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Effects of Rates and Nutrient Ratios on Production and Quality of Phytomass at Fertiliser Application to an Alluvial Meadow

Effects of Rates and Nutrient Ratios on Production and Quality of Phytomass at Fertiliser... Agriculture (Ponohospodárvo), 58, 2012 (1): 1-10 DOI: 10.2478/v10207-012-0001-z VLADIMÍRA VARGOVÁ, ZUZANA KOVACIKOVÁ, MILAN MICHALEC Plant Production Research Center Piesany VARGOVÁ, V. ­ KOVACIKOVÁ, Z. ­ MICHALEC, M.: Effects of rates a nutrient ratios on production a quality of phytomass at fertiliser application to an alluvial meadow. Agriculture (Ponohospodárvo), vol. 58, 2012, no. 1, pp. 1­10. The research objective was to assess effects of fertiliser application rates a nutrient ratios on production a quality of grassla at an alluvial meadow. The initial swa type was Feucetum pratense association. A field trial was eablished in the weern part of "Zvolenská kotlina" basin (altitude 350 m) a consied of ten fertiliser treatments: zero-fertilised swa (control); fertiliser P a K application; rates of 50, 100, 150 a 200 kg N/ha at two ratios of N : P : K nutrients, namely the low N : P : K ratio (1 : 0.3 : 0.8) a the high one (1 : 0.15 : 0.4), respectively. The grassla was utilised by three cuts. Dry matter (DM) production a herbage quality were determined at each of the cuts. The yield of DM was higher with the rates of 50 a 100 kg N/ha applied at the high nutrient ratio than at the low ratio. Over the research period, the highe DM production was recoed at the treatment with the low nutrient ratio a the highe N rate applied. The content of crude protein (CP) was increasing with the rising fertiliser N rate a the increase in CP was higher at the low nutrient ratio treatments. The zero-fertilised control also provided sufficient CP content. The low nutrient ratio resulted in higher P a K content than the high one. The lowe content of P a K was recoed at the control. The highe P content was fou at the treatment with the fertiliser P a K applied. The highe K content was recoed at the 2 cut, but decreased at the 3 cut in all the treatments. The content of Ca was rising towas the 3 cut. The content of nutrients was higher at the treatments where the high ratio was used. The content of Mg in DM was higher at the treatments with the high nutrient ratio a the high N fertiliser rates. The content of Mg was increasing in the 2 cut at all the treatments. Key wos: alluvial meadow, long-term fertilising, herbage quality, production, permanent grassla The fertiliser application ranks among the factors intensifying improvement of permanent grassla a is decisive not only for good yield a quality of forage, but also for good coition a long life of swa (Rataj 1996). The level of fertilising has a notable impact on the botanical composition a consequently, on the quantitative a qualitative aspects of production. Compared to arable crops, grassla nutrition has some peculiarities, e.g. a considerable amount of organic residues in soil is a rich source of released available nutrients; different ability of roots to take nutrients from more or less accessible forms; high number of symbiotic plants; dense representation of micro- a macro-edaphone not only supports, but also intensifies the effects of fertiliser application. Overall success of fertilisation depes on the initial ate of grassla, the availability of water, the soil a climatic coitions, the method a frequency of utilisation a on the length of time over which the fertiliser is applied syematically (Slamka et al. 2006). The syematic a relatively long-term intensive application of nitrogen (N) fertiliser increases herbage a dry matter (DM) yields only during a limited period of time which is followed by swa degradation, decreased yields a the fertilisation ceases to be effective a economic (Rataj 1996). Ing. Vladimíra Vargová, Ing. Zuzana Kovaciková, Ing. Milan Michalec, CSc., Plant Production Research Center ­ Grassla a Mountain Agriculture Research Initute, 974 21 Banská Byrica, Mládeznícka 36, Slovak Republic. E-mail: vargova@vutphp.sk Agriculture (Ponohospodárvo), 58, 2012 (1): 1-10 The content of crude protein (CP) is much higher in DM of leaves than in that of ems a moreover, it is also higher in legumes than in grasses. The application of high N fertiliser rates (more than 120 kg/ha) eliminates these differences a the CP content in grass may exceed the amount of CP in legumes (Holúbek et al. 2001). The presented research aimed at udying the quality a production of herbage from an alluvial meadow at different fertiliser rates a nutrient ratios used the during fertiliser application. 2009. The trial comprised the following 10 treatments (Table 1) with a range of fertiliser application rates: Treatment 1: zero-fertilised swa (control); Treatment 2: fertiliser P a K application; Treatments 3, 4, 5 a 6: fertiliser N, P a K application at the N : P : K ratio of 1 : 0.30 : 0.8, respectively; Treatments 7, 8, 9 a 10: fertiliser N, P a K application at the N : P : K ratio of 1 : 0.15 : 0.4, respectively. The trial treatments a the fertiliser application rates in detail are given in Table 1. The fertiliser nitrogen was applied as ammonium nitrate (LAD 27%), P was applied as "hyperkorn" (8.5%) a K as potassium salt (52.23%). The total rate of N fertiliser was split into two dressings which were applied in the early spring (65%) a after the 1 cut (35%). Grassla was utilised by three cuts a year: the 1 cut ­ at the ear emergence of dominant grass species; the 2 cut ­ approximately 6 to 8 weeks later; the 3 cut ­ approximately 8 to 10 weeks after the 2 cut. The dry matter (DM) production was determined as follows: fresh herbage was weighed at the research site, DM content was determined in herbage (at 105°C) a the yield of DM was calculated per hectare. The herbage samples were oven-dried at 65°C a submitted to the chemical analysis to determine the content of nutrients (crude protein ­ Kjeldahl method (N × 6.25), content of P, K, Mg were determined in accoance with the Slovak technical aa N 46 7093. The obtained data were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by po hoc comparison using the Tukey´s HSD te (atit Cuom QC for Wiows). MATERIAL A METHODS The research site "Veká Lúka" (altitude 350 m; northern latitude 48° 37´; eaern