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Ecological Material Solutions with Use of Composites

Ecological Material Solutions with Use of Composites Acta Sci. Pol. Architectura 20 (2) 2021, 103–109 content.sciendo.com/aspa ISSN 1644-0633 eISSN 2544-1760 DOI: 10.22630/ASPA.2021.20.2.19 ORIGINAL P APER Received: 30.11.2020 Accepted: 22.05.2021 Damian Jończyk Faculty of Civil Engineering, Czestochowa University of Technology, Częstochowa, Poland ABSTRACT Due to the global problem related to the excessive amount of waste, measures are also taken in the construc- tion industry to protect the environment and implement recycled waste for the production of building materi- als. Due to the high popularity of composite materials in construction, a brief overview of modern ecological solutions using recycling was presented. The presented solutions are divided into three groups: the use of recycled aggregates for the production of concrete, the use of recycled aggregates for structures reinforced with geo-synthetics, and the use of recycled plastic for the production of wood-plastic composites (WPCs). The division into these three groups was determined on the basis of the selection of solutions most widely discussed in scientific articles in the field of recycling. The strength of the elements was mainly analyzed. The most widely used and showing the best strength values is the solution based on the use of recycled aggregate. The use of plastic waste is possible, but requires further research. Key words: aggregate, geosynthetics, plastic, recycling, wood which are increasingly used even in single-family INTRODUCTION housing (Kendall, 2007). Composites are bio-sustain- Currently, one of the biggest global problems is the able materials and less energy is usually needed to large amount of waste which is unknown. Build- make them (Hollaway, 2003). Composite materials are ing construction is among the many sectors which constantly developed, which allows achieving better significantly affect waste management (Aly, 2012; and better properties, especially when using recycled Lila, Kumar & Sharma, 2013). Every year, many new materials (Bobko & Całusiński, 2012; Góra, 2014; elements are produced, and at the same time many Brózda, 2015; Niemiro, 2016; Adamczyk, Grzesik & become waste. As an example of how much impact Harat, 2018). the construction industry has on the environment, the For a long time, the solution used in construction, data presented by Moallemi Pour and Alam (2016) can based on recycling, is the use of various aggregate sub- be used to inform that on average 1 t of concrete is stitutes. In addition, an important aspect at the present produced annually per person in the world. In recent time is the management of plastic waste. Therefore, years, more and more attention has been paid to the the information presented in the article focuses on concept of sustainable construction, combined with two thematic scopes: recycled aggregates, both as a ecology, and one of its basic aspects is the use of waste replacement for concrete aggregates and as a replace- materials for the production of new elements, i.e. re- ment for road pavement layers, and the use of plastic cycling. in the production of construction structural elements. Materials widely used in the construction industry The purpose of this article is a briefly review of the with good properties are various types of composites, latest trends in the use of recycled materials for the Damian Jończyk https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2161-4768 damian.jonczyk@pcz.pl © Copyright by Wydawnictwo SGGW Jończyk, D. (2021). Ecological material solutions with use of composites. Acta Sci. Pol. Architectura, 20 (2), 103–109. doi: 10.22630/ ASPA.2021.20.2.19 production of various types of composite materials. to the used reinforcement. Moallemi Pour and Alam The presented solutions are divided into three groups: (2016) present adhesion tests of concrete based on the use of recycled aggregates for the production of recycled aggregate, added in various proportions (30, concrete, the use of recycled aggregates for structures 40 and 50%) to the concrete mix. The results were reinforced with geo-synthetics, and the use of recycled compared with samples made using only natural ag- plastic for the production of wood-plastic composites gregate. The adhesion for both types of aggregates (WPCs). The presented division was adopted on the ba- showed similar characteristics. The best results for sis of the analysis of the most popular design solutions both compressive strength of concrete (Fig. 1) and discussed in scientific articles in the field of recycling. adhesion were demonstrated by samples with the ad- While discussing each type of structural solution, the dition of 30% recycled aggregate. Samples with the author believes that the most interesting proposals are addition of 50% recycled aggregate achieved the most presented. The analysis of the presented literature fo- similar properties to traditional concrete. cuses on the strength properties of elements made