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LEAD ISOTOPES IN WEST AFRICAN COPPER ALLOYS

LEAD ISOTOPES IN WEST AFRICAN COPPER ALLOYS Stable lead isotopes have been measured from copperalloy castings dating from the late first millennium AD to the 19 th Century from Igbo Ukwu, Ife, Jenne, Marandet, Ma'aden Ijâfen, Benin, the Lower Niger sites on the Forcados and Cross Rivers, the Andoni Creek and Apapa, and from Jebba, Tada and Owo. More recent ethnographic specimens from West Africa were also examined as well as a number of African ores. We conclude that the earliest metals (copper, tin, and perhaps lead) came from African sources, but that Northern Europe became the main source of supply early in the second Millennium, initially by trade across the Sahara, but also by the coast from around the middle of the second Millennium. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Journal of African Archaeology Brill

LEAD ISOTOPES IN WEST AFRICAN COPPER ALLOYS

Journal of African Archaeology , Volume 4 (1): 55 – Oct 25, 2006

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Publisher
Brill
Copyright
© Copyright 2006 by Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, The Netherlands
ISSN
1612-1651
eISSN
2191-5784
DOI
10.1163/10.3213/1612-1651-10063
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Stable lead isotopes have been measured from copperalloy castings dating from the late first millennium AD to the 19 th Century from Igbo Ukwu, Ife, Jenne, Marandet, Ma'aden Ijâfen, Benin, the Lower Niger sites on the Forcados and Cross Rivers, the Andoni Creek and Apapa, and from Jebba, Tada and Owo. More recent ethnographic specimens from West Africa were also examined as well as a number of African ores. We conclude that the earliest metals (copper, tin, and perhaps lead) came from African sources, but that Northern Europe became the main source of supply early in the second Millennium, initially by trade across the Sahara, but also by the coast from around the middle of the second Millennium.

Journal

Journal of African ArchaeologyBrill

Published: Oct 25, 2006

Keywords: West Africa; Ife; Igbo Ukwu; Jenne; Marandet; Ma'’aden Ijâfen; Benin; Lower Niger; Forcados River; Cross River; Andoni Creek; Apapa; Tsoede; Jebba; Tada; Owo; Akan; Ashanti

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