longitude 19° 10´) was located in the protection zone of "Sliac" spa, in the weern part of "Zvolenská kotlina" basin. The edaphic coitions at the research site were as follows: geological subratum ­ the alluvial soil was loamy fluvisol; initial soil pH in KCl = 6.03; available nutrients: P = 6.16 mg/kg a K = 96.6 mg/kg. The initial swa type was Feucetum pratense association with 35 species (Alopecurus pratensis dominant) at the trial art (Table 2). Long-term mean rainfall over growing season is 428 mm; long-term mean annual rainfall 757 mm; mean daily temperature 8.2°C per year a 14.7°C over growing season (Figure 1). The field trial has been eablished as raomised blocks with four replicates (plot size 32 m2; 8 × 4 m) in 1961. This paper presents the research period of 2006­ T a b l e 1 Trial treatments Treatments Nutrient rates [kg/ha] N P K 1 0 0 0 0 2 PK 0 22 41.5 50 15 40 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 : 0.30 : 0.8 100 30 80 150 45 120 200 60 160 50 7.5 20 1 : 0.15 : 0.4 100 15 40 150 22.5 60 200 30 80 Agriculture (Ponohospodárvo), 58, 2012 (1): 1-10 RESULTS A DISCUSSION Over the growing seasons of the research period, mean air temperature was rising from 15.98°C in 2006 to 17.06°C in 2009, except for the year 2008 when the mean temperature was 0.02°C lower than in 2006, especially in the cool months of April a September, as given in Figure 1. Total monthly rainfall over the growing seasons decreased in 2006 a 2007, then increased to 389 mm in 2008 a decreased by 74 mm in 2009. The rainfall was extremely low in April in 2007 (0 mm) a 2009 (9 mm), respectively. Only in June 2009 the rainfall over growing season increased. Table 3 a Figure 2 present the yields of dry matter a increments of DM yields throughout the research period of 2006­2009. In 2008, the lowe DM yield was recoed at all the treatments, due to the rainfall deficiency in the early (April, May) a in the late months (Augu, September) of growing season. The Treatment 1 (control) was characterised by low DM production (2.63­4.91 t/ha). By comparison with the control, the fertiliser P a K application increased yields in all the cuts a years, except in 2009 (Table 3). The highe increase was recoed at the 2 cut in 2006 (more by 1.07 t/ha than Treatment 1 ­ the control). In 2007 a 2009, the DM yields decreased at the 2 a 3 cuts. Holúbek et al. (2007), Honsová et al. (2007) a Jancovic et al. (2009) reported that the fertiliser P a K application itself increased the yield variability, mainly as a result of higher variability in the proportion of grasses a legumes in swa at the cuts. The application of nitrogen significantly increased the DM production nearly in all the cuts a years (P < 0.01) a influenced also the total yield over the research period (Table 6). The variability in the yield increase uer the rising N rates was fou in agreement with Velich (1986), Holúbek (1991), Glaba a Kacorzykb (2011) a other authors udying the grassla nutrition. An exception was fou at the 2 cut in 2007 when the highe DM production was recoed at the zerofertilised control. Over the given period, the significantly highe DM production (P < 0.01) was recoed at Treatment 6 with the highe N rate a the low nutrient ratio applied (Table 6). The highe total DM yield for the whole research period was also fou at Treatment 6 in all the years, except for the year 2006, when the lowe DM yield (5.7 t/ha) was recoed there. In the years 2006, 2008 a 2009, respectively, the application rate of 50 kg N/ha with the low nutrient ratio resulted in higher DM production at Treatment 3 than at the comparable Treatment 7 with the high ratio of nutrients. With the high N rate (100 kg/ha) a the high nutrient ratio (Treatment 8), the DM yield was higher than that at Treatment 4 with the low nutrient ratio. This was not the case in 2008 when the production of DM was 4.61 t/ha at Treatment 8, Figure 1. Mean monthly temperature [ o C] a total monthly rainfall [mm] at "Veká Lúka" site Agriculture (Ponohospodárvo), 58, 2012 (1): 1-10 T a b l e 2 Botanical composition [%] at the 1 cut in 2006 Treatments* 1 50 13 37 0 3 20 ­ 1 ­ 6 3 ­ + 3 2 2 ­ ­ 10 ­ 3 ­ 7 3 ­ ­ 5 + ­ ­ ­ 1 ­ ­ ­ ­ 2 10 3 ­ 6 ­ 2 ­ ­ 5 ­ 2 2 53 8 36 3 5 20 8 ­ ­ ­ 2 ­ ­ ­ 5 ­ ­ ­ 10 3 ­ ­ 5 3 ­ 1 6 ­ ­ 1 ­ 4 1 ­ ­ ­ 1 3 3 6 ­ ­ 3 ­ 3 4 ­ ­ 3 62 7 31 0 3 30 1 1 ­ 6 4 ­ ­ ­ ­ 2 ­ ­ 15 2 1 ­ 2 4 ­ 2 3 + ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ 1 8 1 5 3 ­ 3 + 1 2 ­ 2 4 68 3 29 0 5 10 9 1 ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ 2 3 1 ­ ­ 15 22 ­ ­ 1 2 ­ 2 4 ­ + ­ ­ + ­ ­ ­ ­ 2 5 2 4 2 ­ 2 ­ ­ 4 ­ 2 5 71 5 24 0 6 10 15 2 1 ­ 2 ­ ­ 2 1 ­ ­ ­ 22 10 ­ ­ 1 4 1 2 2 ­ ­ ­ ­ + ­ ­ ­ + 1 6 1 6 1 ­ 2 ­ + 2 ­ 1 6 72 4 24 0 5 12 20 1 ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ 4 ­ ­ ­ 18 12 ­ ­ ­ 3 ­ ­ 4 1 ­ ­ ­ 1 ­ ­ ­ + ­ 5 2 4 1 ­ 2 ­ 1 2 ­ 1 7 49 3 48 0 2 20 7 2 1 1 ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ 10 6 ­ ­ 1 2 ­ 3 7 + ­ ­ ­ 2 + + ­ + ­ 10 2 12 2 ­ 3 ­ 4 2 ­ 1 8 62 4 34 0 5 26 7 2 ­ ­ 3 ­ ­ 2 3 ­ ­ ­ 8 5 ­ ­ 3 1 ­ 2 4 + ­ ­ ­ 1 1 ­ ­ 1 + 10 1 2 1 ­ 4 ­ 2 3 + 2 9 70 2 28 0 5 25 10 3 ­ ­ 4 ­ ­ ­ 2 ­ ­ ­ 12 8 ­ ­ 1 1 ­ 3 3 1 ­ + ­ 2 2 + ­ ­ ­ ­ 2 2 ­ ­ 5 ­ 2 4 + 2 10 54 2 44 0 2 15 15 2 ­ ­ 2 ­ ­ ­ 4 ­ ­ ­ 10 4 ­ ­ 1 1 ­ ­ 3 + ­ 3 ­ 2 3 ­ ­ 1 2 4 5 5 ­ ­ 4 ­ 2 7 1 1 Botanical composition Grasses Legumes Herbs Bare grou Alopecurus pratensis L. Anthoxanthum odoratum L. Arrhenatherum elatius L. Avenarum pubescens Dumort. Bromus erectus Huds. Carex spp. Dactylis glomerata L. Deschampsia caespitosa (L). P. Beauv. Elytrigia repens L. Feuca pratensis Huds. Feuca rubra L. Lolium perenne L. Phleum pratense L. Poa annua L. Poa pratensis L. Trisetum flavescens (L.) P. Beauv. Lotus corniculatus L. Medicago lupulina L. Trifolium repens L. Trifolium pratense L. Vicia tenuifolia L. Acetosa pratensis Mill. Achillea millefolium L. Campanula patula L. Capsella bursa paoris (L.) Medik. Cirsium arvense L. Cirsium canum (L.) Scopp. Daucus carota L. Galium mollugo L. Geranium pratense L. Geranium robertianum L. Glechoma hederacea L. Jacea pratensis Lam. Leontodon hispidus L. Leucanthemum vulgare Lam. Plantago lanceolata L. Plantago major L. Prunella vulgaris L. Ranunculus acris L. Salvia pratensis L. ellaria graminea L. Taraxacum officinale auct. non Weber. Tragopogon orientalis L. Veronica verna L. +less than 1%, *see Table 1 Agriculture (Ponohospodárvo), 58, 2012 (1): 1-10 but it was 4.86 t/ha at Treatment 4. Similar results (approx. 