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Corpus literacy empowerment: taking stock of research to look forward for practice

Corpus literacy empowerment: taking stock of research to look forward for practice 1IntroductionThe increasing number of corpus resources available, including the growing body of related published literature, attests to the growing popularity of corpus-based language teaching and learning. According to Reppen (2010), a corpus is a large, structured collection of naturally occurring language stored electronically. It is therefore a machine-readable collection of authentic spoken and written texts that are systematically compiled and sampled to be representative of a particular language or language variety. The accessibility of these naturally occurring texts appears to significantly augment the authenticity of the language environment by showcasing multiple examples of attested language use and providing access to specialised registers. When we attempt to explore the vast amount of language data available, we might generally abide by four principles postulated by Biber, Conrad, and Reppen (1998): (1) analyse the actual patterns of language use in natural texts; (2) utilise a large and structured collection of natural texts as the basis for the analysis; (3) use computers extensively for the analysis and (4) employ both quantitative and qualitative analytical techniques.Corpus tools and techniques came to be used in language teaching and learning shortly after they took on their modern form in the 1960s (Vyatkina & Boulton, 2017), first in indirect applications (i.e., use of corpus-derived information for improved language descriptions leading to new dictionaries and other resources) and later, in direct applications (i.e., search for and use of corpora by language teachers and learners) (Boulton & Vyatkina, 2021). For the direct applications of different types of corpus tools—ranging from generating a word list or keyword list, producing clusters and N-grams and calculating frequencies of search terms to offering statistical information on the strength of word associations—it seems that corpus investigators tend to favour the use of concordancing, which displays all the occurrences of word(s) or phrase(s) from the corpora. Concordancing may be preferred because by observing concordance lines with the search term (i.e., the node) highlighted and centred in each line, certain lexicogrammatical patterns of specific word(s) or phrase(s) can be visualised, obtained, retained and summarised (Ma & Mei, 2021; Pérez-Paredes, 2022).Technically speaking, the use of corpora has two pedagogic benefits. First, as asserted by Vyatkina (2020), discovery learning is made possible, as corpus consultation by different learners encourages them to take different learning paths through access to open-ended language data. This type of inductive, interactive, experiential and analytical exploration facilitates language learners’ investigation of socially established and idiomatic expressions in authentic language data. Second, the prevalence of varied corpus resources and corpus-based activities in language teaching and learning promotes language awareness of learners and facilitates their language acquisition if the corpora are used in language classes in a way that encourages data-driven learning (DDL) (Çalışkan & Gönen, 2018; Leńko-Szymańska & Boulton, 2015; Poole, 2020). In fact, the potential pedagogical value of corpora is now unleashed, and a case in point is the newly devised corpus-based language pedagogy (CBLP) which argues that corpus queries allow corpus investigators to formulate questions, devise searching strategies, interpret raw data based on keen observations and draw solid conclusions about patterns and meanings of language phenomena (Ma, Tang, & Lin, 2021).Despite the foregoing breakthrough in corpus-based language teaching and learning, this field has “by no means reached full maturity” (Zaki, 2020) and still has “a long way to go before [its] mainstream acceptance in pre-tertiary language education” (Crosthwaite, Luciana, & Schweinberger, 2021). Several reasons for this delayed adoption of corpus-based language teaching and learning have been repeatedly observed. The main reason is the poor availability and functionality of step-by-step guidelines and directions that match learners’ needs across different cultures, language proficiencies and learning contexts (Boulton, 2017; Leńko-Szymańska, 2017), since “corpora may be challenging for young learners to use due to their lack of basic computer skills or knowledge of how to use corpus tools” (Ma & Mei, 2021). Another reason for the delayed adoption of corpora in language teaching and learning is the rational fear of technical issues in operating corpus analysis software, as reported in Farr (2008), Breyer (2011), and Zareva (2017), among other studies. Many of these studies also claimed that interfaces of some corpora are not tailor-made for non-specialist users like language teachers and learners, which may lead to misunderstandings or confusion because some concordance lines may display in segments without concrete contexts. Notably, moreover, a lack of support for training of language teachers on corpus-based language teaching and learning (McCarthy, 2008; Römer, 2011) makes EFL (English as a Foreign Language) teachers much more sceptical of corpora and even resistant to them because corpora might demand from teachers much time and effort (e.g., in buying and installing new software, booking computer labs, building corpora and even teaching learners how to make their own corpora), but they do not guarantee good student learning outcomes.A more viable way to “bridge the research-practice gap” (Chambers, 2019) in corpus-based language teaching and learning is through the concerted efforts of different stakeholders such as policy-makers, teacher educators and the EFL teachers themselves. Designers of syllabi and curricula should incorporate corpus literacy training into EFL teacher education programs and their continuous professional development programs. To fast-track the successful implementation of corpus-based language teaching and learning in the classroom, it is advisable for teacher educators to provide their trainees step-by-step instructions for preparing corpus-based learning tasks and activities for their students that match their students’ proficiency level. If language teachers themselves remain hesitant about the effectiveness of corpus-based language pedagogy (CBLP), it would be better for them to first participate in workshops that promote the application of corpora in language classroom settings and then embark on corpus-based activities that are divided into smaller steps with concrete teaching and learning objectives. Once language teachers experience the pedagogic benefits of using corpora, they would be more likely to use corpus-related resources to address their language teaching difficulties.This review study aims to evaluate studies conducted in the last 20 years on the empowerment of EFL teachers’ corpus literacy so as to identify gaps in such research and determine areas of further study. Thus, this study is intended to be of interest and help to EFL teachers, particularly to those of them who seek to integrate corpora in their teaching practice. It is also hoped that this paper would have certain implications for educational policy makers, instructional designers, curriculum developers, and teacher educators for the effective implementation of CBLP. This study is probably the first attempt to call for corpus literacy empowerment for pre-tertiary EFL teachers in a telecollaborative mode after the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic. In the ensuing sections, we will focus on state-of-the-art research on corpus literacy empowerment for pre-service teachers and service teachers respectively. We will also consider practical applications of corpus tools for learning vocabulary, grammar and discourse. We will conclude this paper by discussing the pedagogical implications and future directions for the wider use of corpora for language teaching and learning.2Corpus literacy: where we are and where we are heading?In this section, we present a synthesis of studies in literature that had implemented corpus literacy training of EFL teachers. Based on our discussion of these studies, we explore a tentative telecollaborative corpus literacy training model that highlights the connectivity between pre-service teachers and in-service teachers. Then, we will present three step-by-step corpus-based activities centred on teaching vocabulary, grammar and discourse, with reference to the core principles subsumed under CBLP.2.1What is corpus literacy and why do we need it?Mukherjee (2006) coined the term corpus literacy and purported that corpus-based data-driven learning requires high learner autonomy and can only be successful for learners with basic corpus literacy. He defined basic corpus literacy as: (1) understanding what a corpus is; (2) knowing what can or cannot be done with a corpus; (3) knowing how to analyse corpus data and (4) knowing how to draw conclusions about language use based on corpus data. Recent studies have enriched his construct of corpus literacy. Heather and Helt (2012) modified the term and contended that corpus literacy comprises a multifaceted set of complex skills in using the technology of corpus linguistics to investigate language and to enhance the language development of students. Callies (2019), in an attempt to integrate corpus linguistics into a curriculum for pre-service English teachers, updated the four key components of corpus literacy according to Mukherjee (2006) and argued that “using corpus output to generate teaching materials and instructional activities” should be included as a significant component.Over the last few decades, an interesting area in language teacher education programs has been educating teachers on computer assisted language learning (Hubbard & Levy, 2006). In a survey by Mukherjee (2004) of 250 English language teachers in Germany, over 95% of the respondents agreed that their teaching could profit from the introduction of corpora and corpus tools. Recent studies (Frankenberg-Garcia, 2012a; Leńko-Szymańska, 2014; Viana & Lu, 2021) also highlighted the efficacy of improving teachers’ corpus literacy through consciousness-raising tasks at all levels of teacher education. It seems that language teachers with the requisite corpus literacy will be able to use corpora to complement or evaluate other sources of information (e.g., textbooks, grammar references, and dictionaries). For example, aided by user-friendly corpus tools, teachers can develop an enquiring and critical outlook on the cultivation of coursebooks users’ creative thinking by examining how instructional language in teaching and learning activities is organised in textbooks (Li & Xu, 2021). In a bid to maximise the potential of corpora as tools for language teaching and learning, corpus literacy training sessions can be conducted to help EFL teachers learn new skills and to encourage them to use corpus tools in the classroom. Additionally, EFL teachers who have already used corpora for teaching and are convinced of their usefulness can expand their methodological repertoires. This affirms that “empowering teachers with the necessary tools, skills and knowledge in using corpora will lead to the day when corpus resources and their use are no longer the exclusive preserve of corpus linguists” (Huang, 2018).2.2Relevant studies on corpus literacy trainingThe number of corpus literacy training programs across the globe for teachers at all levels have increased significantly in recent years, and the cohorts have become more diverse: university students (e.g., Ebrahimi & Faghih, 2016), tertiary educators (e.g., Chen, Flowerdew, & Anthony, 2019), primary and secondary teachers (e.g., Crosthwaite, Luciana, & Wijaya, 2021) and non-language-oriented professionals (e.g., Viana & Lu, 2021). In the following subsections, we roughly divide these studies into two cohorts (pre-service teacher trainees and in-service teacher trainees) and investigate if these teacher training sessions could contribute to the success of corpus applications in language education.2.2.1Pre-service teacher trainingResearch on corpus literacy training for pre-service teacher trainees has focused on raising awareness of the use of corpora for language teaching and unveiling their reactions and attitudes on the merits and drawbacks of employing corpus tools and materials in real classroom settings. Most studies have also examined the effectiveness of raising trainees’ language awareness and exploring their idiosyncratic responses. O’Keeffe and Farr (2003) offered examples of corpus-based tasks for increasing students’ understanding of word classes and of register-related and socioculturally conditioned grammatical choices. They recommended that corpus linguistics be made a component of the