with Fraj and Idir (2017) studied the impact of the type the addition of recycled materials. of waste aggregate used on concrete properties. They used three types of aggregate for testing: the lowest class of road waste, ordinary concrete from demol- THE USE OF RECYCLED AGGREGATES ished buildings and high-grade concrete. The control The solution used in the building construction for a series were samples of concrete based on natural ag- long time consists in an application of various construc- gregate. Samples using aggregate made of high-grade tion waste as aggregate for the production of concrete. recycled concrete showed the best physical properties In the case of steel-concrete composite structures, the and higher compressive strength, however, they were solution allowing recycling consists in making a con- also characterized by higher porosity (six times higher crete mix to fill the steel pipe using waste aggregates. water absorption compared to samples based on natu- Structures of this type are designated by the recycled ral aggregate). However, the authors emphasize the aggregate concrete filled steel tube (RACFST). De- importance of using recycled aggregates due to the spite a decrease in the element rigidity by 0.1–9.2% lack of the need to of transport of natural aggregates (Wang, Chen & Geng, 2015), the use of recycled ag- over very long distances. gregate is a beneficial alternative to natural aggregates A comprehensive review of a research on the use of allowing the use of waste. The beneficial fact is the recycled aggregate in pipe columns made of composite same nature of destruction of samples with concrete material – fibre-reinforced plastic (FRP) – filled with based on natural aggregate and on recycled aggregate concrete, was done by Xu, Chen, Xiao, Demartino (Wang et al., 2015). and Wang (2017). Based on the analysis of previous When using a concrete mix based on recycled ag- research, it was found that the use of aggregate from gregate, an important issue is the adhesion of concrete waste has a positive effect on the properties of con- Fig. 1. Compressive strength values for vari- ous additions of recycled aggregate, measured after 7, 28 and 70 days after execution (based on: Moallemi Pour & Alam, 2016) 104 architectura.actapol.net Jończyk, D. (2021). Ecological material solutions with use of composites. Acta Sci. Pol. Architectura, 20 (2), 103–109. doi: 10.22630/ ASPA.2021.20.2.19 crete, but the increase in strength is slower than when A relatively new but more widely studied solution using natural aggregate. An important note regarding is the use of plastic waste as aggregate for mortars and the use of waste aggregate is the information that the concretes. According to Badache, Benosman, Senhad- use of soaked waste aggregate degrades the value of ji and Mouli (2018), the annual production of plastic concrete strength. Only the addition of dry aggregate in the world is over 300 million t, and thus the annual is beneficial. amount of plastic waste is over 25 million t. A large Due to the frequency of earthquakes, research is amount of waste necessitates better management. One also being carried out on the use of waste aggregate way is to use high-density plastic from HDPE poly- for making structural elements used in seismically ac- ethylene pipes as a replacement for fine aggregate for tive areas. In the study by Marthong et al. (2017) the mortars. Figure 2 presents a graph of HDPE aggregate strength of the beam-column joint was examined. The grain size. Preliminary studies showed a 38% increase best test results were obtained when 30% recycled ag- in mortar strength when 60% HDPE was added (Ba- gregate was used. In addition, attention was drawn to dache et al., 2018). the fact that during seismic tests in elements made of A wider use of plastic waste is presented by Jacob- recycled aggregate, degradation of stiffness was slow- Vaillancourt and Sorelli (2018). Various post-consum- er. In Polish conditions, this type of constructions may er packaging, properly sorted, was used for the tests be used in mining areas. (Fig. 3). The best results were obtained using 20% Most scientific articles indicate a positive aspect PVC as a substitute for fine aggregate. Samples with of the use of recycled aggregate, while in the work by the above amount of plastic aggregate showed a de- Younis, Ebead and Judd (2018), which analyzed the crease in thermal conductivity compared to samples impact of waste aggregate use on long-term mainte- on natural aggregate. Long-term mechanical proper- nance costs, its positive impact was not demonstrated. ties were comparable to those on natural aggregate. Fig. 2. Aggregate grain based on polyethylene pipes and natural aggregate (based on: Badache et al., 2018) Fig. 3. Diagram of possible waste segregation used for making composite elements (based on: Jacob-Vaillancourt & Sorelli, 2018) architectura.actapol.net 105 Jończyk, D. (2021). Ecological material solutions with use of composites. Acta Sci. Pol. Architectura, 20 (2), 103–109. doi: 10.22630/ ASPA.2021.20.2.19 bic plastic (Hung, Wu, Chen & Wu, 2016). A way to WOOD-PLASTIC COMPOSITES improve these properties, according to the authors of Another group of new solutions using recycled ma- this publication, is the use of acetylation. This process terials is the use of plastic waste for the production improves elasticity, tensile strength and reduces com- of WPCs. In order to reduce the scale of tree felling posite creep. and the use of excessive amounts of plastic waste, a Due to the need of recycling of a very large amount combination of two materials was proposed: plastic as of plastic, research is also underway to produce com- a matrix and wood fibers as reinforcement, forming a ponents that do not differ in properties from WPCs, composite material. In addition to the above-mentioned but only made of plastic without addition of wood. composite, various materials are used as fillers. Herrera, Bedoya-Ruiz and Hurtado (2018) present Väntsi and Kärki (2014) proposed 20, 30 and 40% seismic tests of walls built of boards made of plastic mineral wool as a WPC filler. The addition of mineral waste, but the authors point out the need for further wool reduced the bending strength as the amount of research on this solution. wool used increased (Fig. 4). As a reason for the nega- tive impact of the abovementioned filling, the authors RECYCLED MATERIALS AND GEOSYNTHETICS give a poor adhesion between wool fibers and matrix and different orientation of wool fibers. Geosynthetics favorably affect the static work of re- Other fillers which can be used in WPCs are na- inforced elements with their use, so it is reasonable noclay, calcium carbonate and talc. The study of the in this case to try using recycled materials to create a impact of these fillers on the properties of WPCs is pre- composite with the required properties and in addition sented by Srivabut, Ratanawilai and Hiziroglu (2018). being an ecological product. The most popular solution The research received a large scatter of results de- is the use of geosynthetics to strengthen and stabilize pending on: recycled aggregates. The use of various types of geo- − preliminary properties, synthetics (geogrids, geotextiles, geocells) improves − manufacturing methods, the properties of elements with waste aggregate by re- − interaction between materials. ducing deformation and stress (Han & Thakur, 2014). The composite showed the best properties when In addition, in some cases smaller deformations can be using a 7% calcium carbonate filling. achieved using recycled aggregate (Fig. 5). The above The disadvantage of WPCs is the low compatibil- solutions are currently the subject of research because ity between hydrophilic lignocellulose and hydropho- research shows that the use of recycled aggregates Fig. 4. Bending strength with various addition of min- eral wool as a filler for WPCs (after preliminary Fig. 5. Average deformation of surfaces reinforced with measurements and after cyclic loading) (based on: geosynthetics with natural and recycled aggregate Väntsi & Kärki, 2014) (based on: Han & Thakur, 2014) 106 architectura.actapol.net Jończyk, D. (2021). Ecological material solutions with use of composites. Acta Sci. Pol. Architectura, 20 (2), 103–109. doi: 10.22630/ ASPA.2021.20.2.19 does not significantly adversely affect the properties struction. The use of recycled aggregates in the pro- of the used geosynthetics (Vieira & Pereira, 2015). duction of concrete is a solution that has been used for a long time and has a beneficial or neutral effect Another way of using geosynthetics which posi- tively affects short-term and long-term deformation on the mechanical properties of elements or materi- values is to strengthen the asphalt mix prepared us- als. However, recycled materials should be used with ing recycled materials (Han & Thakur, 2014; Hegde, caution, as sometimes other properties, such as water 2017). absorption, may have worse parameters. Plastic waste can be used both as a replacement for aggregate and In the case when the asphalt mix is the recycled aggregate, the solution showing beneficial proper- as a component for the production of small structural ties consists in combination of the geocell with recy- elements. cled aggregate. In this case, one obtains a foundation which can be used even on weak ground (Thakur, Han, REFERENCES Pokharel & Parsons, 2012). The most effective use of Adamczyk, Z., Grzesik, B. & Harat, A. (2017). Środowisko- recycled aggregate as a replacement for concrete ag- we skutki stosowania żużla hutniczego jako składnika gregate can be achieved by adding an average of 35% kruszyw. Zeszyty Naukowe Politechniki Częstochow- of waste. Such an amount of recycled aggregate al- skiej. Budownictwo, 23, 9–15. https://doi.org/10.17512/ lows to maintain the strength properties as for concrete znb.2017.1.01 from natural aggregate, and in some cases even better Aly, M. (2012). Development of an Eco-friendly Compos- (Moallemi Pour & Alam, 2016). However, there are ite Material for Engineering Applications (PhD the- problems with the effect of moisture when using re- sis). Dublin City