 3 rd intensity for vineyards; G+NPK1 ­ doses of NPK fertilisers in 1 st intensity for vineyards; C org ­ soil organic carbon content; N t ­ total nitrogen content; P ­ available phosphorus; K ­ available potassium effects can be explained by the fact that the lower the stabilisation of organic matter (crop residues < manure), the higher the nitrogen release (Triberti et al. 2008). Opposite situations have been recorded (Table 3). Contents of Nt due to fertilisation decline in FYM, G+NPK3 and G+NPK1 at an average rate of 53, 22 and 20 mg/kg/year, respectively, which means the decrease of 31, 25 and 24% Nt in the soil, respectively, during the years 2008­2015. The content of phosphorus in the soils of Slovakia ranges from 0.03 to 0.20% (Kovácik 2014). The majority of P is usually present in the soils as insoluble compounds of calcium, iron or aluminium with little or no solubility (Rahmatullah et al. 1994). There is a need to improve the availability of native soil P. In our study, available P contents were also increased after fertilisation of FYM and NPK (Table 2). In G, the average value of available P was lower by 8%, by 23% and by 12% than in FYM, in G+NPK3 and in G+NPK1, respectively. The average contents of P were evaluated as a satisfactory in G and FYM and in treatments with added fertilisers in 1st and 3rd intensity for vineyards were evaluated as a good supply. It is reported that P sorption capacity of soils varies widely according to clay content, clay mineralogy, soil organic matter, exchangeable aluminium, iron, calcium concentrations and pH (Tisdale et al. 1993). In our case, the lowest accumulation of P was observed in soil under FYM. Organic manures after decomposition may also provide organic acids and increase P bioavailability after the dissolution of native and fixed P (Marschner 2011). Similarly, higher K pool was observed in the soil under the adequate supply of organic and inorganic fertilisers. The content of K increased in the following order: G < G+NPK1 < FYM < G+NPK3. This result confirms the results of Aziz et al. (2010), who reported that manure application significantly increases soil K contents. On the basis of the calculated average linear trend we established the average annual changes T a b l e 3 Trends of C org, N t, P and K distribution in the Rendzic Leptosol at depth 0­60 cm (y = C org, N t, P and K distribution) with time (x = years) (n = 24) Treatments FYM G+NPK3 G+NPK1 FYM G+NPK3 G+NPK1 FYM G+NPK3 G+NPK1 FYM G+NPK3 G+NPK1 Equations y = 0.0229x ­ 44.55 y = ­0.0042x + 9.715 y = 0.0371x ­ 73.27 y = ­53.68x + 108987 y = ­21.75x + 44715 y = ­20.14x + 41470 y = ­1.79x + 3696 y = 10.20x ­ 20386 y = ­0.59x + 1298 y = 4.25x ­ 8316 y = 6.89x ­ 13642 y = 15.42x ­ 30741 R2 Corg 0.154 0.006 0.276 Nt 0.311 0.047 0.120 P 0.013 0.209 0.001 K 0.031 0.082 0.150 increase increase increase rd Trend increase decrease increase decrease decrease decrease decrease increase increase Probability n.s. n.s. ++ ++ n.s. n.s. n.s. n.s. n.s. n.s. n.s. G ­ control; FYM ­ farmyard manure; G+NPK3 ­ doses of NPK fertilizers in 3 intensity for vineyards; G+NPK1 ­ doses of NPK fertilizers in 1 st intensity for vineyards; C org ­ soil organic carbon content; N t ­ total nitrogen content; P ­ available phosphorus; K ­ available potassium; ++ P 0.01; + P 0.05; n.s. ­ non-significant in the content of P and K at a depth of 0­60 cm. Added fertilisers in the 3rd intensity of fertilisation for vineyards significantly build up a P at an average rate of 10.2 mg/kg/year (Table 3). Every year (during 2008­2015) the content of K increased by fertilisation in FYM, G+NPK1 and G+NPK3 at an average rate of 4.25, 6.89 and 15.4 mg/kg, respectively, but without any statistical significance. The results underscore the importance of fertilisation in relation with carbon sequestration and distribution of nutrients in the soil, especially in vineyards and its meaning is emphasised in this study. From the view point of organic carbon and nitrogen, our results confirm that the application of higher doses of nutrients to the soil (3 rd intensity of fertilisation for vineyards) resulted in intensive mineralisation of soil organic matter and decreases of carbon sequestration in the soil. On the other hand, lower doses of nutrients to the soil (1 st intensity of fertilisation for vineyards) can be responsible for higher carbon sequestration in the soil. The present results indicate that the application of FYM increases contents of C org, N, P and K. Furthermore, the application of nutrients at higher rates significantly increases their pool in the soil. This information is very important for farmers (winegrowers), because they can optimise soil management practices on this basis, mainly fertilisation in productive vineyards, and avoid environmental degradation due to the application of high doses of fertilisers to the soil. 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