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Explaining individual- and country-level variations in unregistered employment using a multi-level model: evidence from 35 Eurasian countries

Explaining individual- and country-level variations in unregistered employment using a... REFERENCESAndrews, D., Caldera Sanchez, A. and Johansson, A. 2011. Towards a better understanding of the informal economy. Working Paper No. 873. Paris: OECD Economics Department.Baumol, W.J. and Blinder, A. 2008. Macroeconomics: principles and policy. Cincinnati OH: South-Western Publishing.Brill, L. 2011. Women’s participation in the informal economy: what can we learn from Oxfam’s work?. Manchester: Oxfam.Castells, M. and Portes. A. 1989. World underneath: the origins, dynamics and effects of the informal economy. In The informal economy: studies in advanced and less developing countries, edited by A. Portes, M. Castells and L. Benton, 11–40. Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press.Davis, M. 2006. Planet of Slums, London: Verso.De Soto, H. 2001. The Mystery of capital: why capitalism triumphs in the west and fails everywhere else. London: Black Swan.EBRD 2011. Life in transition after the crises. Research report. London: European Bank for Reconstruction and Development.European Commission 2014. Employment and social developments in europe 2013. Brussels: European Commission DG for Employment, Social Affairs and Inclusion.European Commission 2016. Decision (EU) 2016/344 of the European Parliament and of the council of 9 march 2016 on establishing a european platform to enhance cooperation in tackling undeclared work.Gallin, D. 2001. Propositions on trade unions and informal employment in times of globalisation. Antipode 33 (3): 531-549.10.1111/1467-8330.00197Hamilton, L. 2012. Statistics with STATA: Version 12. Boston, MA: Cengage Learning.Hashi, I. and Krasniqi, B. A. 2011. Entrepreneurship and SME growth: evidence from advanced and laggard transition economies. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research 17 (5): 456-487.Hazans, M. 2011. Informal workers across Europe: evidence from 30 countries. Policy Research Working Paper 5912. Washington, DC: World Bank.Helmke, G. and Levitsky, S. 2004. Informal institutions and comparative politics: A research agenda. Perspectives on Politics 2 (4): 725-740.ILO 2011. Statistical update on employment in the informal economy. Geneva, ILO: Department of Statistics.ILO 2013. Women and men in the informal economy: statistical picture, available at: http://laborsta.ilo.org/informal_economy_E.html (last accessed 18 August 2016).ILO 2015. Transitioning from the informal to the formal economy. Geneva: ILO.Jütting, J. and J. Laiglesia 2009. Employment, poverty reduction and development: what’s new?. In Is informal normal? towards more and better jobs in developing countries, edited by J. Jütting and J. Laiglesia, 17–26. Paris, OECD.Khan, E. A. and Khan, E. A. 2017. An investigation of marketing capabilities of informal microenterprises: a study of street food vending in Thailand. International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy 37 (3/4):186-202.10.1108/IJSSP-09-2015-0094Kistruck, G. M., Webb, J. W., Sutter, C. J., and Bailey, A. V. 2015. The double-edged sword of legitimacy in base-of-the-pyramid markets. Journal of Business Venturing 30(3): 436-451.Krasniqi, B. A. 2011. Entrepreneurship and small business development in Kosova. New Work: Nova Science Publishers.Krasniqi, B. A. 2014. Characteristics of self-employment: a refuge from unemployment or road to entrepreneur-ship. Small Enterprise Research 21 (1): 33-53.Krasniqi, B. A., and Mustafa, M. 2016. Small firm growth in a post-conflict environment: the role of human capital, institutional quality, and managerial capacities. International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal 12 (4): 1165-1207.Krasniqi, B. and Desai, S. 2016. Institutional drivers of high-growth firms: country-level evidence from 26 transition economies. Small Business Economics 47 (4): 1075-1094.10.1007/s11187-016-9736-7Krasniqi, B.A. 2007. Barriers to entrepreneurship and SME growth in transition: the case of Kosova. Journal of Developmental Entrepreneurship 12 (1): 71-94.Lajqi, S., and Krasniqi, B. A. 2017. Entrepreneurial growth aspirations in challenging environment: the role of institutional quality, human and social capital. Strategic Change 26(4): 385-401.Lemieux, T., Fortin, B., and Frechette, P. 