University, Dublin. http://doras.dcu. cycled aggregate. The water absorption can be much ie/16857/1/Marwa_Aly__Final_thesis_for_printing.pdf worse and the use of wet aggregate can reduce the me- Badache, A., Benosman, A. S., Senhadji, Y. & Mouli, M. chanical properties of the concrete. (2018). Thermo-physical and mechanical characteris- Research on the use of plastic as a matrix substi- tics of sand-based lightweight composite mortars with recycled high-density polyethylene (HDPE). Construc- tute in composites shows different values. Some stud- tion and Building Materials, 163, 40–52. https://doi. ies have shown a decrease in mechanical properties. org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2017.12.069 However, the authors presenting the results also pre- Bobko, T. & Całusiński, P. (2012). Modelowanie racjonal- sented the proposed ways to improve the properties. nych powiazań pomiędzy parametrami inżynierii proce- sowej w produkcji energooszczędnych elementów bu- CONCLUSIONS dowlanych. Zeszyty Naukowe Politechniki Częstochow- skiej. Budownictwo, 18, 13–27. The article presents a brief overview of current re- Brózda, K. (2015). Ekologiczne materiały kompozytowe search trends in the use of recycled raw materials for w budownictwie. In M. Ulewicz, J. Selejdak (Eds.), the production of composite materials used in con- Ekoinnowacje w materiałach i technologiach budowla- struction. nych (pp. 60–69). Częstochowa: Wydawnictwo Wydzia- łu Zarządzania Politechniki Częstochowskiej. Due to the growing problem with garbage man- Fraj, A. B. & Idir, R. (2017). Concrete based on recycled agement, the use of waste is an important element in aggregates – Recycling and environmental analysis: researching new building materials. Materials using A case study of Paris’ region. Construction and Building recycled raw materials in most cases are not worse to Materials, 157, 952–964. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conb the mechanical properties of traditional materials, and uildmat.2017.09.059 are often superior to them in this respect. Góra, J. (2014). Możliwości zastosowania polskich kru- Particular attention should be paid to the possibili- szyw węglanowych do betonów wysokowartościo- ties of using plastic waste, as it is currently one of the wych. In S. Fic (Ed.), Materiały kompozytowe i moż- most difficult waste to manage. liwości ich zastosowania w budownictwie tradycyjnym The presented ecological types of solutions are di- i energooszczędnym (pp. 21–30). Lublin: Politechnika verse and relate to various structural aspects in con- Lubelska. architectura.actapol.net 107 Jończyk, D. (2021). Ecological material solutions with use of composites. Acta Sci. Pol. Architectura, 20 (2), 103–109. doi: 10.22630/ ASPA.2021.20.2.19 Han, J. & Thakur, J. K. (2014). Sustainable roadway con- ment. Structures, 7, 153–164. https://doi.org/10.1016/ struction using recycled aggregates with geosynthetics. j.istruc.2016.06.010 Sustainable Cities and Society, 14, 342–350. https://doi. Niemiro, J. (2016). Analiza i wykorzystanie dźwiękochłon- org/10.1016/j.scs.2013.11.011 nych właściwości granulatu gumowego pozyskanego Hegde, A. (2017). Geocell reinforced foundation beds-past z recyklingu. Zeszyty Naukowe Politechniki Często- findings , present trends and future prospects : A state- chowskiej. Budownictwo, 22, 257–264. https://doi. of-the-art review. Construction and Building Materials, org/10.17512/znb.2016.1.25 154, 658–674. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.20 Srivabut, C., Ratanawilai, T. & Hiziroglu, S. (2018). Effect 17.07.230 of nanoclay, talcum, and calcium carbonate as filler on Herrera, J. P., Bedoya-Ruiz, D. & Hurtado, J. E. (2018). properties of composites manufactured from recycled Seismic behavior of recycled plastic lumber walls: polypropylene and rubberwood fiber. Construction An experimental and analytical research. Engineer- and Building Materials, 162, 450–458. https://doi. ing Structures, 177, 566–578. https://doi.org/10.1016/ org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2017.12.048 j.engstruct.2018.10.006 Thakur, J. K., Han, J., Pokharel, S. K. & Parsons, R. L. Hollaway, L. C. (2003). The evolution of and the way for- (2012). Performance of geocell-reinforced recycled as- ward for advanced polymer composites in the civil infra- phalt pavement (RAP) bases over weak subgrade under structure. Construction and Building Materials, 17, 365– cyclic plate loading. Geotextiles and Geomembranes, 35, 378. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0950-0618(03)00038-2 14–24. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geotexmem.2012.06.004 Hung, K. C., Wu, T. L., Chen, Y. L., Wu, J. H. (2016). As- Väntsi, O. & Kärki, T. (2014). Utilization of recycled min- sessing the effect of wood acetylation on mechanical eral wool as filler in wood-polypropylene composites. properties and extended creep behavior of wood/recy- Construction and Building Materials, 55, 220–226. cled-polypropylene composites. Construction and Build- https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2014.01.050 ing Materials, 108, 139–145. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.c Vieira, C. S. & Pereira, P. M. (2015). Transportation Geo- onbuildmat.2016.01.039 technics Damage induced by recycled Construction and Jacob-Vaillancourt, C. & Sorelli, L. (2018). Characteriza- Demolition Wastes on the short-term tensile behaviour tion of concrete composites with recycled plastic aggre- of two geosynthetics. Transportation Geotechnics, 4, gates from postconsumer material streams. Construc- 64–75. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trgeo.2015.07.002 tion and Building Materials, 182, 561–572. https://doi. Wang, Y., Chen, J. & Geng, Y. (2015). Testing and analy- org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2018.06.083 sis of axially loaded normal-strength recycled aggregate Kendall, K. (2007). Building the future with FRP compos- concrete filled steel tubular stub columns. Engineer- ites. Reinforced Plastics, 5, 26–33. ing Structures, 86, 192–212. https://doi.org/10.1016/ Lila, M. K., Kumar, F., Sharma, S. (2013). Composites from j.engstruct.2015.01.007 waste for civil engineering applications. i-manager’s Xu, J. J., Chen, Z. P., Xiao, Y., Demartino, C. & Wang, J. H. Journal on Material Science, 1 (3), 1–10. (2017). Recycled Aggregate Concrete in FRP-confined Marthong, C., Sangma, A. S., Choudhury, S. A., Pyrbot, columns: A review of experimental results. Compos- R. N., Tron, S. L., Mawroh, L. & Bharti, G. S (2017). ite Structures, 174, 277–291. https://doi.org/10.1016/ Structural Behavior of Recycled Aggregate Concrete j.compstruct.2017.04.034 Beam-Column Connection in Presence of Micro Con- Younis, A., Ebead, U. & Judd, S. (2018). Life cycle cost crete at Joint Region. Structures, 11, 243–251. https:// analysis of structural concrete using seawater, recycled doi.org/10.1016/j.istruc.2017.07.001 concrete aggregate, and GFRP reinforcement. Construc- Moallemi Pour, S. & Alam, M. S. (2016). Investigation of tion and Building Materials, 175, 152–160. https://doi. Compressive Bond Behavior of Steel Rebar Embedded org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2018.04.183 in Concrete With Partial Recycled Aggregate Replace- 108 architectura.actapol.net Jończyk, D. (2021). Ecological material solutions with use of composites. Acta Sci. Pol. Architectura, 20 (2), 103–109. doi: 10.22630/ ASPA.2021.20.2.19 EKOLOGICZNE ROZWIĄZANIA MATERIAŁOWE Z WYKORZYSTANIEM KOMPOZYTÓW STRESZCZENIE Ze względu na globalny problem związany z nadmierną ilością odpadów w branży budowlanej także podej- mowane są działania na rzecz ochrony środowiska i wdrożenia do produkcji materiałów budowlanych z od- padów pochodzących z recyklingu. W związku z dużą popularnością materiałów kompozytowych w budow- nictwie przedstawiono krótki przegląd nowoczesnych rozwiązań ekologicznych wykorzystujących recykling. Zaprezentowane rozwiązania podzielono na trzy grupy: wykorzystanie kruszyw z recyklingu do produkcji betonu, użycie kruszyw recyklowanych do konstrukcji wzmacnianych geosyntetykami oraz użycie plastiku z recyklingu do wytwarzania kompozytów drewniano-plastikowych WPC (ang. wood-plastic composites). Podział na wspomniane trzy grupy został określony na podstawie wyboru rozwiązań najszerzej omawianych w artykułach naukowych z zakresu recyklingu. Głównie analizowano wytrzymałość elementów. Rozwiąza- nie z zastosowaniem kruszywa z recyklingu jest najszerzej wykorzystywane i przedstawia najlepsze wartości wytrzymałości. Użycie odpadów plastikowych jest możliwe, jednak wymaga dalszych badań. Słowa kluczowe: kruszywo, geosyntetyki, recykling, plastik, drewno architectura.actapol.net 109 http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Acta Scientiarum Polonorum Architectura de Gruyter

Ecological Material Solutions with Use of Composites

Acta Scientiarum Polonorum Architectura , Volume 20 (2): 7 – Jun 1, 2021

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Abstract

Acta Sci. Pol. Architectura 20 (2) 2021, 103–109 content.sciendo.com/aspa ISSN 1644-0633 eISSN 2544-1760 DOI: 10.22630/ASPA.2021.20.2.19 ORIGINAL P APER Received: 30.11.2020 Accepted: 22.05.2021 Damian Jończyk Faculty of Civil Engineering, Czestochowa University of Technology, Częstochowa, Poland ABSTRACT Due to the global problem related to the excessive amount of waste, measures are also taken in the construc- tion industry to protect the environment and implement recycled waste for the production of building materi- als. Due to the high popularity of composite materials in construction, a brief overview of modern ecological solutions using recycling was presented. The presented solutions are divided into three groups: the use of recycled aggregates for the production of concrete, the use of recycled aggregates for structures reinforced with geo-synthetics, and the use of recycled plastic for the production of wood-plastic composites (WPCs). The division into these three groups was determined on the basis of the selection of solutions most widely discussed in scientific articles in the field of recycling. The strength of the elements was mainly