5 t/DM/ha), but with the maximum fertiliser rate (240 kg N/ha) were reported by Vozár (2009) from the trial at "Chvojnica" site. There had been reports of DM production decreasing from the 1 to the 3 cut (Velich 1986). Our research data showed slight variations. In both 2007 a 2009, the DM yield was higher in the 2 cut than at the 1 one, namely at the non-fertilised control as well as at Treatment 3 (50 kg N/ha a the low nutrient ratio). Based on his trials, Fiala (2002) pointed out that neither the long-term fertiliser application of as much as 300 kg N/ha nor the grassla utilisation by three cuts diurbed the ecological ability. The DM production rises while the nitrogen fertiliser rate is exteed up to 150 kg N/ha a both the forage quality a production efficiency are increased. The mo abile treatments appear to be those where the low a medium rates of nitrogen fertiliser (50 a 150 kg N/ha + PK) are applied. This conclusion was drawn also in our research. Honsová et al. (2006) had carried out trials on a valley meadow at "Cerníkovice" site a consequently, they confirmed the hypothesis of DM yields depeing on the amount of nitrogen applied. At the control, mean production of herbage was 2.6 t ha-1 a the highe production (8.95 t/ha) was recoed at the treatment with the N200P40 K100 application rate. Figure 2 gives the DM increase in comparison to the zero-fertilised control. The highe increase in DM yield (by 138.02%, i.e. 3.63 t/ha) was recoed at Treatment 6 in 2008 (200 kg N; low nutrient ratio). Over the research years, high increase in DM yield was recoed at Treatment 3, except for the year 2007 when a decrease by 8.2% was fou. Averaged over the research years a in comparison with the control, the increase in DM was higher at the treatments with identical rates of nitrogen a high ratio of nutrients (19.56 % at Treatment 7 a 37.92% at Treatment 8) than those with the low nutrient ratio. It was the opposite situation at Treatments 5 a 6 with the high rates of nitrogen fertiliser a the low nutrient ratio (increase by 56.76% a 64%) in comparison with the treatments with the high nutrient ratio (increase by 45.65% a 57.49%). Hejcman et al. (2010) a Holúbek et al. (2007) reported that the content of nutrients in herbage DM decreased with the reduction of available nutrients in soil a decreased also with increasing yield due to the so called dilution effect in the grown-up biomass. The quality of dry matter is defined by the mineral a organic composition (Whitehead 2000; Lichner et al. 1983). *see Table 1 Figure 2. Dry matter yields during 2006­2009 Agriculture (Ponohospodárvo), 58, 2012 (1): 1-10 T a b l e 3 Dry matter yields [t/ha] Treatments* 0 1 3.07 0.92 0.92 4.91 0.94 2.92 1.01 4.87 1.30 0.60 0.73 2.63 1.15 2.15 0.86 4.16 16.57 4.14a 0.533 PK 2 2.62 1.99 1.31 5.92 2.16 2.41 0.94 5.51 1.19 1.03 0.48 2.70 1.81 1.71 0.62 4.14 18.27 4.59ab 0.730 3 3.88 1.86 1.10 6.84 1.79 1.93 0.75 4.47 1.83 0.96 0.61 3.40 1.79 2.11 0.84 4.74 19.45 4.86bc 0.720 1 : 0.30 : 0.80 4 2.23 1.81 1.18 5.22 2.64 2.36 0.85 5.85 2.31 1.70 0.85 4.86 2.23 2.74 1.07 6.04 21.97 5.49cd 0.274 5 2006 1 cut 2 cut 1 : 0.15 : 0.40 6 2.22 2.17 1.31 5.70 3.25 2.85 1.15 7.25 3.37 1.76 1.13 6.26 2.43 4.38 1.16 7.97 27.18 6.79e 0.510 7 3.80 1.50 1.46 6.76 1.72 2.41 1.06 5.19 1.61 1.13 0.49 3.23 1.50 2.03 1.10 4.63 19.81 4.95bc 0.730 8 2.60 1.99 1.23 5.82 2.34 2.63 1.19 6.16 2.80 1.01 0.80 4.61 2.03 2.97 1.26 6.26 22.85 5.71d 0.379 9 3.40 2.27 1.07 6.74 3.08 2.25 1.21 6.54 2.75 1.34 0.99 5.08 1.87 2.87 1.03 5.77 24.13 6.03de 0.380 10 2.84 2.60 1.12 6.56 3.21 2.89 0.95 7.05 2.89 1.73 0.76 5.38 2.29 3.54 1.27 7.10 26.09 6.52e 0.400 2.59 2.27 1.17 6.03 2007 3.11 2.61 1.12 6.84 2008 2.64 2.15 0.99 5.78 2009 2.01 4.49 0.82 7.32 25.97 6.49e 0.357 3 cut 1 cut 2 cut 3 cut 1 cut 2 cut 3 cut 1 cut 2 cut 3 cut yield over 4 years Mean of the years SEM The values in the same row with different superscript letters are significantly different at P < 0.01 level for each variable Tukey´s HSD te SEM ­ aa error of the mean *see Table 1 Table 4 shows that the increasing nitrogen rate resulted in rising crude protein content. The highe CP content (201.68 g/kg) was fou in the 1 cut at Treatment 5 with the rate of 150 kg N/ha a the low nutrient ratio, but the differences were not significantly different (Table 7). However, the decrease in CP content was very significant (P < 0.01) by comparison between the years. The highe CP content was recoed moly at the 1 cut, except for Treatments 1 a 3 to 10 in 2008 a 2009, respectively, when the CP content was higher at the 2 cut, as shown by the atiically significant effect (Table 7). At the control, the highe CP content 6 was recoed at the 2 cut, except in 2009 (the 3 cut). It may be concluded that CP content was higher at the treatments with the low nutrient ratio than at those with the high one. The results showed that the treatment without fertiliser application could provide the required quality of DM, as reported also by Michalec et al. (2007). Some authors (Lichner et al. 1983; Krajcovic 1997; Holúbek 1991; Jancovic 1999) point out to the exiing difference between the content of minerals in plants a that required by animals which can be mitigated by fertiliser application to grassla. Fiala (2002) reports that the long-term application of fertiliser has influ- Agriculture (Ponohospodárvo), 58, 2012 (1): 1-10 T a b l e 4 Crude protein content in dry matter of herbage [g/kg] Treatments* Years Cuts 1 2006 2 3 1 2007 2 PK 2 152.00 94.60 122.99 144.24 139.94 116.83 130.47 126.45 116.61 105.43 123.99 121.23 124.57 3 134.90 137.74 122.31 134.66 128.73 116.96 124.15 127.20 124.36 105.89 122.47 131.80 125.93 1 : 0.30 : 0.80 4 171.34 137.37 131.18 153.51 137.58 127.21 129.04 159.80 116.32 108.05 128.08 133.92 136.12 5 201.68 148.48 120.49 152.41 114.21 137.26 123.80 125.04 121.58 94.94 124.52 130.41 132.90 6 163.03 124.19 127.84 138.71 129.14 136.69 115.83 155.63 108.59 123.82 134.36 139.12 133.10 7 135.29 134.43 153.81 154.19 122.40 117.39 122.95 132.06 114.49 113.31 131.50 138.09 130.83 1 : 0.15 : 0.40 8 157.59 123.41 120.84 152.41 110.77 125.03 118.00 129.74 125.51 115.57 141.31 131.67 129.32 9 179.27 123.02 112.25 137.87 127.52 118.91 