1994. The effect of taxes on labor supply in the underground economy. The American Economic Review 231-254.Leonard, M. 1994. Informal economic activity in Belfast. Avebury: Aldershot.Lewis, A. 1959. The theory of economic growth. London: Allen and Unwin.London, T. and Hart, S. L. 2004. Reinventing strategies for emerging markets: beyond the transnational model. Journal of International Business Studies 35 (5): 350-370.10.1057/palgrave.jibs.8400099McInnis-Dittrich, K. 1995. Women of the shadows: Appalachian women›s participation in the informal economy. Affilia 10(4): 398-412.North, D. C. 1990. Institutions, institutional change and economic performance. Cambridge: University Press,Nwabuzor, A. 2005. Corruption and development: new initiatives in economic openness and strengthened rule of law. Journal of Business Ethics 59 (1): 121-138.Packard, T. 2007. Do workers in Chile choose informal employment? a dynamic analysis of sector choice. Washington DC: World Bank Latin American and the Caribbean Region Social Projection Unit.Schneider, F. and Williams, C.C. 2013. The shadow economy. London: Institute of Economic Affairs.Slack, T., Slack, T., Cope, M. R., Cope, M. R., Jensen, L., Jensen, L., and Tickamyer, A. R. 2017. Social embeddedness, formal labor supply, and participation in informal work. International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy 37 (3/4): 248-264.10.1108/IJSSP-02-2016-0022Slavnic, Z. 2010. Political economy of informalization. European Societies 12 (1): 3-23.10.1080/14616690903042724Snijders, T. A. and Bosker, R. J. 2011. Multilevel analysis: an introduction to basic and advanced multilevel modeling. London: SAGE.Stănculescu, M. 2005. Working conditions in the informal sector. SEER: Journal for Labour and Social Affairs in Eastern Europe 8 (3): 79-93.Steele, F. 2009. Regression models for binary responses concepts. Bristol, UK: Center for Multilevel Modelling, University of Bristol.Taiwo, O. 2013. Employment choice and mobility in multisector labour markets: theoretical model and evidence from Ghana. International Labour Review 152 (3-4): 469-492.Tonoyan V, Strohmeyer R, and Habib, M. 2010. Corruption and entrepreneurship: how formal and informal institutions shape small firm behavior in transition and mature market economies. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice 27(6): 803–832.10.1111/j.1540-6520.2010.00394.xWebb, J. W., Tihanyi, L., Ireland, R. D., and Sirmon, D. G. 2009. You say illegal, I say legitimate: entrepreneurship in the informal economy. Academy of Management Review 34 (3): 492-510.10.5465/AMR.2009.40632826Williams, C. 2012. Cross-national variations in the under-reporting of wages in south-east Europe: a result of over-regulation or under-regulation?. South East European Journal of Economics and Business 7 (1): 53-61.Williams, C. and Krasniqi, B. 2017. Evaluating the individual-and country-level variations in tax morale: evidence from 35 Eurasian countries. Journal of Economic Studies 44 (5): 816-832.10.1108/JES-09-2016-0182Williams, C. C. 2001. Tackling the participation of the unemployed in paid informal work: a critical evaluation of the deterrence approach. Environment and Planning C: Government and Policy 19 (5): 729-749.10.1068/c14mWilliams, C. C. 2013. Evaluating cross-national variations in the extent and nature of informal employment in the European Union. Industrial Relations Journal 44(5-6): 479-494.10.1111/irj.12030Williams, C. C. 2014. Confronting the shadow economy: evaluating tax compliance and behaviour policies. Edward Elgar Publishing.10.4337/9781782546047Williams, C. C. 2017. Developing a holistic approach for tackling undeclared work. Brussels: European Commission.Williams, C. C. and Franic, J. 2015. Tackling the propensity towards undeclared work: some policy lessons from Croatia. South East European Journal of Economics and Business 10(1), 18-31.Williams, C. C. and Horodnic, I. 2015a. Marginalisation and participation in the informal economy in Central and Eastern European nations. Post-Communist Economies 27 (2), 153-169.Williams, C. C., and Horodnic, I. A. 2015b. Self-employment, the informal economy and the marginalisation thesis: some evidence from the European Union. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour and Research 21 (2): 224-242.Williams, C. C., and Horodnic, I. A. 2017a. Evaluating the relationship between social exclusion and participation in the informal sector in the European Union. International Journal of Manpower 38 (3): 489-503.10.1108/IJM-10-2015-0179Williams, C. C. and Martínez, Á. 2014. Explaining cross-national variations in tax morality in the European Union: an exploratory analysis. Studies of Transition States and Societies 6 (1): 5-18.Williams, C. C. and Schneider, F. 2016. Measuring the global shadow economy: the prevalence of informal work and labour. Edward Elgar Publishing.10.4337/9781784717995Williams, C. C. and Schneider, F. 2015c. Rethinking the marginalisation thesis: an evaluation of the socio-spatial variations in undeclared work in the European Union. Employee Relations 37 (1): 48-65.Williams, C. C. and Schneider, F. 2017b. Evaluating the illegal employer practice of under-reporting employees’ salaries. British Journal of Industrial Relations 55 (1): 83-111.Williams, C. C., and Windebank, J. 1998. Informal employment in the advanced economies: implications for work and welfare. London: Routledge.Williams, C. C., Franic, J. and Dzhekova, R. 2015. Explaining the undeclared economy in Bulgaria: an institutional asymmetry perspective. South East European Journal of Economics and Business 9 (2): 33-45.Williams, C. C., Williams, C. C., Kayaoglu, A. and Kayaoglu, A. 2017. Evaluating the prevalence of employees without written terms of employment in the European Union. Employee Relations 39 (4): 487-502.Williams, N., and Vorley, T. 2015. Institutional asymmetry: how formal and informal institutions affect entrepreneurship in Bulgaria. International Small Business Journal 33 (8): 840-861.Williams, N., Vorley, T. and Williams, C. 2017. Entrepreneurship and institutions: the causes and consequences of institutional asymmetry. Rowman and Littlefield.Windebank, J., Windebank, J., Horodnic, I. A., and Horodnic, I. A. 2017. Explaining participation in undeclared work in France: lessons for policy evaluation. International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy 37 (3/4): 203-217.10.1108/IJSSP-12-2015-0147 http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png South East European Journal of Economics and Business de Gruyter

Explaining individual- and country-level variations in unregistered employment using a multi-level model: evidence from 35 Eurasian countries

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de Gruyter
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© 2017 South East European Journal of Economics and Business
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2233-1999
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DOI
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REFERENCESAndrews, D., Caldera Sanchez, A. and Johansson, A. 2011. Towards a better understanding of the informal economy. Working Paper No. 873. Paris: OECD Economics Department.Baumol, W.J. and Blinder, A. 2008. Macroeconomics: principles and policy. Cincinnati OH: South-Western Publishing.Brill, L. 2011. Women’s participation in the informal economy: what can we learn from Oxfam’s work?. Manchester: Oxfam.Castells, M. and Portes. A. 1989. World underneath: the origins, dynamics and effects of the informal economy. In The informal economy: studies in advanced and less developing countries, edited by A. Portes, M. Castells and L. Benton, 11–40. Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press.Davis, M. 2006. Planet of Slums, London: Verso.De Soto, H. 2001. The Mystery of capital: why capitalism triumphs in the west and fails everywhere else. London: Black Swan.EBRD 2011. Life in transition after the crises. Research report. London: European Bank for Reconstruction and Development.European Commission 2014. Employment and social developments in europe 2013. Brussels: European Commission DG for Employment, Social Affairs and Inclusion.European Commission 2016. Decision (EU) 2016/344 of the European Parliament and of the council of 9 march 2016 on establishing a european platform to enhance cooperation in tackling undeclared work.Gallin, D. 2001. Propositions on trade unions and informal employment in times of globalisation. Antipode 33 (3): 531-549.10.1111/1467-8330.00197Hamilton, L. 2012. Statistics with STATA: Version 12. Boston, MA: Cengage Learning.Hashi, I. and Krasniqi, B. A. 2011. Entrepreneurship and SME growth: evidence from advanced and laggard transition economies. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research 17 (5): 456-487.Hazans, M. 2011. Informal workers across Europe: evidence from 30 countries. Policy Research Working Paper 5912. Washington, DC: World Bank.Helmke, G. and Levitsky, S. 2004. Informal institutions and comparative politics: A research agenda. Perspectives on Politics 2 (4): 725-740.ILO 2011. Statistical update on employment in the informal economy. Geneva, ILO: Department of Statistics.ILO 2013. Women and men in the informal economy: statistical picture, available at: http://laborsta.ilo.org/informal_economy_E.html (last accessed 18 August 2016).ILO 2015. Transitioning from the informal to the formal economy. Geneva: ILO.Jütting, J. and J. Laiglesia 2009. Employment, poverty reduction and development: what’s new?. In Is informal normal? towards more and better jobs in developing countries, edited by J. Jütting and J. Laiglesia, 17–26. Paris, OECD.Khan, E. A. and Khan, E. A. 2017. An investigation of marketing capabilities of informal microenterprises: a study of street food vending in Thailand. International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy 37 (3/4):186-202.10.1108/IJSSP-09-2015-0094Kistruck, G. M., Webb, J. W., Sutter, C. J., and Bailey, A. V. 2015. The double-edged sword of legitimacy in base-of-the-pyramid markets. Journal of Business Venturing 30(3): 436-451.Krasniqi, B. A. 2011. Entrepreneurship and small business development in Kosova. New Work: Nova Science Publishers.Krasniqi, B. A. 2014. Characteristics of self-employment: a refuge from unemployment or road to entrepreneur-ship. Small Enterprise Research 21 (1): 33-53.Krasniqi, B. A., and Mustafa, M. 2016. Small firm growth in a post-conflict environment: the role of human capital, institutional quality, and managerial capacities. International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal 12 (4): 1165-1207.Krasniqi, B. and Desai, S. 2016. Institutional drivers of high-growth firms: country-level evidence from 26 transition economies. Small Business Economics 47 (4): 1075-1094.10.1007/s11187-016-9736-7Krasniqi, B.A. 2007. Barriers to entrepreneurship and SME growth in transition: the case of Kosova. Journal of Developmental Entrepreneurship 12 (1): 71-94.Lajqi, S., and Krasniqi, B. A. 2017. Entrepreneurial growth aspirations in challenging environment: the role of institutional quality, human and social capital. Strategic Change 26(4): 385-401.Lemieux, T., Fortin, B., and Frechette, P. 1994. The effect of taxes on labor supply in the underground economy. The American Economic Review 231-254.Leonard, M. 1994. Informal economic activity in Belfast. Avebury: Aldershot.Lewis, A. 1959. The theory of economic growth. London: Allen and Unwin.London, T. and Hart, S. L. 2004. Reinventing strategies for emerging markets: beyond the transnational model. Journal of International Business Studies 35 (5): 350-370.10.1057/palgrave.jibs.8400099McInnis-Dittrich, K. 1995. Women of the shadows: Appalachian women›s participation in the informal economy. Affilia 10(4): 398-412.North, D. C. 1990. Institutions, institutional change and economic performance. Cambridge: University Press,Nwabuzor, A. 2005. Corruption and development: new initiatives in economic openness and strengthened rule of law. Journal of Business Ethics 59 (1): 121-138.Packard, T. 2007. Do workers in Chile choose informal employment? a dynamic analysis of sector choice. Washington DC: World Bank Latin American and the Caribbean Region Social Projection Unit.Schneider, F. and Williams, C.C. 2013. The shadow economy. London: Institute of Economic Affairs.Slack, T., Slack, T., Cope, M. R., Cope, M. R., Jensen, L., Jensen, L., and Tickamyer, A. R. 2017. Social embeddedness, formal labor supply, and participation in informal work. International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy 37 (3/4): 248-264.10.1108/IJSSP-02-2016-0022Slavnic, Z. 2010. Political economy of informalization. European Societies 12 (1): 3-23.10.1080/14616690903042724Snijders, T. A. and Bosker, R. J. 2011. Multilevel analysis: an introduction to basic and advanced multilevel modeling. London: SAGE.Stănculescu, M. 2005. Working conditions in the informal sector. SEER: Journal for Labour and Social Affairs in Eastern Europe 8 (3): 79-93.Steele, F. 2009. Regression models for binary responses concepts. Bristol, UK: Center for Multilevel Modelling, University of Bristol.Taiwo, O. 2013. Employment choice and mobility in multisector labour markets: theoretical model and evidence from Ghana. International Labour Review 152 (3-4): 469-492.Tonoyan V, Strohmeyer R, and Habib, M. 2010. Corruption and entrepreneurship: how formal and informal institutions shape small firm behavior in transition and mature market economies. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice 27(6): 803–832.10.1111/j.1540-6520.2010.00394.xWebb, J. W., Tihanyi, L., Ireland, R. D., and Sirmon, D. G. 2009. You say illegal, I say legitimate: entrepreneurship in the informal economy. Academy of Management Review 34 (3): 492-510.10.5465/AMR.2009.40632826Williams, C. 2012. Cross-national variations in the under-reporting of wages in south-east Europe: a result of over-regulation or under-regulation?. South East European Journal of Economics and Business 7 (1): 53-61.Williams, C. and Krasniqi, B. 2017. Evaluating the individual-and country-level variations in tax morale: evidence from 35 Eurasian countries. Journal of Economic Studies 44 (5): 816-832.10.1108/JES-09-2016-0182Williams, C. C. 2001. Tackling the participation of the unemployed in paid informal work: a critical evaluation of the deterrence approach. Environment and Planning C: Government and Policy 19 (5): 729-749.10.1068/c14mWilliams, C. C. 2013. Evaluating cross-national variations in the extent and nature of informal employment in the European Union. Industrial Relations Journal 44(5-6): 479-494.10.1111/irj.12030Williams, C. C. 2014. Confronting the shadow economy: evaluating tax compliance and behaviour policies. Edward Elgar Publishing.10.4337/9781782546047Williams, C. C. 2017. Developing a holistic approach for tackling undeclared work. Brussels: European Commission.Williams, C. C. and Franic, J. 2015. Tackling the propensity towards undeclared work: some policy lessons from Croatia. South East European Journal of Economics and Business 10(1), 18-31.Williams, C. C. and Horodnic, I. 2015a. Marginalisation and participation in the informal economy in Central and Eastern European nations. Post-Communist Economies 27 (2), 153-169.Williams, C. C., and Horodnic, I. A. 2015b. Self-employment, the informal economy and the marginalisation thesis: some evidence from the European Union. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour and Research 21 (2): 224-242.Williams, C. C., and Horodnic, I. A. 2017a. Evaluating the relationship between social exclusion and participation in the informal sector in the European Union. International Journal of Manpower 38 (3): 489-503.10.1108/IJM-10-2015-0179Williams, C. C. and Martínez, Á. 2014. Explaining cross-national variations in tax morality in the European Union: an exploratory analysis. Studies of Transition States and Societies 6 (1): 5-18.Williams, C. C. and Schneider, F. 2016. Measuring the global shadow economy: the prevalence of informal work and labour. Edward Elgar Publishing.10.4337/9781784717995Williams, C. C. and Schneider, F. 2015c. Rethinking the marginalisation thesis: an evaluation of the socio-spatial variations in undeclared work in the European Union. Employee Relations 37 (1): 48-65.Williams, C. C. and Schneider, F. 2017b. Evaluating the illegal employer practice of under-reporting employees’ salaries. British Journal of Industrial Relations 55 (1): 83-111.Williams, C. C., and Windebank, J. 1998. Informal employment in the advanced economies: implications for work and welfare. London: Routledge.Williams, C. C., Franic, J. and Dzhekova, R. 2015. Explaining the undeclared economy in Bulgaria: an institutional asymmetry perspective. South East European Journal of Economics and Business 9 (2): 33-45.Williams, C. C., Williams, C. C., Kayaoglu, A. and Kayaoglu, A. 2017. Evaluating the prevalence of employees without written terms of employment in the European Union. Employee Relations 39 (4): 487-502.Williams, N., and Vorley, T. 2015. Institutional asymmetry: how formal and informal institutions affect entrepreneurship in Bulgaria. International Small Business Journal 33 (8): 840-861.Williams, N., Vorley, T. and Williams, C. 2017. Entrepreneurship and institutions: the causes and consequences of institutional asymmetry. Rowman and Littlefield.Windebank, J., Windebank, J., Horodnic, I. A., and Horodnic, I. A. 2017. Explaining participation in undeclared work in France: lessons for policy evaluation. International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy 37 (3/4): 203-217.10.1108/IJSSP-12-2015-0147

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South East European Journal of Economics and Businessde Gruyter

Published: Dec 1, 2017

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