analyzed. The most widely used and showing the best strength values is the solution based on the use of recycled aggregate. The use of plastic waste is possible, but requires further research. Key words: aggregate, geosynthetics, plastic, recycling, wood which are increasingly used even in single-family INTRODUCTION housing (Kendall, 2007). Composites are bio-sustain- Currently, one of the biggest global problems is the able materials and less energy is usually needed to large amount of waste which is unknown. Build- make them (Hollaway, 2003). Composite materials are ing construction is among the many sectors which constantly developed, which allows achieving better significantly affect waste management (Aly, 2012; and better properties, especially when using recycled Lila, Kumar & Sharma, 2013). Every year, many new materials (Bobko & Całusiński, 2012; Góra, 2014; elements are produced, and at the same time many Brózda, 2015; Niemiro, 2016; Adamczyk, Grzesik & become waste. As an example of how much impact Harat, 2018). the construction industry has on the environment, the For a long time, the solution used in construction, data presented by Moallemi Pour and Alam (2016) can based on recycling, is the use of various aggregate sub- be used to inform that on average 1 t of concrete is stitutes. In addition, an important aspect at the present produced annually per person in the world. In recent time is the management of plastic waste. Therefore, years, more and more attention has been paid to the the information presented in the article focuses on concept of sustainable construction, combined with two thematic scopes: recycled aggregates, both as a ecology, and one of its basic aspects is the use of waste replacement for concrete aggregates and as a replace- materials for the production of new elements, i.e. re- ment for road pavement layers, and the use of plastic cycling. in the production of construction structural elements. Materials widely used in the construction industry The purpose of this article is a briefly review of the with good properties are various types of composites, latest trends in the use of recycled materials for the Damian Jończyk https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2161-4768 damian.jonczyk@pcz.pl © Copyright by Wydawnictwo SGGW Jończyk, D. (2021). Ecological material solutions with use of composites. Acta Sci. Pol. Architectura, 20 (2), 103–109. doi: 10.22630/ ASPA.2021.20.2.19 production of various types of composite materials. to the used reinforcement. Moallemi Pour and Alam The presented solutions are divided into three groups: (2016) present adhesion tests of concrete based on the use of recycled aggregates for the production of recycled aggregate, added in various proportions (30, concrete, the use of recycled aggregates for structures 40 and 50%) to the concrete mix. The results were reinforced with geo-synthetics, and the use of recycled compared with samples made using only natural ag- plastic for the production of wood-plastic composites gregate. The adhesion for both types of aggregates (WPCs). The presented division was adopted on the ba- showed similar characteristics. The best results for sis of the analysis of the most popular design solutions both compressive strength of concrete (Fig. 1) and discussed in scientific articles in the field of recycling. adhesion were demonstrated by samples with the ad- While discussing each type of structural solution, the dition of 30% recycled aggregate. Samples with the author believes that the most interesting proposals are addition of 50% recycled aggregate achieved the most presented. The analysis of the presented literature fo- similar properties to traditional concrete. cuses on the strength properties of elements made with Fraj and Idir (2017) studied the impact of the type the addition of recycled materials. of waste aggregate used on concrete properties. They used three types of aggregate for testing: the lowest class of road waste, ordinary concrete from demol- THE USE OF RECYCLED AGGREGATES ished buildings and high-grade concrete. The control The solution used in the building construction for a series were samples of concrete based on natural ag- long time consists in an application of various construc- gregate. Samples using aggregate made of high-grade tion waste as aggregate for the production of concrete. recycled concrete showed the best physical properties In the case of steel-concrete composite structures, the and higher compressive strength, however, they were solution allowing recycling consists in making a con- also characterized by higher porosity (six times higher crete mix to fill the steel pipe using waste aggregates. water absorption compared to samples based on natu- Structures of this type are designated by the recycled ral aggregate). However, the authors emphasize the aggregate concrete filled steel tube (RACFST). De- importance of using recycled aggregates due to the spite a decrease in the element rigidity by 0.1–9.2% lack of the need to of transport of natural aggregates (Wang, Chen & Geng, 