education of new language teachers to enhance their language awareness. Similarly, O’Sullivan and Chambers (2006) integrated corpora into language teacher education programs and discovered not only positive reactions, such as access to real and up-to-date language use, but also negative reactions mainly on limited access to appropriate corpora and insufficient technical support. Farr (2008), to promote corpus-based instruction in language teacher education programs in Ireland, launched a program to raise the language awareness of 28 MA students’ over two semesters. In the first semester, the educator mainly presented the preliminaries of corpora and demonstrated the use of corpus resources through workshops and tutorials. In the second semester, the students, armed with certain knowledge and expertise on corpora, collaborated on the conduct of corpus-based investigations. A post-course survey uncovered the students’ positive predisposition toward corpora, and the findings were generally in line with those of the two studies reviewed earlier.Corpus literacy training also attracted attention in other European countries besides Ireland. Breyer (2009) introduced to 18 future secondary school teachers in Germany the use of a home-built corpus of EFL textbooks and different English L1 corpora. In this 11-week course, students were trained to directly apply corpus-based activities in the classroom by creating worksheets to supplement the activities in textbooks. The results of the classroom discussions and reflective writing tasks suggested that the students had become more aware of the effectiveness of corpus-based language pedagogy, although they expressed reservations about the difficulties of corpus queries and analyses. Callies (2016) instructed future English teachers in German primary and secondary schools to use native-language corpora and learner corpora to compare different modes and registers of reporting verbs in English. The student teachers were divided into groups that examined different registers and searched for 10 reporting verbs from the list given in the corpora. They were also required to generate concordances, filter them manually and calculate the lemma frequencies. In Poland, Leńko-Szymańska (2014) offered corpus literacy training to graduate students majoring in applied linguistics for one-semester. The training had three components: (1) an overview of corpus resources; (2) the application of corpora in the teaching of vocabulary, phraseology, grammar, discourse organisation and reading and writing and (3) the compilation and analysis of a self-built small corpus and the production of corpus-based materials and activities. The trainees reported the workshop as useful but requested more training time and more guidance on how to create their own activities. In a follow-up study, Leńko-Szymańska (2017) analysed 53 end-of-semester corpus-based projects submitted by teacher trainees and examined if and to what extent the trainees mastered the sets of skills necessary for independent use of corpora in language instruction. She argued that the trainees were reported as lacking the skills required to integrate corpus use into classroom practice despite their demonstration of a certain mastery of the corpus software for their own use. The study indicated that a semester-long course is not sufficient for pre-service teachers.In recent years, corpus literacy training has also expanded to North America. Zareva (2017) integrated corpus training into a grammar course for 21 TESOL (Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages) trainee teachers at a US university. The participants gave the same positive feedback about the training as those in the other studies reviewed. Negative aspects of short-term corpus literacy training that had been reiterated in other studies were also highlighted. Nasmisth (2017) conducted a two-month-long investigation in Western Canada of how the benefits of corpora could be introduced during the initial pre-service training. Sixteen trainees in this study reported such short yet intensive pre-service training courses as helpful, especially the course that introduced non-concordancing corpus tools used in the classroom. Poole (2020) revisited the attitudes of pre-service teachers in the Southern U.S. towards corpus-based language learning and teaching in an undergraduate writing course. The results of open-ended questionnaires suggested that the use of ready-made corpus activities afforded opportunities for engaging students and heightening their language awareness. The study not only reassessed the increasing presence of corpus literacy training in TESOL education programs but also shed much light on how an emerging generation of pre-service teacher trainees perceived CBLP.It is worth mentioning that the inclusion of corpus literacy training in the education program for new language teachers is now on the agenda in Asia and has already generated an increasing number of literature. Ebrahimi and Faghih (2016) introduced free online corpus resources to 32 Iranian MA students of TEFL (Teaching English as a Foreign Language) in a seven-week online course. The evaluations by the pre-service teachers of the corpus-based instruction in the initial stages of the language teacher education degree program were positive, suggesting that online corpus literacy training is a feasible alternative to face-to-face training. Abdel Latif (2021) conducted a longitudinal study on the responses of Arab EFL student teachers to corpus literacy instruction. The study revealed that the learner-centred corpus literacy instruction was generally perceived as positive. The student trainees were actively engaged in the discussions, guided by questions raised by the educator. Their immediate and long-term responses implied that they maintained optimistic expectations about implementing pedagogical applications of corpora in their workplaces.From the studies we have reviewed so far, it is evident that corpus literacy training is often conducted for a batch of about 15–55 pre-service teacher students. However, more studies have also adopted qualitative perspectives in corpus literacy training, as such in-depth descriptions “help clarify and detail the dynamic, moment-by-moment contextual factors that impact upon the success or failure of CALL (Computer Assisted Language Learning) implementations” (Levy & Moore, 2018). Heather and Helt (2012) evaluated a semester-long introductory grammar course for six pre-service language teachers. The research used a case study approach to examine the development of multiple components of corpus literacy training. The results showed that while this course was generally effective in enhancing the trainees’ corpus literacy, its effectiveness varied among the trainees, which implies that the application of corpora in language teaching could depend largely on the trainees’ individual learning capabilities. The newly published qualitative research of Crosthwaite, Luciana, and Wijaya (2021) reported the initial attempts of Indonesian pre-service primary and secondary school teachers to integrate corpus consultation activities into their EFL lesson plans after following an extensive online corpus literacy training regimen (i.e., online courses, a series of live workshops and individual guidance on lesson planning provided by teacher educators). The trainees’ perceptions of how the teacher educators developed TPACK (Technological Pedagogical and Content Knowledge) (Kohler & Mishra, 2009) in English language teaching practice within the Indonesian formal school context were examined. This may increase the future buy-in of Indonesian language teachers in CBLP as well as in a wider range of professional development contexts within and outside corpus linguistics.More recent studies on corpus literacy training for pre-service language teachers have established frameworks or models that could serve as prototypes for future studies. Krajka (2019) conducted corpus-based investigations in a graduate TEFL module. The author attempted to establish an apprenticeship model in two-steps: (1) the students worked in groups to produce corpus-based activities based on the teacher’s directions and guided questions and reported their research findings to the entire class and (2) they reflected on what they had done based on the question-search-conclusion strategy at the end of the training. Farr and O’Keeffe (2019) developed the following PENSER (meaning think in French) framework to assist novice student teachers in developing corpus literacy: (1) Problem identification based on personal teaching practice; (2) Embracing the accepted challenges; (3) Noticing the challenges that teachers experienced through observations; (4) Solving the problems and (5) Exploring and Researching if the challenges have been appropriately overcome or if further engagement is needed. Ma, Tang, and Lin (2021) investigated how a group of TESOL teacher trainees developed their corpus literacy and CBLP in a two-step training framework. In step 1, corpus literacy was initially cultivated in the student teachers through physical classroom training via a combination of lectures on knowledge of corpus linguistics and workshops where they performed hands-on corpus searches. In this scenario, corpus data were used as learning tools. In step 2, TESOL teacher trainees participated in online lessons to consolidate their initial corpus literacy in the form of lesson design. In this context, corpus data were treated as teaching tools. The effectiveness of this four-week corpus-based teacher training scheme and the initial competence of the trainees in using CBLP were measured through (1) analyses and rating of their lesson plans for vocabulary teaching in primary and/or secondary classrooms; (2) a self-designed survey and (3) interviews. The findings may offer some theoretical guidance for providing effective corpus-based training for pre-service language teachers via an online collaborative learning mode, which corroborates with our exploration of a telecollaborative model for pre-service teachers and in-service teachers (to be specified in Section 2.3).2.2.2In-service teacher trainingStudies on the interface between corpus literacy training and the continuous professional development of practising teachers examined mainly two cohorts (i.e., pre-tertiary school teachers and university academics or professionals). Earlier studies focused on the promotion of corpus literacy among primary and secondary school teachers. Mukherjee (2004) conducted workshops to familiarise 248 in-service English teachers in secondary schools in Germany with CBLP. He collected data through questionnaires that were distributed before and after the training sessions to investigate the participants’ awareness of corpora and the effectiveness of the training. The findings revealed that 80% of the teachers were not aware of corpus before the training; but after the workshops, most of them regarded corpus data as useful for teaching and proposed that CBLP be added to their teaching agenda. The study findings pointed out the need to sufficiently train secondary teachers in order to help them incorporate corpus data into their teaching experience. Drawing on a similar context, Römer (2009) surveyed 78 German secondary in-service English teachers to find out their needs for quality teaching materials and corpus-based reference resources. The study has built a bridge between corpus research and pedagogical practice by focussing on the situation of language teaching practitioners on the ground and their need for support in their workplace through corpus linguistics. Another area that has been explored in the interface between corpus literacy and in-service teacher education is teachers’ use of corpus resources over a longer span of time. Tsui (2004) conducted a seven-year longitudinal study to support primary and secondary English language teachers in Chinese Hong Kong via TeleNex, where a number of discussion corners were set up-to which teachers can send questions or comments. The study revealed that school teachers tend to use corpora to address language difficulties pertaining to English grammar rules and patterns such as synonymous lexical items, lexical collocations and prescriptive stylistic rules.Recent studies have claimed the importance of continuous professional development to empower tertiary faculty members with a certain degree of corpus literacy. Two studies both examined a small group of in-service university teachers in Turkey. In the first study, Özbay and Kayaoğlu (2015) examined the awareness and perceptions, by six tertiary language teachers, of CBLP in Turkish language classroom teaching. An eight-week training program mainly concentrated on corpus applications in the teaching of vocabulary and grammar. The results of the semistructured interviews showed that they believed the training improved their language awareness. Those of them who had no prior experience in corpus and its use in classroom