116.26 127.82 119.71 118.90 148.78 132.75 130.25 10 168.82 130.32 116.93 156.57 124.25 124.75 119.87 136.84 112.50 119.00 129.72 134.29 131.15 3 1 2008 2 3 1 2009 Mean 3 *see Table 1 T a b l e 5 Mean content of minerals [g/kg] Treatments* Minerals Cuts 1 P 3 K PK 2 3.31 3.16 3.42 19.71 17.04 13.56 10.80 10.29 16.94 3.29 3.71 4.58 3 2.49 2.67 2.80 18.41 15.52 13.51 9.49 13.00 13.30 2.80 4.81 4.67 1 : 0.30 : 0.80 4 3.00 3.36 2.96 19.02 16.64 13.87 8.25 13.08 13.75 2.59 4.35 3.84 5 3.30 3.02 3.27 21.37 16.88 14.12 8.04 8.87 12.53 2.41 3.22 4.35 6 3.04 3.05 3.19 23.45 18.78 15.27 7.49 13.37 11.75 2.46 4.27 3.85 7 2.08 2.38 2.59 15.87 20.18 14.18 8.41 16.26 11.19 3.12 4.78 4.28 1 : 0.15 : 0.40 8 2.07 2.52 2.43 14.36 20.47 12.05 7.86 10.63 12.74 3.00 3.66 4.10 9 2.47 2.70 2.82 16.33 19.71 12.33 8.37 12.02 14.69 3.02 4.51 4.37 10 2.45 2.65 2.48 16.70 23.25 12.97 7.85 13.89 12.28 2.80 4.54 4.35 2 1 2 3 1 Ca 2 3 1 Mg *see Table 1 3 Agriculture (Ponohospodárvo), 58, 2012 (1): 1-10 T a b l e 6 The effect of years on dry matter yield [t/ha] Year 2006 2007 2008 2009 Dry matter yield [t/ha] 6.04bc 6.30c 4.39 SEM 0.212 0.302 0.414 0.434 5.81b The values in the same row with different superscript letters are significantly different at P < 0.01 level for each variable Tukey´s HSD te SEM ­ aa error of the mean T a b l e 7 The effects of fertiliser application, cuts, a years on the nutrient content [g/kg] Factor 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 SEM 1 2 3 Crude protein 124.63 124.58 a a P Treatments* 2.23 3.28 a d K 14.70a 16.61 Ca 11.36ab 12.69 Mg 4.10ab 3.99ab 4.29b 3.75ab 3.52a 3.66ab 4.20ab 3.70ab 4.11ab 4.10ab 0.169 3.03a 4.31b 4.28b 0.089 4.77b 4.61b 3.37a 3.23a 0.085 126.00a 136.29a 133.08 130.81 129.86 2.385 133.71b 131.00b 124.93 1.283 137.42b 132.83b 124.79 1.430 a a a 2.65a 3.10bc 3.20 2.35 2.66 15.70b 15.39b 17.34 16.72 16.10 11.87ab 11.67ab 9.81 133.05a 3.10b 19.12b 10.79ab 11.82 11.64 ab 129.06a 2.33a 15.64b 10.38ab ab 131.18a 2.54a 0.065 Cuts 2.62a 2.78ab 2.83 17.56b 0.790 18.12b 18.26b 13.49 Years 11.14ab 0.541 8.48a 12.09b 13.42 0.246 11.06a 12.82b 10.4 SEM 2006 2007 2008 2009 SEM 0.045 3.02c 2.73b 2.49 0.397 15.42a 19.74b 14.70 123.88a 2.73b 0.050 16.49ab 0.469 10.94a 0.333 The values in the same row with different superscript letters are significantly different at P < 0.01 level for each variable Tukey´s HSD te; SEM ­ aa error of the mean *see Table 1 ence on the content of mineral subances in total a at the iividual cuts as well. The rising rates of nitrogen fertiliser are increasing the content of N, P a Na, 8 but decreasing the content of Ca, Mg a K. The threecut utilisation of swa is characteriic of increasing content of Ca a Mg a decreasing K content from Agriculture (Ponohospodárvo), 58, 2012 (1): 1­10 the fir to the la cut. Mean content of minerals is given in Table 5. Averaged over the research period, the lowe P content (1.945 g/kg) was recoed at Treatment 1 (the control). Generally, the P content was low at all the cuts. The highe P content was fou at Treatment 2 in all of the cuts (3.31, 3.16 a 3.42 g/kg, respectively) throughout the period of research. Nerusil et al. (2007) also reported that the long-term application of P a K fertilisers increases the legume dominance a consequently, also the content of P, Ca a Mg. An acceptable content was provided also by the Treatments 4, 5 a 6 with the low ratio of nutrients, respectively. The lowe potassium content ranging between 13.05 a 15.76 g/kg was recoed at the zero-fertilised control. The K content was decreasing from the 1 to the 3 cut at the treatments 1 to 6, respectively. The highe K content was fou in the 2 cut at Treatments 7 to 10, the ones with the high nutrient ratio. Similar conclusions are drawn by Jezíková a Lihán (1997) who report that the content of K a P in herbage is increasing at the high nutrient ratio. However, one cannot agree with their atement that the low N : P : K ratio results also in decreased content of P a K as well as in increased Ca content. The highe calcium content was fou at Treatment 3 in the 2 cut. The content of Ca was increasing with the cuts, except for the Treatments 6, 7 a 10, respectively; the highe Ca content was fou in the 2 cut. Similar results were reported by Jancovic (1997). The magnesium content was higher at the treatments with the high ratio of nutrients. The highe Mg content (4.81 g/kg) was fou at Treatment 3 in the 2 cut a moreover, at the same cut, the Mg content was 4.65 g/kg at the zero-fertilised control. Lichner et al. (1977) a Jancovic (1997) report that Mg content increases with the rising intensity of N fertiliser application. Table 7 shows the significant effects of the cuts on the mean content of P, K, Ca a Mg. production was fou at the treatment with the highe N (200 kg) rate a the low nutrient ratio applied 1 : 0.3 : 0.8 (total dry matter yield over the four research years was 27.18 t/ha). The dry matter production was higher at the application of 50 a 100 kg N/ha fertiliser rates with the high nutrient ratio of 1 : 0.15 : 0.4. The crude protein content was rising with the increasing N fertiliser rates. The highe crude protein content (201.68 g/kg) was fou in the 1 cut at the treatment with the rate of 150 kg N/ha. The low nutrient ratio of 1 : 0.3 : 0.8 resulted in high content of P, K a Ca, but in low Mg content in dry matter, respectively. The content of K was rising in the 2 cut a decreasing in the 3 cut at all the treatments. The content of Ca was rising to the 3 cut a the Mg content was increasing in the 2 cut at all the research treatments. Based on the research results, it was concluded that the ratio of 1 : 0.30 : 0.8 was more favourable, when considering the needs of animals. Acknowledgements: The presented research was carried out as a part of the research project of the Plant Production Research Center Piesany ­ Grassla a Mountain Agriculture Research Initute Banská Byrica named ,,Competitiveness a ecologisation of crop production in the regions of Slovakia through the syems of management on agricultural la a by innovating the conituents of crop growing technologies", No. UO 27/091 05 01/091 05 10. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Agriculture de Gruyter

Effects of Rates and Nutrient Ratios on Production and Quality of Phytomass at Fertiliser Application to an Alluvial Meadow