2015), the use of recycled ag- over very long distances. gregate is a beneficial alternative to natural aggregates A comprehensive review of a research on the use of allowing the use of waste. The beneficial fact is the recycled aggregate in pipe columns made of composite same nature of destruction of samples with concrete material – fibre-reinforced plastic (FRP) – filled with based on natural aggregate and on recycled aggregate concrete, was done by Xu, Chen, Xiao, Demartino (Wang et al., 2015). and Wang (2017). Based on the analysis of previous When using a concrete mix based on recycled ag- research, it was found that the use of aggregate from gregate, an important issue is the adhesion of concrete waste has a positive effect on the properties of con- Fig. 1. Compressive strength values for vari- ous additions of recycled aggregate, measured after 7, 28 and 70 days after execution (based on: Moallemi Pour & Alam, 2016) 104 architectura.actapol.net Jończyk, D. (2021). Ecological material solutions with use of composites. Acta Sci. Pol. Architectura, 20 (2), 103–109. doi: 10.22630/ ASPA.2021.20.2.19 crete, but the increase in strength is slower than when A relatively new but more widely studied solution using natural aggregate. An important note regarding is the use of plastic waste as aggregate for mortars and the use of waste aggregate is the information that the concretes. According to Badache, Benosman, Senhad- use of soaked waste aggregate degrades the value of ji and Mouli (2018), the annual production of plastic concrete strength. Only the addition of dry aggregate in the world is over 300 million t, and thus the annual is beneficial. amount of plastic waste is over 25 million t. A large Due to the frequency of earthquakes, research is amount of waste necessitates better management. One also being carried out on the use of waste aggregate way is to use high-density plastic from HDPE poly- for making structural elements used in seismically ac- ethylene pipes as a replacement for fine aggregate for tive areas. In the study by Marthong et al. (2017) the mortars. Figure 2 presents a graph of HDPE aggregate strength of the beam-column joint was examined. The grain size. Preliminary studies showed a 38% increase best test results were obtained when 30% recycled ag- in mortar strength when 60% HDPE was added (Ba- gregate was used. In addition, attention was drawn to dache et al., 2018). the fact that during seismic tests in elements made of A wider use of plastic waste is presented by Jacob- recycled aggregate, degradation of stiffness was slow- Vaillancourt and Sorelli (2018). Various post-consum- er. In Polish conditions, this type of constructions may er packaging, properly sorted, was used for the tests be used in mining areas. (Fig. 3). The best results were obtained using 20% Most scientific articles indicate a positive aspect PVC as a substitute for fine aggregate. Samples with of the use of recycled aggregate, while in the work by the above amount of plastic aggregate showed a de- Younis, Ebead and Judd (2018), which analyzed the crease in thermal conductivity compared to samples impact of waste aggregate use on long-term mainte- on natural aggregate. Long-term mechanical proper- nance costs, its positive impact was not demonstrated. ties were comparable to those on natural aggregate. Fig. 2. Aggregate grain based on polyethylene pipes and natural aggregate (based on: Badache et al., 2018) Fig. 3. Diagram of possible waste segregation used for making composite elements (based on: Jacob-Vaillancourt & Sorelli, 2018) architectura.actapol.net 105 Jończyk, D. (2021). Ecological material solutions with use of composites. Acta Sci. Pol. Architectura, 20 (2), 103–109. doi: 10.22630/ ASPA.2021.20.2.19 bic plastic (Hung, Wu, Chen & Wu, 2016). A way to WOOD-PLASTIC COMPOSITES improve these properties, according to the authors of Another group of new solutions using recycled ma- this publication, is the use of acetylation. This process terials is the use of plastic waste for the production improves elasticity, tensile strength and reduces com- of WPCs. In order to reduce the scale of tree felling posite creep. and the use of excessive amounts of plastic waste, a Due to the need of recycling of a very large amount combination of two materials was proposed: plastic as of plastic, research is also underway to produce com- a matrix and wood fibers as reinforcement, forming a ponents that do not differ in properties from WPCs, composite material. In addition to the above-mentioned but only made of plastic without addition of wood. composite, various materials are used as fillers. Herrera, Bedoya-Ruiz and Hurtado (2018) present Väntsi and Kärki (2014) proposed 20, 30 and 40% seismic tests of walls built of boards made of plastic mineral wool as a WPC filler. The addition of mineral waste, but the authors point out the need for further wool reduced the bending strength as the amount of research on this solution. wool used increased (Fig. 4). As a reason for the nega- tive impact of the abovementioned filling, the authors RECYCLED