practice argued that corpus appeared to have expanded their teaching repertoires and could serve as a complementary teaching aid. In the second study by Çalışkan and Gönen (2018), three in-service EFL instructors at a Turkish state university were offered corpus literacy training for four-weeks on the design and implementation of corpus-based materials to enhance vocabulary instruction. Similar to the conditions in the study of Özbay and Kayaoğlu’s (2015), the EFL university instructors did not know before the training how to use corpus-based materials in vocabulary instruction. After the training, they believed that their incorporation of CBLP into their vocabulary instruction could raise their awareness of specific vocabulary items.The ensuing three studies had more participants and were conducted in other countries across the globe. In Al-Fadl’s (2018) research, 19 randomly selected faculty members from the English department of a university in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia were given a ten-week training course in corpus linguistics and its relation to language teaching. The author confirmed that his attempt to conduct this training course was generally effective even though further professional development of in-service teachers was required before corpus exploration entered mainstream education in language departments and teacher training institutions on a large scale. More recently, Chen, Flowerdew, and Anthony (2019) introduced corpus-based academic writing pedagogy to over 60 in-service English language educators from different major institutions in Chinese Hong Kong. Most of the workshop attendees showed great interest in sustaining their professional development and indicated that the training session was very useful as a starting point for further integrating direct use of corpora in English language teaching. The participants appreciated the benefits of the hands-on activities with step-by-step guidance and teacher demonstrations on the screen, yet they also pointed out concerns about the time and the potential difficulties involved in adopting corpora in the academic writing classroom. Viana and Lu (2021) examined the perception of 28 participants in a UK-based non-credit-bearing continuous professional development project targeted for academics and professionals from a range of disciplines. A questionnaire was administered to investigate (1) their corpus literacy background; (2) their motivations to participate in the project; (3) the profits and disadvantages they encountered as they adopted corpora in their teaching practice and (4) their evaluations of how corpus resources played a part in research practice. The results suggested that a majority of the participants showed strong inclinations to continue applying corpora to both their in-class and out-of-class activities. The study also pointed out the significance of embedding corpus approaches into teaching and research and potentially raising the interest of language teaching practitioners in fields other than language-oriented teaching and learning.2.3A telecollaborative model for corpus literacy training: a tentative explorationIn Section 2.2, we systematically reviewed 25 relevant studies of corpus literacy training (17 for pre-service teacher trainees either at the BA or MA level, 5 for in-service academics or professionals and only 3 for pre-tertiary in-service teachers) from 2003 to 2021. It appears that the research foci were lopsided and less attention was given to training primary or secondary in-service EFL teachers on how to deploy CBLP in classroom teaching. Likewise, collaborations between pre-service teacher trainees whose future job orientation was primary or secondary education and in-service pre-tertiary school teachers somewhat escaped the researchers’ attention. To our best knowledge, it seems that existing corpus literacy training programs do not attempt to connect pre-service student trainees and in-service pre-tertiary school teachers. Although most corpus literacy training programs are implemented in universities, much can be done to promote them in non-university contexts. With the advent of emerging educational technologies, corpus applications in language teaching and learning may now be implemented in other educational environments. Online telecommunications and telecollaborations for corpus literacy training have been empirically supported in previous studies (e.g., Crosthwaite et al., 2021; Ebrahimi & Faghih, 2016; Ma et al., 2021; Tsui, 2004). In line with the claim that “online collaborative learning can energise and empower corpus-based teacher training” (Ma et al., 2021), we crafted a tentative theoretical framework for our proposed telecollaborative model for corpus literacy training between pre-service language teachers and in-service language teachers (see Figure 1 below). This model includes two major components: (1) the teacher educator, the participants and their correlation and (2) the events that will take place in the training.Figure 1:A telecollaborative framework for corpus literacy training.A teacher educator with expertise in corpus linguistics is viewed as important in the successful application of corpora to language pedagogy in the pre-tertiary classroom context because the teacher educator can guide the trainees in the training sessions. As for the participants, combining the pre-service teachers with the in-service teachers may be thought of as posing a challenge, as pre-service student trainees may have little or no teaching practice, whereas experienced in-service teachers are more likely to have different dispositions regarding the use of corpora given that they tend to judge how likely digital technology will work with students based on their classroom teaching experience. However, according to Bolton (2021), “collaborative rather than expert-to-novice training would be beneficial,” and the connection between pre-service student teachers and in-service language teachers could be established and strengthened via online communities. Nambiar and Thang (2015) argued that teachers can use blogs as an avenue to think, reflect and respond to views and comments regarding pedagogical practices and difficulties, thereby developing professionally. Inel Ekici (2017) used two different websites for science and math pre-service teachers to share their knowledge, experience, documents and views. Such online communities provide platforms for teacher educators and trainees to share experiences. Moreover, as the public health threat posed by the COVID-19 pandemic is still evolving globally, in agreement with Lomicka’s (2020) claim that “it is critical to establish a virtual language community and provides practical implications for creating virtual presence and engaging students in these virtual communities,” we argue that online communities can function as virtual hubs that disseminate essential and up-to-date information about CBLP.To disseminate the use of corpora among the participants, workshops that present basic concepts on the classroom applications of corpora, along with other instructional procedures and techniques, are needed. Being provided with extensive knowledge, sufficient skills, user-friendly tools and free corpora for pre-tertiary language teaching would incline the teacher trainees to normalise corpus use in their language classrooms. To familiarise trainees with the interface and functions of corpus tools and online corpora, most training programs incorporate various hands-on exercises on corpus searches and analyses. In most studies reviewed above, take-away home assignments often require participants to design appropriate corpus-based classroom teaching activities either in the form of individual work or group projects. As suggested by Leńko-Szymańska (2014), corpus exploration cannot be left to a one-semester-long course within a teacher training program; sustainable and continuous follow-up must be extended outside the training sessions. When corpus users conduct searches and analyses individually at their own pace, they might come across some difficulties in their initial attempts to combine corpora with language teaching and learning. In this circumstance, online interaction through social media or websites (cf. Tsui, 2004) could give a new impetus to the telecollaborations, as online interaction allows both pre-service teachers and in-service practitioners to gather in a virtual space to share knowledge, experience and practices. Avenues such as discussion boards, blogs, forums make it possible for the participants to think, reflect and respond to views and comments regarding pedagogical practices and difficulties on the design of corpus-based tasks or activities. Collecting participants’ viewpoints on the implementation of corpus-based language pedagogy via online questionnaires, live video conferences or offline interviews helps examine the development of their corpus literacy after attending the training program. With their post-training assessment and feedback, online workshops or tutorials could be modified. Such a tentative and exploratory theoretical model for corpus literacy training is more likely to ensure that EFL teachers will not only be equipped with good technical and corpus linguistic skills, but will also develop the sound pedagogical skills needed for methodologically appropriate application of corpus-based tasks and materials in the classroom.2.4Practical applications of corpus-based language pedagogy (CBLP)Implementing our proposed model and justifying its effectiveness involve systematic planning and convincing data from a series of empirical studies, which are outside the scope of this review study. Instead, in the following sections, we first summarise some key considerations or principles for designing corpus-based teaching activities in primary or secondary education, followed by detailed illustrations of three cases that we codesigned based on needs analyses for corpus-based language teaching from over 600 in-service teachers (Xu, Liu, & Zhou, 2018). We assume that these ready-made activities could be used to promote corpus-based language pedagogy (CBLP) in the classroom in that they focus on how English teachers could create corpus-based lessons and exploit corpus resources to effectively teach vocabulary, grammar and discourse in an attempt to address the needs of Chinese pre-tertiary English learners.2.4.1Issues to consider when designing corpus-based lessonsCorpus-based activities can be useful additions to teachers’ arsenal as they can supplement and enhance existing syllabi with digital, flipped and modular content (Vyatkina, 2020). The rich corpus resources can be integrated into regular lessons and everyday teaching without disrupting the normal classroom routine, and they can complement rather than replace the existing pedagogic materials and practices (Frankenberg-Garcia, 2012b). Ma and Mei (2021) elaborated four design principles of effective corpus-based lessons: (1) testing of student knowledge; (2) hands-on corpus searches by students to observe and analyse the language; (3) inductive discovery by summarising the language use pattern of students and (4) output exercise to practise using the language. With reference to these guiding principles, the following case studies provide step-by-step guidance regarding how to conduct corpus-based graded activities that require only basic internet skills to more complex applications. We also create diverse language use opportunities in the form of concordance lines, word clouds and concordance plots to motivate learners. To promote student engagement and to help reduce the monotony associated with learning with corpora, teachers may use different patterns of classroom interaction such as pair work or group work. when implementing the corpus-based lessons.2.4.2Case 1: Using SKELL to differentiate between lexical pairs say and speak2.4.2.1Lesson backgroundChinese EFL students always feel puzzled at what follows say and speak because in Chinese, they share the meaning, “说 (shuō).” Given this concern, we investigate the use of these lexical pairs with SKELL (Sketch Engine for Language Learning), a tool with a simple interface that can easily check how a particular word is used by real speakers of English.2.4.2.2Teaching proceduresStep 1:Look up the meanings of say and speak in an online dictionary.Before using SKELL, the teacher can test the student’s lexical knowledge of the two verbs by showing their definitions as retrieved from an online dictionary (e.g., https://www.macmillandictionary.com/us) (Figure 2).Figure 2:Definitions of say and speak.Step 2:Search say and speak in SKELL.Students open two web pages of SKELL (https://skell.sketchengine.eu/) and key in say and speak in the search bar on each page. Then, if they click Word sketch, they will see subjects and objects of say and speak (Figure 3).Figure 3:Words that collocate with say and speak in SKELL.Step 3:Guide students to observe and sum up the use patterns.Based on Figure 3, the