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de Gruyter
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0551-3677
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1338-4376
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10.2478/v10207-012-0001-z
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Agriculture (Ponohospodárvo), 58, 2012 (1): 1-10 DOI: 10.2478/v10207-012-0001-z VLADIMÍRA VARGOVÁ, ZUZANA KOVACIKOVÁ, MILAN MICHALEC Plant Production Research Center Piesany VARGOVÁ, V. ­ KOVACIKOVÁ, Z. ­ MICHALEC, M.: Effects of rates a nutrient ratios on production a quality of phytomass at fertiliser application to an alluvial meadow. Agriculture (Ponohospodárvo), vol. 58, 2012, no. 1, pp. 1­10. The research objective was to assess effects of fertiliser application rates a nutrient ratios on production a quality of grassla at an alluvial meadow. The initial swa type was Feucetum pratense association. A field trial was eablished in the weern part of "Zvolenská kotlina" basin (altitude 350 m) a consied of ten fertiliser treatments: zero-fertilised swa (control); fertiliser P a K application; rates of 50, 100, 150 a 200 kg N/ha at two ratios of N : P : K nutrients, namely the low N : P : K ratio (1 : 0.3 : 0.8) a the high one (1 : 0.15 : 0.4), respectively. The grassla was utilised by three cuts. Dry matter (DM) production a herbage quality were determined at each of the cuts. The yield of DM was higher with the rates of 50 a 100 kg N/ha applied at the high nutrient ratio than at the low ratio. Over the research period, the highe DM production was recoed at the treatment with the low nutrient ratio a the highe N rate applied. The content of crude protein (CP) was increasing with the rising fertiliser N rate a the increase in CP was higher at the low nutrient ratio treatments. The zero-fertilised control also provided sufficient CP content. The low nutrient ratio resulted in higher P a K content than the high one. The lowe content of P a K was recoed at the control. The highe P content was fou at the treatment with the fertiliser P a K applied. The highe K content was recoed at the 2 cut, but decreased at the 3 cut in all the treatments. The content of Ca was rising towas the 3 cut. The content of nutrients was higher at the treatments where the high ratio was used. The content of Mg in DM was higher at the treatments with the high nutrient ratio a the high N fertiliser rates. The content of Mg was increasing in the 2 cut at all the treatments. Key wos: alluvial meadow, long-term fertilising, herbage quality, production, permanent grassla The fertiliser application ranks among the factors intensifying improvement of permanent grassla a is decisive not only for good yield a quality of forage, but also for good coition a long life of swa (Rataj 1996). The level of fertilising has a notable impact on the botanical composition a consequently, on the quantitative a qualitative aspects of production. Compared to arable crops, grassla nutrition has some peculiarities, e.g. a considerable amount of organic residues in soil is a rich source of released available nutrients; different ability of roots to take nutrients from more or less accessible forms; high number of symbiotic plants; dense representation of micro- a macro-edaphone not only supports, but also intensifies the effects of fertiliser application. Overall success of fertilisation depes on the initial ate of grassla, the availability of water, the soil a climatic coitions, the method a frequency of utilisation a on the length of time over which the fertiliser is applied syematically (Slamka et al. 2006). The syematic a relatively long-term intensive application of nitrogen (N) fertiliser increases herbage a dry matter (DM) yields only during a limited period of time which is followed by swa degradation, decreased yields a the fertilisation ceases to be effective a economic (Rataj 1996). Ing. Vladimíra Vargová, Ing. Zuzana Kovaciková, Ing. Milan Michalec, CSc., Plant Production Research Center ­ Grassla a Mountain Agriculture Research Initute, 974 21 Banská Byrica, Mládeznícka 36, Slovak Republic. E-mail: vargova@vutphp.sk Agriculture (Ponohospodárvo), 58, 2012 (1): 1-10 The content of crude protein (CP) is much higher in DM of leaves than in that of ems a moreover, it is also higher in legumes than in grasses. The application of high N fertiliser rates (more than 120 kg/ha) eliminates these differences a the CP content in grass may exceed the amount of CP in legumes (Holúbek et al. 2001). The presented research aimed at udying the quality a production of herbage from an alluvial meadow at different fertiliser rates a nutrient ratios used the during fertiliser application. 2009. The trial comprised the following 10 treatments (Table 1) with a range of fertiliser application rates: Treatment 1: zero-fertilised swa (control); Treatment 2: fertiliser P a K application; Treatments 3, 4, 5 a 6: fertiliser N, P a K application at the N : P : K ratio of 1 : 0.30 : 0.8, respectively; Treatments 7, 8, 9 a 10: fertiliser N, P a K application at the N : P : K ratio of 1 : 0.15 : 0.4, respectively. The trial treatments a the fertiliser application rates in detail are given in Table 1. The fertiliser nitrogen was applied as ammonium nitrate (LAD 27%), P was applied as "hyperkorn" (8.5%) a K as potassium salt (52.23%). The total rate of N fertiliser was split into two dressings which were applied in the early spring (65%) a after the 1 cut (35%). Grassla was utilised by three cuts a year: the 1 cut ­ at the ear emergence of dominant grass species; the 2 cut ­ approximately 6 to 8 weeks later; the 3 cut ­ approximately 8 to 10 weeks after the 2 cut. The dry matter (DM) production was determined as follows: fresh herbage was weighed at the research site, DM content was determined in herbage (at 105°C) a the yield of DM was calculated per hectare. The herbage samples were oven-dried at 65°C a submitted to the chemical analysis to determine the content of nutrients (crude protein ­ Kjeldahl method (N × 6.25), content of P, K, Mg were determined in accoance with the Slovak technical aa N 46 7093. The obtained data were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by po hoc comparison using the Tukey´s HSD te (atit Cuom QC for Wiows). MATERIAL A METHODS The