MATERIALS AND GEOSYNTHETICS give a poor adhesion between wool fibers and matrix and different orientation of wool fibers. Geosynthetics favorably affect the static work of re- Other fillers which can be used in WPCs are na- inforced elements with their use, so it is reasonable noclay, calcium carbonate and talc. The study of the in this case to try using recycled materials to create a impact of these fillers on the properties of WPCs is pre- composite with the required properties and in addition sented by Srivabut, Ratanawilai and Hiziroglu (2018). being an ecological product. The most popular solution The research received a large scatter of results de- is the use of geosynthetics to strengthen and stabilize pending on: recycled aggregates. The use of various types of geo- − preliminary properties, synthetics (geogrids, geotextiles, geocells) improves − manufacturing methods, the properties of elements with waste aggregate by re- − interaction between materials. ducing deformation and stress (Han & Thakur, 2014). The composite showed the best properties when In addition, in some cases smaller deformations can be using a 7% calcium carbonate filling. achieved using recycled aggregate (Fig. 5). The above The disadvantage of WPCs is the low compatibil- solutions are currently the subject of research because ity between hydrophilic lignocellulose and hydropho- research shows that the use of recycled aggregates Fig. 4. Bending strength with various addition of min- eral wool as a filler for WPCs (after preliminary Fig. 5. Average deformation of surfaces reinforced with measurements and after cyclic loading) (based on: geosynthetics with natural and recycled aggregate Väntsi & Kärki, 2014) (based on: Han & Thakur, 2014) 106 architectura.actapol.net Jończyk, D. (2021). Ecological material solutions with use of composites. Acta Sci. Pol. Architectura, 20 (2), 103–109. doi: 10.22630/ ASPA.2021.20.2.19 does not significantly adversely affect the properties struction. The use of recycled aggregates in the pro- of the used geosynthetics (Vieira & Pereira, 2015). duction of concrete is a solution that has been used for a long time and has a beneficial or neutral effect Another way of using geosynthetics which posi- tively affects short-term and long-term deformation on the mechanical properties of elements or materi- values is to strengthen the asphalt mix prepared us- als. However, recycled materials should be used with ing recycled materials (Han & Thakur, 2014; Hegde, caution, as sometimes other properties, such as water 2017). absorption, may have worse parameters. Plastic waste can be used both as a replacement for aggregate and In the case when the asphalt mix is the recycled aggregate, the solution showing beneficial proper- as a component for the production of small structural ties consists in combination of the geocell with recy- elements. cled aggregate. 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Life cycle cost crete at Joint Region. Structures, 11, 243–251. https:// analysis of structural concrete using seawater, recycled doi.org/10.1016/j.istruc.2017.07.001 concrete aggregate, and GFRP reinforcement. Construc- Moallemi Pour, S. & Alam, M. S. (2016). Investigation of tion and Building Materials, 175, 152–160. https://doi. Compressive Bond Behavior of Steel Rebar Embedded org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2018.04.183 in Concrete With Partial Recycled Aggregate Replace- 108 architectura.actapol.net Jończyk, D. (2021). Ecological material solutions with use of composites. Acta Sci. Pol. Architectura, 20 (2), 103–109. doi: 10.22630/ ASPA.2021.20.2.19 EKOLOGICZNE ROZWIĄZANIA MATERIAŁOWE Z WYKORZYSTANIEM KOMPOZYTÓW STRESZCZENIE Ze względu na globalny problem związany z nadmierną ilością odpadów w branży budowlanej także podej- mowane są działania na rzecz ochrony środowiska i wdrożenia do produkcji materiałów budowlanych z od- padów pochodzących z recyklingu. W związku z dużą popularnością materiałów kompozytowych w budow- nictwie przedstawiono krótki przegląd nowoczesnych rozwiązań ekologicznych wykorzystujących recykling. Zaprezentowane rozwiązania podzielono na trzy grupy: wykorzystanie kruszyw z recyklingu do produkcji betonu, użycie kruszyw recyklowanych do konstrukcji wzmacnianych geosyntetykami oraz użycie plastiku z recyklingu do wytwarzania kompozytów drewniano-plastikowych WPC (ang. wood-plastic composites). Podział na wspomniane trzy grupy został określony na podstawie wyboru rozwiązań najszerzej omawianych w artykułach naukowych z zakresu recyklingu. Głównie analizowano wytrzymałość elementów. Rozwiąza- nie z zastosowaniem kruszywa z recyklingu jest najszerzej wykorzystywane i przedstawia najlepsze wartości wytrzymałości. Użycie odpadów plastikowych jest możliwe, jednak wymaga dalszych badań. Słowa kluczowe: kruszywo, geosyntetyki, recykling, plastik, drewno architectura.actapol.net 109

Journal

Acta Scientiarum Polonorum Architecturade Gruyter

Published: Jun 1, 2021

Keywords: aggregate; geosynthetics; plastic; recycling; wood

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