students are expected to discuss the subjects and objects of say and speak in pairs or groups. They may find that the subjects of both words can be people (e.g., people, experts, police, Obama, man or God) or things (e.g., report, source, voice or Bible). Then, they observe the objects of the two verbs. From the top 15 hits, they may discover that say is often followed by (1) infinite pronouns such as something, thing, anything or nothing; (2) time adverbials such as yesterday, today, Thursday or week and (3) concrete nouns such as word, goodbye, government, company, people, man or official. With regard to the objects of speak, the students may discover that the majority of words belong to different types of language (e.g., English, Arabic, French, Spanish or Mandarin).Step 4:Explore another lexical pair.Upon clicking Similar words, word clouds of say and speak will be generated (Figure 4). The teacher can guide the students in examining other lexical pairs (e.g., tell vs. talk). This activity can enlarge students’ vocabulary and draw their attention to the use patterns of lexical pairs that might share little semantic differences in Chinese.Figure 4:Word clouds of say and speak.2.4.3Case 2: Adopting VersaText to teach there be grammatical structure2.4.3.1Lesson backgroundChinese students sometimes get confused about the use of there be. Some of them may write an incorrect sentence like “There is two years since I last saw you.” VersaText can better help them solve the problems. It is an online corpus tool that explores the language features of texts, consisting mainly of three functions: a word cloud, a concordancer and a lexical profiler. It is both part-of-speech tagged and lemmatised, which enable the exploration of many aspects of language, from word forms to genres. Users simply put texts into the INPUT box, and the website will analyse them automatically.2.4.3.2Teaching proceduresStep 1:Fill in the blanks of the following sentences with the appropriate form of be.1)The Earth is a beautiful place. There _____ forests and rivers, mountains and fields.2)A long time ago, there _____ a king in India. His favourite game was chess.3)His eyes were fixed on Della and there _____ an expression in them that she could not read.[Keys: 1) are, 2) was and 3) was].The teacher creates some exercises on the use of there be to examine students’ knowledge of this grammatical structure. Students may become aware of their misconceptions of the use of there be and thereby be motivated to explore its use.Step 2:Extract the concordance lines of there be from the textbook corpus.The teacher builds a small-scale textbook corpus and distributes it to the students. The students open VersaText (https://versatext.versatile.pub/) and paste the texts into the box (Figure 5). Students click the tab WORDCLOUD, then tick LEMMA and OTHER of Include function words (Figure 6). After clicking the word there in the word cloud, the website will produce the concordance lines. After hits in which there is used as an adverb are filtered out, 29 instances remain (Figure 7).Figure 5:The interface of VersaText after loading the texts.Figure 6:The query settings of there be.Figure 7:Concordance lines of there be.Step 3:Observe and sum up the use patterns of there be.With the above concordance lines, the teacher can guide the students in observing the words and phrases used that are juxtaposed after the central node there. The students may notice that two types of nouns are adjacent to there: countable nouns and uncountable nouns. Countable nouns can be divided into singular nouns (e.g., fishermen, line 2; animals, line 18 and many children, line 23) and plural nouns (e.g., an expression, line 5; one smile, line 11 and a flood, line 29). The students can also identify uncountable nouns such as space (line 6), water (line 9), air (line 27) and gravity (line 28). With these observations, the students can discuss in groups how to sum up the use patterns of there be. They may draw the conclusion that if the subjects are countable plural nouns, plural forms of the copula be (i.e., are/were) could be used; and if the subjects are either countable singular nouns or uncountable nouns, singular forms of the copula be (i.e., is/was) could be used instead.Step 4:Use HIDE KWIC to create exercises.To consolidate the use of there be, students can return to the WORDCLOUD tab and tick the BE + HAVE + DO box only in the “Include content words” section (Figure 8). When students click be, concordance lines will show up and the students can sort them by clicking Left context. After HIDE KWIC is clicked, the central nodes are hidden (Figure 9). The students can immediately check if they have already mastered the use patterns of there be. If they want to generate more exercises for further consolidation, they can input other textbook corpora and follow the same procedures reported above.Figure 8:The query settings of copula be.Figure 9:Using HIDE KIWC to create exercises.2.4.4Case 3: Employing AntConc to examine the discourse structure of a reading passage2.4.4.1Lesson backgroundThe aim of this case study is to help students grasp the aboutness of a reading passage based on the keyword list generated by AntConc 3.5.9 (Anthony, 2020). They will also have a better understanding of the discourse structure of the text by means of the dispersion of keywords. One reading passage about wildlife protection was chosen and compiled from an English textbook written for senior high school students.2.4.4.2Teaching proceduresStep 1:Guess the meaning of keyword(s).The selected reading passage mainly illustrates the protection of an endangered animal species: antelopes. The students may be unfamiliar with an antelope since it is uncommon to see in daily life. To help the students guess the meaning of antelope from the contextual clues, the teacher opens AntConc, clicks File to import the reading passage case3.txt, searches antelope* (the asterisk * is a wild card and can represent more than one character) and obtains the concordance lines (Figure 10). The teacher can pose several guided questions such as (1) Where do antelopes live in? and (2) What happened to them between the 1980s and the 1990s? The students can either work in pairs or groups to observe the concordance lines and may conclude that antelopes are a kind of animal that mostly live in Tibet and whose number has dropped by over 50% at that time.Figure 10:The concordance lines of antelope(s).Step 2:Create a keyword list.To create a keyword list, the students should import a larger reference corpus (e.g., BROWN). First, they click Tool Preferences – Keyword List and Add Directory to load the reference corpus. Finally, they just click Apply (Figure 11) and return to the interface. Next, they need to choose Sort by Freq and click Start. A keyword list is generated (Figure 12).Figure 11:The process of loading a reference corpus.Figure 12:The process of creating a keyword list.Step 3:Sum up the main ideas and discourse structure.The teacher can guide the students in grouping the keywords according to their themes. For instance, antelope(s) (lines 2 and 4), animals (line 7), wildlife (line 9), protection (line 12) and species (line 15) may denote the main subjects introduced in the passage. Places such as changtang (line 10), reserve (line 13), tibet (line 16), habitats (line 17), qinghai (line 18) and xinjiang (line 19) may indicate where the antelopes stay. Other keywords such as we (line 1), save (line 5) and zhaxi (line 6) may suggest the people who are protecting the endangered antelopes.To verify these intuitive observations, the students can use Concordance Plot to search the above keywords in order to investigate their distributions in the reading passage. They can repeat the search process three times by keying in antelope*|animal*|wildlife*|specie*, tibet*|changtang|reserve*|habitat*|qinghai|xinjiang and we|zhaxi|sav*|protect*, respectively, and they will obtain three concordance plots (Figure 13). The bar represents the reading passage, and each line stands for the distributions of the keywords. The teacher can guide the students in observing the concordance plots and examining if their assumptions regarding the main ideas fit the statistical results. After an in-depth discussion, they may find that the structure of this reading passage generally has three parts: (1) the descriptive information of the antelopes across the whole text; (2) the introduction of places where the antelopes stay at the beginning of the text and (3) the measures taken to protect and save the endangered antelopes from the middle to the end of the text.Figure 13:The distributions of keywords across the text.Step 4:Create a mind map to visualise the discourse structure.The constant use of concordance lines may be monotonous and even boring for most young learners (Sealey & Thompson, 2007). Therefore, non-corpus-based output activities are also recommended in a corpus-based language teaching classroom. The teacher can list several components that should be covered in a mind map and manually draw a simple mind map in the classroom as a demonstration. Students can work in groups to create a mind map of the reading passage based on their discovery in the lesson by adding colourful elements (e.g., pictures of antelopes) to consolidate their corpus findings in a visibly vivid form.3Concluding remarksThis review paper has examined corpus literacy training in detail for EFL teachers and proposed a tentative telecollaborative model for corpus literacy training between pre-service language teachers and in-service language teachers. Three case studies with different angles of the applications of corpus-based language pedagogy were designed for the pre-tertiary language teaching and learning context, allowing EFL teachers to employ corpus resources in other similar contexts.The ever-growing richness of the field of corpus-based applied linguistics has constantly called for the integration of corpus resources, consultation and analysis in the everyday teaching environment. Our tentative telecollaborative corpus literacy training model might stimulate other researchers’ interest in conducting empirical studies to verify its validity and reliability, both of which were left unanswered in this review paper. The scope of the three corpus-based case studies only includes vocabulary, grammar and discourse. Our ready-made activities can be taken as a starting point for further integrating a direct use of corpora in pre-tertiary English language teaching and learning. Ultimately, trainees in the corpus literacy training programs need to be enabled and empowered to pursue their own corpus investigations. Indeed, it is not a task for one researcher or one paper alone. Instead, it requires concerted efforts of different stakeholders. Thus, it is hoped that practising teachers, corpus linguists and even learners themselves will collaborate to create corpus-based tasks or activities in other language areas (e.g., listening, speaking and writing).Our paper offers a robust picture of corpus literacy training for EFL teachers across the globe over the last two decades and provides an overview of what has been achieved in integrating CBLP into language teaching and learning in our increasingly networked, technologised and mobile world. Corpora should be applied across a range of educational settings, and taking stock of previous research advances our knowledge of the perceived advantages and barriers of embedding corpus literacy training in the initial stages of language teacher education degree programs and continuous professional development projects for practising teachers. The practice-related significance of this review is also evident in that it points out the need to increase the number of corpus literacy training to be delivered telecollaboratively for Chinese EFL teachers.It is hoped that this review paper will contribute positively to this promising and enticing field not only by putting corpus literacy studies in the limelight but also by empowering teachers with the knowledge, skills and tools they need for more successful and broader application of corpora in classroom teaching. More open-access, hands-on classroom activities (e.g., Le Foll, 2021) as well as paper-based materials (e.g., Crosthwaite, 2019; Friginal, 2018; He, 2017; He, Xu, & Zhang, 2020) may well bring us closer to the day when corpora are no longer viewed as resources only for researchers and corpus linguists. We call for more collaborations not only among teacher educators in CALL but also among practising teachers at all levels of language education so that they can dedicate themselves to promoting CBLP in a wider educational context. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Journal of China Computer-Assisted Language Learning de Gruyter

Corpus literacy empowerment: taking stock of research to look forward for practice

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de Gruyter
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© 2022 Shuquan Li and Manfei Xu, published by De Gruyter, Berlin/Boston