research site "Veká Lúka" (altitude 350 m; northern latitude 48° 37´; eaern longitude 19° 10´) was located in the protection zone of "Sliac" spa, in the weern part of "Zvolenská kotlina" basin. The edaphic coitions at the research site were as follows: geological subratum ­ the alluvial soil was loamy fluvisol; initial soil pH in KCl = 6.03; available nutrients: P = 6.16 mg/kg a K = 96.6 mg/kg. The initial swa type was Feucetum pratense association with 35 species (Alopecurus pratensis dominant) at the trial art (Table 2). Long-term mean rainfall over growing season is 428 mm; long-term mean annual rainfall 757 mm; mean daily temperature 8.2°C per year a 14.7°C over growing season (Figure 1). The field trial has been eablished as raomised blocks with four replicates (plot size 32 m2; 8 × 4 m) in 1961. This paper presents the research period of 2006­ T a b l e 1 Trial treatments Treatments Nutrient rates [kg/ha] N P K 1 0 0 0 0 2 PK 0 22 41.5 50 15 40 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 : 0.30 : 0.8 100 30 80 150 45 120 200 60 160 50 7.5 20 1 : 0.15 : 0.4 100 15 40 150 22.5 60 200 30 80 Agriculture (Ponohospodárvo), 58, 2012 (1): 1-10 RESULTS A DISCUSSION Over the growing seasons of the research period, mean air temperature was rising from 15.98°C in 2006 to 17.06°C in 2009, except for the year 2008 when the mean temperature was 0.02°C lower than in 2006, especially in the cool months of April a September, as given in Figure 1. Total monthly rainfall over the growing seasons decreased in 2006 a 2007, then increased to 389 mm in 2008 a decreased by 74 mm in 2009. The rainfall was extremely low in April in 2007 (0 mm) a 2009 (9 mm), respectively. Only in June 2009 the rainfall over growing season increased. Table 3 a Figure 2 present the yields of dry matter a increments of DM yields throughout the research period of 2006­2009. In 2008, the lowe DM yield was recoed at all the treatments, due to the rainfall deficiency in the early (April, May) a in the late months (Augu, September) of growing season. The Treatment 1 (control) was characterised by low DM production (2.63­4.91 t/ha). By comparison with the control, the fertiliser P a K application increased yields in all the cuts a years, except in 2009 (Table 3). The highe increase was recoed at the 2 cut in 2006 (more by 1.07 t/ha than Treatment 1 ­ the control). In 2007 a 2009, the DM yields decreased at the 2 a 3 cuts. Holúbek et al. (2007), Honsová et al. (2007) a Jancovic et al. (2009) reported that the fertiliser P a K application itself increased the yield variability, mainly as a result of higher variability in the proportion of grasses a legumes in swa at the cuts. The application of nitrogen significantly increased the DM production nearly in all the cuts a years (P < 0.01) a influenced also the total yield over the research period (Table 6). The variability in the yield increase uer the rising N rates was fou in agreement with Velich (1986), Holúbek (1991), Glaba a Kacorzykb (2011) a other authors udying the grassla nutrition. An exception was fou at the 2 cut in 2007 when the highe DM production was recoed at the zerofertilised control. Over the given period, the significantly highe DM production (P < 0.01) was recoed at Treatment 6 with the highe N rate a the low nutrient ratio applied (Table 6). The highe total DM yield for the whole research period was also fou at Treatment 6 in all the years, except for the year 2006, when the lowe DM yield (5.7 t/ha) was recoed there. In the years 2006, 2008 a 2009, respectively, the application rate of 50 kg N/ha with the low nutrient ratio resulted in higher DM production at Treatment 3 than at the comparable Treatment 7 with the high ratio of nutrients. With the high N rate (100 kg/ha) a the high nutrient ratio (Treatment 8), the DM yield was higher than that at Treatment 4 with the low nutrient ratio. This was not the case in 2008 when the production of DM was 4.61 t/ha at Treatment 8, Figure 1. Mean monthly temperature [ o C] a total monthly rainfall [mm] at "Veká Lúka" site Agriculture (Ponohospodárvo), 58, 2012 (1): 1-10 T a b l e 2 Botanical composition [%] at the 1 cut in 2006 Treatments* 1 50 13 37 0 3 20 ­ 1 ­ 6 3 ­ + 3 2 2 ­ ­ 10 ­ 3 ­ 7 3 ­ ­ 5 + ­ ­ ­ 1 ­ ­ ­ ­ 2 10 3 ­ 6 ­ 2 ­ ­ 5 ­ 2 2 53 8 36 3 5 20 8 ­ ­ ­ 2 ­ ­ ­ 5 ­ ­ ­ 10 3 ­ ­ 5 3 ­ 1 6 ­ ­ 1 ­ 4 1 ­ ­ ­ 1 3 3 6 ­ ­ 3 ­ 3 4 ­ ­ 3 62 7 31 0 3 30 1 1 ­ 6 4 ­ ­ ­ ­ 2 ­ ­ 15 2 1 ­ 2 4 ­ 2 3 + ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ 1 8 1 5 3 ­ 3 + 1 2 ­ 2 4 68 3 29 0 5 10 9 1 ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ 2 3 1 ­ ­ 15 22 ­ ­ 1 2 ­ 2 4 ­ + ­ ­ + ­ ­ ­ ­ 2 5 2 4 2 ­ 2 ­ ­ 4 ­ 2 5 71 5 24 0 6 10 15 2 1 ­ 2 ­ ­ 2 1 ­ ­ ­ 22 10 ­ ­ 1 4 1 2 2 ­ ­ ­ ­ + ­ ­ ­ + 1 6 1 6 1 ­ 2 ­ + 2 ­ 1 6 72 4 24 0 5 12 20 1 ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ 4 ­ ­ ­ 18 12 ­ ­ ­ 3 ­ ­ 4 1 ­ ­ ­ 1 ­ ­ ­ + ­ 5 2 4 1 ­ 2 ­ 1 2 ­ 1 7 49 3 48 0 2 20 7 2 1 1 ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ 10 6 ­ ­ 1 2 ­ 3 7 + ­ ­ ­ 2 + + ­ + ­ 10 2 12 2 ­ 3 ­ 4 2 ­ 1 8 62 4 34 0 5 26 7 2 ­ ­ 3 ­ ­ 2 3 ­ ­ ­ 8 5 ­ ­ 3 1 ­ 2 4 + ­ ­ ­ 1 1 ­ ­ 1 + 10 1 2 1 ­ 4 ­ 2 3 + 2 9 70 2 28 0 5 25 10 3 ­ ­ 4 ­ ­ ­ 2 ­ ­ ­ 12 8 ­ ­ 1 1 ­ 3 3 1 ­ + ­ 2 2 + ­ ­ ­ ­ 2 2 ­ ­ 5 ­ 2 4 + 2 10 54 2 44 0 2 15 15 2 ­ ­ 2 ­ ­ ­ 4 ­ ­ ­ 10 4 ­ ­ 1 1 ­ ­ 3 + ­ 3 ­ 2 3 ­ ­ 1 2 4 5 5 ­ ­ 4 ­ 2 7 1 1 Botanical composition Grasses Legumes Herbs Bare grou Alopecurus pratensis L. Anthoxanthum odoratum L. Arrhenatherum elatius L. Avenarum pubescens Dumort. Bromus erectus Huds. Carex spp. Dactylis glomerata L. Deschampsia caespitosa (L). P. Beauv. Elytrigia repens L. Feuca pratensis Huds. Feuca rubra L. Lolium perenne L. Phleum pratense L. Poa annua L. Poa pratensis L. Trisetum flavescens (L.) P. Beauv. Lotus corniculatus L. Medicago lupulina L. Trifolium repens L. Trifolium pratense L. Vicia tenuifolia L. Acetosa pratensis Mill. Achillea millefolium L. Campanula patula L. Capsella bursa paoris (L.) Medik. Cirsium arvense L. Cirsium canum (L.) Scopp. Daucus carota L. Galium mollugo L. Geranium pratense L. Geranium robertianum L. Glechoma hederacea L. Jacea pratensis Lam. Leontodon hispidus L. Leucanthemum vulgare Lam. Plantago lanceolata L. Plantago major L. Prunella vulgaris L. Ranunculus acris L. Salvia pratensis L. ellaria graminea L. Taraxacum officinale auct. non Weber. Tragopogon orientalis L. Veronica verna L. +less than 1%, *see Table 1 Agriculture (Ponohospodárvo), 58, 2012 (1): 1-10 but it was 4.86 t/ha at Treatment 4. Similar results (approx. 