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2748-3479
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10.1515/jccall-2022-0002
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Abstract

1IntroductionThe increasing number of corpus resources available, including the growing body of related published literature, attests to the growing popularity of corpus-based language teaching and learning. According to Reppen (2010), a corpus is a large, structured collection of naturally occurring language stored electronically. It is therefore a machine-readable collection of authentic spoken and written texts that are systematically compiled and sampled to be representative of a particular language or language variety. The accessibility of these naturally occurring texts appears to significantly augment the authenticity of the language environment by showcasing multiple examples of attested language use and providing access to specialised registers. When we attempt to explore the vast amount of language data available, we might generally abide by four principles postulated by Biber, Conrad, and Reppen (1998): (1) analyse the actual patterns of language use in natural texts; (2) utilise a large and structured collection of natural texts as the basis for the analysis; (3) use computers extensively for the analysis and (4) employ both quantitative and qualitative analytical techniques.Corpus tools and techniques came to be used in language teaching and learning shortly after they took on their modern form in the 1960s (Vyatkina & Boulton, 2017), first in indirect applications (i.e., use of corpus-derived information for improved language descriptions leading to new dictionaries and other resources) and later, in direct applications (i.e., search for and use of corpora by language teachers and learners) (Boulton & Vyatkina, 2021). For the direct applications of different types of corpus tools—ranging from generating a word list or keyword list, producing clusters and N-grams and calculating frequencies of search terms to offering statistical information on the strength of word associations—it seems that corpus investigators tend to favour the use of concordancing, which displays all the occurrences of word(s) or phrase(s) from the corpora. Concordancing may be preferred because by observing concordance lines with the search term (i.e., the node) highlighted and centred in each line, certain lexicogrammatical patterns of specific word(s) or phrase(s) can be visualised, obtained, retained and summarised (Ma & Mei, 2021; Pérez-Paredes, 2022).Technically speaking, the use of corpora has two pedagogic benefits. First, as asserted by Vyatkina (2020), discovery learning is made possible, as corpus consultation by different learners encourages them to take different learning paths through access to open-ended language data. This type of inductive, interactive, experiential and analytical exploration facilitates language learners’ investigation of socially established and idiomatic expressions in authentic language data. Second, the prevalence of varied corpus resources and corpus-based activities in language teaching and learning promotes language awareness of learners and facilitates their language acquisition if the corpora are used in language classes in a way that encourages data-driven learning (DDL) (Çalışkan & Gönen, 2018; Leńko-Szymańska & Boulton, 2015; Poole, 2020). In fact, the potential pedagogical value of corpora is now unleashed, and a case in point is the newly devised corpus-based language pedagogy (CBLP) which argues that corpus queries allow corpus investigators to formulate questions, devise searching strategies, interpret raw data based on keen observations and draw solid conclusions about patterns and meanings of language phenomena (Ma, Tang, & Lin, 2021).Despite the foregoing breakthrough in corpus-based language teaching and learning, this field has “by no means reached full maturity” (Zaki, 2020) and still has “a long way to go before [its] mainstream acceptance in pre-tertiary language education” (Crosthwaite, Luciana, & Schweinberger, 2021). Several reasons for this delayed adoption of corpus-based language teaching and learning have been repeatedly observed. The main reason is the poor availability and functionality of step-by-step guidelines and directions that match learners’ needs across different cultures, language proficiencies and learning contexts (Boulton, 2017; Leńko-Szymańska, 2017), since “corpora may be challenging for young learners to use due to their lack of basic computer skills or knowledge of how to use corpus tools” (Ma & Mei, 2021). Another reason for the delayed adoption of corpora in language teaching and learning is the rational fear of technical issues in operating corpus analysis software, as reported in Farr (2008), Breyer (2011), and Zareva (2017), among other studies. Many of these studies also claimed that interfaces of some corpora are not tailor-made for non-specialist users like language teachers and learners, which may lead to misunderstandings or confusion because some concordance lines may display in segments without concrete contexts. Notably, moreover, a lack of support for training of language teachers on corpus-based language teaching and learning (McCarthy, 2008; Römer, 2011) makes EFL (English as a Foreign Language) teachers much more sceptical of corpora and even resistant to them because corpora might demand from teachers much time and effort (e.g., in buying and installing new software, booking computer labs, building corpora and even teaching learners how to make their own corpora), but they do not guarantee good student learning outcomes.A more viable way to “bridge the research-practice gap” (Chambers, 2019) in corpus-based language teaching and learning is through the concerted efforts of different stakeholders such as policy-makers, teacher educators and the EFL teachers themselves. Designers of syllabi and curricula should incorporate corpus literacy training into EFL teacher education programs and their continuous professional development programs. To fast-track the successful implementation of corpus-based language teaching and learning in the classroom, it is advisable for teacher educators to provide their trainees step-by-step instructions for preparing corpus-based learning tasks and activities for their students that match their students’ proficiency level. If language teachers themselves remain hesitant about the effectiveness of corpus-based language pedagogy (CBLP), it would be better for them to first participate in workshops that promote the application of corpora in language classroom settings and then embark on corpus-based activities that are divided into smaller steps with concrete teaching and learning objectives. Once language teachers experience the pedagogic benefits of using corpora, they would be more likely to use corpus-related resources to address their language teaching difficulties.This review study aims to evaluate studies conducted in the last 20 years on the empowerment of EFL teachers’ corpus literacy so as to identify gaps in such research and determine areas of further study. Thus, this study is intended to be of interest and help to EFL teachers, particularly to those of them who seek to integrate corpora in their teaching practice. It is also hoped that this paper would have certain implications for educational policy makers, instructional designers, curriculum developers, and teacher educators for the effective implementation of CBLP. This study is probably the first attempt to call for corpus literacy empowerment for pre-tertiary EFL teachers in a telecollaborative mode after the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic. In the ensuing sections, we will focus on state-of-the-art research on corpus literacy empowerment for pre-service teachers and service teachers respectively. We will also consider practical applications of corpus tools for learning vocabulary, grammar and discourse. We will conclude this paper by discussing the pedagogical implications and future directions for the wider use of corpora for language teaching and learning.2Corpus literacy: where we are and where we are heading?In this section, we present a synthesis of studies in literature that had implemented corpus literacy training of EFL teachers. Based on our discussion of these studies, we explore a tentative telecollaborative corpus literacy training model that highlights the connectivity between pre-service teachers and in-service teachers. Then, we will present three step-by-step corpus-based activities centred on teaching vocabulary, grammar and discourse, with reference to the core principles subsumed under CBLP.2.1What is corpus literacy and why do we need it?Mukherjee (2006) coined the term corpus literacy and purported that corpus-based data-driven learning requires high learner autonomy and can only be successful for learners with basic corpus literacy. He defined basic corpus literacy as: (1) understanding what a corpus is; (2) knowing what can or cannot be done with a corpus; (3) knowing how to analyse corpus data and (4) knowing how to draw conclusions about language use based on corpus data. Recent studies have enriched his construct of corpus literacy. Heather and Helt (2012) modified the term and contended that corpus literacy comprises a multifaceted set of complex skills in using the technology of corpus linguistics to investigate language and to enhance the language development of students. Callies (2019), in an attempt to integrate corpus linguistics into a curriculum for pre-service English teachers, updated the four key components of corpus literacy according to Mukherjee (2006) and argued that “using corpus output to generate teaching materials and instructional activities” should be included as a significant component.Over the last few decades, an interesting area in language teacher education programs has been educating teachers on computer assisted language learning (Hubbard & Levy, 2006). In a survey by Mukherjee (2004) of 250 English language teachers in Germany, over 95% of the respondents agreed that their teaching could profit from the introduction of corpora and corpus tools. Recent studies (Frankenberg-Garcia, 2012a; Leńko-Szymańska, 2014; Viana & Lu, 2021) also highlighted the efficacy of improving teachers’ corpus literacy through consciousness-raising tasks at all levels of teacher education. It seems that language teachers with the requisite corpus literacy will be able to use corpora to complement or evaluate other sources of information (e.g., textbooks, grammar references, and dictionaries). For example, aided by user-friendly corpus tools, teachers can develop an enquiring and critical outlook on the cultivation of coursebooks users’ creative thinking by examining how instructional language in teaching and learning activities is organised in textbooks (Li & Xu, 2021). In a bid to maximise the potential of corpora as tools for language teaching and learning, corpus literacy training sessions can be conducted to help EFL teachers learn new skills and to encourage them to use corpus tools in the classroom. Additionally, EFL teachers who have already used corpora for teaching and are convinced of their usefulness can expand their methodological repertoires. This affirms that “empowering teachers with the necessary tools, skills and knowledge in using corpora will lead to the day when corpus resources and their use are no longer the exclusive preserve of corpus linguists” (Huang, 2018).2.2Relevant studies on corpus literacy trainingThe number of corpus literacy training programs across the globe for teachers at all levels have increased significantly in recent years, and the cohorts have become more diverse: university students (e.g., Ebrahimi & Faghih, 2016), tertiary educators (e.g., Chen, Flowerdew, & Anthony, 2019), primary and secondary teachers (e.g., Crosthwaite, Luciana, & Wijaya, 2021) and non-language-oriented professionals (e.g., Viana & Lu, 2021). In the following subsections, we roughly divide these studies into two cohorts (pre-service teacher trainees and in-service teacher trainees) and investigate if these teacher training sessions could contribute to the success of corpus applications in language education.2.2.1Pre-service teacher trainingResearch on corpus literacy training for pre-service teacher trainees has focused on raising awareness of the use of corpora for language teaching and unveiling their reactions and attitudes on the merits and drawbacks of employing corpus tools and materials in real classroom settings. Most studies have also examined the effectiveness of raising trainees’ language awareness and exploring their idiosyncratic responses. O’Keeffe and Farr (2003) offered examples of corpus-based tasks for increasing students’ understanding of word classes and of register-related and socioculturally conditioned grammatical choices. They recommended that corpus linguistics be made a component of the education of new language teachers to enhance their language awareness. Similarly, O’Sullivan and Chambers (2006) integrated corpora into language teacher education programs and discovered not only positive reactions, such as access to real and up-to-date language use, but also negative reactions mainly on limited access to appropriate corpora and insufficient technical support. Farr (2008), to promote corpus-based instruction in language teacher education programs in Ireland, launched a program to raise the language awareness of 28 MA students’ over two semesters. In the first semester, the educator mainly presented the preliminaries of corpora and demonstrated the use of corpus resources through workshops and tutorials. In the second semester, the students, armed with certain knowledge and expertise on corpora, collaborated on the conduct of corpus-based investigations. A post-course survey uncovered the students’ positive predisposition toward corpora, and the findings were generally in line with those of the two studies reviewed earlier.Corpus literacy training also attracted attention in other European countries besides Ireland. Breyer (2009) introduced to 18 future secondary school teachers in Germany the use of a home-built corpus of EFL textbooks and different English L1 corpora. In this 11-week course, students were trained to directly apply corpus-based activities in the classroom by creating worksheets to supplement the activities in textbooks. The results of the classroom discussions and reflective writing tasks suggested that the students had become more aware of the effectiveness of corpus-based language pedagogy, although they expressed reservations about the difficulties of corpus queries and analyses. Callies (2016) instructed future English teachers in German primary and secondary schools to use native-language corpora and learner corpora to compare different modes and registers of reporting verbs in English. The student teachers were divided into groups that examined different registers and searched for 10 reporting verbs from the list given in the corpora. They were also required to generate concordances, filter them manually and calculate the lemma frequencies. In Poland, Leńko-Szymańska (2014) offered corpus literacy training to graduate students majoring in applied linguistics for one-semester. The training had three components: (1) an overview of corpus resources; (2) the application of corpora in the teaching of vocabulary, phraseology, grammar, discourse organisation and reading and writing and (3) the compilation and analysis of a self-built small corpus and the production of corpus-based materials and activities. The trainees reported the workshop as useful but requested more training time and more guidance on how to create their own activities. In a follow-up study, Leńko-Szymańska (2017) analysed 53 end-of-semester corpus-based projects submitted by teacher trainees and examined if and to what extent the trainees mastered the sets of skills necessary for independent use of corpora in language instruction. She argued that the trainees were reported as lacking the skills required to integrate corpus use into classroom practice despite their demonstration of a certain mastery of the corpus software for their own use. The study indicated that a semester-long course is not sufficient for pre-service teachers.In recent years, corpus literacy training has also expanded to North America. Zareva (2017) integrated corpus training into a grammar course for 21 TESOL (Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages) trainee teachers at a US university. The participants gave the same positive feedback about the training as those in the other studies reviewed. Negative aspects of short-term corpus literacy training that had been reiterated in other studies were also highlighted. Nasmisth (2017) conducted a two-month-long investigation in Western Canada of how the benefits of corpora could be introduced during the initial pre-service training. Sixteen trainees in this study reported such short yet intensive pre-service training courses as helpful, especially the course that introduced non-concordancing corpus tools used in the classroom. Poole (2020) revisited the attitudes of pre-service teachers in the Southern U.S. towards corpus-based language learning and teaching in an undergraduate writing course. The results of open-ended questionnaires suggested that the use of ready-made corpus activities afforded opportunities for engaging students and heightening their language awareness. The study not only reassessed the increasing presence of corpus literacy training in TESOL education programs but also shed much light on how an emerging generation of pre-service teacher trainees perceived CBLP.It is worth mentioning that the inclusion of corpus literacy training in the education program for new language teachers is now on the agenda in Asia and has already generated an increasing number of literature. Ebrahimi and Faghih (2016) introduced free online corpus resources to 32 Iranian MA students of TEFL (Teaching English as a Foreign Language) in a seven-week online course. The evaluations by the pre-service teachers of the corpus-based instruction in the initial stages of the language teacher education degree program were positive, suggesting that online corpus literacy training is a feasible alternative to face-to-face training. Abdel Latif (2021) conducted a longitudinal study on the responses of Arab EFL student teachers to corpus literacy instruction. The study revealed that the learner-centred corpus literacy instruction was generally perceived as positive. The student trainees were actively engaged in the discussions, guided by questions raised by the educator. Their immediate and long-term responses implied that they maintained optimistic expectations about implementing pedagogical applications of corpora in their workplaces.From the studies we have reviewed so far, it is evident that corpus literacy training is often conducted for a batch of about 15–55 pre-service teacher students. However, more studies have also adopted qualitative perspectives in corpus literacy training, as such in-depth descriptions “help clarify and detail the dynamic, moment-by-moment contextual factors that impact upon the success or failure of CALL (Computer Assisted Language Learning) implementations” (Levy & Moore, 2018). Heather and Helt (2012) evaluated a semester-long introductory grammar course for six pre-service language teachers. The research used a case study approach to examine the development of multiple components of corpus literacy training. The results showed that while this course was generally effective in enhancing the trainees’ corpus literacy, its effectiveness varied among the trainees, which implies that the application of corpora in language teaching could depend largely on the trainees’ individual learning capabilities. The newly published qualitative research of Crosthwaite, Luciana, and Wijaya (2021) reported the initial attempts of Indonesian pre-service primary and secondary school teachers to integrate corpus consultation activities into their EFL lesson plans after following an extensive online corpus literacy training regimen (i.e., online courses, a series of live workshops and individual guidance on lesson planning provided by teacher educators). The trainees’ perceptions of how the teacher educators developed TPACK (Technological Pedagogical and Content Knowledge) (Kohler & Mishra, 2009) in English language teaching practice within the Indonesian formal school context were examined. This may increase the future buy-in of Indonesian language teachers in CBLP as well as in a wider range of professional development contexts within and outside corpus linguistics.More recent studies on corpus literacy training for pre-service language teachers have established frameworks or models that could serve as prototypes for future studies. Krajka (2019) conducted corpus-based investigations in a graduate TEFL module. The author attempted to establish an apprenticeship model in two-steps: (1) the students worked in groups to produce corpus-based activities based on the teacher’s directions and guided questions and reported their research findings to the entire class and (2) they reflected on what they had done based on the question-search-conclusion strategy at the end of the training. Farr and O’Keeffe (2019) developed the following PENSER (meaning think in French) framework to assist novice student teachers in developing corpus literacy: (1) Problem identification based on personal teaching practice; (2) Embracing the accepted challenges; (3) Noticing the challenges that teachers experienced through observations; (4) Solving the problems and (5) Exploring and Researching if the challenges have been appropriately overcome or if further engagement is needed. Ma, Tang, and Lin (2021) investigated how a group of TESOL teacher trainees developed their corpus literacy and CBLP in a two-step training framework. In step 1, corpus literacy was initially cultivated in the student teachers through physical classroom training via a combination of lectures on knowledge of corpus linguistics and workshops where they performed hands-on corpus searches. In this scenario, corpus data were used as learning tools. In step 2, TESOL teacher trainees participated in online lessons to consolidate their initial corpus literacy in the form of lesson design. In this context, corpus data were treated as teaching tools. The effectiveness of this four-week corpus-based teacher training scheme and the initial competence of the trainees in using CBLP were measured through (1) analyses and rating of their lesson plans for vocabulary teaching in primary and/or secondary classrooms; (2) a self-designed survey and (3) interviews. The findings may offer some theoretical guidance for providing effective corpus-based training for pre-service language teachers via an online collaborative learning mode, which corroborates with our exploration of a telecollaborative model for pre-service teachers and in-service teachers (to be specified in Section 2.3).2.2.2In-service teacher trainingStudies on the interface between corpus literacy training and the continuous professional development of practising teachers examined mainly two cohorts (i.e., pre-tertiary school teachers and university academics or professionals). Earlier studies focused on the promotion of corpus literacy among primary and secondary school teachers. Mukherjee (2004) conducted workshops to familiarise 248 in-service English teachers in secondary schools in Germany with CBLP. He collected data through questionnaires that were distributed before and after the training sessions to investigate the participants’ awareness of corpora and the effectiveness of the training. The findings revealed that 80% of the teachers were not aware of corpus before the training; but after the workshops, most of them regarded corpus data as useful for teaching and proposed that CBLP be added to their teaching agenda. The study findings pointed out the need to sufficiently train secondary teachers in order to help them incorporate corpus data into their teaching experience. Drawing on a similar context, Römer (2009) surveyed 78 German secondary in-service English teachers to find out their needs for quality teaching materials and corpus-based reference resources. The study has built a bridge between corpus research and pedagogical practice by focussing on the situation of language teaching practitioners on the ground and their need for support in their workplace through corpus linguistics. Another area that has been explored in the interface between corpus literacy and in-service teacher education is teachers’ use of corpus resources over a longer span of time. Tsui (2004) conducted a seven-year longitudinal study to support primary and secondary English language teachers in Chinese Hong Kong via TeleNex, where a number of discussion corners were set up-to which teachers can send questions or comments. The study revealed that school teachers tend to use corpora to address language difficulties pertaining to English grammar rules and patterns such as synonymous lexical items, lexical collocations and prescriptive stylistic rules.Recent studies have claimed the importance of continuous professional development to empower tertiary faculty members with a certain degree of corpus literacy. Two studies both examined a small group of in-service university teachers in Turkey. In the first study, Özbay and Kayaoğlu (2015) examined the awareness and perceptions, by six tertiary language teachers, of CBLP in Turkish language classroom teaching. An eight-week training program mainly concentrated on corpus applications in the teaching of vocabulary and grammar. The results of the semistructured interviews showed that they believed the training improved their language awareness. Those of them who had no prior experience