5 t/DM/ha), but with the maximum fertiliser rate (240 kg N/ha) were reported by Vozár (2009) from the trial at "Chvojnica" site. There had been reports of DM production decreasing from the 1 to the 3 cut (Velich 1986). Our research data showed slight variations. In both 2007 a 2009, the DM yield was higher in the 2 cut than at the 1 one, namely at the non-fertilised control as well as at Treatment 3 (50 kg N/ha a the low nutrient ratio). Based on his trials, Fiala (2002) pointed out that neither the long-term fertiliser application of as much as 300 kg N/ha nor the grassla utilisation by three cuts diurbed the ecological ability. The DM production rises while the nitrogen fertiliser rate is exteed up to 150 kg N/ha a both the forage quality a production efficiency are increased. The mo abile treatments appear to be those where the low a medium rates of nitrogen fertiliser (50 a 150 kg N/ha + PK) are applied. This conclusion was drawn also in our research. Honsová et al. (2006) had carried out trials on a valley meadow at "Cerníkovice" site a consequently, they confirmed the hypothesis of DM yields depeing on the amount of nitrogen applied. At the control, mean production of herbage was 2.6 t ha-1 a the highe production (8.95 t/ha) was recoed at the treatment with the N200P40 K100 application rate. Figure 2 gives the DM increase in comparison to the zero-fertilised control. The highe increase in DM yield (by 138.02%, i.e. 3.63 t/ha) was recoed at Treatment 6 in 2008 (200 kg N; low nutrient ratio). Over the research years, high increase in DM yield was recoed at Treatment 3, except for the year 2007 when a decrease by 8.2% was fou. Averaged over the research years a in comparison with the control, the increase in DM was higher at the treatments with identical rates of nitrogen a high ratio of nutrients (19.56 % at Treatment 7 a 37.92% at Treatment 8) than those with the low nutrient ratio. It was the opposite situation at Treatments 5 a 6 with the high rates of nitrogen fertiliser a the low nutrient ratio (increase by 56.76% a 64%) in comparison with the treatments with the high nutrient ratio (increase by 45.65% a 57.49%). Hejcman et al. (2010) a Holúbek et al. (2007) reported that the content of nutrients in herbage DM decreased with the reduction of available nutrients in soil a decreased also with increasing yield due to the so called dilution effect in the grown-up biomass. The quality of dry matter is defined by the mineral a organic composition (Whitehead 2000; Lichner et al. 1983). *see Table 1 Figure 2. Dry matter yields during 2006­2009 Agriculture (Ponohospodárvo), 58, 2012 (1): 1-10 T a b l e 3 Dry matter yields [t/ha] Treatments* 0 1 3.07 0.92 0.92 4.91 0.94 2.92 1.01 4.87 1.30 0.60 0.73 2.63 1.15 2.15 0.86 4.16 16.57 4.14a 0.533 PK 2 2.62 1.99 1.31 5.92 2.16 2.41 0.94 5.51 1.19 1.03 0.48 2.70 1.81 1.71 0.62 4.14 18.27 4.59ab 0.730 3 3.88 1.86 1.10 6.84 1.79 1.93 0.75 4.47 1.83 0.96 0.61 3.40 1.79 2.11 0.84 4.74 19.45 4.86bc 0.720 1 : 0.30 : 0.80 4 2.23 1.81 1.18 5.22 2.64 2.36 0.85 5.85 2.31 1.70 0.85 4.86 2.23 2.74 1.07 6.04 21.97 5.49cd 0.274 5 2006 1 cut 2 cut 1 : 0.15 : 0.40 6 2.22 2.17 1.31 5.70 3.25 2.85 1.15 7.25 3.37 1.76 1.13 6.26 2.43 4.38 1.16 7.97 27.18 6.79e 0.510 7 3.80 1.50 1.46 6.76 1.72 2.41 1.06 5.19 1.61 1.13 0.49 3.23 1.50 2.03 1.10 4.63 19.81 4.95bc 0.730 8 2.60 1.99 1.23 5.82 2.34 2.63 1.19 6.16 2.80 1.01 0.80 4.61 2.03 2.97 1.26 6.26 22.85 5.71d 0.379 9 3.40 2.27 1.07 6.74 3.08 2.25 1.21 6.54 2.75 1.34 0.99 5.08 1.87 2.87 1.03 5.77 24.13 6.03de 0.380 10 2.84 2.60 1.12 6.56 3.21 2.89 0.95 7.05 2.89 1.73 0.76 5.38 2.29 3.54 1.27 7.10 26.09 6.52e 0.400 2.59 2.27 1.17 6.03 2007 3.11 2.61 1.12 6.84 2008 2.64 2.15 0.99 5.78 2009 2.01 4.49 0.82 7.32 25.97 6.49e 0.357 3 cut 1 cut 2 cut 3 cut 1 cut 2 cut 3 cut 1 cut 2 cut 3 cut yield over 4 years Mean of the years SEM The values in the same row with different superscript letters are significantly different at P < 0.01 level for each variable Tukey´s HSD te SEM ­ aa error of the mean *see Table 1 Table 4 shows that the increasing nitrogen rate resulted in rising crude protein content. The highe CP content (201.68 g/kg) was fou in the 1 cut at Treatment 5 with the rate of 150 kg N/ha a the low nutrient ratio, but the differences were not significantly different (Table 7). However, the decrease in CP content was very significant (P < 0.01) by comparison between the years. The highe CP content was recoed moly at the 1 cut, except for Treatments 1 a 3 to 10 in 2008 a 2009, respectively, when the CP content was higher at the 2 cut, as shown by the atiically significant effect (Table 7). At the control, the highe CP content 6 was recoed at the 2 cut, except in 2009 (the 3 cut). It may be concluded that CP content was higher at the treatments with the low nutrient ratio than at those with the high one. The results showed that the treatment without fertiliser application could provide the required quality of DM, as reported also by Michalec et al. (2007). Some authors (Lichner et al. 1983; Krajcovic 1997; Holúbek 1991; Jancovic 1999) point out to the exiing difference between the content of minerals in plants a that required by animals which can be mitigated by fertiliser application to grassla. Fiala (2002) reports that the long-term application of fertiliser has influ- Agriculture (Ponohospodárvo), 58, 2012 (1): 1-10 T a b l e 4 Crude protein content in dry matter of herbage [g/kg] Treatments* Years Cuts 1 2006 2 3 1 2007 2 PK 2 152.00 94.60 122.99 144.24 139.94 116.83 130.47 126.45 116.61 105.43 123.99 121.23 124.57 3 134.90 137.74 122.31 134.66 128.73 116.96 124.15 127.20 124.36 105.89 122.47 131.80 125.93 1 : 0.30 : 0.80 4 171.34 137.37 131.18 153.51 137.58 127.21 129.04 159.80 116.32 108.05 128.08 133.92 136.12 5 201.68 148.48 120.49 152.41 114.21 137.26 123.80 125.04 121.58 94.94 124.52 130.41 132.90 6 163.03 124.19 127.84 138.71 129.14 136.69 115.83 155.63 108.59 123.82 134.36 139.12 133.10 7 135.29 134.43 153.81 154.19 122.40 117.39 122.95 132.06 114.49 113.31 131.50 138.09 130.83 1 : 0.15 : 0.40 8 157.59 123.41 120.84 152.41 110.77 125.03 118.00 129.74 125.51 