in corpus and its use in classroom practice argued that corpus appeared to have expanded their teaching repertoires and could serve as a complementary teaching aid. In the second study by Çalışkan and Gönen (2018), three in-service EFL instructors at a Turkish state university were offered corpus literacy training for four-weeks on the design and implementation of corpus-based materials to enhance vocabulary instruction. Similar to the conditions in the study of Özbay and Kayaoğlu’s (2015), the EFL university instructors did not know before the training how to use corpus-based materials in vocabulary instruction. After the training, they believed that their incorporation of CBLP into their vocabulary instruction could raise their awareness of specific vocabulary items.The ensuing three studies had more participants and were conducted in other countries across the globe. In Al-Fadl’s (2018) research, 19 randomly selected faculty members from the English department of a university in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia were given a ten-week training course in corpus linguistics and its relation to language teaching. The author confirmed that his attempt to conduct this training course was generally effective even though further professional development of in-service teachers was required before corpus exploration entered mainstream education in language departments and teacher training institutions on a large scale. More recently, Chen, Flowerdew, and Anthony (2019) introduced corpus-based academic writing pedagogy to over 60 in-service English language educators from different major institutions in Chinese Hong Kong. Most of the workshop attendees showed great interest in sustaining their professional development and indicated that the training session was very useful as a starting point for further integrating direct use of corpora in English language teaching. The participants appreciated the benefits of the hands-on activities with step-by-step guidance and teacher demonstrations on the screen, yet they also pointed out concerns about the time and the potential difficulties involved in adopting corpora in the academic writing classroom. Viana and Lu (2021) examined the perception of 28 participants in a UK-based non-credit-bearing continuous professional development project targeted for academics and professionals from a range of disciplines. A questionnaire was administered to investigate (1) their corpus literacy background; (2) their motivations to participate in the project; (3) the profits and disadvantages they encountered as they adopted corpora in their teaching practice and (4) their evaluations of how corpus resources played a part in research practice. The results suggested that a majority of the participants showed strong inclinations to continue applying corpora to both their in-class and out-of-class activities. The study also pointed out the significance of embedding corpus approaches into teaching and research and potentially raising the interest of language teaching practitioners in fields other than language-oriented teaching and learning.2.3A telecollaborative model for corpus literacy training: a tentative explorationIn Section 2.2, we systematically reviewed 25 relevant studies of corpus literacy training (17 for pre-service teacher trainees either at the BA or MA level, 5 for in-service academics or professionals and only 3 for pre-tertiary in-service teachers) from 2003 to 2021. It appears that the research foci were lopsided and less attention was given to training primary or secondary in-service EFL teachers on how to deploy CBLP in classroom teaching. Likewise, collaborations between pre-service teacher trainees whose future job orientation was primary or secondary education and in-service pre-tertiary school teachers somewhat escaped the researchers’ attention. To our best knowledge, it seems that existing corpus literacy training programs do not attempt to connect pre-service student trainees and in-service pre-tertiary school teachers. Although most corpus literacy training programs are implemented in universities, much can be done to promote them in non-university contexts. With the advent of emerging educational technologies, corpus applications in language teaching and learning may now be implemented in other educational environments. Online telecommunications and telecollaborations for corpus literacy training have been empirically supported in previous studies (e.g., Crosthwaite et al., 2021; Ebrahimi & Faghih, 2016; Ma et al., 2021; Tsui, 2004). In line with the claim that “online collaborative learning can energise and empower corpus-based teacher training” (Ma et al., 2021), we crafted a tentative theoretical framework for our proposed telecollaborative model for corpus literacy training between pre-service language teachers and in-service language teachers (see Figure 1 below). This model includes two major components: (1) the teacher educator, the participants and their correlation and (2) the events that will take place in the training.Figure 1:A telecollaborative framework for corpus literacy training.A teacher educator with expertise in corpus linguistics is viewed as important in the successful application of corpora to language pedagogy in the pre-tertiary classroom context because the teacher educator can guide the trainees in the training sessions. As for the participants, combining the pre-service teachers with the in-service teachers may be thought of as posing a challenge, as pre-service student trainees may have little or no teaching practice, whereas experienced in-service teachers are more likely to have different dispositions regarding the use of corpora given that they tend to judge how likely digital technology will work with students based on their classroom teaching experience. However, according to Bolton (2021), “collaborative rather than expert-to-novice training would be beneficial,” and the connection between pre-service student teachers and in-service language teachers could be established and strengthened via online communities. Nambiar and Thang (2015) argued that teachers can use blogs as an avenue to think, reflect and respond to views and comments regarding pedagogical practices and difficulties, thereby developing professionally. Inel Ekici (2017) used two different websites for science and math pre-service teachers to share their knowledge, experience, documents and views. Such online communities provide platforms for teacher educators and trainees to share experiences. Moreover, as the public health threat posed by the COVID-19 pandemic is still evolving globally, in agreement with Lomicka’s (2020) claim that “it is critical to establish a virtual language community and provides practical implications for creating virtual presence and engaging students in these virtual communities,” we argue that online communities can function as virtual hubs that disseminate essential and up-to-date information about CBLP.To disseminate the use of corpora among the participants, workshops that present basic concepts on the classroom applications of corpora, along with other instructional procedures and techniques, are needed. Being provided with extensive knowledge, sufficient skills, user-friendly tools and free corpora for pre-tertiary language teaching would incline the teacher trainees to normalise corpus use in their language classrooms. To familiarise trainees with the interface and functions of corpus tools and online corpora, most training programs incorporate various hands-on exercises on corpus searches and analyses. In most studies reviewed above, take-away home assignments often require participants to design appropriate corpus-based classroom teaching activities either in the form of individual work or group projects. As suggested by Leńko-Szymańska (2014), corpus exploration cannot be left to a one-semester-long course within a teacher training program; sustainable and continuous follow-up must be extended outside the training sessions. When corpus users conduct searches and analyses individually at their own pace, they might come across some difficulties in their initial attempts to combine corpora with language teaching and learning. In this circumstance, online interaction through social media or websites (cf. Tsui, 2004) could give a new impetus to the telecollaborations, as online interaction allows both pre-service teachers and in-service practitioners to gather in a virtual space to share knowledge, experience and practices. Avenues such as discussion boards, blogs, forums make it possible for the participants to think, reflect and respond to views and comments regarding pedagogical practices and difficulties on the design of corpus-based tasks or activities. Collecting participants’ viewpoints on the implementation of corpus-based language pedagogy via online questionnaires, live video conferences or offline interviews helps examine the development of their corpus literacy after attending the training program. With their post-training assessment and feedback, online workshops or tutorials could be modified. Such a tentative and exploratory theoretical model for corpus literacy training is more likely to ensure that EFL teachers will not only be equipped with good technical and corpus linguistic skills, but will also develop the sound pedagogical skills needed for methodologically appropriate application of corpus-based tasks and materials in the classroom.2.4Practical applications of corpus-based language pedagogy (CBLP)Implementing our proposed model and justifying its effectiveness involve systematic planning and convincing data from a series of empirical studies, which are outside the scope of this review study. Instead, in the following sections, we first summarise some key considerations or principles for designing corpus-based teaching activities in primary or secondary education, followed by detailed illustrations of three cases that we codesigned based on needs analyses for corpus-based language teaching from over 600 in-service teachers (Xu, Liu, & Zhou, 2018). We assume that these ready-made activities could be used to promote corpus-based language pedagogy (CBLP) in the classroom in that they focus on how English teachers could create corpus-based lessons and exploit corpus resources to effectively teach vocabulary, grammar and discourse in an attempt to address the needs of Chinese pre-tertiary English learners.2.4.1Issues to consider when designing corpus-based lessonsCorpus-based activities can be useful additions to teachers’ arsenal as they can supplement and enhance existing syllabi with digital, flipped and modular content (Vyatkina, 2020). The rich corpus resources can be integrated into regular lessons and everyday teaching without disrupting the normal classroom routine, and they can complement rather than replace the existing pedagogic materials and practices (Frankenberg-Garcia, 2012b). Ma and Mei (2021) elaborated four design principles of effective corpus-based lessons: (1) testing of student knowledge; (2) hands-on corpus searches by students to observe and analyse the language; (3) inductive discovery by summarising the language use pattern of students and (4) output exercise to practise using the language. With reference to these guiding principles, the following case studies provide step-by-step guidance regarding how to conduct corpus-based graded activities that require only basic internet skills to more complex applications. We also create diverse language use opportunities in the form of concordance lines, word clouds and concordance plots to motivate learners. To promote student engagement and to help reduce the monotony associated with learning with corpora, teachers may use different patterns of classroom interaction such as pair work or group work. when implementing the corpus-based lessons.2.4.2Case 1: Using SKELL to differentiate between lexical pairs say and speak2.4.2.1Lesson backgroundChinese EFL students always feel puzzled at what follows say and speak because in Chinese, they share the meaning, “说 (shuō).” Given this concern, we investigate the use of these lexical pairs with SKELL (Sketch Engine for Language Learning), a tool with a simple interface that can easily check how a particular word is used by real speakers of English.2.4.2.2Teaching proceduresStep 1:Look up the meanings of say and speak in an online dictionary.Before using SKELL, the teacher can test the student’s lexical knowledge of the two verbs by showing their definitions as retrieved from an online dictionary (e.g., https://www.macmillandictionary.com/us) (Figure 2).Figure 2:Definitions of say and speak.Step 2:Search say and speak in SKELL.Students open two web pages of SKELL (https://skell.sketchengine.eu/) and key in say and speak in the search bar on each page. Then, if they click Word sketch, they will see subjects and objects of say and speak (Figure 3).Figure 3:Words that collocate with say and speak in SKELL.Step 3:Guide students to observe and sum up the use patterns.Based on Figure 3, the students are expected to discuss the subjects and objects of say and speak in pairs or groups. They may find that the subjects of both words can be people (e.g., people, experts, police, Obama, man or God) or things (e.g., report, source, voice or Bible). Then, they observe the objects of the two verbs. From the top 15 hits, they may discover that say is often followed by (1) infinite pronouns such as something, thing, anything or nothing; (2) time adverbials such as yesterday, today, Thursday or week and (3) concrete nouns such as word, goodbye, government, company, people, man or official. With regard to the objects of speak, the students may discover that the majority of words belong to different types of language (e.g., English, Arabic, French, Spanish or Mandarin).Step 4:Explore another lexical pair.Upon clicking Similar words, word clouds of say and speak will be generated (Figure 4). The teacher can guide the students in examining other lexical pairs (e.g., tell vs. talk). This activity can enlarge students’ vocabulary and draw their attention to the use patterns of lexical pairs that might share little semantic differences in Chinese.Figure 4:Word clouds of say and speak.2.4.3Case 2: Adopting VersaText to teach there be grammatical structure2.4.3.1Lesson backgroundChinese students sometimes get confused about the use of there be. Some of them may write an incorrect sentence like “There is two years since I last saw you.” VersaText can better help them solve the problems. It is an online corpus tool that explores the language features of texts, consisting mainly of three functions: a word cloud, a concordancer and a lexical profiler. It is both part-of-speech tagged and lemmatised, which enable the exploration of many aspects of language, from word forms to genres. Users simply put texts into the INPUT box, and the website will analyse them automatically.2.4.3.2Teaching proceduresStep 1:Fill in the blanks of the following sentences with the appropriate form of be.1)The Earth is a beautiful place. There _____ forests and rivers, mountains and fields.2)A long time ago, there _____ a king in India. His favourite game was chess.3)His eyes were fixed on Della and there _____ an expression in them that she could not read.[Keys: 1) are, 2) was and 3) was].The teacher creates some exercises on the use of there be to examine students’ knowledge of this grammatical structure. Students may become aware of their misconceptions of the use of there be and thereby be motivated to explore its use.Step 2:Extract the concordance lines of there be from the textbook corpus.The teacher builds a small-scale textbook corpus and distributes it to the students. The students open VersaText (https://versatext.versatile.pub/) and paste the texts into the box (Figure 5). Students click the tab WORDCLOUD, then tick LEMMA and OTHER of Include function words (Figure 6). After clicking the word there in the word cloud, the website will produce the concordance lines. After hits in which there is used as an adverb are filtered out, 29 instances remain (Figure 7).Figure 5:The interface of VersaText after loading the texts.Figure 6:The query settings of there be.Figure 7:Concordance lines of there be.Step 3:Observe and sum up the use patterns of there be.With the above concordance lines, the teacher can guide the students in observing the words and phrases used that are juxtaposed after the central node there. The students may notice that two types of nouns are adjacent to there: countable nouns and uncountable nouns. Countable nouns can be divided into singular nouns (e.g., fishermen, line 2; animals, line 18 and many children, line 23) and plural nouns (e.g., an expression, line 5; one smile, line 11 and a flood, line 29). The students can also identify uncountable nouns such as space (line 6), water (line 9), air (line 27) and gravity (line 28). With these observations, the students can discuss in groups how to sum up the use patterns of there be. They may draw the conclusion that if the subjects are countable plural nouns, plural forms of the copula be (i.e., are/were) could be used; and if the subjects are either countable singular nouns or uncountable nouns, singular forms of the copula be (i.e., is/was) could be used instead.Step 4:Use HIDE KWIC to create exercises.To consolidate the use of there be, students can return to the WORDCLOUD tab and tick the BE + HAVE + DO box only in the “Include content words” section (Figure 8). When students click be, concordance lines will show up and the students can sort them by clicking Left context. After HIDE KWIC is clicked, the central nodes are hidden (Figure 9). The students can immediately check if they have already mastered the use patterns of there be. If they want to generate more exercises for further consolidation, they can input other textbook corpora and follow the same procedures reported above.Figure 8:The query settings of copula be.Figure 9:Using HIDE KIWC to create exercises.2.4.4Case 3: Employing AntConc to examine the discourse structure of a reading passage2.4.4.1Lesson backgroundThe aim of this case study is to help students grasp the aboutness of a reading passage based on the keyword list generated by AntConc 3.5.9 (Anthony, 2020). They will also have a better understanding of the discourse structure of the text by means of the dispersion of keywords. One reading passage about wildlife protection was chosen and compiled from an English textbook written for senior high school students.2.4.4.2Teaching proceduresStep 1:Guess the meaning of keyword(s).The selected reading passage mainly illustrates the protection of an endangered animal species: antelopes. The students may be unfamiliar with an antelope since it is uncommon to see in daily life. To help the students guess the meaning of antelope from the contextual clues, the teacher opens AntConc, clicks File to import the reading passage case3.txt, searches antelope* (the asterisk * is a wild card and can represent more than one character) and obtains the concordance lines (Figure 10). The teacher can pose several guided questions such as (1) Where do antelopes live in? and (2) What happened to them between the 1980s and the 1990s? The students can either work in pairs or groups to observe the concordance lines and may conclude that antelopes are a kind of animal that mostly live in Tibet and whose number has dropped by over 50% at that time.Figure 10:The concordance lines of antelope(s).Step 2:Create a keyword list.To create a keyword list, the students should import a larger reference corpus (e.g., BROWN). First, they click Tool Preferences – Keyword List and Add Directory to load the reference corpus. Finally, they just click Apply (Figure 11) and return to the interface. Next, they need to choose Sort by Freq and click Start. A keyword list is generated (Figure 12).Figure 11:The process of loading a reference corpus.Figure 12:The process of creating a keyword list.Step 3:Sum up the main ideas and discourse structure.The teacher can guide the students in grouping the keywords according to their themes. For instance, antelope(s) (lines 2 and 4), animals (line 7), wildlife (line 9), protection (line 12) and species (line 15) may denote the main subjects introduced in the passage. Places such as changtang (line 10), reserve (line 13), tibet (line 16), habitats (line 17), qinghai (line 18) and xinjiang (line 19) may indicate where the antelopes stay. Other keywords such as we (line 1), save (line 5) and zhaxi (line 6) may suggest the people who are protecting the endangered antelopes.To verify these intuitive observations, the students can use Concordance Plot to search the above keywords in order to investigate their distributions in the reading passage. They can repeat the search process three times by keying in antelope*|animal*|wildlife*|specie*, tibet*|changtang|reserve*|habitat*|qinghai|xinjiang and we|zhaxi|sav*|protect*, respectively, and they will obtain three concordance plots (Figure 13). The bar represents the reading passage, and each line stands for the distributions of the keywords. The teacher can guide the students in observing the concordance plots and examining if their assumptions regarding the main ideas fit the statistical results. After an in-depth discussion, they may find that the structure of this reading passage generally has three parts: (1) the descriptive information of the antelopes across the whole text; (2) the introduction of places where the antelopes stay at the beginning of the text and (3) the measures taken to protect and save the endangered antelopes from the middle to the end of the text.Figure 13:The distributions of keywords across the text.Step 4:Create a mind map to visualise the discourse structure.The constant use of concordance lines may be monotonous and even boring for most young learners (Sealey & Thompson, 2007). Therefore, non-corpus-based output activities are also recommended in a corpus-based language teaching classroom. The teacher can list several components that should be covered in a mind map and manually draw a simple mind map in the classroom as a demonstration. Students can work in groups to create a mind map of the reading passage based on their discovery in the lesson by adding colourful elements (e.g., pictures of antelopes) to consolidate their corpus findings in a visibly vivid form.3Concluding remarksThis review paper has examined corpus literacy training in detail for EFL teachers and proposed a tentative telecollaborative model for corpus literacy training between pre-service language teachers and in-service language teachers. Three case studies with different angles of the applications of corpus-based language pedagogy were designed for the pre-tertiary language teaching and learning context, allowing EFL teachers to employ corpus resources in other similar contexts.The ever-growing richness of the field of corpus-based applied linguistics has constantly called for the integration of corpus resources, consultation and analysis in the everyday teaching environment. Our tentative telecollaborative corpus literacy training model might stimulate other researchers’ interest in conducting empirical studies to verify its validity and reliability, both of which were left unanswered in this review paper. The scope of the three corpus-based case studies only includes vocabulary, grammar and discourse. Our ready-made activities can be taken as a starting point for further integrating a direct use of corpora in pre-tertiary English language teaching and learning. Ultimately, trainees in the corpus literacy training programs need to be enabled and empowered to pursue their own corpus investigations. Indeed, it is not a task for one researcher or one paper alone. Instead, it requires concerted efforts of different stakeholders. Thus, it is hoped that practising teachers, corpus linguists and even learners themselves will collaborate to create corpus-based tasks or activities in other language areas (e.g., listening, speaking and writing).Our paper offers a robust picture of corpus literacy training for EFL teachers across the globe over the last two decades and provides an overview of what has been achieved in integrating CBLP into language teaching and learning in our increasingly networked, technologised and mobile world. Corpora should be applied across a range of educational settings, and taking stock of previous research advances our knowledge of the perceived advantages and barriers of embedding corpus literacy training in the initial stages of language teacher education degree programs and continuous professional development projects for practising teachers. The practice-related significance of this review is also evident in that it points out the need to increase the number of corpus literacy training to be delivered telecollaboratively for Chinese EFL teachers.It is hoped that this review paper will contribute positively to this promising and enticing field not only by putting corpus literacy studies in the limelight but also by empowering teachers with the knowledge, skills and tools they need for more successful and broader application of corpora in classroom teaching. More open-access, hands-on classroom activities (e.g., Le Foll, 2021) as well as paper-based materials (e.g., Crosthwaite, 2019; Friginal, 2018; He, 2017; He, Xu, & Zhang, 2020) may well bring us closer to the day when corpora are no longer viewed as resources only for researchers and corpus linguists. We call for more collaborations not only among teacher educators in CALL but also among practising teachers at all levels of language education so that they can dedicate themselves to promoting CBLP in a wider educational context.

Journal

Journal of China Computer-Assisted Language Learningde Gruyter

Published: Aug 26, 2022

Keywords: corpus-based language pedagogy (CBLP); corpus linguistics; corpus literacy; language teacher education; teacher training model

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