115.57 141.31 131.67 129.32 9 179.27 123.02 112.25 137.87 127.52 118.91 116.26 127.82 119.71 118.90 148.78 132.75 130.25 10 168.82 130.32 116.93 156.57 124.25 124.75 119.87 136.84 112.50 119.00 129.72 134.29 131.15 3 1 2008 2 3 1 2009 Mean 3 *see Table 1 T a b l e 5 Mean content of minerals [g/kg] Treatments* Minerals Cuts 1 P 3 K PK 2 3.31 3.16 3.42 19.71 17.04 13.56 10.80 10.29 16.94 3.29 3.71 4.58 3 2.49 2.67 2.80 18.41 15.52 13.51 9.49 13.00 13.30 2.80 4.81 4.67 1 : 0.30 : 0.80 4 3.00 3.36 2.96 19.02 16.64 13.87 8.25 13.08 13.75 2.59 4.35 3.84 5 3.30 3.02 3.27 21.37 16.88 14.12 8.04 8.87 12.53 2.41 3.22 4.35 6 3.04 3.05 3.19 23.45 18.78 15.27 7.49 13.37 11.75 2.46 4.27 3.85 7 2.08 2.38 2.59 15.87 20.18 14.18 8.41 16.26 11.19 3.12 4.78 4.28 1 : 0.15 : 0.40 8 2.07 2.52 2.43 14.36 20.47 12.05 7.86 10.63 12.74 3.00 3.66 4.10 9 2.47 2.70 2.82 16.33 19.71 12.33 8.37 12.02 14.69 3.02 4.51 4.37 10 2.45 2.65 2.48 16.70 23.25 12.97 7.85 13.89 12.28 2.80 4.54 4.35 2 1 2 3 1 Ca 2 3 1 Mg *see Table 1 3 Agriculture (Ponohospodárvo), 58, 2012 (1): 1-10 T a b l e 6 The effect of years on dry matter yield [t/ha] Year 2006 2007 2008 2009 Dry matter yield [t/ha] 6.04bc 6.30c 4.39 SEM 0.212 0.302 0.414 0.434 5.81b The values in the same row with different superscript letters are significantly different at P < 0.01 level for each variable Tukey´s HSD te SEM ­ aa error of the mean T a b l e 7 The effects of fertiliser application, cuts, a years on the nutrient content [g/kg] Factor 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 SEM 1 2 3 Crude protein 124.63 124.58 a a P Treatments* 2.23 3.28 a d K 14.70a 16.61 Ca 11.36ab 12.69 Mg 4.10ab 3.99ab 4.29b 3.75ab 3.52a 3.66ab 4.20ab 3.70ab 4.11ab 4.10ab 0.169 3.03a 4.31b 4.28b 0.089 4.77b 4.61b 3.37a 3.23a 0.085 126.00a 136.29a 133.08 130.81 129.86 2.385 133.71b 131.00b 124.93 1.283 137.42b 132.83b 124.79 1.430 a a a 2.65a 3.10bc 3.20 2.35 2.66 15.70b 15.39b 17.34 16.72 16.10 11.87ab 11.67ab 9.81 133.05a 3.10b 19.12b 10.79ab 11.82 11.64 ab 129.06a 2.33a 15.64b 10.38ab ab 131.18a 2.54a 0.065 Cuts 2.62a 2.78ab 2.83 17.56b 0.790 18.12b 18.26b 13.49 Years 11.14ab 0.541 8.48a 12.09b 13.42 0.246 11.06a 12.82b 10.4 SEM 2006 2007 2008 2009 SEM 0.045 3.02c 2.73b 2.49 0.397 15.42a 19.74b 14.70 123.88a 2.73b 0.050 16.49ab 0.469 10.94a 0.333 The values in the same row with different superscript letters are significantly different at P < 0.01 level for each variable Tukey´s HSD te; SEM ­ aa error of the mean *see Table 1 ence on the content of mineral subances in total a at the iividual cuts as well. The rising rates of nitrogen fertiliser are increasing the content of N, P a Na, 8 but decreasing the content of Ca, Mg a K. The threecut utilisation of swa is characteriic of increasing content of Ca a Mg a decreasing K content from Agriculture (Ponohospodárvo), 58, 2012 (1): 1­10 the fir to the la cut. Mean content of minerals is given in Table 5. Averaged over the research period, the lowe P content (1.945 g/kg) was recoed at Treatment 1 (the control). Generally, the P content was low at all the cuts. The highe P content was fou at Treatment 2 in all of the cuts (3.31, 3.16 a 3.42 g/kg, respectively) throughout the period of research. Nerusil et al. (2007) also reported that the long-term application of P a K fertilisers increases the legume dominance a consequently, also the content of P, Ca a Mg. An acceptable content was provided also by the Treatments 4, 5 a 6 with the low ratio of nutrients, respectively. The lowe potassium content ranging between 13.05 a 15.76 g/kg was recoed at the zero-fertilised control. The K content was decreasing from the 1 to the 3 cut at the treatments 1 to 6, respectively. The highe K content was fou in the 2 cut at Treatments 7 to 10, the ones with the high nutrient ratio. Similar conclusions are drawn by Jezíková a Lihán (1997) who report that the content of K a P in herbage is increasing at the high nutrient ratio. However, one cannot agree with their atement that the low N : P : K ratio results also in decreased content of P a K as well as in increased Ca content. The highe calcium content was fou at Treatment 3 in the 2 cut. The content of Ca was increasing with the cuts, except for the Treatments 6, 7 a 10, respectively; the highe Ca content was fou in the 2 cut. Similar results were reported by Jancovic (1997). The magnesium content was higher at the treatments with the high ratio of nutrients. The highe Mg content (4.81 g/kg) was fou at Treatment 3 in the 2 cut a moreover, at the same cut, the Mg content was 4.65 g/kg at the zero-fertilised control. Lichner et al. (1977) a Jancovic (1997) report that Mg content increases with the rising intensity of N fertiliser application. Table 7 shows the significant effects of the cuts on the mean content of P, K, Ca a Mg. production was fou at the treatment with the highe N (200 kg) rate a the low nutrient ratio applied 1 : 0.3 : 0.8 (total dry matter yield over the four research years was 27.18 t/ha). The dry matter production was higher at the application of 50 a 100 kg N/ha fertiliser rates with the high nutrient ratio of 1 : 0.15 : 0.4. The crude protein content was rising with the increasing N fertiliser rates. The highe crude protein content (201.68 g/kg) was fou in the 1 cut at the treatment with the rate of 150 kg N/ha. The low nutrient ratio of 1 : 0.3 : 0.8 resulted in high content of P, K a Ca, but in low Mg content in dry matter, respectively. The content of K was rising in the 2 cut a decreasing in the 3 cut at all the treatments. The content of Ca was rising to the 3 cut a the Mg content was increasing in the 2 cut at all the research treatments. Based on the research results, it was concluded that the ratio of 1 : 0.30 : 0.8 was more favourable, when considering the needs of animals. Acknowledgements: The presented research was carried out as a part of the research project of the Plant Production Research Center Piesany ­ Grassla a Mountain Agriculture Research Initute Banská Byrica named ,,Competitiveness a ecologisation of crop production in the regions of Slovakia through the syems of management on agricultural la a by innovating the conituents of crop growing technologies", No. UO 27/091 05 01/091 05 10.

Journal

Agriculturede Gruyter

Published: Apr 1, 2012

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